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Seb Paquet has been at 3 events

HostFollowersTitleDateGuestsLinks
Reinventors Network799,321People are beginning to fundamentally rethink how the economy could work in a more sustainable way - for the majority of people and for the planet. Join Robin Chase, Founder and former CEO of Zipcar, as we look at how to create an economy where productivity gains come from providing more services rather than more things. How create a sharing economy, one that's not characterized by consumption but by efficiently using what we have? How create a peer economy where individuals are empowered through networked platforms rather than having to always work for the man? Reinvent the Collaborative Economy2013-07-25 20:00:0074 
Reinventors Network799,321If you took stock of America in the early 21st century and thought about how to create the best governing system possible, you would certainly start with utilizing the foundation of modern digital technologies. So then how could governance, or collective problem-solving, work in that new context? How could we maximize the intelligence of all Americans and get way beyond our current Congress? Do you reform the current system or reinvent the whole thing?Reinventors is a series of virtual roundtables carried out over the new medium of group video with top innovators talking about how to Reinvent America across many different fields. We start off with an interview of a remarkable "Reinventor" to get a big idea on the table and then we hold a roundtable discussion with other experts & entrepreneurs who build on the idea. All is streamed live to the web.Reinvent Governance with Jordan Greenhall2013-05-30 20:00:009 
Reinventors Network799,321If you took stock of America in the early 21st century and thought about how to create the best governing system possible, you would certainly start with utilizing the foundation of modern digital technologies. So then how could governance, or collective problem-solving, work in that new context? How could we maximize the intelligence of all Americans and get way beyond our current Congress? Do you reform the current system or reinvent the whole thing?Reinventors is a series of virtual roundtables carried out over the new medium of group video with top innovators talking about how to Reinvent America across many different fields. We start off with an interview of a remarkable "Reinventor" to get a big idea on the table and then we hold a roundtable discussion with other experts & entrepreneurs who build on the idea. All is streamed live to the web.Reinvent Governance with Jordan Greenhall2013-05-30 20:00:0022 

