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Kenneth McCormack has been at 8 events

HostFollowersTitleDateGuestsLinks
Larry Fournillier1,357,609In this exciting episode of *Food Stories*, my favorite G+ couple,@101888088652157354149 and @117875987563872032638  will be cooking and serving up a tasty Belgian dish, *Stoverij* *_(Carbonnade Flamande)_*.  This is a traditional Belgian sweet-sour beef and onion stew made with *beer*, and seasoned with *thyme, bay-leaf and mustard*. Mushrooms or spiced bread can also be added. In addition, George and Marilyn has a fascinating story behind this dish and I can’t wait for them to share it.  Meanwhile, check out *George's recipe* here:  http://goo.gl/s4okuq  So join us on *Sunday 15th, March at 1:00PM(PDT), 4:00PM(EDT & AST)* for another fun-filled and *_must see_* HOA.  I will have a special guest join us in Marilyn and George's kitchen :) *Reminder*: Don't forget to bring along your favorite *food and drink*. #belgianbeefstew   #foodstories   #hoa   #hangoutsonair   #STOVERIJ   #larryfournillier  Food Stories | Stoverij (Flemish Beef Stew) S02E052015-03-15 21:00:0069  
Eric Enge21,594This week on the #DMEShow  @104858643838035519891 and @108493275257625053433 and I will chat about Pinterest and G+ and how to leverage them together. The show airs at 5 PM EDT on Thursday May 29th.  Just say yes to get access to the video for live or later viewing.  I will also share the video here for mobile users. Please help us by inviting others or sharing the event!Pinterest and Google Plus: Two Peas in a Pod2014-05-29 23:00:23205  
Lisa Engles5,519*Link to the program mentioned in this hangout www.hangoutsforvisionaryleaders.com/program* *Coaches, Authors and Speakers: Go From Ground Zero to Hangout Hero* Have you spent a lot of time, energy and money spinning your wheels, trying to spread your message and build your audience using social media marketing, but haven’t seen the results that you hoped for?  Do you feel disconnected from the very people you want to reach?  Well, you’re not alone.  In fact, most heart-centered entrepreneurs and visionary leaders that I talk to all say the same thing: " I feel disconnected from the people I want to reach"  and : “I don’t like using social media, but I know I’m supposed to.”  And less than a year ago, I was one of them. ​I was frustrated because there was something about social media that didn’t feel right to me.  I was very resistant to using it.  It felt useless to me because honestly, I was a small fish in a big pond of thousands of 'experts' who were using all types of tactics that felt pushy and in your face. If that's what I needed to do to get seen and get clients, then no thanks.  It's just not who I am. Then one day, I had an ‘ah-ha” moment.  I realized that the reason I was feeling so much resistance was because at the core of who I am and what I do as a coach, author and speaker is - connect and communicate. In that moment I saw how social media was actually putting a divide between me and ideal audience and was keeping me from getting noticed and ultimately, getting clients because there was a lack of authentic connection and communication.  Think about it, how much can you really connect with people when you’re limited posting a 140 characters, a link or an image?  The lack of authentic engagement was not only keeping me from effectively communicating my message, it was keeping me from connecting with my ideal audience and it was ultimately keeping me from making money doing what I love to do.  So I made it my goal to figure out how I could reach others with my message in a way that felt real and that created an opportunity for authentic connection.  And that’s when I decided to look into google hangouts on air.   Within 6 months of using hangouts on air (HOA) I was finally able to break the barriers between me and my ideal clients, get the support of influencers both in google plus and in my niche, establish my expertise and build a loyal following of people who want what I have to offer… all things I had been unsuccessful in accomplishing before. So, in this hangout I want to show you how you can have this type of success using hangouts as well.    #RonnieBincer  has been a big piece of my 'winning' equation, so he'll be joining us in this hangout where you'll: *Learn the 4 critical steps that will take you from ground zero to hangout hero (or shero)* *Discover how to use hangouts on air to connect and communicate with your ideal audience in real time so that you create trust and meaningful relationships* *Learn how usHangout Strategies for Visionary Leaders2014-04-14 20:00:0094  
Chef Dennis Littley751,437Mobile Use this Link: http://youtu.be/OATc03mlDks Join me and my Co-host @108641528210325220263  with are very special guest @115620878851836664537  as we tackle the topic of *Semantic Search*  on the 10th episode of *The Bloggers Guide to Using Google+ Effectively* And who better to learn it from then the Author of Google Semantic Search himself.   Every Monday  for thirty minutes we will focus on a different aspect of Google+  offering guidance and  answering questions.    If you have questions please leave them in the Comment Bar of this event  before the start of the show and we will do our best our best to answer them. The goal of our series is to help everyone understand how Google+ works and what they need to do to become successful on G+.  Once G+ begins to make sense to you, you'll be able to enjoy your time on the plus, making new friends, engaging in communities and seeing some pretty amazing search engine results.  While our series will be focused on Bloggers everyone is welcome and we hope to see all of you with your questions-    You can also join us at the G+ Food Bloggers Community - http://goo.gl/IEKmsV  where we discuss all the issues that Bloggers have as well as sharing best practices. All of our previous episodes are on Youtube  http://goo.gl/3iukbR Monday February 1th @ 1 PM EST/12 PM CST/11 AM MST/10 AM PST #googleplustips   #bloggers   #Gplusfoodbloggers  The Bloggers Guide to Using Google+ Effectively - Semantic Search with David Amerland2014-02-17 19:00:00147  
martin shervington1,055,927*Google Plus for Individuals and Business!* _Including launch of the free 'Quickstarter' courses..._ There have been so many changes in the Plus over the past few months, and as such we wanted to get together to re-launch the website, tell you about some of the resources and pick up on some of your questions as well. So get yourself ready and see you on Monday!The PYB team talk about some amazing, free resources available for Google+!2014-02-10 21:00:00116  
Men's Health660,882Stay on track in 2014 with healthy eating and nutrition tips from our panel of experts. TOPICS OF DISCUSSION: -Tips for maintaining flavor while eating healthy -Cooking demo -How to incorporate fruits and vegetables during the winter months PARTICIPANTS: -Paul Kita, Men’s Health Senior Associate Editor -Cheryl Forberg, Nutritionist and Chef -David McInerney, Co-Founder, Fresh Direct -Christopher Mohr, Ph.D, RDHealthy Cooking & Nutrition Tips2014-01-28 19:00:00154  
Google+9,948,612The Google+ team will be sharing a few updates. RSVP to this event to watch the broadcast live.A Morning with Google+2013-10-29 17:30:0033904  
Google Australia182,187Join us for a special Doodle 4 Google explorer Hangout On Air and hear Project Loon engineer +Anton Staaf talk about exploring big ideas and a behind the scenes look at +Project Loon with students from Roydvale Primary School in Christchurch. #projectloon #loon #balloonpoweredinternetDoodle 4 Google Explorer Series: HOA with Project Loon's Anton Staaf2013-08-27 12:00:00423  