Seb Paquet has been shared in 27 public circles

AuthorFollowersDateUsers in CircleCommentsReshares+1Links
Robert Best1,879Metacurrency Project Hangout #SharedCircle   This shared circle contains all the people that were invited to, or in some way contributed to, the Metacurrency   #HOA  that just went down.Event Link:https://plus.google.com/u/0/events/cccsptirbe75qk8aucg7p6eo5icNote sure if the contained video is public or not, you can let me know if it works for you.A prezi that details a bunch of the Metacurrency Project:http://prezi.com/vcfwa-8ocg7m/metacurrency-strategy-vision/Glancing over the members of this circle, I can see many people I have a lot of respect.for... I bet you will too!The hangout went really well, aside from some slight technical difficulties. Definitely reinvigorated my desire to be a part of this paradigm-shifting project.2014-09-16 02:37:51161102
Lynn Keller7,237I've put together this  circle which includes a host of engaging, appealing, interesting people from different communities and ongoing conversations. Best to all! #circlecount #sharedcircles #circleshare 2014-08-05 20:16:01374827
Becky Collins13,434Mobile Operator Circle:Circle of very #social #engagerspeople and companiesTo be included in my shares (#sharedcircle), be so kind to:1 - Do +1 t the post2 - Comment the post and specify your "category" (job or interest) Ex: Fashion, SEO, Companies, Social Media Marketing, Sailing, Photography, Bloggers/Writers, Web graphics and design, Italy, Artists, Sport, Finance/Economy ...3 - include the circle among your circles4 - share the circle (include yourself)Improve your popularity, be social be cool !Keep yourself updated, enjoy the Shared Circles Hellenic Alliance, you can share your shared circles inside the upcoming Community:https://plus.google.com/communities/112552559573595396104  #socialmedia  #media  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing  #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins ?2014-07-24 05:16:124763112
Becky Collins10,282Mobile Circle :Circle of very #social #engagerspeople and companiesTo be included in my shares (#sharedcircle), be so kind to:1 - Do +1 t the post2 - Comment the post and specify your "category" (job or interest) Ex: Fashion, SEO, Companies, Social Media Marketing, Sailing, Photography, Bloggers/Writers, Web graphics and design, Italy, Artists, Sport, Finance/Economy ...3 - include the circle among your circles4 - share the circle (include yourself)Improve your popularity, be social be cool !Keep yourself updated, enjoy the Shared Circles Hellenic Alliance, you can share your shared circles inside the upcoming Community:https://plus.google.com/communities/112552559573595396104  #socialmedia   #media   #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins ?2014-05-28 05:03:174777219
John Nuntiatio36,773#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #bestcircle #news   #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport #small   #smallcircle #football #tennis #golf #photography #health #weightloss  2014-05-19 21:53:11494136
Gideon Rosenblatt38,394The People I Keep a Closest Eye OnThis is a small circle of 50 people and pages that have my closest attention here on Google+. Some are well-known and have many followers, some do not. All are interesting people (or in a few cases pages) and almost all are quite active here. I am not including myself. This is purely to help you find some interesting new people and pages - especially if you're just getting started here and want some interesting stuff in your stream.  #circleshare  2014-02-02 01:06:385019731
Robert Best1,054Emerging Leader Labs Shared CircleI have compiled all of the google+ profiles of people involved or interested in emerging leader labs. Please help me fill in the gaps of those I have missed or those that I don't know about.+1 this post to be included in the shared circle.Oh! and here is a recording +Connor Turland took of +Arthur Brock explaining the program's 8-week outline.http://goo.gl/Rn9NA  #EMLeaders        #RAJB   #sharedcircles  2013-06-21 02:50:3826102
Gideon Rosenblatt28,713Gideon Rosenblatt's Top 100These are the folks Google tells me are my most relevant people (slightly modified to remove people who are relevant, but not active here on Google+).Looking through this list, I can tell you that these are great people full of interesting ideas and engagement. I'm not in the circle here, so I can objectively say that this group is a worthy addition to your circles. Enjoy this group of people - I know I do. They enrich my experience here. Without them, I probably wouldn't still be here today. P.S. - If you got a notification, that means you're in the circle. 2013-06-11 20:53:39100662467
AyJay Schibig16,440ECLECTIC CIRCLEFeel free to add  and re-share. this  Eclectic Circle of  G Plussers! Circles I am curating:21ST CENTURY PHOTOGRAPHERS (1&2), ALL KINDS, DISCOVERY, FULL CIRCLE,SOCIAL, ECLECTIC,ENGAGERS, AWESOME, NEW HORIZONS and BOOST#circleoftheday   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlesharingforthepeopleplc   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday   #sharedcircleday   #publiccirclesproject   #publiccircles   #publicsharedcircles  #sharedpublicircles   #circle   #circles   #circlemeup  #awesomepeople   #awesomecircle   #circleme   #sharedpoint   #sharewithyou     #ShareYourCircle2013-04-13 06:43:023024213
AyJay Schibig15,217ECLECTIC CIRCLEFeel free to add  and re-share. this  Eclectic Circle of  G Plussers! Circles I am curating:21ST CENTURY PHOTOGRAPHERS (1&2), ALL KINDS, DISCOVERY, FULL CIRCLE,SOCIAL, ECLECTIC,ENGAGERS, AWESOME, NEW HORIZONS and BOOST#circleoftheday   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlesharingforthepeopleplc   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday   #sharedcircleday   #publiccirclesproject   #publiccircles   #publicsharedcircles  #sharedpublicircles   #circle   #circles   #circlemeup  #awesomepeople   #awesomecircle   #circleme   #sharedpoint   #sharewithyou     #ShareYourCircle2013-03-02 11:23:44245206
Mohammad Rahimi2,027I would like to share this circle of people i follow their posts.2013-02-25 05:38:581061928
Gideon Rosenblatt23,936My Top 150 Here are the 150 people that Google tells me are most relevant to me here on Google+. This is a really good group of people, full of interesting insights and a willingness to help others.I give you a hardy recommendation to add these folks to your circles here. Your stream will thank you for it later.:-)2013-02-22 00:43:3815037734
Robert Best578Members CircleHere is a circle containing all of the Collective Intelligence & Wisdom community members so far.I will try to keep on top of adding new members to a circle and will share it after important milestones or in our upcoming "Start here" posts.If you are not in the circle yet, but would like to be in the future, then just let me know and I will add you. #CICW   #RAJB   #sharedcircles  2013-01-23 17:21:30316212
AyJay Schibig13,588ECLECTIC CIRCLEFeel free to add  and re-share. this  Eclectic Circle of  G Plussers! #circleoftheday   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlesharingforthepeopleplc   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday   #sharedcircleday   #publiccirclesproject   #publiccircles   #publicsharedcircles  #sharedpublicircles   #circle   #circles   #circlemeup  #awesomepeople   #awesomecircle   #circleme   #sharedpoint   #sharewithyou 2013-01-10 07:15:50257003
AyJay Schibig12,717ECLECTIC CIRCLEFeel free to add  and re-share. this  Eclectic Circle of  G Plussers! #circleoftheday   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlesharingforthepeopleplc   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday   #sharedcircleday   #publiccirclesproject   #publiccircles   #publicsharedcircles  #sharedpublicircles   #circle   #circles   #circlemeup  #awesomepeople   #awesomecircle   #circleme   #sharedpoint   #sharewithyou 2012-12-21 06:26:433277010
AyJay Schibig12,080ECLECTIC CIRCLEFeel free to add  and re-share. this  Eclectic Circle of  G Plussers! #circleoftheday   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlesharingforthepeopleplc   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday   #sharedcircleday   #publiccirclesproject   #publiccircles   #publicsharedcircles  #sharedpublicircles   #circle   #circles   #circlemeup  #awesomepeople   #awesomecircle   #circleme   #sharedpoint   #sharewithyou 2012-12-12 04:23:1442210216
Zbynek Kysela1,918BEST SHARED CIRCLE - Share, share, share!===================================HOW TO BE PART OF IT: 1) Add this circle to your circles -> Add circle2) Share added circle with option "include yourself in shared circle". Done. You're welcome :) ZbynekMy entire social presence:*****************************http://xeeme.com/bouchac*****************************2012-12-07 20:33:1441920625
Kurt Smith14,400Thought Provokers Circle Share - Who's Made You Think Lately?Who's Made You Think Lately? Are they in this circle? For me, +Dede Craig King had me really going last Monday, +Lacerant Plainer always gets me thinking, and just a few days ago it was +Randy Hilarski.Here's latest round of the Thought Provokers Circle. This is an #awesomesauce  circle of great plussers who will make you think (we're all trying anyway). The cool thing about this circle is that you had to be recommended by someone else to get in.Add & Reshare so others can discover these awesome people to follow. Current members please update your circle. If you'd like to join in, please suggest 3-5 people and tell why they make you think. #circleshare   #circles   #circlesharing   #circleoftheday   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday   #sharepubliccircle   #publiccircle   #publicsharedcircles  2012-12-04 15:53:26287653061
Brunner Nathan325Some people that comment and follow back.Don't forget to give a share and a plus one.#circleshare #sharedcircles #sharedcircle #sharedpubliccircles #circlesharing #publiccircle #circles2012-11-29 18:03:5327516419
Kurt Smith6,542Thought Provokers Circle Share -- Plussers Who 'Make You Go Hmm...'Next round of the Thought Provokers Circle. An amazing circle of great plussers who will make you think, well maybe. Here's some of the people and wisdom inside:"And a few of us that make you go "HUH???" from +Bearman Cartoons. " Ummmm.... I suddenly feel like I'm back in grade school again and the entire class is giving me the look... You're going to get your arse kicked at recess!!!! said +Frank Garufi Jr.. Check out and discover some new people - I've met +Dede Craig King, +Susanne Ramharter, +MommyLovesTech.Add & Reshare so others can discover these awesome people to follow. Current members please update your circle. If you'd like to join in, please suggest 3-5 people and why they make you think.#circles   #circle   #circleshare   #circleoftheday   #circlesharing   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday   #publiccircles   #publicsharedcircles  +Full Circle +Circles +CIRCLES on Google+ 2012-10-31 14:11:37275922881
Kurt Smith4,603Thought Provokers Circle -- Plussers Who 'Make You Go Hmm...'Round 2 of the Thought Provokers Circle. An amazing circle of great plussers who will make you think! New additions include +Thomas Power, +Bobbi Jo Woods and dozens of others.Add & Reshare so others can discover these awesome people to follow. If you'd like to join in, please suggest 3-5 people and why they make you think.#circles   #circle   #circleshare   #circleoftheday   #circlesharing   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday   #publiccircles   #publicsharedcircles   +Full Circle +Circles +CIRCLES on Google+ 2012-10-17 13:52:172561193675
Tim Moore23,874My Go To Circle when I'm using +Google+ from my mobile --- which is a lot!IF you use +Google+ from your mobile device and want GREAT CONTENT, then this is a money circle for you.  All the guys and gals in here are fantastic and post very shareable items.Created for the circle when you want to reliably find and share great content quickly from your mobile!>>> Help your friends who may be new here to +Google+ - share this circle with them.  They will love you forever......... or at least until payday. :) #greatcontent   #sharing  +Shared Circles on G+ +Public Circles +CircleCount +Nothing but Circles  #sharedcircles   #circlesharing   #circleoftheday  +Shared a circle with you +Full Circle  #mobile  2012-10-02 19:10:48484723561
Kurt Smith3,250Plussers Who 'Make You Go Hmm...' Circle ShareHere's round 1 of the Thought Provokers Circle. Last week I asked who people follow because their posts make you think. The post (  http://bit.ly/WdN9HG) snowballed and here's the result - an amazing circle of great plussers who wil make you think!Add them and check them out, and discover some really cool new people to follow on G+. Please reshare with your followers to expand the thinking.If you'd like to join in, suggest 3-5 people and why they make you think. #circles   #circle   #circleshare   #circleoftheday   #circlesharing  #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday   #publiccircles  #publicsharedcircles  +Full Circle +CIRCLES on Google+  +Circles 2012-10-02 13:37:49218505056
John Kellden9,492Google+ : Top EngagersLa creme de la cremeFifty people are selected by +John Fanavans :I have no idea how many people follow me. At some point, you decide that you will become a broadcasting service, and engage primarily with a core group. It happens to everyone. When you do, I suggest you reach out to new people like I do from time to time. Just to ensure you dont stagnate. And run public hangouts, they are hard, but they are worth it.He is not your guru. What he is though, is someone having thrown every conceivable angle and the kitchen sink on people, figuring out who are the top engagers:https://plus.google.com/u/0/118328436599489401972/posts/A8QsWpXLnXBHeuristics For The Win Win WinI've added a whole bunch of people, applying my own super seekrit heuristics, towards turning this into what is probably the best circle ever, never to be surpassed. Until next week that is, when I've cooked up a fresh batch of algorithms. But that's then, and this is now, here, enjoy:2012-08-08 07:35:1012933626
John Kellden7,662Here's a few people who are not too shabby.I will spend a week in Greece with wife and kids. Have promised not to bring laptop, and not cheat too much with the G+ mobile thing either. This means you will have to wander aimlessly through the Google Plus Ghosttown while I'm working my tan, enjoying food and wine and sploshing about in the pool. But have no fear, quality content and even higher quality conversation is just a few clicks away, even if you only add a few of the people in the below circle. You all behave now, and talk more in a week.2012-06-18 09:24:0950043238
John Kellden4,179The Moneyball TeamGoogle+ Visionaries, take 2An update of the circle I previously shared. I've removed most of the big hitters.I figured they're in the ten thousand range or more and will survive being cut. Will share them in a new circle in the not too distant future. I also removed some Google Pages. This is the Moneyball Team of Google+. And I mean that as the highest possible praise.#sharedcircles #sharedcircle #circleshare2012-03-19 13:04:39500648
John Kellden4,179Google+ VisionariesThese 365 people are mandatory to interact with. I suggest you set aside a moment each day for each one in this circle. Which is why I've added 365 people. Seriously, do.Ok, so it's not humanly possible to do that. Think of it as a Google+ smorgasbord of awesome people then.As with my previously shared link of 500 Great Google Plus People, I've looked at these people from a number of different angles. They passed with flying colours. :)#sharedcircles #sharedcircle #circleshare2012-03-19 11:09:54365231829

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Average numbers for the latest posts (max. 50 posts, posted within the last 4 weeks)

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Top posts in the last 50 posts

Most comments: 6

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2015-01-13 09:15:47 (6 comments, 1 reshares, 10 +1s)Open 

Doggerland

As recently as 6500 BC, Great Britain was connected to Europe!  And if you go back further in your time machine, you'll see a huge plain called Doggerland between Britain and Denmark.

Why?  Because the sea level is lower during ice ages.  More water is locked up in ice!

The last ice age, the Wisconsin glaciation, reached its peak a bit before 18000 BC.  Back then, there were huge ice sheets going down to the Great Lakes and the mouth of the Rhine.  The north of Britain was covered with ice, and the south was a polar desert!

The light green stuff in this map shows the land a bit later, in 16000 BC.  Back then Doggerland was a wide undulating plain full of complicated meandering river systems.

As the ice age ended, the sea level rose rather quickly.  Doggerland shrank to the medium green stuff in 8000 BC and thedark g... more »

Most reshares: 9

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2014-11-23 13:06:23 (0 comments, 9 reshares, 30 +1s)Open 

Sorting Algorithms
http://www.sorting-algorithms.com/

Cool :)

Most plusones: 30

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2014-11-23 13:06:23 (0 comments, 9 reshares, 30 +1s)Open 

Sorting Algorithms
http://www.sorting-algorithms.com/

Cool :)

Latest 50 posts

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2015-01-27 04:19:25 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 


Cobra Weave Stick Bomb 0.o


Cobra Weave Stick Bomb 0.o___

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2015-01-27 04:16:39 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

Ancient ice

If the Greenland ice sheet completely melts, the sea will rise 7.2 meters.  This will drown most of the world’s coastal cities - unless we move them or build dikes.  So ice on Greenland is important. 

It's also a fascinating record of the past!  Scientists just made this wonderful cross-section of Greenland, showing 4 kinds of ice:

• Green is ice from snow that fell on Greenland after the last ice age.  That's after 12,000 years ago.

• Blue is ice from the last ice age.  That's between 12,000 and 115,000 years ago.

• Red is ice from the warm period before the last ice age - the Eemian interglacial.  That's between 115,000 and 130,000 years ago.

• Gray is ice we don't understand yet.

This cross-section is just part of a detailed 3d map of Greenland, built using ice coresamples and rada... more »

Ancient ice

If the Greenland ice sheet completely melts, the sea will rise 7.2 meters.  This will drown most of the world’s coastal cities - unless we move them or build dikes.  So ice on Greenland is important. 

It's also a fascinating record of the past!  Scientists just made this wonderful cross-section of Greenland, showing 4 kinds of ice:

• Green is ice from snow that fell on Greenland after the last ice age.  That's after 12,000 years ago.

• Blue is ice from the last ice age.  That's between 12,000 and 115,000 years ago.

• Red is ice from the warm period before the last ice age - the Eemian interglacial.  That's between 115,000 and 130,000 years ago.

• Gray is ice we don't understand yet.