Kenneth McCormack has been shared in 255 public circles

You can see here the 50 latest shared circles.
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AuthorFollowersDateUsers in CircleCommentsReshares+1Links
AyJay Schibig93,323ENGAGERS  CIRCLE  5.1.15  Welcome to the latest  edition of my  active Engager's Circle. Add  it to grow your G+ network !  Please ReShare.#circleshare #circlesharing #sharedcircles  #share #followers #addcircles #publicsharedcircles 2015-05-02 05:27:17415364653
John Hannah20,126Circle share with new friendsHi friends follow this circle1 - Include me in your circles2 - Share the circle (Publicly)3 - Add +1 to the post.4 - Leave a comment if you like.I will thankful if you plus and #share this #circle!#AksumitEmpirSyroGreemsionaries #who #arriveby #way #ReSewerresponsiblfor #logicadevelopmentIn #early #tcentury #newly #formeArabian #anrulsincludesmalfamily #groups #huntergarers #sucas #San #peopern #larger #morstructuregroups #sucas #family #clan #groupings #Bantuspeakinpeoples #centraern #aneastern #heavily #structureclan2015-05-01 06:10:37369012
Simon Weiner6,4751.30 High Quality New Active Engager Circle. Enjoy:) #circle   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circles   #sharingcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #circlesunday #share #shared #followers #addcircles #publicsharedcircles #share #addpeople #addcircle #addfriends #circle #socialmedia #hillaryclinton   #president   #hillary2016  2015-04-27 04:22:14498001
Allan watson26,270Active users on Google+. Circle ShareIf you received a notification, please reshare to your #circlesIf you’d like to be added to the next circle share: • +1 this circle • Share this circle to PUBLIC • Include me in your circles • Comment on this post#Atlas #World #Washington #DC #National #Geographic #issue #Population #December #ebcom #Encyclopædia #Britannica #Chicago #Encyclopædia #Britannica #Inc #to #b #National #Geographic #Atlas #World #th #ed #Washington #Brief #No #February #includes2015-04-23 06:59:594045616
SJR Gamer144SHARED CIRCLE 2shared circle,  add circle , +1 circle !!compartilhando circulo 2adicionar circulo (para ter mais amigos), compartilhar circuloVamos fazer amizades, ver bons posts!!   #sharedcircle #sharedcircleoftheday #circleshared #circleshapesmonday #circle  2015-04-09 07:47:27501827
Rich Bradford38,736No.1 Version 22Rocking G+ this evening!! Let's grow your network with version 22 of my Favorite Circle!!   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! #circle #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles  #growthcircle  As a side note, I am on Tsu, which shares social revenues with all of us. https://www.tsu.co/rbradford 2015-04-07 22:12:01477524885
Luis V.69,140This is my 14th #FollowFriday shared circle of the new year.(One day late) All the people in here belong in my circles. These are all people that should be followed and post good content, interact with others and are active on Google Plus. I'm starting small and would like to have this circle expand. I am sharing on Fridays and if you want to be in any future shared circles, do this...Comment on here or +1 this post, share this circle and add me to your circles.I'll check your profile and posts. No spam. No blueheads.2015-04-03 17:10:2224759
Rich Bradford37,901Version 21!!Rocking G+ this evening!! Let's grow your network with version 21 of my Favorite Circle!!   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! #circle #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles  #growthcircle  As a side note, I am on Tsu, which shares social revenues with all of us. https://www.tsu.co/rbradford In other news, USMNT obtained a 1-1 draw in this afternoon's friendly vs. Switzerland! 2015-03-31 22:08:37475495393
Luis V.69,058This is my 13th #FollowFriday shared circle of the new year.(One day late) All the people in here belong in my circles. These are all people that should be followed and post good content, interact with others and are active on Google Plus. I'm starting small and would like to have this circle expand. I am sharing on Fridays and if you want to be in any future shared circles, do this...Comment on here or +1 this post, share this circle and add me to your circles.I'll check your profile and posts. No spam. No blueheads.2015-03-27 15:15:0422529
Rich Bradford35,776Version 20!! Rocking G+ this evening!! Let's grow your network with version 20 of my Favorite Circle!!   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! #circle #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles  #growthcircle  As a side note, I am on Tsu, which shares social revenues with all of us. https://www.tsu.co/rbradford 2015-03-13 04:20:58476545084
Tia McDowell23Shared circle to help you meet new people! Enjoy and share!2015-01-20 18:32:14495201219
AyJay Schibig84,141ENGAGERS  CIRCLE  1.19.15   by  +AyJay Schibig  Please ReShare.Welcome to the latest  edition of my  active Engagers Circle. Add  it to grow your G+ network !  #circleshare #circlesharing #sharedcircles #sharingcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #circlesunday #share #shared #followers #addcircles #publicsharedcircles #share #addpeople #addcircle #addfriends #circle #socialmedia 2015-01-20 07:39:00494473868
Rich Bradford31,008Version 19!! Rocking G+ this evening!! Let's grow your network with version 19 of my Favorite Circle!!   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! #circle #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles  #growthcircle  As a side note, I am on Tsu, which shares social revenues with all of us. https://www.tsu.co/rbradford 2015-01-20 00:03:104816057103
Noah Wesley17,004This is a public circle of Photographers and Photography loversTo increase your chances of inclusion in future circles please leave a comment when sharing the circle.If you received a notification, please reshare to your circlesIf you’d like to be added to the next circle share: • +1 this circle • Share this circle to PUBLIC • Include +ORIGINAL AUTHENTIC PHOTOGRAPHERS  • Comment on this postIf you like what you find in this circle, please share it with your followers to help these individuals reach a wider audience. I will share more circles of those I find Inspiring in the future#beautifulpictures #beautifulplaces #amazingphotos #circlesharing #circleshare #circles #circleoftheday #spain #barcelona #sweden #sweden #gothenburg #sweden #stockholm #switzerland #switzerland #berne #switzerland #geneva #switzerland #zurich #turkey #turkey #ankara #turkey #istanbul #beijing #chengdu #chongqing #dalian #fuzhou #guangzhou #harbinchina #hefefi 2015-01-13 10:46:12494181736
vivek asati0This is the circle of circle # profiles and pages that are active in circle sharing and have included me their circles. If you are looking for followers and engagement add these people and engage with them.If you received a notification, please reshare to your circlesIF YOU WANT TO BE INCLUDED IN A NEW VERSIONS OF MY CIRCLES PLZ LET ME KNOW AND MAKE THIS SIMPLE STEPS:1. Include me in your circles.2. Plus, Comment and Reshare my posts in PUBLIC3. Please make sure you plus, reshare and comment on the Original4. If possible, leave a comment on this circle so I know you have done the three steps above.2015-01-08 14:33:28370422
John Wood24,699This circle will add amazing, and wonderful content to you stream.Boost your visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!To be added to or stay in this Circle - Share the circleIf you received the notice you are in this circle, then well done.If you would like to be included in the next Circle Share, you only have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles2 - Share the circle (Publicly)3 - Add +1 to the post.4 - Leave a comment if you like.I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#circleshare #circlesharing #sharedcircles #sharingcircles #sharedpubliccircles #Kiribati #Korea #(ROK) #wait #Kyrgyzstan #Laos #Latvia #Lebanon #Lesotho #Liberia #Libyan #Arab #Jam. #Liechtenstein #Lithuania #Luxembourg #Macau #Macedonia #Madagascar #Malawi #Malaysia #Maldives #Mali #Malta #Marshall #Islands #Martinique #Mauritania #Mauritius #Mayotte #Mexico 2015-01-03 07:22:134306766121
Rich Bradford29,423Happy New Year!!Rocking G+ this evening!! Let's grow your network with version 18 of my Favorite Circle!! This circle includes individuals who engaged me recently with a plus, a comment or a re-share.   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! #circle #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles  #growthcircle  2015-01-01 01:31:044836353101
Luis V.66,374This is my first #FollowFriday  shared circle and all the people in here belong in my circles. These are all people that should be followed and post good content, interact with others and are active on Google Plus. If you want to be excluded, let me know and I will pull your name.I'll be sharing on Fridays and if you want to ne in any future shared circles, do these things...Comment on here, share this circle, add me.I'll check your profile and posts. No spam or porn. 2014-12-27 02:49:034783212
Rich Bradford28,349Merry Christmas! Happy Holidays! Seasons Greetings!!Rocking G+ this evening!! Let's grow your network with version 17 of my Favorite Circle!! This circle includes individuals who engaged me recently with a plus, a comment or a re-share.   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! #circle #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles  #growthcircle  2014-12-24 01:24:19491195628
Rajani Vijaya0My Awesome CircleThis is my circle of the day :)Add people in this circle to increase your follower. Enjoy it!#CircleShare#CircleSharing#Circles#CircleOfTheDay#SharedCircles#Shared#SharedPublicCircles#SharedCircleOfTheDay#Engagers#ShareCircle#SocialMedia#EngagersCircle#Share#Google#SharingCircles#ADD#Friends#SEOtips#Website#Marketing#SEOmarketing#Google#WebDesign#SocialMedia#DigitalMarketing#Business#LocalSEO#OnlineMarketing#Search#SocialMediaMarketing#SEOservices#ContentMarketing#Blogging#SEM#WebDevelopment#SEOStrategy2014-11-28 01:58:1048011912
Rich Bradford25,637Do over! or should I say seconds!! Happy Thanksgiving for all in the USA!! Happy Day to everyone else!! Rocking G+ this afternoon!! Let's grow your network with version 16 of my Favorite Circle!! This circle includes individuals who engaged me recently with a plus, a comment or a re-share.   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! #circle #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles  #growthcircle  2014-11-27 22:26:52493604492
Rich Bradford25,637Happy Thanksgiving for all in the USA!! Happy Day to everyone else!! Rocking G+ this afternoon!! Let's grow your network with version 16 of my Favorite Circle!! This circle includes individuals who engaged me recently with a plus, a comment or a re-share.   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! #circle #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles  #growthcircle  2014-11-27 22:10:52493568
John Wood21,093This circle will add amazing, and wonderful content to you stream.Boost your visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!To be added to or stay in this Circle - Share the circleIf you received the notice you are in this circle, then well done.If you would like to be included in the next Circle Share, you only have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles2 - Share the circle (Publicly)3 - Add +1 to the post.4 - Leave a comment if you like.I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#circleshare #circlesharing #sharedcircles #sharingcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #circlesunday #share #shared #followers #addcircles #publicsharedcircles #share #addpeople #addcircle #addfriends #circle #socialmedia #Singapore2014-11-27 10:51:04333202736
Rich Bradford25,167Version 15 is here!! Happy weekend everyone!! Let's Rock G+!!Let's grow your network with version 15 of my Favorite Circle!! This circle includes individuals who engaged me recently with a plus, a comment or a re-share.   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! #circle #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles  #growthcircle  2014-11-22 01:34:18493515186
Rich Bradford25,079Version 14!! Let's Rock G+!!Let's grow your network with version 14 of my Favorite Circle!! This circle includes individuals who engaged me recently with a plus, a comment or a re-share.   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! #circle #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles  #growthcircle  (Sorry about that! It has been a while since the last circle!)2014-11-21 01:33:12488505490
Rich Bradford23,482Where are we? Version 13? Let's Rock G+!! Let's grow your network with version 13 of my Favorite Circle!! This circle includes individuals who engaged me recently with a plus, a comment or a re-share.   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! #circle #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles  #growthcircle  2014-11-03 22:19:10474171433
Rich Bradford22,315 Let's grow your network and rock G+ with version 12 of my Favorite Circle!! This circle includes individuals who engaged me recently with a plus, a comment or a re-share.   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! #circle #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles  #growthcircle  2014-10-21 23:46:40464122319
Rich Bradford21,381Hope you are having an excellent Monday!! Let's grow your network and rock G+ with version 11 of my Favorite Circle!! This circle includes individuals who engaged me recently with a plus, a comment or a re-share.   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! #circle #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles  #growthcircle  2014-10-13 20:51:10448121517
Candy Archery199Good morning (or afternoon/evening)!! Looks like a new circle is long overdue! Let's grow your network and rock G+ with version 10 of my Favorite Circle!! This circle includes individuals who engaged me recently with a plus, a comment or a re-share.   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! #circle #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles  #growthcircle  2014-10-07 11:52:105008217
Rich Bradford20,012Good morning (or afternoon/evening)!! Looks like a new circle is long overdue! Let's grow your network and rock G+ with version 10 of my Favorite Circle!! This circle includes individuals who engaged me recently with a plus, a comment or a re-share.   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! #circle #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles  #growthcircle  2014-10-02 14:35:31409495098
Becky Collins16,515Hot and spicy foods circle! :Circle of very #social #engagerspeople and companiesTo be included in my shares (#sharedcircle), be so kind to:1 - Do +1 t the post2 - Comment the post and specify your "category" (job or interest) Ex: Fashion, SEO, Companies, Social Media Marketing, Sailing, Photography, Bloggers/Writers, Web graphics and design, Italy, Artists, Sport, Finance/Economy ...3 - include the circle among your circles4 - share the circle (include yourself)Improve your popularity, be social be cool !Keep yourself updated, enjoy the Shared Circles Hellenic Alliance, you can share your shared circles inside the upcoming Community:https://plus.google.com/communities/112552559573595396104  #socialmedia  #media  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing  #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins ?2014-09-15 05:16:26463107
shareing circle9,942Google Friends! - You're in this Circle +shareing circle .♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥If You receive this message You are included in circle !!!1. Add me to your circles, if you haven't done so already2. +1 this circle3. Publicly share this circle to public, your circles and extended circles.4. If possible, leave a comment on this circle so I know you have done the three steps above..♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥#Circle#Sharers#Engagers#Followers#AddCircle#CoolPeople#Influencers#CircleShare#shareingcircle2014-09-06 10:09:063646957101
Rich Bradford17,989Continuing to rock G+!! Let's grow your network!! Can’t believe this is version 9 of my Favorite Circle!! This circle includes individuals who engaged me recently with a plus, a comment or a re-share.   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! Happy Friday to all of you!! Have an excellent weekend!#circle #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday#circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles#sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday#engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople#googlecircles #growthcircle  2014-09-05 23:48:55365566282
Added Healthy216This circle regularly tops 501 reshares because of all the awesome engagers in it. Make sure to be a part of it!➤ To be added into the next share, follow these simple steps:  1) Plus the original post2) Share this circle publicly (and with your circles/extended circles)3) Comment on the original post when complete4) Add the circle weekly so you can get the new members!  http://addedhealthy.blogspot.com/2014/08/5-symptoms-and-cause-appendicitis.html#circleshare #circlesharing #sharedcircles #sharingcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #circlesunday #share #shared #followers #addcircles #publicsharedcircles #share #addpeople #addcircle #addfriends #circle #socialmedia2014-08-28 09:53:23501121113
My-beez4,055Hey everyone, lets keep rocking G+ with this amazing 6th edition of my Top engagers membersThis circle contains primary profiles of recent engagers. If you receive a notification means you are inside. Have a look through these profiles. If you add these people, at least half will add you back and engage with you through pluses, shares and comments on your material.#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #bestcircle #news #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport #small #smallcircle #photography #health #Mybeezcircles #topengagers #engagedcircles #topcircles   #topcircleshare   Have a nice tuesday !Julie.2014-08-26 08:26:2250115920
Rich Bradford17,418Continuing to  rock G+!! Let's grow your network with version 8 of my Favorite Circle. This circle includes individuals who engaged me recently with a plus, a comment or a re-share.   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! Have an excellent weekend!#circle   #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles #growthcircle  2014-08-26 03:03:19344474875
Rich Bradford16,555Continuing to  rock G+!! Let's grow your network with version 7 of my Favorite Circle. This circle includes individuals who engaged me recently with a plus, a comment or a re-share.   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! Have an excellent weekend!#circle   #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles #growthcircle  2014-08-16 00:03:50327604588
Rich Bradford15,319Continuing to  rock G+!! Let's grow your network with version 6 of my Favorite Circle. This circle includes individuals who engaged me recently with a plus, a comment or a re-share.   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! Have a fantastic week!#circle   #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles #growthcircle  2014-08-05 20:36:01286413665
Rich Bradford14,105Now is a good time to do this!  Let’s rock G+ and grow your network with version 5 of my Favorite Circle. This circle includes individuals who engaged me recently with a plus, a comment or a re-share.   Thank you in advance for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! Have a fantastic week!#circle   #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles #growthcircle  2014-07-29 22:43:06246433958
Rich Bradford13,678Let’s rock G+ and grow your network with version 4 of my Favorite Circle. This circle includes individuals who engaged me recently with a plus, a comment or a re-share.   Thank you in advance for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! Have a fantastic week!#circle   #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles #growthcircle  2014-07-23 02:27:28200362852
Doug Hyatt5,572THIS IS MEGA CIRCLE 12  #DOUGHYATTCIRCLESHARING I AM GETTING 1,000+ FOLLOWERS A WEEK FROM THIS!  1) ADD THE CIRCLE2) RESHARE THE CIRCLE AND BE SURE TO REMEMBER TO CHECK THE BOX WHICH INCLUDES YOURSELF.3)RESHARE TO PUBLIC EVERY DAY!BE SURE TO COPY THE HASHTAG LIST AND ADD IN YOUR COMMENTS LIKE I HAVE!  IT WILL GIVE YOU MAXIMUM RESULTS#doughyattcirclesharing#circles   #circlemania   #circletoday   #circleplus   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #CircleSharing   #sharecircle   #sharecirclethis   #worldsharecircle   #pleasecircleaddme   #circleoftheday   #newgenerationcircle  #monstercircle   #usacircle   #bestofthecircle   #shareofthecircle   #pleasecircle   #newbestcircl  add circle add circle * best share circle * share please pleaseplease add circle * best share circle * share please please#add #circle   #addcircle   #pleasecircle   #bestcircle   #mostcircle  #bestsharecircle   #newcircle   #top100circle   #best500circle   #top500circle   2014-07-19 21:28:014624211
Rich Bradford12,684Let’s rock G+ and grow your network with version 3 of the Snowball Circle. This circle includes individuals who engaged me recently with a plus, a comment or a re-share.   To be added to future circles follow these simple steps:1 - Include me in one your circles if you haven’t already2 - share the circle (include yourself)3 - add +1 to the post4 - Leave a comment below#circle   #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles #growthcircle  2014-07-15 19:52:54168322238
Cher Fauvél426This is my Elite Raw Rocks Shared Circle!This is my circle for anyone interested in raw, organic, vegan nutrition!May be you just wanna investigate raw living a little? You will find the leaders in this circle.Please G+ and share if you would like to be added :)Be sure to share the original post.Welcome to Raw Rocks Shared Circle!  #rawliving  #rawfood #rawfoodlifestyle #organic   #rawnutrition  2014-07-05 15:20:52500313
James Wilson245Sharing Sunday. Hope everyone has a great week. Add, plus and share#Circle   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circleoftheday   #shared   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday   #sharedpublicircles   #sharing   #sharingcircles 2014-06-29 14:58:28473424
John Wood8,708boost visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post #powercircle #sharedcircle #topsharedcircle #circleoftheday #sharedcircle #trustinme #circlesharing #circleshare #circles         #circleoftheday #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircles #share #vipsnowballcircle #sharedcircleoftheday #sharewithyou             #followme #followers #followback #circle #googleplus #coolpeople #circleshare #sharedcircles #sharedcircle #sharedcircles     #sharedpubliccircles #circleshare #circlesharing #fullcircleshare 2014-06-24 11:05:052937514
Shivakant Tripathi1,827IN ORDER TO MAKE THIS WORK PLEASE FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS BELOW:  1. Plus the post  2. Share the post  3. Add the circle if you can, if not try again later.  4. Request to be added in comments or let me know if you should be in it and for some reason are not. (。◕‿◕。)#sharedcircle #publiccircleshare   #circleshare   #circleoftheday #circleshares   #circlesharing   #circlesshare   #publicsharedcircle #publicsharedcircles   #sharedcircleoftheday #sharedcircleoftheweek   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircle #todayspublicsharedcircle #todayssharedcircle   #publiccircle #circle   #circles   #awesome #awesomeness #awesomepeople #shareyourcircle   #bestengagers #followers #followback   #awesomecircles #topsharedcircle #topsharedcircle   #myseoissocial   #besocial   #socializethesocial   #trust #circles #sharedcircle   2014-06-23 14:14:30501417
John Wood8,050Follow this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:Boost your visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you received the notice you are in this circle, then well done.If you would like to be included in the next Circle Share you only have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles (If you haven't already)2 - Share the circle (Publicly) - (cc) me ( ) in the comments on the share and I can add you to the next circle immediately.    _ Otherwise I may not notice your activity!_3 - Add +1 to the post.4 - Leave a comment if you like#circleshare #circlesharing #sharedcircles #sharingcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #circlesunday #share #shared #followers #addcircles #publicsharedcircles #share #addpeople #addcircle #addfriends #circle #socialmedia2014-06-20 10:26:17472211838
Shivakant Tripathi1,773IN ORDER TO MAKE THIS WORK PLEASE FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS BELOW:  1. Plus the post  2. Share the post  3. Add the circle if you can, if not try again later.  4. Request to be added in comments or let me know if you should be in it and for some reason are not.#sharedcircle #publiccircleshare   #circleshare   #circleoftheday #circleshares   #circlesharing   #circlesshare   #publicsharedcircle #publicsharedcircles   #sharedcircleoftheday #sharedcircleoftheweek   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircle #todayspublicsharedcircle #todayssharedcircle   #publiccircle #circle   #circles   #awesome #awesomeness #awesomepeople #shareyourcircle   #bestengagers #followers #followback   #awesomecircles #topsharedcircle #topsharedcircle   #myseoissocial   #besocial   #socializethesocial   #trust #circles #sharedcircle   2014-06-05 23:05:224351048
John Wood6,323Shared circle time, I am sure you all know how this works. Feel free to add this Circle, Re Share it & comment#sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #circleshare #circles #circleoftheday 2014-05-28 08:37:23498582376
John Nuntiatio (TodayNews)37,221#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #bestcircle #news   #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport #small   #smallcircle #tennis #golf #photography #health #weightloss 2014-05-27 06:18:55201172

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2015-04-14 12:27:09 (3 comments, 3 reshares, 20 +1s)Open 

Precious Puppy Press-Ups
#lol   #funny   #precious   #puppy   #exercise   #bootcamp   #privatetrainer   #fitnesstraining   #cutenessoverload  

Dog named Teeny works out alongside experienced trainer Eric Ko
Trainer counts to four while completing press-ups with dog
Teeny leans over and gives Eric a kiss before starting again
The video was captured at the Dogaroo pet centre in Hong Kong
By JAKE POLDEN FOR MAILONLINE

Most reshares: 4

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2015-04-15 05:57:23 (0 comments, 4 reshares, 15 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Unsinkable “technology-marvel” Titantic sank, 1912
On April 15, 1912 — 103 years ago today — what was unimaginable to its captain and its owners became a real catastrophe: The Titanic sank at sea after hitting an iceberg just minutes before midnight on April 14. Of the 2,227 passengers on the Titanic, only 705 survived — over 1,500 people lost their lives. 