This cross-section is just part of a detailed 3d map of Greenland, built using ice core samples and radar from planes.  Here's a great video that shows the whole 3d map and how it was made:

http://youtu.be/u0VbPE0TOtQ

The Greenland ice sheet is melting at a rate of about 200 cubic kilometers per year.  The rate is increasing at about 17±8 cubic kilometers per year each year.  This sounds bad.  Indeed, Greenland is contributing about as much to sea level rise as Antarctica.  But the Greenland ice sheet won't go away soon.  It has about 2,850,000 cubic kilometers of ice! 

Ice from the last interglacial - the Eemian - was only recently found in Greenland.   For more, read this story by Eric Steig:

http://www.realclimate.org/index.php/archives/2013/01/the-greenland-melt/

Puzzle 1: if you extrapolate the constantly accelerating rate of melting that I described, when would the Greenland ice sheet be completely melted?  Of course this is naive, but the calculation is easy and fun.

Puzzle 2: about how many gigatonnes of water are in a cubic kilometer?

Puzzle 3: if it were spread equally over the whole ocean, how much would a cubic kilometer of water raise the sea level?

Puzzle 4: what's the absurd mistake in this web page:

http://www.mpimet.mpg.de/en/kommunikation/fragen-zu-klima-faq/how-much-will-the-sea-level-rise.html

#greenland #ice  ___

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2015-01-26 18:29:35 (4 comments, 1 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

This post will either leave you indifferent, or click with you big-time. If it's the latter, please let me know. :)

This post will either leave you indifferent, or click with you big-time. If it's the latter, please let me know. :)___

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2015-01-22 21:30:25 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

Si on peut évaluer l'état de santé de la démocratie selon la liberté journaliste d'un pays ou de la censure quelles qu'elles soient tel l'internet
 Bien il y en a en mauvaise santé.

Combien par année ce font assassinée pour faire leur travail de correspondant, ou emprisonner pour tenir seulement un blogue ..

Sans parler de ceux qui essai par exemple par l'entremise d'un syndicat d'améliorer les conditions de travail dans certains pays qui sont aussi assassinés.

Il y a des endroit ou la vie est dur et que seul leurs intérêts comptes en  {$}  des plus puissants et ce qui est contraire à cela sont éliminés ..   

Si on peut évaluer l'état de santé de la démocratie selon la liberté journaliste d'un pays ou de la censure quelles qu'elles soient tel l'internet
 Bien il y en a en mauvaise santé.

Combien par année ce font assassinée pour faire leur travail de correspondant, ou emprisonner pour tenir seulement un blogue ..

Sans parler de ceux qui essai par exemple par l'entremise d'un syndicat d'améliorer les conditions de travail dans certains pays qui sont aussi assassinés.

Il y a des endroit ou la vie est dur et que seul leurs intérêts comptes en  {$}  des plus puissants et ce qui est contraire à cela sont éliminés ..   ___

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2015-01-20 17:32:26 (0 comments, 2 reshares, 6 +1s)Open 

Via NewMatilda.com

#Australia #AusPolitics #Precariat  

Via NewMatilda.com

#Australia #AusPolitics #Precariat  ___

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2015-01-19 11:54:33 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 6 +1s)Open 

"Where conventional thinking tells us that investing money in research and development is the way to get innovation, we’re putting together a means of innovating whose chief requirements are things like time, imagination, knowledge, initiative and trust, with money moving from primary to secondary concern."

"Where conventional thinking tells us that investing money in research and development is the way to get innovation, we’re putting together a means of innovating whose chief requirements are things like time, imagination, knowledge, initiative and trust, with money moving from primary to secondary concern."___

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2015-01-19 04:47:17 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 1 +1s)Open 

Stop the world, I want to get off. It isn't funny any more.

Comic by Jen Sorensen  http://jensorensen.com/2015/01/14/shootings-over-cartoons-a-cycle-of-sadness/

Stop the world, I want to get off. It isn't funny any more.

Comic by Jen Sorensen  http://jensorensen.com/2015/01/14/shootings-over-cartoons-a-cycle-of-sadness/___

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2015-01-17 06:46:49 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

___

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2015-01-17 06:45:25 (1 comments, 0 reshares, 6 +1s)Open 

by Edina Szalai

by Edina Szalai___

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2015-01-17 06:29:44 (0 comments, 2 reshares, 11 +1s)Open 

Proof by Clementine: the surface area of a sphere is 4 pi r^2 (trace around widest part of clementine 4 times) http://t.co/Bxj2v6wpAO

Proof by Clementine: the surface area of a sphere is 4 pi r^2 (trace around widest part of clementine 4 times) http://t.co/Bxj2v6wpAO___

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2015-01-17 06:29:27 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 1 +1s)Open 

Leaders gravitate toward open networks vs closed networks. People in open networks have unique challenges and opportunities. Because they’re part of multiple groups, they have unique relationships, experiences, and knowledge that other people in their groups don’t.

 
 
http://www.forbes.com/sites/michaelsimmons/2015/01/15/this-is-the-1-predictor-of-career-success-according-to-network-science/2/

Leaders gravitate toward open networks vs closed networks. People in open networks have unique challenges and opportunities. Because they’re part of multiple groups, they have unique relationships, experiences, and knowledge that other people in their groups don’t.

 
 
http://www.forbes.com/sites/michaelsimmons/2015/01/15/this-is-the-1-predictor-of-career-success-according-to-network-science/2/___

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2015-01-17 06:29:17 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 2 +1s)Open 

#mythbusters Firing a canon at 50mph while driving 50mph at opposite direction

#mythbusters Firing a canon at 50mph while driving 50mph at opposite direction___

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2015-01-16 04:31:15 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 1 +1s)Open 

This is worth reading and worth showing to your friends.

Many free software tools come bundled with other software that installs by default. This is a bad practice, but it's here to stay. The burden is on you to do a little research before you install something and to pay close attention to the installation screens so you don't end up installing unwanted or malicious software.

This is worth reading and worth showing to your friends.

Many free software tools come bundled with other software that installs by default. This is a bad practice, but it's here to stay. The burden is on you to do a little research before you install something and to pay close attention to the installation screens so you don't end up installing unwanted or malicious software.___

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2015-01-13 09:15:47 (6 comments, 1 reshares, 10 +1s)Open 

Doggerland

As recently as 6500 BC, Great Britain was connected to Europe!  And if you go back further in your time machine, you'll see a huge plain called Doggerland between Britain and Denmark.

Why?  Because the sea level is lower during ice ages.  More water is locked up in ice!