The captain was not running the Titantic at full speed, but — as was common practice at the time — at moderate speed to get through potential ice fields as quickly as possible. Most recent scientific analysis indicates that weak rivets were most likely responsible for the hull not being able to sustain a hit with an iceberg. Not enough life boats were carried to save all the passengers, as it had been assumed by the ship’s owners that the ship was unsinkable.


YouTube videos:•Titanic: Orig... more »

Most plusones: 20

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2015-04-14 12:27:09 (3 comments, 3 reshares, 20 +1s)Open 

Precious Puppy Press-Ups
#lol   #funny   #precious   #puppy   #exercise   #bootcamp   #privatetrainer   #fitnesstraining   #cutenessoverload  

Dog named Teeny works out alongside experienced trainer Eric Ko
Trainer counts to four while completing press-ups with dog
Teeny leans over and gives Eric a kiss before starting again
The video was captured at the Dogaroo pet centre in Hong Kong
By JAKE POLDEN FOR MAILONLINE

Latest 50 posts

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2015-05-03 12:35:26 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Liberty Bell 7 Found on floor of Atlantic Ocean, 1999
On May 1, 1999 — 16 years ago today and 54 years after its original flight — the second Mercury spacecraft to successfully complete a suborbital mission, Liberty Bell 7, was located 3 miles down at the position on the floor of the Atlantic Ocean where it had accidentally sunk back on July 21, 1961. 

The Liberty Bell 7 flew on NASA’s second manned mission into space — a suborbital flight by astronaut Virgil I. (“Gus”) Grissom. The flight lasted but 15-½ minutes, reaching an altitude of more than 100 nautical miles (190 kilometers), and landed in the Atlantic Ocean. The mission went perfectly until just after “splashdown” — when the capsule’s hatch cover, which had been newly designed to release by a controlled explosion, accidently blew off and a torrent of water flooded the capsule. Grissomescaped into the ocea... more »

Today in History: Liberty Bell 7 Found on floor of Atlantic Ocean, 1999
On May 1, 1999 — 16 years ago today and 54 years after its original flight — the second Mercury spacecraft to successfully complete a suborbital mission, Liberty Bell 7, was located 3 miles down at the position on the floor of the Atlantic Ocean where it had accidentally sunk back on July 21, 1961. 

The Liberty Bell 7 flew on NASA’s second manned mission into space — a suborbital flight by astronaut Virgil I. (“Gus”) Grissom. The flight lasted but 15-½ minutes, reaching an altitude of more than 100 nautical miles (190 kilometers), and landed in the Atlantic Ocean. The mission went perfectly until just after “splashdown” — when the capsule’s hatch cover, which had been newly designed to release by a controlled explosion, accidently blew off and a torrent of water flooded the capsule. Grissom escaped into the ocean, but his spacesuit began filling with water and making it very difficult for him to stay afloat. While the recovery helicopter tried in vain to prevent Grissom’s capsule from sinking, Grissom was frantically waving and trying to signal that he was also drowning. Finally, the first helicopter that was showing signs of motor strain let the capsule sink; and a second helicopter moved in to rescue Grissom.

The Liberty Bell 7 sank to a depth of about 3 miles and remained there for decades until a dedicated team of space historians made a concerted effort to locate the capsule and retrieve it in 1999. On this day, May 1 (1999), the capsule was spotted by underwater robot and its location was properly recorded; but it wasn’t until the anniversary of the Moon landing on July 20 that Liberty Bell 7 was finally recovered (and 38 years from the eve of the Liberty Bell’s mission).

YouTube videos:
•In Search of Liberty Bell 7 (1/10) (length: 08:23). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v4ZdZDvx4-o
•In Search of Liberty Bell 7 (2/10) (length 09:50). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KEScKHrqZ1Q
•In Search of Liberty Bell 7 (3/10) (length 09:26). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ra9McuRODlQ
•In Search of Liberty Bell 7 (4/10) (length 10:18). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=68SZGOiWqCo
•In Search of Liberty Bell 7 (5/10) (length 10:57). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qIvamlDwsRM
•In Search of Liberty Bell 7 (6/10) (length 09:36). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=78izAxpHSOI
•In Search of Liberty Bell 7 (7/10) (length 08:35). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LD0M4Op5_Q8
•In Search of Liberty Bell 7 (8/10) (length 09:57). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lmlAmDRNk40
•In Search of Liberty Bell 7 (9/10) (length 06:27). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pkzZ-3q1zAM
•In Search of Liberty Bell 7 (10/10) (length 09:47). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FI-Y3fpQ_30
•Launch of Liberty Bell 7—CBS (length 02:51). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VyeclM9T1sE

Web sources:
•http://www.cnn.com/TECH/space/9907/20/grissom.capsule.01/
•http://www.science20.com/science_20/gus_grissom_and_liberty_bell_7_50_years_ago_today-81075
•http://articles.latimes.com/1999/dec/12/news/mn-43115
•https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=2202&dat=19990721&id=rBEmAAAAIBAJ&sjid=u_0FAAAAIBAJ&pg=6801,1790315&hl=en
•http://www.cnn.com/TECH/space/9907/20/grissom.capsule.01/
•http://www.space.com/26423-failed-attempt-to-recover-liberty-bell-7.html
•http://www.sfgate.com/news/article/Mystery-Unhatched-A-Kansas-museum-has-new-clues-3312238.php

Book sources:
• Liberty Bell 7: The Suborbital Mercury Flight of Virgil I. Grissom by Colin Burgess. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/3319043900/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=3319043900&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=TJAUHQAQUC2SWFPO
• Lost Spacecraft: The Search for Liberty Bell 7 by Curt Newport. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1896522882/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1896522882&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=RL6UMCJS7RQQMILO

Image credits:
•Top Left: Gus Grissom climbing into Liberty Bell 7 on the launch pad, July 21, 1961. NASA
•Top Right: Liberty Bell 7 — moment of lift-off, July 21, 1961. NASA
•Middle Left: Marine helicopter trying in vain to save Liberty Bell 7 as it fills with water. NASA
•Middle Right: Marine helicopter lifting a tired Gus Grissom to safety after his space suit had filled with water and he had almost drowned. NASA
•Bottom Left: Liberty Bell 7 first photographed on Atlantic Ocean floor on May 1, 1999 from the Magellan robot. [Frame from videos above.]
•Bottom Right: Liberty Bell 7 after $250,000 restoration at the Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center.

#history #LibertyBell7 #MercuryProgram___

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2015-05-03 12:34:47 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 1 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Royalty-Free Web Was Officially Born
On April 30, 1993 — 22 years ago today — the World Wide Web Was officially born for all Internet users when CERN (the Center for European Nuclear Research) put the Web software in the public domain. On the very next release of the software, CERN made it available with an open license, because it wanted to maximize its dissemination and use. 

To be sure, other dates are frequently cited as the birth of the Web. And why not? Its birth is worth celebrating as often as possible, hey?

• March 12, 1989 — Tim Berners-Lee submits his distributed information proposal to management as CERN. [See: https://plus.google.com/+BradAcker/posts/aB7zmFrmDz7]
• December 20, 1989 — the world’s first website and web server go online at CERN.
• November 13, 1990 — the first web page was created and posted by TimBerners-Lee. [See:... more »

Today in History: Royalty-Free Web Was Officially Born
On April 30, 1993 — 22 years ago today — the World Wide Web Was officially born for all Internet users when CERN (the Center for European Nuclear Research) put the Web software in the public domain. On the very next release of the software, CERN made it available with an open license, because it wanted to maximize its dissemination and use. 

To be sure, other dates are frequently cited as the birth of the Web. And why not? Its birth is worth celebrating as often as possible, hey?

• March 12, 1989 — Tim Berners-Lee submits his distributed information proposal to management as CERN. [See: https://plus.google.com/+BradAcker/posts/aB7zmFrmDz7]
• December 20, 1989 — the world’s first website and web server go online at CERN.
• November 13, 1990 — the first web page was created and posted by Tim Berners-Lee. [See: https://plus.google.com/+BradAcker/posts/aB7zmFrmDz7]
• January 10, 1991 — the web is extended to the high-energy physics community, and a wide range of research laboratories and universities began to use it.
• August 6, 1991 — Tim Berners-Lee posted a summary of the World Wide Web project on a number of Internet newsgroups. This moment is considered the public debut of the web. [See: https://plus.google.com/+BradAcker/posts/aB7zmFrmDz7]
• December 12, 1991 — the first web server outside of Europe was installed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in California.
• April 30, 1993 — CERN released the source code of Berners-Lee hypertext project, the World Wide Web, into the public domain.

And, yes, the Web is not the Internet. The Internet emerged in the late 1950s and 1960s. But the Web and the eventual development of browsers are what have led to the Internet’s phenomenal success as a platform for connecting billions of people instantaneously to one another, gathering and distributing knowledge, and empowering individuals. Billions of people now think of the Web as an inextricable part of modern existence!

YouTube videos:
•www.TheWorldWideWeb.com (length 02:28). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K1bE3OMoGFY
•The Web is not the Net (length 10:54). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=scWj1BMRHUA
•Brief History of the Internet: Ethan Zuckerman (length 06:51). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V2QdEj8UjBc
•How the World Wide Web just happened by Tim Berners-Lee (25:57). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yF5-6AcohQw
•Loic Le Meur interviews Tim Berners-Lee (51:13). https://plus.google.com/+BradAcker/posts/aB7zmFrmDz7

Web sources:
•http://home.web.cern.ch/topics/birth-web
•http://webfoundation.org/about/vision/history-of-the-web/

Book sources:
• Weaving the Web: The Original Design and Ultimate Destiny of the World Wide Web by Tim Berners-Lee. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/006251587X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=006251587X&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=6QPXTXUGVXVO6R32

Image:
Bottom Left: Tim Berners-Lee, writer of the original web.

#history #Web #WorldWideWeb #Internet #openweb___

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2015-05-03 12:33:43 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Microsoft Excel Introduced, 1985
On May 2, 1985 — 30 years ago today — a 10-year old Microsoft Corporation introduced a new spreadsheet application, Excel 1.0. Excel was primarily developed by Douglas Klunder (who is now a privacy activist for the American Civil Liberties Union in Washington state). Excel was a new Microsoft brand name for an enhanced “Multiplan,” the earlier Microsoft spreadsheet package built to compete with the first spreadsheet program, Visicalc, for personal computers. At the time of Excel’s introduction, Lotus 1-2-3 (made by Lotus Development Corporation, co-founded by Mitch Kapor and Jonathan Sachs) had become the dominant spreadsheet package on the market, replacing the original Visicalc as the most used personal computer “killer app.”

Over the 1985-1995 period, Excel continued to improve with new releases, as did Lotus 1-2-3.The Lotus Dev... more »

Today in History: Microsoft Excel Introduced, 1985
On May 2, 1985 — 30 years ago today — a 10-year old Microsoft Corporation introduced a new spreadsheet application, Excel 1.0. Excel was primarily developed by Douglas Klunder (who is now a privacy activist for the American Civil Liberties Union in Washington state). Excel was a new Microsoft brand name for an enhanced “Multiplan,” the earlier Microsoft spreadsheet package built to compete with the first spreadsheet program, Visicalc, for personal computers. At the time of Excel’s introduction, Lotus 1-2-3 (made by Lotus Development Corporation, co-founded by Mitch Kapor and Jonathan Sachs) had become the dominant spreadsheet package on the market, replacing the original Visicalc as the most used personal computer “killer app.”

Over the 1985-1995 period, Excel continued to improve with new releases, as did Lotus 1-2-3. The Lotus Development Corporation also offered other productivity packages for business. But because Excel was made to work on MS-Windows and then became part of MS-Office, Excel was becoming the dominant spreadsheet package. In 1995, IBM acquired Lotus 1-2-3 by buying Lotus Development Corporation in order to compete in this market with Microsoft. As new versions of Microsoft Windows and Office emerged, Excel’s popularity grew while Lotus 1-2-3 slowly lost market share and eventually IBM ended its Lotus Software brand in 2013.

YouTube videos:
•The Computer Chronicles — Spreadsheet Wars (length 28:10). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eAiZBUYNUBA

Vimeo video:
•Protecting Civil Liberties in the Digital Age (length 44:45). https://vimeo.com/42900045 [Doug Klinder, prime developer of Multiplan/Excel at Microsoft, participates in a panel discussion—not about spreadsheets, but ramifications of data from spreadsheets on privacy]

Web sources:
•https://books.google.com/books?id=4y4EAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA28&lpg=PA28&dq=excel+Microsoft+%22may+2%22&source=bl&ots=WA_wad9XyZ&sig=sHbuRLbP--AbQS95K9Vx5jdEOes&hl=en&sa=X&ei=dZJDVaXCGMLwsAWRooCwBw&ved=0CFoQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=excel%20Microsoft%20%22may%202%22&f=false
•http://dssresources.com/history/sshistory.html
•http://jeanne-sewell.blogspot.com/2013/01/history-of-spreadsheet-software.html
•https://archive.org/details/CC606_spreadsheet_wars
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spreadsheet
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VisiCalc
•http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa010199.htm
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dan_Bricklin
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bob_Frankston
•http://www.bricklin.com/visicalc.htm
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiplan
•http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2010/12/27/microsoft-excel-the-programs-designer-reveals-the-secrets-behind-the-software-that-changed-the-world-25-years-ago.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lotus_1-2-3
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitch_Kapor
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jonathan_Sachs
•http://news.cnet.com/IBM-Finalizes-Lotus-Acquisition/2100-1033_3-205502.html
•http://spreadsheetpage.com/index.php/resource/excel_version_history/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_Excel

Book sources:
• Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy by Carl Shapiro and Hal R. Varian. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/087584863X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=087584863X&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=AZCPT7TDJNZLKKON

Image credits:
•Bottom: Bob Frankston and Daniel Bricklin, cofounders of Software Arts Inc. and co-developers of first spreadsheet program for personal computers, Visicalc. http://www.thocp.net/biographies/bricklin_dan.html

#history #Excel #spreadsheets___

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2015-05-03 12:33:14 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 0 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Kentucky Derby First Televised Nationally
On May 3, 1952 — 63 years ago today — the Kentucky Derby horse race was televised for the first time. The Kentucky Derby is held each year on the first Saturday in May, and has become known as “the most exciting two minutes in sports.” The race takes place at Churchill Downs, named for John and Henry Churchill, who donated land for the racetrack in the early 1870’s. Money was raised for a jockey club and the racing facilities by Meriwether Lewis Clark, Jr., the grandson of William Clark of the famous Lewis and Clark expedition. This year’s running of the 1-¼ mile (2 kilometers) race is the 141st in history.