The last ice age, the Wisconsin glaciation, reached its peak a bit before 18000 BC.  Back then, there were huge ice sheets going down to the Great Lakes and the mouth of the Rhine.  The north of Britain was covered with ice, and the south was a polar desert!

The light green stuff in this map shows the land a bit later, in 16000 BC.  Back then Doggerland was a wide undulating plain full of complicated meandering river systems.

As the ice age ended, the sea level rose rather quickly.  Doggerland shrank to the medium green stuff in 8000 BC and thedark g... more »

Doggerland

As recently as 6500 BC, Great Britain was connected to Europe!  And if you go back further in your time machine, you'll see a huge plain called Doggerland between Britain and Denmark.

Why?  Because the sea level is lower during ice ages.  More water is locked up in ice!

The last ice age, the Wisconsin glaciation, reached its peak a bit before 18000 BC.  Back then, there were huge ice sheets going down to the Great Lakes and the mouth of the Rhine.  The north of Britain was covered with ice, and the south was a polar desert!

The light green stuff in this map shows the land a bit later, in 16000 BC.  Back then Doggerland was a wide undulating plain full of complicated meandering river systems.

As the ice age ended, the sea level rose rather quickly.  Doggerland shrank to the medium green stuff in 8000 BC and the dark green stuff in 7000 BC.  One of the last parts to survive was the Dogger Bank.  You can see it on the map if you look close.  It was an island until 5000 BC.

A new theory says that Doggerland was flooded by a huge tsunami around 6200 BC, thanks to a submarine landslide off the coast of Norway!  It's called the Storegga Slide.  There's geological evidence of sediments washed up onto land then.  Maybe an earthquake triggered a catastrophic expansion of methane hydrates underwater.

This tsunami would have devastated a rich hunting and fishing ground populated by Mesolithic humans.   People of some sort have lived on the British Isles, on and off, for much longer!  There are flint tools dating back to 815,000 BC.  These would not be made by Homo sapiens, since our species only came into existence around 250,000 BC. 

But there were Homo sapiens in Britain by 40,000 BC, in the middle of the last ice age.  And when that ice age ended and treeless tundra slowly turned into forests of birch trees, more of us moved in.  Instead of eating reindeer and wild horses, the ancient Britons started eating pigs, elk, deer, wild boar and wild cattle - hunting them with ever more sophisticated stone tools.  So by 6200 BC, when the tsunami crashed over Doggerland, there would have been lots of people living quite well.

Puzzle 1: Why is it called "Doggerland"? 

Puzzle 2: What's a "dogger"?

Puzzle 3: When did people start building Stonehenge - how does that fit into the chronology here?

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doggerland
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Storegga_Slide
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prehistoric_Britain

I got this map from Jamie Woodward:

https://twitter.com/Jamie_Woodward_/status/554662957339402240/photo/1

thanks to +Susan Stone.  I don't know who made it.___

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2015-01-13 09:13:25 (1 comments, 0 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

+Etienne Paquet​

Man !!___+Etienne Paquet​

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2015-01-11 19:17:39 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 2 +1s)Open 

The Pythagorean theorem says the sum of the squares of the sides of a right triangle is the square of the hippopotamus.  For example, there's a right triangle with sides of length 3, 4, and 5, since

9 + 16 = 25

so

3² + 4² = 5²

We call three integers with these properties a Pythagorean triple.  There are infinitely many!  For example, the next ones are

5² + 12² = 13²              (25 + 144 = 169)

8² + 15² = 17²              (64 + 225 = 289)

There's a nice recipe to get all the Pythagorean triples!  Just take integers n < m and let

a = m² - n²
b = 2mn
c = m² + n²

Then you get

a² + b² = c²

This doesn't give all the Pythagorean triples yet - but you can get the rest by taking a, b, and c and multiplying them all bythe same number.

All this has been... more »

The Pythagorean theorem says the sum of the squares of the sides of a right triangle is the square of the hippopotamus.  For example, there's a right triangle with sides of length 3, 4, and 5, since

9 + 16 = 25

so

3² + 4² = 5²

We call three integers with these properties a Pythagorean triple.  There are infinitely many!  For example, the next ones are

5² + 12² = 13²              (25 + 144 = 169)

8² + 15² = 17²              (64 + 225 = 289)

There's a nice recipe to get all the Pythagorean triples!  Just take integers n < m and let

a = m² - n²
b = 2mn
c = m² + n²

Then you get

a² + b² = c²

This doesn't give all the Pythagorean triples yet - but you can get the rest by taking a, b, and c and multiplying them all by the same number.

All this has been known for a long time - Euclid wrote about it around 300 BC.  There's a lot more to say, but not now!

Yesterday the guy who fixes my computers, David Scharffenberg, told me that

3³ + 4³ + 5³ = 6³        (27 + 64 + 125 = 216)

That's great!  It looks like a generalization of

3² + 4² = 5²

But it's not really a generalization in any way that I know.  As far as I know, it's just a wonderfully cute, meaningless coincidence.  I could be wrong.

When is the sum of 3 cubes a cube?  I don't know, but there's a conjecture saying that any number except for those of the form 9k+4 and 9k-4 is the sum of 3 cubes. 

Puzzle 1: why can't numbers of the form 9k+4 or 9k-4 for some integer k be written as the sum of 3 cubes of integers?

For example, 29 is the sum of 3 cubes:

3³ + 1³ + 1³ = 29

But cubes can be negative!   This makes it harder to find all the solutions.  For example, we also have

4³ + (-2)³ + (-3)³ = 29

So, was only rather recently that someone showed that 30 is the sum of 3 cubes!

Puzzle 2: write 30 as the sum of 3 cubes of integers.___

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2015-01-09 13:47:12 (2 comments, 0 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

___

2015-01-07 00:01:42 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 0 +1s)Open 

Leading in bossless organizations. Letting go of control in order to gain it. A conversation with Kevin O'Brien formerly with W.L.Gore & Associates. New business podcast posted. http://www.management-issues.com/podcasts/356/letting-go-of-control/   #GreatWorkplaces   #leadership  

Leading in bossless organizations. Letting go of control in order to gain it. A conversation with Kevin O'Brien formerly with W.L.Gore & Associates. New business podcast posted. http://www.management-issues.com/podcasts/356/letting-go-of-control/   #GreatWorkplaces   #leadership  ___

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2015-01-02 23:25:18 (1 comments, 1 reshares, 9 +1s)Open 

Shadows of higher dimensions

The icosidodecahedron can be built by truncating either a regular icosahedron or a regular dodecahedron.  It's a beautiful, highly symmetrical shape with 30 vertices.