YouTube videos:
•Run for the Roses: History of the Kentucky Derby (length 55:42). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5AyP5_vqioE
•Churchill Downs: There’s no place like it (length 03:08).https://www.youtub... more »

Today in History: Kentucky Derby First Televised Nationally
On May 3, 1952 — 63 years ago today — the Kentucky Derby horse race was televised for the first time. The Kentucky Derby is held each year on the first Saturday in May, and has become known as “the most exciting two minutes in sports.” The race takes place at Churchill Downs, named for John and Henry Churchill, who donated land for the racetrack in the early 1870’s. Money was raised for a jockey club and the racing facilities by Meriwether Lewis Clark, Jr., the grandson of William Clark of the famous Lewis and Clark expedition. This year’s running of the 1-¼ mile (2 kilometers) race is the 141st in history.

YouTube videos:
•Run for the Roses: History of the Kentucky Derby (length 55:42). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5AyP5_vqioE
•Churchill Downs: There’s no place like it (length 03:08). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xG7uxQ5FUr0
•The Kentucky Derby: Greatest Moments (length 51:02). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zieGI0jyOUU

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kentucky_Derby
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Kentucky_Derby_broadcasters
•http://www.cnn.com/2013/09/28/us/kentucky-derby-fast-facts/
•http://www.churchilldowns.com/about/history
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Churchill_Downs
•http://www.kentuckyderby.com/

Book sources:
• The Kentucky Derby: How the Run for the Roses Became America’s Premier Sporting Event by James C. Nicholson. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0813135761/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0813135761&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=5CZ7AVTJVT6YDAVO
• Churchill Downs: America’s Most Historic Racetrack by Kimberly Gatto. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1596298871/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1596298871&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=Y4WRQLZVH26XRTTY
• History of Horse Racing: First Past the Post: Champion Thoroughbreds, Owners, Trainers and Jockeys (illustrated with 220 drawings, paintings, and photographs) by John Carter. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0754826570/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0754826570&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=7F3MAZF3KQPBEFWQ

Image credits:
•Top: Frame from “The Kentucky Derby: Greatest Moments (length 51:02)” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zieGI0jyOUU at 00:26
•Bottom: See Google Maps (Churchill Downs, KY)

#history   #horseracing  #television___

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2015-05-03 12:32:58 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 1 +1s)Open 

Take your time and press.
Greetz.
wim.

Take your time and press.
Greetz.
wim.___

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2015-04-29 13:04:13 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 6 +1s)Open 

Your Immune System Needs Your Help
Simple Stress Reduction

States of stress trigger your sympathetic nervous system (fight or flight) to release powerful hormones preparing you for action. Efferent messages downregulate immune response to free up all remaining faculties for the impending crisis.

The problem is - there is no crisis.

Many of us are so used to living like this that we don't know how to relax. This results in chronic lowered immune function, fatigue, and accelerated aging. 

Just For Today
1. Periodically notice the state of your emotions and the effect on your body.
2. Take a deep breath and remind yourself there is no actual crisis.
3. Turn your attention to something beautiful or amazing.
4. See others stuck in stress mode and be of service. After all... more »

Your Immune System Needs Your Help
Simple Stress Reduction

States of stress trigger your sympathetic nervous system (fight or flight) to release powerful hormones preparing you for action. Efferent messages downregulate immune response to free up all remaining faculties for the impending crisis.

The problem is - there is no crisis.

Many of us are so used to living like this that we don't know how to relax. This results in chronic lowered immune function, fatigue, and accelerated aging. 

Just For Today
1. Periodically notice the state of your emotions and the effect on your body.
2. Take a deep breath and remind yourself there is no actual crisis.
3. Turn your attention to something beautiful or amazing.
4. See others stuck in stress mode and be of service. After all you are uniquely qualified to help ease their tension as you know what it's like.

To heal the world, heal yourself :)

#Integrative   #medicine  
cassonewellness.com___

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2015-04-29 12:29:38 (2 comments, 0 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

A new cool drawing tool and it's free. 

Weavesilk.com
Have you seen this online drawing tool? I didn’t know what to do, but the direction said: “Drawing something.” So i did what i do with my mouse to “draw something” and made 2 quick swiggly lines and this is the result! Imagine what you can do if you are an artist. ___A new cool drawing tool and it's free. 

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2015-04-29 11:42:03 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 2 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Cosmonaut and Astronaut Walk Together in Space, 1997
On April 29, 1997 — 18 years ago today — Russian Cosmonaut Vasily Tsibliyev and U.S. Astronaut Jerry Linenger made the first joint Russian-American spacewalk. The major purpose of their walk was to deploy the Advanced Materials Exposure Experiment (AMEE) by installing the Optical Properties Monitor on the outside of the Mir space station and to retrieve the Particle Impact Experiment. Also, the walk marked the first time that an American astronaut wore the Russian-made “Orlan-M” spacesuit.

YouTube videos:
•1997 April 29—First Joint US-Russian Spacewalk (length 03:29). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0l0kSUpt3LA

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mir
•http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-84.html•http://www.a... more »

Today in History: Cosmonaut and Astronaut Walk Together in Space, 1997
On April 29, 1997 — 18 years ago today — Russian Cosmonaut Vasily Tsibliyev and U.S. Astronaut Jerry Linenger made the first joint Russian-American spacewalk. The major purpose of their walk was to deploy the Advanced Materials Exposure Experiment (AMEE) by installing the Optical Properties Monitor on the outside of the Mir space station and to retrieve the Particle Impact Experiment. Also, the walk marked the first time that an American astronaut wore the Russian-made “Orlan-M” spacesuit.

YouTube videos:
•1997 April 29—First Joint US-Russian Spacewalk (length 03:29). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0l0kSUpt3LA

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mir
•http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-84.html
•http://www.americaspace.com/?p=75139
•http://www.aztechnology.com/spaceflight-opm.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Mir_spacewalks
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orlan_space_suit
•http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4225/mir/mir.htm
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerry_M._Linenger
•https://docs.google.com/document/d/1hAxS1sRDTmVKE-gDCG7LQ8Jhm_iPWFqO0O6AbwpdGCg/edit
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mir

Book sources:
• The Story of Space Station Mir by David M. Harland. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0387230114/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0387230114&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=7ZFUZ2OCLE67MSTZ 
• Off the Planet: Surviving Five Perilous Months Aboard the Space Station Mir by Jerry Linenger. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/007136112X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=007136112X&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=LTHQZYU2K76W7WYP

Image credits:
•Top: Mir Space Station. By NASA [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AMir_Space_Station_viewed_from_Endeavour_during_STS-89.jpg
•Bottom Left: Cosmonaut Vasily Tsibliyev. By NASA Tomhannen at en.wikipedia [Public domain], from Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ATsibliyev.jpg
•Bottom Middle: Astronaut Jerry Linenger. By NASA [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AJerry_Linenger.jpg
•Bottom Right: Spacewalk of April 29, 1997. NASA.

#history #spacewalk #Mir___

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2015-04-28 11:43:50 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Apple Opened the iTunes Music Store, 2003
On April 28, 2003 — 12 years ago today — Apple announced “a revolutionary online music store” which could be easily accessed from any Apple device to quickly find, buy, and download music for just 99¢ per song, without any subscription fees. In addition, the iTunes Music Store offered users “groundbreaking” personal user rights — such as burning songs onto an unlimited number of personal use CDs, listening to tunes on an unlimited number of Apple iPods, and playing songs on up to 3 Macintosh computers. Moreover, the tunes could be used in any Mac Application, including iPhoto, iMovie, and iDVD.

Apple moved into the field of music in 2000 when it released its iTunes music management software for Macintoshes and its portable music product, the iPod. With an iPod, a user could download tunes from a Macintosh thathad been uploa... more »

Today in History: Apple Opened the iTunes Music Store, 2003
On April 28, 2003 — 12 years ago today — Apple announced “a revolutionary online music store” which could be easily accessed from any Apple device to quickly find, buy, and download music for just 99¢ per song, without any subscription fees. In addition, the iTunes Music Store offered users “groundbreaking” personal user rights — such as burning songs onto an unlimited number of personal use CDs, listening to tunes on an unlimited number of Apple iPods, and playing songs on up to 3 Macintosh computers. Moreover, the tunes could be used in any Mac Application, including iPhoto, iMovie, and iDVD.

Apple moved into the field of music in 2000 when it released its iTunes music management software for Macintoshes and its portable music product, the iPod. With an iPod, a user could download tunes from a Macintosh that had been uploaded from previously purchased CDs; also, the user could select which tracks of an uploaded album would be downloaded to the iPod. However, up to this point, there was no way for the user to legally acquire new music online. The Apple iTunes Music Store changed that limitation.

Apple negotiated landmark contracts with the 5 top recording music companies to allow digital versions of their songs to be sold on the iTunes Music Store. The recording companies were reluctant to do so at first, because the Apple approach (pricing of 99¢ and unbundling of albums) was so new and appeared to be giving Apple too much control. However, Jobs was able to convince recording company executives of trying this approach because the new service was only going to be available on the Mactinosh, which made up only 5% of the computer market. If the store turned out to be destructive to the recording companies’ interests, it would only represent a small part of their business. Jobs later said, “I’ve never spent so much of my time trying to convince people to do the right thing for themselves.”

The iTunes Music Store began with 200,000 songs in its purchasable catalog. Today, it has well over 25 million tunes in its catalog and has sold over 40 billion tunes. [Please let me know if you have better data here (with link sources), thanks.]

YouTube videos:
•Steve Jobs introduces iTunes Music Store / Apple Special Event (2003). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S6DX5NaPvk4

Web sources:
•http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2003/04/28Apple-Launches-the-iTunes-Music-Store.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ITunes_Store
•http://www.macworld.com/article/1050112/30moments.html
•http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2015/01/buying-music-is-so-over/384790/
•http://techcrunch.com/2013/02/06/charting-the-itunes-stores-path-to-25-billion-songs-sold-40-billion-apps-downloaded-and-beyond/

Book sources:
• Steve Jobs by Walter Issacson. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B004W2UBYW/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B004W2UBYW&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=NFXTQ5XNQD277R6R
• Becoming Steve Jobs: The Evolution of a Reckless Upstart into a Visionary Leader by Brent Schlender and Rick Tetseli. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00N6PCWY8/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B00N6PCWY8&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=GEATQK3VTY7C63TP
• The Digital Rights Movement: The Role of Technology in Subverting Digital Copyright by Hector Postigo. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262017954/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0262017954&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=CGAUYNQUGDG4VW5K

Image credits:
•Frame from iTune Music Store European launch video.

#history #Apple #iTunes___

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2015-04-27 16:11:41 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

This story blew my mind.  After being set free from POW camp this happened.  

This story blew my mind.  After being set free from POW camp this happened.  ___

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2015-04-27 15:45:33 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 7 +1s)Open 

See you tomorrow! =^.^=  Have fun!  

See you tomorrow! =^.^=  Have fun!  ___

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2015-04-27 15:38:20 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

Happy Monday Friends

So, I feel it is a perfect opportunity to share some inspiring quotes about work and success to KICKstart your week!!

I stumbled upon this blog, with coffee in hand, and it was just what I needed to get movin and motivated.   As I read some these wise words of some very hard working women, and I might add, movers and shakers, it simply reminded me that good things to come to those who work like crazy to make their dreams come true. 

So from Lucille Ball to Lena Dunham and many others ... I present to you inspirational quotes to get you rocking!

Link to Quotes: http://hellogiggles.com/just-inspiring-quotes-hard-working-ladies-kickstart-week//#read

#mondaymotivation #success #moversandshakers #quotes  

Happy Monday Friends

So, I feel it is a perfect opportunity to share some inspiring quotes about work and success to KICKstart your week!!

I stumbled upon this blog, with coffee in hand, and it was just what I needed to get movin and motivated.   As I read some these wise words of some very hard working women, and I might add, movers and shakers, it simply reminded me that good things to come to those who work like crazy to make their dreams come true. 

So from Lucille Ball to Lena Dunham and many others ... I present to you inspirational quotes to get you rocking!

Link to Quotes: http://hellogiggles.com/just-inspiring-quotes-hard-working-ladies-kickstart-week//#read

#mondaymotivation #success #moversandshakers #quotes  ___

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2015-04-27 15:19:48 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Computer Mouse Commercially Debuted, 1981
On April 27, 1981 — 34 years ago today — the first mouse for use with a personal computer, the Xerox Star system (Xerox 8010), was officially introduced as a commercial product. The first mouse prototype was invented by Douglas Englebart at the Stanford Research Institute in the 1960s. Xerox subsequently launched its research and development facility, PARC (Palo Alto Research Center) in 1970, where it developed the first computer that included a mouse for navigation; however, it never intended for this product, called Alto, to be a commercial product. During the 1970s, Xerox manufactured about 1,500 Altos that were only in use on an experimental basis within Xerox and at another 500 collaborating universities and government offices. Finally, Xerox introduced a commercial product, the Xerox Star System (a.k.a. Xerox 8010), thatinc... more »

Today in History: Computer Mouse Commercially Debuted, 1981
On April 27, 1981 — 34 years ago today — the first mouse for use with a personal computer, the Xerox Star system (Xerox 8010), was officially introduced as a commercial product. The first mouse prototype was invented by Douglas Englebart at the Stanford Research Institute in the 1960s. Xerox subsequently launched its research and development facility, PARC (Palo Alto Research Center) in 1970, where it developed the first computer that included a mouse for navigation; however, it never intended for this product, called Alto, to be a commercial product. During the 1970s, Xerox manufactured about 1,500 Altos that were only in use on an experimental basis within Xerox and at another 500 collaborating universities and government offices. Finally, Xerox introduced a commercial product, the Xerox Star System (a.k.a. Xerox 8010), that incorporated a number of technologies that have since become standard in personal computers —

• bitmapped display
• window-based graphical user interface (GUI)
• screen icons
• screen folders
• a mouse
• e-mail
• Ethernet networking
• file servers
• print servers

Apple and Steve Jobs incorporated many of PARC’s ideas in the Lisa and Macintosh products. The biggest difference between the Xerox Star system and the Apple products was cost. The Xerox Star system, when it was announced on this day in 1981, was a single station in an integrated document preparation system, centering around laser printing (then quite expensive) and designed for large corporations, law firms, and big organizations that produced massive quantities of paper documents. Each Star workstation cost about $16,000 (about $42,000 today), and the basic integrated system started at $75,000 (about $195,000 today).

YouTube videos:
•How Steve Jobs got the ideas of GUI from Xerox (length 09:40). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J33pVRdxWbw
•The Final Demonstration of the Xerox Stat computer (length 02:20:14). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_OwG_rQ_Hqw [Also, see https://plus.google.com/+WayneRadinsky/posts/fRBtdm1x7Z2 for extensive notes on this presentation by Wayne Radinsky]
•DigiBarn TV: Xerox Star 8010 GUI (length 24:17). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0_bgAryP380
•PARC scientist recalls Jobs’s famous Xerox visits (length 06:26). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZOF-j6Nxm04
•Steve Jobs on why Xerox failed (length 02:54). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_1rXqD6M614

Web sources:
•http://www.historychannel.com.au/classroom/day-in-history/574/computer-mouse-debuts
•http://www.wired.com/2011/04/0427first-computer-mouse/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mouse_%28computing%29
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_graphical_user_interface
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xerox_Star
•http://members.dcn.org/dwnelson/XeroxStarRetrospective.html
•http://www.historychannel.com.au/classroom/day-in-history/574/computer-mouse-debuts
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PARC_%28company%29
•http://xeroxstar.tripod.com/
•http://toastytech.com/guis/star.html
•http://www.digibarn.com/collections/systems/xerox-8010/
•http://www.usinflationcalculator.com/

Book sources:
• Fumbling the Future: How Xerox Invented, Then Ignored, the First Personal Computer by Douglas K. Smith and Robert C. Alexander. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1583482660/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1583482660&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=5ZAWNCCDXI5WCCCT

Image credit:
• Single station Xerox Star. By Dave Curbow via DigiBarn Computer Museum: http://www.digibarn.com/collections/systems/xerox-8010/xerox-star-8010-large.jpg

#history   #computer  #mouse___

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2015-04-27 15:19:10 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Chernobyl Nuclear Plant Unit #4 Exploded, 1986
On April 26, 1986 — 29 years ago today — Nuclear Reactor #4 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant in the Ukraine (at the time under the control of the U.S.S.R.) exploded and released at least 5% of the radioactive core into the atmosphere. One person was killed immediately, and dozens more died in the weeks and months after the explosion from acute radiation syndrome (ARS). The accident was the worst nuclear catastrophe in the history of nuclear technology. 

The Soviet Union took many months to contain the contamination. Robots were required to do containment work, because radiation levels were too high for humans. When robots failed because radiation affected them, humans were used for periods of seconds only to move contaminated items and centralize them so they could be covered with an initial sarcophagus, built to lastappr... more »

Today in History: Chernobyl Nuclear Plant Unit #4 Exploded, 1986
On April 26, 1986 — 29 years ago today — Nuclear Reactor #4 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant in the Ukraine (at the time under the control of the U.S.S.R.) exploded and released at least 5% of the radioactive core into the atmosphere. One person was killed immediately, and dozens more died in the weeks and months after the explosion from acute radiation syndrome (ARS). The accident was the worst nuclear catastrophe in the history of nuclear technology. 

The Soviet Union took many months to contain the contamination. Robots were required to do containment work, because radiation levels were too high for humans. When robots failed because radiation affected them, humans were used for periods of seconds only to move contaminated items and centralize them so they could be covered with an initial sarcophagus, built to last approximately 30 years. A “New Safe Confinement” (an new sarcophagus to cover the existing sarcophagus) arch-structure is being built now and is planned to be slid over the reactor #4 site (see Center Left image below) and last for at least 100 years.

Mikhail Gorbachev has stated flatly that the Chernobyl explosion was “perhaps the real cause of the collapse of the Soviet Union.”

YouTube videos:
•Zero Hour: Disaster at Chernobyl (depiction of reality; length 46:41). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ITEXGdht3y8
•Seconds from Disaster—Meltdown at Chernobyl (length 47:08). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5WGUbfzr31s
•Chernobyl Uncensored (documentary; length 01:32:58). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dS3WvKKSpKI
•The Battle of Chernobyl (National Geographic; length 44:36). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jh0KoOCYuuw
•Inside Chernobyl: Rare footage from ruins left by the world’s 1986 nuclear disaster (length 04:29). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VvH7BRubFIg

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chernobyl_disaster
•http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/04/27/science/chernobyl-capping-a-catastrophe.html?_r=1
•http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/Safety-and-Security/Safety-of-Plants/Chernobyl-Accident/
•http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/fact-sheets/chernobyl-bg.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Effects_of_the_Chernobyl_disaster
•http://www.businessinsider.com/drone-footage-shows-aftermath-of-ukraines-chernobyl-nuclear-disaster-2014-12
•http://www.theguardian.com/environment/gallery/2011/apr/26/chernobyl-nuclear-disaster-in-pictures
•http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/nuclear_power/2013/01/chernobyl_and_the_fall_of_the_soviet_union_gorbachev_s_glasnost_allowed.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chernobyl_Nuclear_Power_Plant_sarcophagus

Book sources:
• Voices from Chernobyl: The Oral History of a Nuclear Disaster by Svetlana Alexievich. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0312425848/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0312425848&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=AJA2YBRCDHDADLCC
• The Legacy of Chernobyl by Zhores Medvedev. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0393308146/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0393308146&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=OHWF6TDVKHUIUI4H
• The Truth about Chernobyl by Grigori Medvedev and Andrei Sakharov. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0465087752/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0465087752&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=Y24HYMYTCNJYKAYH
• Wormwood Forest: A Natural History of Chernobyl by Mary Mycio. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0309094305/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0309094305&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=LDYCOUMB3OFHP4IN

Image credits:
•Top Left: Frame from Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster at 01:26. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ADBZw3-y2Qo
•Top Right: Chernobyl Disaster Aftermath: very extensive damage to the main reactor hall (image center) and turbine building (image lower left). By Soviet Union authorities: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chernobyl_Disaster.jpg#file
•Center Left: 32,000 ton arch, “New Safe Confinement” sarcophagus. http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/04/27/science/chernobyl-capping-a-catastrophe.html?_r=1
•Center Right: The Chernobyl reactor #4 building as of 2006, including the later-built sarcophagus and elements of the maximum-security perimeter. By Carl Montgomery (Flickr) [CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AChernobylreactor_1.jpg
•Bottom: Google Maps: Chernobyl Nuclear Facility. https://www.google.com/maps/place/Chernobyl+Nuclear+Power+Plant/@51.3887679,30.1009129,735m/data=!3m1!1e3!4m2!3m1!1s0x472a7da0de25ddcf:0x6590333f52847059

 # history #Chernobyl #nuclearpower___

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2015-04-26 05:13:52 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Bell Labs Announced Invention of First Practical Silicon Solar Cell, 1954
On April 26, 1954 — 61 years ago today — executives of Bell Labs introduced a silicon-based solar cell with a 15x increase in efficiency over previous models. These cells were developed by Daryl Chapin, Calvin Fuller, and Gerald Pearson in their work at Bell Labs, who found that silicon when combined with certain “impurities” became highly sensitive to light, and who were able to gain a 6% efficiency (sunlight converted to electricity). Theoretical findings indicated that this 6% efficiency figure could be increased to about 24% — about the efficiency of today’s cells.

At the time, the U.S. was embarking on an “Atoms for Peace” program to overcome its global image as the only government to have used an atomic bomb on innocent civilians (in order to end World War II with Japan).According to... more »

Today in History: Bell Labs Announced Invention of First Practical Silicon Solar Cell, 1954
On April 26, 1954 — 61 years ago today — executives of Bell Labs introduced a silicon-based solar cell with a 15x increase in efficiency over previous models. These cells were developed by Daryl Chapin, Calvin Fuller, and Gerald Pearson in their work at Bell Labs, who found that silicon when combined with certain “impurities” became highly sensitive to light, and who were able to gain a 6% efficiency (sunlight converted to electricity). Theoretical findings indicated that this 6% efficiency figure could be increased to about 24% — about the efficiency of today’s cells.

At the time, the U.S. was embarking on an “Atoms for Peace” program to overcome its global image as the only government to have used an atomic bomb on innocent civilians (in order to end World War II with Japan). According to John Perlin, author of Let It Shine: the 6,000 Year Story of Solar Energy, the U.S. government allocated about $10 billion to nuclear power and “not a penny to solar.” Hans K. Ziegler, who came to the U.S. with rocket engineer Wernher Von Braun in a program designed to recruit German engineers and scientists immediately after World War II, examined the Bell Labs’ cells and wrote about them:Future development [of the silicon solar cell] may well render it into an important source of electrical power [as] the roofs of all our buildings in cities and towns equipped with solar [cells] would be sufficient to produce this country’s entire demand for electrical power.

More from the first link provided under Web sources:

One journalist thought it important for the public to know that “linked together electrically, the Bell solar cells deliver power from the sun at the rate of 50 watts per square yard, while the atomic cell announced recently by the RCA Corporation merely delivers a millionth of a watt” over the same area. An article in U.S. News & World Report speculated that one day such silicon strips “may provide more power than all the world’s coal, oil, and uranium.” The New York Times probably best summed up what Chapin, Fuller, and Pearson had accomplished. On page one of its April 26, 1954, issue, the Times stated that the construction of the first solar module to generate useful amounts of power marks “the beginning of a new era, leading eventually to the realization of one of mankind’s most cherished dreams—the harnessing of the almost limitless energy of the sun for the uses of civilization.”

YouTube sources:
•Energy 101: Solar Power (cartoon format; length 03:23). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NDZzAIcCQLQ
•Cost of Solar (length 00:58). http://gizmodo.com/60-years-ago-today-bell-labs-unveiled-the-solar-cell-1567543841
•The History of Solar Energy - Part 5 (length 07:59). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ez92w8ytZAM

Web sources:
•http://www.nrel.gov/education/pdfs/educational_resources/high_school/solar_cell_history.pdf
•http://www.aps.org/publications/apsnews/200904/physicshistory.cfm
•http://www.solareworld.com/2011/08/09/solar-history-bell-labs-and-the-first-modern-silicon-solar-cell/
•http://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/Happy-60th-Anniversary-to-the-Modern-Solar-Cell
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_solar_cells
•http://www.popsci.com/article/science/invention-solar-cell?src=SOC&dom=fb
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_K._Ziegler
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calvin_Souther_Fuller
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerald_Pearson
•http://inventors.about.com/od/sstartinventions/a/solar_cell.htm
•http://gizmodo.com/60-years-ago-today-bell-labs-unveiled-the-solar-cell-1567543841

Books:
• The Making of a Scientist: A Memoir by Calvin S. Fuller. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00KFXZQ9C/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B00KFXZQ9C&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=ZX2LIS5MVV42ZZFA
• Let It Shine: The 6,000 Year Story of Solar Energy by John Perlin. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00E512102/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B00E512102&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=PEBIRVNVPXVMAZ4E

Photo Credit:
•Top Left: Inventors of the Solar Cell (left to right): Gerald Pearson, Daryl Chapin, and Calvin Fuller (1954). Courtesy of AT&T Archives and History Center via John Perlin:http://www.nrel.gov/education/pdfs/educational_resources/high_school/solar_cell_history.pdf
•Top Right: Bell Labs Solar Battery. Courtesy of AT&T Archives and History Center.
•Bottom: Price history of crystalline silicon solar cells in $ per watt since 1977. By Hanjin, Rfassbind [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3APrice_history_of_silicon_PV_cells_since_1977.svg

#history #solarcell #solarenergy #solarpower

Additional April 26 events in history:
•A catastrophic nuclear explosion occurred at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine, 1986.___

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2015-04-25 13:47:25 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Robert Noyce granted patent for integrated circuit, 1961
On April 25, 1961 — 54 years ago today — Robert N. Noyce was granted patent #2981877 for his “semiconductor device-and-lead structure,” which would eventually be known as “the integrated circuit.” Integrated circuits have revolutionized the quality of human life — they have made possible all the amazing advances in personal computers, mobile communications, sophisticated spacecraft, cars, medical devices, home appliances, etc.

Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments applied for an integrated circuit patent earlier than Noyce. Kilby’s application was dated February 6, 1959 and Noyce’s application was dated July 30, 1959. Each of them was working independently. Noyce was granted a patent because he had solved a number of practical problems that Kilby had not. Noyce’s design caused for the use ofsilicon; Kilby’s ch... more »

Today in History: Robert Noyce granted patent for integrated circuit, 1961
On April 25, 1961 — 54 years ago today — Robert N. Noyce was granted patent #2981877 for his “semiconductor device-and-lead structure,” which would eventually be known as “the integrated circuit.” Integrated circuits have revolutionized the quality of human life — they have made possible all the amazing advances in personal computers, mobile communications, sophisticated spacecraft, cars, medical devices, home appliances, etc.

Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments applied for an integrated circuit patent earlier than Noyce. Kilby’s application was dated February 6, 1959 and Noyce’s application was dated July 30, 1959. Each of them was working independently. Noyce was granted a patent because he had solved a number of practical problems that Kilby had not. Noyce’s design caused for the use of silicon; Kilby’s chip used germanium. (It’s not called Germanium Valley, haha.)

[More background text coming: in the meantime, if you want to know more about Noyce and his impact on the information revolution, please consult the sources below or feel free to add commentary as a comment to this post, and thank you. The lecture by Leslie Brin (the first YouTube source) at a Google Talk is informative, and a great starting place.]