But it's just a shadow of an even more symmetrical shape with twice as many vertices, living in a space with twice as many dimensions!  The D6 root polytope is a 6-dimensional shape with 60 vertices.  When you project it down to 3 dimensions in the right way, you get the picture here, made by Greg Egan. 

In this 3d picture, the 60 vertices of the D6 root polytope lie on two icosidodecahedra, one larger than the other.  How much larger?  The golden ratio!

For the details of how this works, visit my blog Visual Insight:

http://blogs.ams.org/visualinsight/2015/01/01/icosidodecahedron-from-projected-d6-root-polytope/
The... more »

Shadows of higher dimensions

The icosidodecahedron can be built by truncating either a regular icosahedron or a regular dodecahedron.  It's a beautiful, highly symmetrical shape with 30 vertices.

But it's just a shadow of an even more symmetrical shape with twice as many vertices, living in a space with twice as many dimensions!  The D6 root polytope is a 6-dimensional shape with 60 vertices.  When you project it down to 3 dimensions in the right way, you get the picture here, made by Greg Egan. 

In this 3d picture, the 60 vertices of the D6 root polytope lie on two icosidodecahedra, one larger than the other.  How much larger?  The golden ratio!

For the details of how this works, visit my blog Visual Insight:

http://blogs.ams.org/visualinsight/2015/01/01/icosidodecahedron-from-projected-d6-root-polytope/

The vertices of the D6 root polytope are

(±1, ±1, 0, 0, 0, 0)

and all vectors you can get by permuting the coordinates.  You can map 6-dimensional space down to 3-dimensional space in a way that sends these to the vertices of two icosidodecahedra, one larger than the other by a factor of the golden ratio. 

But there's a deep underlying reason why you can do it, which my blog article explains!    And the same idea lets you map a beautiful polytope in 8 dimensions down to one in 4 dimensions.   The 8-dimensional one is called the E8 root polytope, and it has 240 vertices.  The 4-dimensional one is called the 600-cell, because it has 600 tetrahedral faces - and it has 120 vertices.  Unfortunately all this stuff is harder to draw.

Puzzle: why is it called an 'icosidodecahedron' instead of an 'icosadodecahedron'?   I've never understood that.

#geometry  ___

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2014-12-23 05:11:28 (2 comments, 0 reshares, 8 +1s)Open 

Generation Z

Generation Z___

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2014-12-20 14:09:43 (0 comments, 2 reshares, 9 +1s)Open 

___

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2014-12-20 03:11:39 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 0 +1s)Open 

It must be done. - http://pinterest.com/pin/A47OZgAQAAwCN0rUh5EAAAA/?s=3&m=google+

It must be done. - http://pinterest.com/pin/A47OZgAQAAwCN0rUh5EAAAA/?s=3&m=google+___

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2014-12-17 13:06:13 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

___

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2014-12-16 17:44:10 (3 comments, 2 reshares, 6 +1s)Open 

"So, why did I actually stop contributing to standards definitions? The primary one is the fact that while the pace at which standards are written hasn’t changed in many years, the pace at which the real world adopts software has become orders of magnitude faster. Standards, unfortunately, have become the playground for hashing out conflicts and carrying out silo-ed agendas and as a result, have suffered a drastic degradation."

"So, why did I actually stop contributing to standards definitions? The primary one is the fact that while the pace at which standards are written hasn’t changed in many years, the pace at which the real world adopts software has become orders of magnitude faster. Standards, unfortunately, have become the playground for hashing out conflicts and carrying out silo-ed agendas and as a result, have suffered a drastic degradation."___

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2014-12-16 16:47:46 (1 comments, 0 reshares, 1 +1s)Open 

"The NIPS consistency experiment was an amazing, courageous move by the organizers this year to quantify the randomness in the review process. They split the program committee down the middle, effectively forming two independent program committees. Most submitted papers were assigned to a single side, but 10% of submissions (166) were reviewed by both halves of the committee. This let them observe how consistent the two committees were on which papers to accept.  (For fairness, they ultimately accepted any paper that was accepted by either committee.)"

Superb initiative, and possibly indicative of a deep problem with the evaluation of academic publications.

I've always said that academia was hiding behind its "double blind" practices to refrain from seriously assessing -- and eventually addressing -- its biases. This kind of bias analysis is standard practice in promo committees at Google and should be for any system that cares about the quality of its processes.___"The NIPS consistency experiment was an amazing, courageous move by the organizers this year to quantify the randomness in the review process. They split the program committee down the middle, effectively forming two independent program committees. Most submitted papers were assigned to a single side, but 10% of submissions (166) were reviewed by both halves of the committee. This let them observe how consistent the two committees were on which papers to accept.  (For fairness, they ultimately accepted any paper that was accepted by either committee.)"

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2014-12-16 01:33:10 (5 comments, 1 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

"One job of editors is to find the most suited reviewers. Nevertheless, we increasingly encounter reviewers who evidently lack sufficient expertise to evaluate a submission. The idea of peer review is that one need not stand above whom one judges but that it suffices to be at the same level. However, in reality reviewers are often not “peers” with regard to the pertinent expertise; rather, they are less than equals." cc +Daniel Lemire 

"One job of editors is to find the most suited reviewers. Nevertheless, we increasingly encounter reviewers who evidently lack sufficient expertise to evaluate a submission. The idea of peer review is that one need not stand above whom one judges but that it suffices to be at the same level. However, in reality reviewers are often not “peers” with regard to the pertinent expertise; rather, they are less than equals." cc +Daniel Lemire ___

2014-12-15 20:34:12 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 0 +1s)Open 

Updated

Updated___

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2014-12-15 20:15:20 (1 comments, 0 reshares, 7 +1s)Open 

Panda under fire!

Panda under fire!___

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2014-12-15 20:14:55 (1 comments, 1 reshares, 2 +1s)Open 

huh.

___huh.

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2014-12-15 20:12:54 (2 comments, 1 reshares, 12 +1s)Open 

Magic? No, it's science.
Refraction in action

Source: http://goo.gl/JOOwII

Magic? No, it's science.
Refraction in action

Source: http://goo.gl/JOOwII___

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2014-12-13 14:35:40 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 10 +1s)Open 

This is not a spiral

It’s a series of concentric circles.

More: http://makezine.com/2010/04/04/this-is-not-a-spiral/

This is not a spiral

It’s a series of concentric circles.

More: http://makezine.com/2010/04/04/this-is-not-a-spiral/___

2014-12-12 19:00:43 (3 comments, 0 reshares, 2 +1s)Open 

Leave a comment below if you're not in this circle and you'd like to join the next Hangout.

Leave a comment below if you're not in this circle and you'd like to join the next Hangout.___

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2014-12-12 13:52:47 (3 comments, 2 reshares, 6 +1s)Open 

Know what “schadenfreude” is? Sanskrit has a word for its opposite, “mudita”: taking delight in others' well being.

Know what “schadenfreude” is? Sanskrit has a word for its opposite, “mudita”: taking delight in others' well being.___

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2014-12-09 22:58:41 (0 comments, 6 reshares, 15 +1s)Open 

11 Fundamental Metapatterns

"Tyler Volk (1995) identified 11 fundamental metapatterns in his book, Metapatterns: Across Space, Time, and Mind. He “defines” metapatterns in the same way as Bateson (with whom he studied in 1977), but with the following elaborations:

To me, a metapattern is a pattern so wide-flung that it appears throughout the spectrum of reality: in clouds, rivers, and planets; in cells, organisms, and ecosystems; in art, architecture, and politics…. I use the word metapattern in the Batesonian spirit — as a pattern of patterns — and seek examples at the very broadest scale. Alas, my definition, too, is round-about. I define metapatterns by saying where they are found and how I use them. But what are they? And are they out there (patterns sensed) or in here (patterns imagined)? (Volk, 1995, pp. viii-ix)

In 2007, Volk collaborated withJeffrey W... more »

11 Fundamental Metapatterns

"Tyler Volk (1995) identified 11 fundamental metapatterns in his book, Metapatterns: Across Space, Time, and Mind. He “defines” metapatterns in the same way as Bateson (with whom he studied in 1977), but with the following elaborations:

To me, a metapattern is a pattern so wide-flung that it appears throughout the spectrum of reality: in clouds, rivers, and planets; in cells, organisms, and ecosystems; in art, architecture, and politics…. I use the word metapattern in the Batesonian spirit — as a pattern of patterns — and seek examples at the very broadest scale. Alas, my definition, too, is round-about. I define metapatterns by saying where they are found and how I use them. But what are they? And are they out there (patterns sensed) or in here (patterns imagined)? (Volk, 1995, pp. viii-ix)

In 2007, Volk collaborated with Jeffrey W. Bloom, on The Use of Metapatterns for Research into Complex Systems of Teaching, Learning, and Schooling, which included five more patterns for a total of 16 metapatterns (seen below): 
http://ejournals.library.ualberta.ca/index.php/complicity/article/viewArticle/8759

#Metapatterns  cc #Nemetics   
Spheres: http://youtu.be/UyITVAK5zp0___

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2014-12-08 04:38:34 (1 comments, 3 reshares, 10 +1s)Open 

How speakers make sound: bit.ly/1w3mpgE - fun visual explanation.

How speakers make sound: bit.ly/1w3mpgE - fun visual explanation.___

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2014-12-08 04:37:36 (1 comments, 2 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

Interoception: Listen to Your Heart

This is an article about linkages between our interoception and our emotional intelligence and tendency to trust our intuition.

"Interoception" is the ability to sense what going on inside ourselves, such as the ability to track our heart beat simply by feeling its beat within rather than tracking your pulse with your finger. People who are better at doing that demonstrate a tendency to feel things more intensely, empathize more readily with others and rely on their intuition in decision making (regardless of whether or not it is accurate). 

Another interesting angle in this article is the connection between our interoception and feelings of disassociation with our bodies as well as depression. 

Last fall, I just happened to be listening to the audio book "Your Body Is Your Subconscious Mind" byCa... more »

Interoception: Listen to Your Heart

This is an article about linkages between our interoception and our emotional intelligence and tendency to trust our intuition.

"Interoception" is the ability to sense what going on inside ourselves, such as the ability to track our heart beat simply by feeling its beat within rather than tracking your pulse with your finger. People who are better at doing that demonstrate a tendency to feel things more intensely, empathize more readily with others and rely on their intuition in decision making (regardless of whether or not it is accurate). 

Another interesting angle in this article is the connection between our interoception and feelings of disassociation with our bodies as well as depression. 

Last fall, I just happened to be listening to the audio book "Your Body Is Your Subconscious Mind" by Candace Pert at the time she passed away. That book deeply affected the way that I understand intelligence. It shifted me away from a brain-centric understanding to one that goes much deeper into the rest of our bodies. It's made me view efforts to backwards engineer the human brain as only solving part of a much deeper, much older problem.

Intelligence is much, much older than the modern human brain. Our mind and our intelligence is more than just our brains. 

#heart   #mind   #intelligence   #ai  ___

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2014-12-07 20:31:27 (4 comments, 4 reshares, 13 +1s)Open 

Yep.

Yep.___

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2014-12-07 19:01:23 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 5 +1s)Open 

___

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2014-12-07 16:39:20 (1 comments, 2 reshares, 10 +1s)Open 

Dead poet's society

This is the ceiling of the tomb of the famous Persian poet Hafez, who was born in the city of Shiraz in 1315, and died there in 1390. The current version of the tomb dates back only to 1935 and was designed by the French architect and archaeologist André Godard.  But the design is beautiful! 

There's a lot of fun stuff to see if you zoom in, but let's think about the star.

Puzzle 1: How many points do the stars here have?

Puzzle 2: How many different kinds of stars are there with this many points?

For example, there's just one kind of 5-pointed star, but two kinds of 7-pointed star.   There's a 7-pointed star with blunt points where you draw a line from each dot to the dot 2 after it, and one with sharp points where you draw a line from each dot to the dot 3 after it.
more »

Dead poet's society

This is the ceiling of the tomb of the famous Persian poet Hafez, who was born in the city of Shiraz in 1315, and died there in 1390. The current version of the tomb dates back only to 1935 and was designed by the French architect and archaeologist André Godard.  But the design is beautiful! 

There's a lot of fun stuff to see if you zoom in, but let's think about the star.

Puzzle 1: How many points do the stars here have?

Puzzle 2: How many different kinds of stars are there with this many points?

For example, there's just one kind of 5-pointed star, but two kinds of 7-pointed star.   There's a 7-pointed star with blunt points where you draw a line from each dot to the dot 2 after it, and one with sharp points where you draw a line from each dot to the dot 3 after it.

Puzzle 3: How many different kinds of n-pointed stars are there?

Puzzle 4: How many of these are connected?