YouTube sources:
•Robert Noyce: The Man Behind the Microchip, by Leslie Berlin, the Project Historian for the Silicon Valley Archives in a Google Talk (length 37:53). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kp4-5nYqBL8
•The Impact of Integrated Circuits, lecture by Robert Noyce (length 41:46). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AfxUq_QrpyY
•Podfather — Robert Noyce and the Rise of Silicon Valley (length 59:05). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GvGVGcWS3Pg

Web sources:
•http://www.google.com/patents/US2981877
•http://www.computerhistory.org/tdih/April/25/
•http://www.edn.com/electronics-blogs/edn-moments/4412805/Noyce-receives-1st-IC-patent--April-25--1961-
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Traitorous_eight
•http://www.pbs.org/transistor/album1/eight/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Noyce
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Integrated_circuit
•http://www.computerhistory.org/semiconductor/timeline/1959-Noyce.html
•http://history-computer.com/ModernComputer/Basis/IC.html
•http://www.pbs.org/transistor/album1/addlbios/noyce.html
•http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/2011/1212/Why-Robert-Noyce-should-have-won-two-Nobel-Prizes-but-didn-t
•http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/history/museum-robert-noyce.html
•https://books.google.com/books?id=z7738Wq-j-8C&pg=PA237&lpg=PA237&dq=patent+2981877&source=bl&ots=R-83phJjKR&sig=DF2oIK6LVtP2nxS0XJjwuQRJdt0&hl=en&sa=X&ei=unk6VfDNG8jGsAW_t4CAAg&ved=0CDgQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=patent%202981877&f=false

Books:
• The Man Behind the Microchip: Robert Noyce and the Invention of Silicon Valley by Leslie Berlin. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/019531199X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=019531199X&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=52PDER6HNDKE7G4Y
• Makers of the Microchip: A Documentary History of Fairchild Semiconductor by Christophe Lécuyer and David C. Brock. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262014246/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0262014246&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=DTBRRYYG5ZLUFTBI
• Invention of Integrated Circuits: Untold Important Facts by Arjun N. Saxena. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/9812814450/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=9812814450&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=WNJSCWMGUMN6AWX3
• Crystal Fire: The Invention of the Transistor and the Birth of the Information Age by Michael Riordan and Lillian Hoddeson. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0393318516/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0393318516&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=LB26RPPNATQVOOXE

Amazon DVDs:
•Silicon Valley / American Experience 2013 (good background information; length 01:23:00). http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00BD7MR2S/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B00BD7MR2S&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=S2T6D64VVWTBI2OG

Image credits:
•Photo includes what William Shockely of Shockley Semiconductory Laboratory, in 1957, called “the traitorous eight,” because they determined, after being hired for their extraordinary talent (6 were PhD graduates,including Noyce) by Shockley, they could not work with Shockley. Shockley, after winning a Nobel-Prize in 1956 for his co-invention of the transistor, became nearly impossible to work with. He did not trust the employees he had hired; he did not allow them to share their work results with each other. He recorded all phone calls and ordered all employees to take a lie dedector test. When the 8 employees asked the key investor, Arnold Beckman, to replace Shockley and Beckman refused, the 8 researchers decided to leave and start their own company, Fairchild Semiconductor. From left to right: Gordon Moore, C. Sheldon Roberts, Eugene Kleiner, Robert Noyce, Victor Grinich, Julius Blank, Jean Hoerni, and Jay Last (photo taken 1960).
•At Fairchild Semiconductor, Robert Noyce applied for this patent of the integrated circuit in 1959. Google Patent database images from the patent application by Noyce. http://www.google.com/patents/US2981877

#history #integratedcircuit #silicon #Noyce___

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2015-04-24 13:03:42 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 6 +1s)Open 

Excellent Post.  

Today in History: Hubble Space Telescope Launched, 1990
On April 24, 1990 — 25 years ago today — the Hubble Space Telescope was launched into space by the Space Shuttle Discovery. The telescope was secured in the shuttle’s cargo bay. On April 25, 1990, the Discovery crew, using the space shuttle arm, deployed the Hubble telescope into orbit. Hubble travels in a nearly circular orbit around the Earth every 97 minutes, about  343 miles (552 kilometers) above the Earth’s surface. In its 25 years in orbit, Hubble has orbited the Earth over 135,000 times!

Hubble is one of NASA’s Great Observatories, along with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and the Spitzer Space Telescope. The Hubble Telescope was named after astronomer Edwin Hubble, who first confirmed by observations from an Earth-based optical telescope that the Universe was expanding. The Hubble Space Telescope has recorded some of the most detailed visible-light images ever, especially probing deeply into space and time. A number of the Hubble observations have led to astrophysical breakthroughs, such as the determination of expansion rate of the universe. 

Interestingly, Hubble is the only telescope designed for service in space by astronauts. This design function allowed a near monumental error in its mirror grounding to be corrected. In 1993, the optics were corrected by astronauts who installed “spectacles” that compensated for the wrongly shaped mirror. In total, there have been 5 space shuttle servicing missions to Hubble to improve its usefulness. Hubble is now in the final phase of its life, as its vital systems are not expected to last much beyond this year and Earth’s gravity will eventually pull it back into the Earth’s atmosphere where it will burn up and disintegrate sometime after 2019.

YouTube videos:
•Hubble Space Telescope Deployment (length 01:13). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nPI28qRa4ng
•Full BBC Documentary — Hubble’s Space Telescope — Amazing Universe (length 01:15:13). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=amJtdCFoc5U
•National Geographic: Hubble’s Amazing Universe (length 45:48). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qcfN_HN4TVg
•Deep Universe: Hubble’s Universe Unfiltered (length 31:23). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W4GKf623Exk
•20 Years in 20 Images: Hubble’s Universe Unfiltered (length 28:15). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4jRplhKh9Bg

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hubble_Space_Telescope
•http://hubblesite.org/
•http://www.redorbit.com/news/space/1113127712/nasa-hubble-instruments-highlight-new-national-air-and-space-museum/
•http://www.nbcnews.com/science/space/hubble-space-telescope-turns-25-discoveries-drama-galore-n345911
•http://hubblesite.org/gallery/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_Telescope_Science_Institute
•http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/25-years-hubble-space-telescope-25-stunning-photos/
•http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/hubble/story/index.html
•http://hubble25th.org/

Book sources:
• Hubble’s Universe: Greatest Discoveries and Latest Images by Terence Dickinson. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1770851070/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1770851070&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=CODV4BDTDSKVW7TX
• Hubble: Imaging Space and Time by David H. Devorkin. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1426208944/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1426208944&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=C2OK6SZFTF2LVF7I

Image credits:
•Hubble Space Telescope as viewed from the departing Space Shuttle Atlantis, flying STS-125, Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 4. By Ruffnax (Crew of STS-125) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AHST-SM4.jpeg
•Exploded graphic of the Hubble Space Telescope. By HubbleExploded.svg: AndrewBuck derivative work: Julia\talk (HubbleExploded.svg) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AHubbleExploded_edit_1.svg
•Diagram showing the orbit of the Hubble Space Telescope. By NASA [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ADiagram_of_Hubble's_orbit.jpg
•The Hubble Control Center at Goddard Space Flight Center, 1999. By http://www.hubblesite.org/.Goodmanjoon at en.wikipedia [Public domain], from Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AHubble_Control_Centre.jpg

#history #Hubble #Discovery___Excellent Post.  

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2015-04-23 12:25:22 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 9 +1s)Open 

Today in History: First human died during a spaceflight mission, 1967
On April 23, 1967 — 48 years ago today — Soyuz 1 crashed into the ground at about 600 mph when its parachute failed to open after re-entry and the first in-flight fatality, cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov, occurred in the history of spaceflight. According to a number of accounts, Cosmonaut Komarov expected to die in this first flight of the new Soyuz spacecraft, designed for taking cosmonauts to the Moon. The mission was being rushed because the head of the Communist Party — the leader of the U.S.S.R., Leonid Brezhnev — wanted the U.S.S.R. to beat the U.S. to the first manned landing on the Moon. In the U.S. haste to beat the Soviet Union to a manned landing on the Moon, about 3 months earlier, 3 U.S. astronauts had burned to death in a fire during a practice exercise of the new Apollo spacecraft. May 1, 1967 was to be the50th an... more »

Today in History: First human died during a spaceflight mission, 1967
On April 23, 1967 — 48 years ago today — Soyuz 1 crashed into the ground at about 600 mph when its parachute failed to open after re-entry and the first in-flight fatality, cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov, occurred in the history of spaceflight. According to a number of accounts, Cosmonaut Komarov expected to die in this first flight of the new Soyuz spacecraft, designed for taking cosmonauts to the Moon. The mission was being rushed because the head of the Communist Party — the leader of the U.S.S.R., Leonid Brezhnev — wanted the U.S.S.R. to beat the U.S. to the first manned landing on the Moon. In the U.S. haste to beat the Soviet Union to a manned landing on the Moon, about 3 months earlier, 3 U.S. astronauts had burned to death in a fire during a practice exercise of the new Apollo spacecraft. May 1, 1967 was to be the 50th anniversary of the Communist revolution, and Brezhnev wanted a spectacular rendezvous and docking mission to occur just before the Anniversary — to highlight the technological lead in the race to the Moon with the new Soviet lunar manned spacecraft (while the U.S. was still fixing the problems that caused the Apollo 1 fire).

So political pressure was intense on Soviet scientists and cosmonauts to perform a space rendezvous and docking mission before the end of April, 1967. The plan called for one man, Cosmonaut Komarov, to be launched in Soyuz 1; the next day 2 cosmonauts were scheduled to be launched on Soyuz 2. The two spacecraft would then rendezvous, dock, and exchange crew members. However, as events transpired, Soyuz 1 began having numerous problems shortly after its launch; the Soyuz 2 mission was cancelled not only due to the problems aboard Soyuz 1, but also as a result of bad weather.

Prior to Soyuz 1’s launch, the first Soviet cosmonaut, Yuri Gagarin, had inspected the new Soyuz spacecraft and had documented over 200 structural problems that would make the spacecraft dangerous to navigate in space. Gagarin was urging that the Soyuz 1 and 2 missions be postponed. Gagarin’s protests were disregarded by the political machine of the U.S.S.R., and as a consequence, Gagarin’s friend, Cosmonaut Komarov faced an ongoing number of difficulties during his flight that eventually caused him to rage against the political machine that was sending him to his death — as he was unable to carefully position his spacecraft during re-entry, his capsule was heating up, his parachutes became tangled and could not deploy, and he became aware that he was plunging to his death.

YouTube videos:
•1967 Soyuz 1 (USSR) (length 02:14). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PnIE7DfCktE
•Vladimir Komarov’s Death Aboard Soyuz 1 (length 01:41). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=As0fzcCs7oY
•NASAFlix–Secret Space: Soyuz Cover-Up (length 51:49). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=60sYdhhFkmc

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soyuz_1
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vladimir_Komarov
•http://amyshirateitel.com/2012/01/13/soyuz-1-falling-to-earth/
•http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/april/24/newsid_2523000/2523019.stm
•http://www.svengrahn.pp.se/histind/Soyuz1Land/Soyanaly.htm
•http://www.npr.org/blogs/krulwich/2011/05/02/134597833/cosmonaut-crashed-into-earth-crying-in-rage
•http://www.russianspaceweb.com/soyuz1.html
•http://www.americaspace.com/?p=17776

Book sources:
• Soyuz: A Universal Spacecraft by Rex Hall and David Shayler. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1852336579/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1852336579&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=MXGIYN6Z2SLL2BRG
• Histories of the Soviet / Russian Space Program by U.S. Government, NASA, World Spaceflight News, Dr. Charles Sheldon, U.S. Congress. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00CW1IP1Q/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B00CW1IP1Q&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=XJWYY4JIVX6UOI5P
• The Soviet Space Race with Apollo by Asif A. Siddiqi. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0813026288/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0813026288&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=WOQBM4QHN7VOJIZE

Image credits:
•Top Left: Cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov. http://spacefeelings.com/outer-space-flight-critical-situations-2.shtml
•Top Right: Soyuz 1 spacecraft. http://spacefeelings.com/outer-space-flight-critical-situations-2.shtml
•Bottom Left: Soyuz 1 capsule crash in which Komarov died. http://www.astrocentral.co.uk/race7.html
•Bottom Right: Open casket of Cosmonaut Komarov with his burnt remains. http://www.npr.org/blogs/krulwich/2011/05/02/134597833/cosmonaut-crashed-into-earth-crying-in-rage

#history #Soyuz #space___

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2015-04-23 12:25:10 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 10 +1s)Open 

Today in History: First YouTube Video Was Uploaded, 2005
On April 23, 2005 — just 10 years ago today (and a full year after Facebook began) — Jawed Karim, one of the co-founders of YouTube, uploaded the first video to YouTube. Since this first 18-second video user upload, YouTube has grown to more than 1 billion users and 300 hours of video are uploaded to YouTube every minute! In addition, more than a million user channels are earning revenue from the YouTube Partner Program, and thousands of channels are making 6-figure incomes per year.

YouTube videos:
•The first YouTube video uploaded: “Me at the Zoo” (length 00:18). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jNQXAC9IVRw

Web sources:
•http://mashable.com/2014/04/23/youtube-first-video/
•http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/06/magazine/06FOB-medium-t.html?_r=4&ref=magazine&•http://en.... more »

Today in History: First YouTube Video Was Uploaded, 2005
On April 23, 2005 — just 10 years ago today (and a full year after Facebook began) — Jawed Karim, one of the co-founders of YouTube, uploaded the first video to YouTube. Since this first 18-second video user upload, YouTube has grown to more than 1 billion users and 300 hours of video are uploaded to YouTube every minute! In addition, more than a million user channels are earning revenue from the YouTube Partner Program, and thousands of channels are making 6-figure incomes per year.

YouTube videos:
•The first YouTube video uploaded: “Me at the Zoo” (length 00:18). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jNQXAC9IVRw

Web sources:
•http://mashable.com/2014/04/23/youtube-first-video/
•http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/06/magazine/06FOB-medium-t.html?_r=4&ref=magazine&
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jawed_Karim
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Me_at_the_zoo
•https://www.youtube.com/yt/press/en-GB/statistics.html

Book sources:
• YouTube: The Real YouTube Story by Eric Skaggs. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00U6E8ESU/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B00U6E8ESU&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=BPRY47NFSC6FGF7H
• YouTube: Online Video and Participatory Culture by Jean Burgess, Joshua Green, Henry Jenkins, and John Hartley. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0745644791/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0745644791&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=XKO6RVEM6432QJDI
• YouTube Founders: Steve Chen, Chad Hurley, and Jawed Karim by Patricia Wooster. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1467725811/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1467725811&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=NVA2DA3KFTSXJCAC
• Watching YouTube: Extraordinary Videos by Ordinary People by Michael Strangelove. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1442610670/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1442610670&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=2ZBANE5XOG2SJ7NF

Image credit:
• Jawed Karim in a frame from his original YouTube video (length 00:18). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jNQXAC9IVRw

#history #YouTube___

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2015-04-22 19:18:27 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 2 +1s)Open 

:(

:(___

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2015-04-22 19:01:53 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 8 +1s)Open 

Google’s New Wireless Service
Please see: Fi.google.com — to request an invite. You’ll need a Nexus 6, the first (and right now only) smartphone to work with fi.