For example, there is no connected 6-pointed star.   If you take a regular hexagon and draw a line from each dot to the dot 2 after it, you get the traditional Star of David, which consists of two separate triangles.  If you draw a line from each dot to the dot 1 after it, you get the hexagon... you can decide if that counts as a star.  If you draw a line from each dot to the dot 3 after it, you get three straight lines meeting at the center... you can decide if that counts as a star.  And that's all you can get, if you're following the rules I have in mind!

You can get a higher-quality version of this image starting here:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tomb_of_Hafez

It was put on Wikicommons by 'Pentocelo'.___

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2014-12-06 14:35:42 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 5 +1s)Open 

New blog post on KS12 about how we're inspired by +tina roth eisenberg 
http://ks12.net/2014/12/people-in-beta-tina-roth-eisenberg/

New blog post on KS12 about how we're inspired by +tina roth eisenberg 
http://ks12.net/2014/12/people-in-beta-tina-roth-eisenberg/___

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2014-12-02 16:20:52 (5 comments, 4 reshares, 20 +1s)Open 

___

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2014-12-02 16:03:53 (0 comments, 2 reshares, 7 +1s)Open 

Clever!

World's simplest electric train is simple.___Clever!

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2014-12-01 19:14:05 (2 comments, 1 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

"we should be reminded of the fact that our existing institutions are failing. In a very important sense, those ships have sailed. The crisis is upon us. Waiting and hoping that “things will work out” will be to no avail. Our construction of a New Society is as much a consequence of necessity as opportunity. The longer we wait the more the balance will move from opportunity to necessity."

The next installment in my Great Transition series: https://medium.com/emergent-culture/reinvent-everything-556860b63308___"we should be reminded of the fact that our existing institutions are failing. In a very important sense, those ships have sailed. The crisis is upon us. Waiting and hoping that “things will work out” will be to no avail. Our construction of a New Society is as much a consequence of necessity as opportunity. The longer we wait the more the balance will move from opportunity to necessity."

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2014-12-01 01:44:19 (1 comments, 2 reshares, 13 +1s)Open 

Shuttle launch view from space
http://t.co/JVfeasUaiv

Shuttle launch view from space
http://t.co/JVfeasUaiv___

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2014-12-01 01:43:58 (0 comments, 3 reshares, 14 +1s)Open 

The sunny side of the Pyramid

The sunny side of the Pyramid___

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2014-11-23 13:08:56 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 2 +1s)Open 

Do not try this at home:
The phenomenon is known as the Leidenfrost effect, discovered centuries ago. The liquid simply ricochets off the human body without freezing, as the flesh was significantly hotter than the liquid's boiling point. Instead of freezing the body immediately, the liquid nitrogen produced a protective vapor layer, which prevented it from boiling rapidly.

Do not try this at home:
The phenomenon is known as the Leidenfrost effect, discovered centuries ago. The liquid simply ricochets off the human body without freezing, as the flesh was significantly hotter than the liquid's boiling point. Instead of freezing the body immediately, the liquid nitrogen produced a protective vapor layer, which prevented it from boiling rapidly.___

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2014-11-23 13:06:23 (0 comments, 9 reshares, 30 +1s)Open 

Sorting Algorithms
http://www.sorting-algorithms.com/

Cool :)

Sorting Algorithms
http://www.sorting-algorithms.com/

Cool :)___

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2014-11-21 03:42:09 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 8 +1s)Open 

Golay code explained.

A secret code

This is the Golay code.  Each row in this picture shows a string of 24 bits.  There are 12 rows.  If you look at any two rows, you'll see they differ in at least 8 places.

Here's how to get the Golay code.  Take a 12 x 12 square of bits with all 0's except for 1's down the diagonal - you can see that at left here.  Take another 12 x 12 square of bits that tells you when two faces of a dodecahedron share an edge: 0 if they do, 1 if they don't.  Stick these squares together and you get the Golay code!

Some guys around here keep asking if the math I talk about is good for anything.  In this case it is! 

The Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft needed to transmit hundreds of color pictures of Jupiter and Saturn in their 1979, 1980, and 1981 fly-bys.   They had very little bandwidth, so they needed a good error-correcting code.  They used the Golay code! 

The point is that we can use the rows of this picture as code words.  If we take some rows and add them - adding each entry separately, mod 2 - we get more code words.  We get a total of 2^12 = 4096 code words. 

These code words have a cool property: it takes at least 8 errors to turn any code word into any other.   So, we say the Hamming distance between any two code words is at least 8.   In fact, the Golay code is the only code with 12-bit code words where the Hamming distance between any two is at least 8.

There's a whole theory of codes like this, and this is an especially good one.  You can transmit 12 bits of data with 24 bits... but since the Hamming distance between code words is big, someone can understand what you meant even if there are lots of errors!  So, the Golay code is useful for transmitting data in a noisy environment.

But the reason I like the Golay code is that it has a big and important symmetry group.  Its symmetry group is called M24 - one of the amazing things called Mathieu groups.    It has

24 x 23 x 22 x 21 x 20 x 48 = 244,823,040

elements.   It's connected to many other symmetrical things in math: for example, it acts as symmetries of the Leech lattice, the densest way to pack balls in 24 dimensions.

To be more precise, this code here is called the extended binary Golay code.  You can learn more about it here:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binary_Golay_code

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mathieu_group

Puzzle: I said the symmetry group of this code is M24.  But what do I mean, exactly, by a 'symmetry' of this code?

The extended binary Golay code is not only good for outer space.  In 1993, the US government issued standards for high frequency radio systems.  They require using this code for "forwards error correction" in "automatic link establishment"!  See page 51 here:

http://hflink.com/standards/FED_STD_1045A.pdf___Golay code explained.

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2014-11-20 10:44:50 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 2 +1s)Open 

___

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2014-11-19 04:21:29 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 2 +1s)Open 

Wealth is overrated. Its main negative effect is on the rich themselves. Argued and well written by Michael Lewis.
http://www.newrepublic.com/article/120092/billionaires-book-review-money-cant-buy-happiness …

Wealth is overrated. Its main negative effect is on the rich themselves. Argued and well written by Michael Lewis.
http://www.newrepublic.com/article/120092/billionaires-book-review-money-cant-buy-happiness …___

Buttons

A special service of CircleCount.com is the following button.

The button shows the number of followers you have directly in a small button. You can add this button to your website, like the +1-Button of Google or the Like-Button of Facebook.






You can add this button directly in your website. For more information about the CircleCount Buttons and the description how to add them to another page click here.

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