Google’s New Wireless Service
Please see: Fi.google.com — to request an invite. You’ll need a Nexus 6, the first (and right now only) smartphone to work with fi.___

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2015-04-21 11:48:49 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 1 +1s)Open 

Today in History: The Seattle World’s Fair Opened
On April 21, 1962 — 53 years ago today — President John F. Kennedy officially opened the 1962 Seattle World’s Fair from his Easter vacation location in Florida. To open the Fair, President Kennedy pressed a telegraph key that was the same key that President William Howard Taft had used to open the 1909 Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition in Seattle. However, for this ocassion, instead of the simple coast-to-coast telegraph signal initated by President Taft, when President Kennedy pressed the key, he triggered a radio telescope in Maine to pick up impulses from a star 10,000 miles away, and these impulses were directed to the fairgrounds to launch 2,000 balloons and open the Fair.

The most famous landmark from this 1962 Fair is the “Seattle Space Needle,” a towering 605-foot structure that was (at the time it was built) thetallest str... more »

Today in History: The Seattle World’s Fair Opened
On April 21, 1962 — 53 years ago today — President John F. Kennedy officially opened the 1962 Seattle World’s Fair from his Easter vacation location in Florida. To open the Fair, President Kennedy pressed a telegraph key that was the same key that President William Howard Taft had used to open the 1909 Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition in Seattle. However, for this ocassion, instead of the simple coast-to-coast telegraph signal initated by President Taft, when President Kennedy pressed the key, he triggered a radio telescope in Maine to pick up impulses from a star 10,000 miles away, and these impulses were directed to the fairgrounds to launch 2,000 balloons and open the Fair.

The most famous landmark from this 1962 Fair is the “Seattle Space Needle,” a towering 605-foot structure that was (at the time it was built) the tallest structure west of the Mississippi River. 

YouTube videos:
•April 21, 1962: President John F. Kennedy Opening the Seattle’s World Fair. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l1DViQQFTfk
•Seattle World’s Fair — Century 21 Calling — 1962 (length 13:54). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yKVEQzTkqt8
•1962 Seattle World’s Fair Preview (length 14:26). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qNi76A-F_o0
•1962 Seattle World’s Fair Service Scouts (length 19:42). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vB_7M679nzM

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Century_21_Exposition
•http://www.62worldsfair.com/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Seattle_since_1940
•http://kcts9.org/when-seattle-invented-future-1962-worlds-fair
•http://www.expomuseum.com/1962/
•http://www.seattlemonorail.com/about/history/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle_Center_Monorail
•http://www.historylink.org/index.cfm?DisplayPage=output.cfm&File_Id=2291

Book sources:
• The Future Remembered: The 1962 Seattle World’s Fair and Its Legacy by Paula Becker and Alan J. Stein. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/061546940X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=061546940X&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=GUGYEQZ6DJT2MVGE
• Seattle’s 1962 World’s Fair (Images of America) by Bill Colter. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0738581259/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0738581259&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=TEJO6DCVEBJVBK6W
• The Seattle Space Needle (Building America) by Craig A. Doherty. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1567111149/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1567111149&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=FIQAJUNKBX235YSA

Image credits:
•Top Left: Artist’s conception of the 1962 Seattle World’s Fair.
•Top Right: Space Needle structure built for the 1962 Seattle World’s Fair. By Jordon Kalilich (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ASpace_Needle_2011-07-04.jpg
•Bottom (left to right):
*President John F. Kennedy opening the World’s Fair from his vacation spot in Palm Beach, Florida. http://archive1.jfklibrary.org/JFKWHP/1962/Month%2004/Day%2021/JFKWHP-1962-04-21-A/JFKWHP-ST-A-C18-1-62.jpg
*Alweg Monorail linking downtown Seattle with the World’s Fair site. https://farm9.staticflickr.com/8359/8339472551_aa78e44481_o.jpg
*Former Vice President Nixon [and future President] with his wife riding the Monoraill at the World’s Fair in Seattle in 1962. http://www.seattlemonorail.com/about/history/

#history  #Seattle #worldfair___

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2015-04-20 16:37:38 (0 comments, 3 reshares, 9 +1s)Open 

Cat stuck with baby birds

She is all surprise to get away from them.

Here’s a good way to stay warm.

Poor little kitten. How can she communicate.

Cat communication is the transfer of information by one or more cats that has an effect on the current or future behaviour of another animal, including humans. Cats use a range of communication modalities including vocal, visual, tactile and olfactory.

The purr is a continuous, soft, vibrating sound made in the throat by most species of felines. Domestic kittens can purr as early as two days of age. This tonal rumbling can characterize different personalities in domestic cats. Purring is often believed to indicate a positive emotional state, but cats sometimes purr when they are ill, tense, or experiencing traumatic or painful moments.

The mechanism of how cats purr is elusive. This is partlyb... more »

Cat stuck with baby birds

She is all surprise to get away from them.

Here’s a good way to stay warm.

Poor little kitten. How can she communicate.

Cat communication is the transfer of information by one or more cats that has an effect on the current or future behaviour of another animal, including humans. Cats use a range of communication modalities including vocal, visual, tactile and olfactory.

The purr is a continuous, soft, vibrating sound made in the throat by most species of felines. Domestic kittens can purr as early as two days of age. This tonal rumbling can characterize different personalities in domestic cats. Purring is often believed to indicate a positive emotional state, but cats sometimes purr when they are ill, tense, or experiencing traumatic or painful moments.

The mechanism of how cats purr is elusive. This is partly because cats do not have a unique anatomical feature that is clearly responsible for this vocalization. One hypothesis, supported by electromyographic studies, is that cats produce the purring noise by using the vocal folds and/or the muscles of the larynx to alternately dilate and constrict the glottis rapidly, causing air vibrations during inhalation and exhalation. Combined with the steady inhalation and exhalation as the cat breathes, a purring noise is produced with strong harmonics. Purring is sometimes accompanied by other sounds, though this varies between individuals. Some may only purr, while other cats include low level outbursts sometimes described as "lurps" or "yowps".

#catoftheday   #catlovers   #animallovers   #funnygifs   #caturday2015  ___

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2015-04-20 16:37:28 (1 comments, 0 reshares, 7 +1s)Open 

Ferocious Cheetah Attacks a Puppy!
#lol   #funny   #caturday   #cutenessoverload   #cheetah   #puppy  

Ferocious Cheetah Attacks a Puppy!
#lol   #funny   #caturday   #cutenessoverload   #cheetah   #puppy  ___

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2015-04-20 06:08:00 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 8 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Webcrawler Became First Search Engine to Examine Full Text of Web Pages, 1994
On April 20, 1994 — 21 years ago today — Webcrawler became the first search engine to crawl full pages of text on the Web. At first, the engine only had 4,000 websites in its database and it was initially designed only as a desktop program. The engine was developed by Brian Pinkerton, a computer science engineering student at the University of Washington, in his spare time. Brian’s fellow students encouraged Brian to build a web interface for his program, and so he did and released the online version on this day in 1994 (see his introduction message in attached image).

Before Webcrawler, the few search engines available only stored a URL, a site or page title, and possibly up to 100 words. Webcrawler was written to index every word on a web page, and its comprehensiveness led to itsuse c... more »

Today in History: Webcrawler Became First Search Engine to Examine Full Text of Web Pages, 1994
On April 20, 1994 — 21 years ago today — Webcrawler became the first search engine to crawl full pages of text on the Web. At first, the engine only had 4,000 websites in its database and it was initially designed only as a desktop program. The engine was developed by Brian Pinkerton, a computer science engineering student at the University of Washington, in his spare time. Brian’s fellow students encouraged Brian to build a web interface for his program, and so he did and released the online version on this day in 1994 (see his introduction message in attached image).

Before Webcrawler, the few search engines available only stored a URL, a site or page title, and possibly up to 100 words. Webcrawler was written to index every word on a web page, and its comprehensiveness led to its use crashing the University of Washington’s computer network. American Online (AOL) bought Webcrawler about a year after Brian launched it. AOL sold it to Excite on April 1, 1997. After Excite went bankrupt, Infospace bought Webcrawler in 2001 and has owned it ever since. Over time, Webcrawler transitioned to a “metasearch engine” that provides a composite of search results from Google, Bing, and other less popular search engines.

YouTube videos:
•Brief presentation by Brian Pinkerton of LucidWorks Enterprise [nothing to do with Webcrawler but to get a sense of Brian] (length 03:47). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0XB4qX9fq4U

Web sources:
•http://www.thinkpink.com/bp/webcrawler/history.html
•https://bobbydotseo.wordpress.com/webcrawler-1994/
•http://www.searchenginejournal.com/webcrawler-search-engine-turns-10-years-old/468/
•https://www.linkedin.com/in/brianpinkerton
•http://www.thehistoryofseo.com/The-Industry/Short_History_of_Early_Search_Engines.aspx
•http://www.salientmarketing.com/seo-resources/search-engine-history/webcrawler.html
•http://www.searchenginehistory.com/
•https://plus.google.com/112402135306018173541/about [nothing much here]

Book sources:
• The Search: How Google and Its Rivals Rewrote the Rules of Business and Transformed Our Culture by John Battelle. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1591841410/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1591841410&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=KCBYL7JNZ3SPQF5G

Image credits:
•Top Left: Original Webcrawler logo.
•Top Right: Brian Pinkerton, Webcrawler creator. http://www.hortongroup.com/blog/history-of-seo
•Bottom: Text of Announcement of Webcrawler. http://www.thinkpink.com/bp/webcrawler/UWCSAnnouncement.txt

#history #searchengines #webcrawler___

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2015-04-19 11:27:29 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 5 +1s)Open 

Cleansing Power of Invincible Sun
The horns of the bull that will spear the fossil fuel industry and send it, bleeding and in pain, back to the hell from which it oozed, outgassed, and smoked its way into civilization and the natural world. Back to hell with you, oily demon-spawn! I exorcize you with the cleansing power of the invincible sun!

Cleansing Power of Invincible Sun
The horns of the bull that will spear the fossil fuel industry and send it, bleeding and in pain, back to the hell from which it oozed, outgassed, and smoked its way into civilization and the natural world. Back to hell with you, oily demon-spawn! I exorcize you with the cleansing power of the invincible sun!___

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2015-04-19 11:26:07 (1 comments, 0 reshares, 8 +1s)Open 

Happy Saturday — Google+ secretly growing
The marketplace is dynamic! AOL once had a market valuation north of $150 billion; it is now valued at $3.13 billion. MySpace once dominated the social media space. Facebook now “dominates” the social media space. Or does it? Google can’t brag because it is under assault for “dominating search” — even though Bing is growing in usage (see http://searchengineland.com/bing-reaches-20-percent-search-milestone-in-us-market-218574). And while Bing is growing in search, look at what www.internetlivestats.com reports below.

I’m playing this tune right now.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uUmXXFbhokc

Happy Saturday — Google+ secretly growing
The marketplace is dynamic! AOL once had a market valuation north of $150 billion; it is now valued at $3.13 billion. MySpace once dominated the social media space. Facebook now “dominates” the social media space. Or does it? Google can’t brag because it is under assault for “dominating search” — even though Bing is growing in usage (see http://searchengineland.com/bing-reaches-20-percent-search-milestone-in-us-market-218574). And while Bing is growing in search, look at what www.internetlivestats.com reports below.

I’m playing this tune right now.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uUmXXFbhokc___

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2015-04-19 11:26:01 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 7 +1s)Open 

Awesome!

Today in History: “Moore’s Law” First Described, 1965
On April 19, 1965 — 50 years ago today — Gordon Moore published an article in Electronics magazine in which he first described his observation, now known as “Moore’s Law” (coined by Dr. Carver Mead, an associate of Moore), perhaps the most important metric phenomenon of this epoch: The number of transistors on a silicon chip doubles every year (he observed that it did during the first 10 years of the technology). Moore predicted this trend would continue for at least another decade, but he thought there were barriers that would prevent his extrapolation from continuing after 1975 and amended his prediction to transistor density doubling every 2 years after 1975. Today, Gordon is amazed that his law has held for 4 full decades after its original positing and 1975 amending.

YouTube videos:
•What is Moore’s Law (length 02:59). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aWLBmapcJRU
•Our Stories — Gordon Moore about Moore’s Law (length 04:23). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EzyJxAP6AQo
•Moore’s Law 40th Anniversary with Gordon Moore (length 01:27:55). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MH6jUSjpr-Q
•Is it the End for Moore’s Law (length 09:38)? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X8v1BB0UaDs
•Moore’s Law in Perspective by Intel (length 30:44). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V-pk-A8IqE4

Web sources:
•http://www.forbes.com/sites/roberthof/2015/04/17/at-50-moores-law-has-only-started-to-disrupt-everything-we-do/
•http://www.kurzweilai.net/ask-ray-the-future-of-moores-law
•http://www.singularitysymposium.com/moores-law.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gordon_Moore
•http://www.techminded.co/2015/04/13/409-april-13-2015-happy-anniversary-moores-law/

Book sources:
• Moore’s Law: The Life of Gordon Moore, Silicon Valley’s Quiet Revolutionary by Arnold Thackray, David Brock, and Rachel Jones. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0465055648/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0465055648&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=XZLQVH2H4MMNOKSU
• Understanding Moore’s Law: Four Decades of Innovation edited by David Brock. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0941901416/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0941901416&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=SJVWOBJBECRUE62F

Image credits:
•Top: Kurzweil chart.
•Bottom (left to right; top to bottom)
*Young Gordon Moore (photo taken about the time he promulgated “Moore’s Law). http://www.techminded.co/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/GordonMoore_formal.jpg
*Gordon Moore, $6.6 billionaire. http://www.forbes.com/profile/gordon-moore/
*Jack Kilby’s first solid circuit. http://www.ti.com/corp/docs/kilbyctr/downloadphotos.shtml
*Pentium 4 bottom side. By Eric Gaba (Sting - fr:Sting) (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AIntel_CPU_Pentium_4_640_Prescott_bottom.jpg

#history #information #Moore___Awesome!

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2015-04-18 15:18:13 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 12 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Einstein Died—His body was cremated and his brain was “stolen,” 1955
On April 18, 1955 — 60 years ago today — the pioneering physicist Albert Einstein died. Einstein developed the general theory of relativity, a pillar of modern physics; published more than 300 scientific papers; and he received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics “for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect” — a pivotal development in establishing quantum theory.

Einstein’s mathematical abilities and his creative way of thinking were so revered even while he was alive that, almost immediately upon his death, pathologist Thomas Stoltz Harvey removed Einstein’s brain, weighed it, then dissected it into several pieces. Although Dr. Harvey acted independently without any authority from Einstein’s family, he later gotEinstein’s son’s perm... more »

Today in History: Einstein Died—His body was cremated and his brain was “stolen,” 1955
On April 18, 1955 — 60 years ago today — the pioneering physicist Albert Einstein died. Einstein developed the general theory of relativity, a pillar of modern physics; published more than 300 scientific papers; and he received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics “for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect” — a pivotal development in establishing quantum theory.

Einstein’s mathematical abilities and his creative way of thinking were so revered even while he was alive that, almost immediately upon his death, pathologist Thomas Stoltz Harvey removed Einstein’s brain, weighed it, then dissected it into several pieces. Although Dr. Harvey acted independently without any authority from Einstein’s family, he later got Einstein’s son’s permission to use the brain for scientific purposes. In 2010, Dr. Harvey’s heirs transferred all the Einstein brain holdings to the National Museum of Health and Medicine. In addition, 46 small portions of Einstein’s brain were acquired and are on exhibit at Philadelphia’s Mutter Museum. 

YouTube videos:
•“My Search for Einstein’s Brain”: Steven Levy at TEDxBeacon Street (length 14:44). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v9_jWyHycIY

Web sources:
•https://medium.com/backchannel/yes-i-found-einstein-s-brain-c3834429e4d5
•http://phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2014/04/21/the-tragic-story-of-how-einsteins-brain-was-stolen-and-wasnt-even-special/
•http://www.smithsonianmag.com/smithsonian-institution/why-albert-einstein-genius-theory-relativity-loved-pipe-180954991/?no-ist
•http://www.biography.com/people/albert-einstein-9285408
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein
•http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0314.html

Book sources:
• Driving Mr. Albert: A Trip Across America with Einstein’s Brain by Michael Paterniti. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/038533303X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=038533303X&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=KCNR7RFAZAL226MN
• Possessing Genius: The Bizarre Odyssey of Einstein’s Brain by Carolyn Abraham. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1840465492/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1840465492&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=PRNB26VCFZU7B5KN

Image credits:
•Top: A series of photos of Einstein at various ages. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein
•Bottom: Einstein’s office the day he died. By Ralph Morse—Time and Life Pictures/Getty Images. http://time.com/3494553/the-day-albert-einstein-died-a-photographers-story/___

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2015-04-17 03:00:16 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 8 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Nearly “Lost in Space” Apollo 13 Mission Successfully Returned to Earth, 1970
On April 17, 1970 — 45 years ago today — Apollo 13 successfully returned from a near-fatal trip around the Moon for its 3 astronauts, 600-Space Hour Veteran Commander James A. Lovell, Command Module Pilot Jack Swigert, and Lunar Module Pilot Fred W. Haise. Apollo 13 was the third manned mission to the Moon; men going to the moon had become so routine to the public that the Apollo 13 launch was not even covered by the major television networks. The launch did begin in a routine way with the astronauts headed for the Moon. Oddly enough, on April 13, when the Apollo 13 spacecraft was about 200,000 miles from Earth, the service module’s oxygen tanks exploded (as a result of an electrical short-circut), blew off a panel on the service module (see photo below), and crippled theirspacecraf... more »

Today in History: Nearly “Lost in Space” Apollo 13 Mission Successfully Returned to Earth, 1970
On April 17, 1970 — 45 years ago today — Apollo 13 successfully returned from a near-fatal trip around the Moon for its 3 astronauts, 600-Space Hour Veteran Commander James A. Lovell, Command Module Pilot Jack Swigert, and Lunar Module Pilot Fred W. Haise. Apollo 13 was the third manned mission to the Moon; men going to the moon had become so routine to the public that the Apollo 13 launch was not even covered by the major television networks. The launch did begin in a routine way with the astronauts headed for the Moon. Oddly enough, on April 13, when the Apollo 13 spacecraft was about 200,000 miles from Earth, the service module’s oxygen tanks exploded (as a result of an electrical short-circut), blew off a panel on the service module (see photo below), and crippled their spacecraft — perhaps so much so that the astronauts would be “lost in space.”

The explosion caused a loss of electrical power to the command module. When its battery power had dwindled to 15 minutes left, the command module was shut down to reserve this power for eventual re-entry maneuvering. A decision was quickly made to abort the moon landing and to focus on how to return the astronauts to Earth, if possible. The Lunar Module was powered up and the astronauts transferred to the module to use its air-supply resources. As the astronauts were now close to the Moon, another decision was made to use the “boomerang” gravity effect of the Moon to send Apollo 13 back to Earth as soon as possible. Careful positioning firing of rockets needed to be made in order to target the Pacific Ocean landing zone.

There were no seats in the Lunar Module, but a near gravity free environment made standing and resting easier than it would have been on Earth. But because overall power was being conserved as much as possible, the temperatures in the Lunar Module became quite cold (Lovell said that just before they transferred back into the Command Module prior to re-entry into the Earth’s atmosphere, the temperature had gone down to 38° F). Moreover, the Apollo was not designed for this configuration: the Lunar Module was designed to descend to the Moon only and to return to the Command and Service Module. The Lunar Module was not designed to guide the entire spacecraft, so ground controllers had to make careful calculations about how to maneuver the spacecraft using the Lunar Module’s engines.

As the spacecraft approached Earth, the astronauts transferred back into the Command Module with little life-supply support time left — just enough to execute critical rocket-firing positioning. It was not known if the Service Module explosion had damaged the heat shield on the Command Module that was essential for re-entry. So the normal “black-out” time in radio communication (usually about 3-½ minutes) with the spacecraft as it enters the atmosphere and its parachutes deploy was harrowing, especially because it was almost 4-½ minutes until the astronauts’ voices were heard and spontaneous applause erupted in Mission Control. The astronauts were coming down within a few miles of the splashdown target zone in the Pacific Ocean! And by this time, people all over the world had learned about the danger of this flight and were glued to their television to watch the recovery!

YouTube videos:
•“Houston, We’ve Got a Problem” (length 28:20). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sJ3Q3kL7jcA
•Apollo 13 — The Real Story (length 40:05). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h3RSqdj_VnY
•Apollo 13 Re-entry (length 01:00:59). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wX8-Vmys-Fk
•Apollo 13 Post-Flight Press Conference (01:15:54). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lMMw2QIHBLs
•40th Anniversary of Apollo 13 — Annual John H. Glenn Lecture (length 01:26:56). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nDqkBccEcb0

Web sources:
•http://airandspace.si.edu/explore-and-learn/topics/apollo/apollo-program/landing-missions/apollo13.cfm
•http://spectrum.ieee.org/aerospace/space-flight/apollo-13-we-have-a-solution
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_13
•https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/apollo/missions/apollo13.html
•http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Apollo_13_passing_Moon.jpg
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jim_Lovell
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_Swigert
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fred_Haise

Book & Documentary Film sources:
• Apollo 13: The Untold Story. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00HNMMJKW/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B00HNMMJKW&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=IUC4BVRAKRZIU2PT

Memorabilia 
• Apollo 13 by Ron Howard — a “dramatization” not a documentary. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B001JI72AI/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B001JI72AI&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=JIBNPZBQB6CJHGIF

Image credits:
•Top Left: Apollo 13 service module with damage from an oxygen tank explosion (external panel blown off exposing inside destruction).  By James Lovell, John Swigert, Fred Haise (The Apollo Image Gallery) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.
•Top Center: Apollo 13 headlines regarding oxygen tank explosion on April 13, 1970. http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0413.html
•Top Right: A photograph of the Moon taken by the Apollo 13 astronaut crew from the Lunar Module (command module is visible outside the Lunar Module’s rendezvous window). By James Lovell, John Swigert, Fred Haise (The Apollo Image Gallery) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AApollo_13_passing_Moon.jpg
•Bottom Left: Apollo 13 command capsule with parachutes deployed in preparation for a landing in the Pacific Ocean. Frame from Apollo 13: The Untold Story.
•Bottom Center: Apollo 13 command capsule at the moment of splashdown in the Pacific Ocean. NASA photograph.
•Bottom Right: Apollo 13 astronauts on the stairs of the rescue helicopter on the recovery U.S. Navy ship. Frame from Apollo 13: The Untold Story.

Please also see this document: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1se0Vn9t190Wi--7ripDYtnQt-8ucb4oIN4mqIh12oco/edit
Apollo 13 circumlunar trajectory; the oxygen tank exploxed about 5-½ hours from entry into the Moon’s gravity field. The Lunar Module had to execute a number of unplanned rocket firings to correct the course so that splashdown would occur in the Pacific Ocean. By AndrewBuck (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC BY-SA 4.0-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0)], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AApollo_13_timeline.svg___

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2015-04-16 05:55:38 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 8 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Apple II Computer Debuted at Computer Faire
On April 16, 1977 — 38 years ago today — the Apple II debuted at the first West Coast Computer Faire. The Faire was organized by Jim Warren of The Homebrew Computer Club, which was an early computer hobbyist group in Silicon Valley that included Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak (the founders of Apple). In order to launch the Apple II as a consumer product (rather than just a computer for hobbyists), Jobs understood that the product needed to look “simple and elegant,” enclosed in a sleek case made of light molded plastic  — not something that could be fabricated in a standard metal shop — and that such design would require significantly more capital than they could borrow, so Jobs attracted investor Mike Markkula (a 33 year old, retired millionaire who had made money on his stock at Fairchild). Markkula ended up playing acritical rol... more »

Today in History: Apple II Computer Debuted at Computer Faire
On April 16, 1977 — 38 years ago today — the Apple II debuted at the first West Coast Computer Faire. The Faire was organized by Jim Warren of The Homebrew Computer Club, which was an early computer hobbyist group in Silicon Valley that included Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak (the founders of Apple). In order to launch the Apple II as a consumer product (rather than just a computer for hobbyists), Jobs understood that the product needed to look “simple and elegant,” enclosed in a sleek case made of light molded plastic  — not something that could be fabricated in a standard metal shop — and that such design would require significantly more capital than they could borrow, so Jobs attracted investor Mike Markkula (a 33 year old, retired millionaire who had made money on his stock at Fairchild). Markkula ended up playing a critical role at Apple for the next 20 years; he shared Jobs’s vision of Apple building a product to revolutionize the world and bring the power of computing to every individual. The Apple II was the first product offering in this direction.

YouTube videos:
•Apple II, 1977 (silent; length 5:00). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CxJwy8NsXFs
•Apple II Review (length 12:48). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mjd7pN57nU4
•Steve Wozniak on Apple Beginnings (length 05:21). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pJif4i9NRdI05:21)

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Coast_Computer_Faire
•http://techland.time.com/2012/04/16/apple-ii-forever-a-35th-anniversary-tribute-to-apples-first-iconic-product/
•http://apple2history.org/history/ah03/
•http://www.computerhistory.org/revolution/personal-computers/17/300
•http://www.computerhistory.org/revolution/personal-computers/17/312
•http://www.atariarchives.org/deli/homebrew_and_how_the_apple.php

Book sources:
• Sophistication and Simplicity: The Life and Times of the Apple II by Steven Weyhrich. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0986832278/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0986832278&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=5XKYQXSMEGFH4T32
• Steve Jobs by Walter Isaacson (Chapter 6 on “The Apple II: Dawn of a New Age”). http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0986832278/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0986832278&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=5XKYQXSMEGFH4T32

Image credits:
•Top: Apple II from frame of https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CxJwy8NsXFs
•Bottom Left: Apple II ad. http://www.computerhistory.org/revolution/personal-computers/17/300
•Bottom Right: Steve Jobs (eft) and Steve Wozniak (right) at the First West Coast Computer Faire. http://ww2.kqed.org/news/2011/10/06/steve-jobs-and-the-bay-area___

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2015-04-15 05:57:23 (0 comments, 4 reshares, 15 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Unsinkable “technology-marvel” Titantic sank, 1912
On April 15, 1912 — 103 years ago today — what was unimaginable to its captain and its owners became a real catastrophe: The Titanic sank at sea after hitting an iceberg just minutes before midnight on April 14. Of the 2,227 passengers on the Titanic, only 705 survived — over 1,500 people lost their lives. 

The captain was not running the Titantic at full speed, but — as was common practice at the time — at moderate speed to get through potential ice fields as quickly as possible. Most recent scientific analysis indicates that weak rivets were most likely responsible for the hull not being able to sustain a hit with an iceberg. Not enough life boats were carried to save all the passengers, as it had been assumed by the ship’s owners that the ship was unsinkable.


YouTube videos:•Titanic: Orig... more »

Today in History: Unsinkable “technology-marvel” Titantic sank, 1912
On April 15, 1912 — 103 years ago today — what was unimaginable to its captain and its owners became a real catastrophe: The Titanic sank at sea after hitting an iceberg just minutes before midnight on April 14. Of the 2,227 passengers on the Titanic, only 705 survived — over 1,500 people lost their lives. 

The captain was not running the Titantic at full speed, but — as was common practice at the time — at moderate speed to get through potential ice fields as quickly as possible. Most recent scientific analysis indicates that weak rivets were most likely responsible for the hull not being able to sustain a hit with an iceberg. Not enough life boats were carried to save all the passengers, as it had been assumed by the ship’s owners that the ship was unsinkable.


YouTube videos:
•Titanic: Original 1912 photographs (length 04:31). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xD9-z6Nw2FM
•Titanic Real Story: Full Documentary (including virtual reconstruction of the ship from its 15 square mile graveyard; length 01:26:30). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GFhLpXq2cMk
•Titanic Survivors: What They Saw (part 1; length 04:14). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ez_iSh5JqVo
•Titanic Survivors: What They Saw (part 2; length 05:05). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sVEvbEE0pwc
•RMS Titanic Survivors True Accounts of the Sinking (length 01:35:08). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zfn1ZQFJcHw
•Titanic Disaster from the Disaster Channel (length 46:02). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s0aUiYXKWas
•Titanic Underwater (length 07:08). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=68oCMs3X1lU

Web sources:
•http://www.history.com/topics/titanic
•http://hf.ro/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RMS_Titanic
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Night_to_Remember_(book)
•http://thetitanicnhdproject.weebly.com/quotes-from-survivors.html
•http://www.titanicuniverse.com/titanic-the-unsinkable-ship/1443
•http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2012/04/16/unsinkable-3

Book sources:
• A Night to Remember: The Classic Account of the Final Hours of the Titanic by Walter Lord. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0805077642/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0805077642&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=IS7TIEERTOQAV7I3
• 882-½ Amazing Answers to Your Questions about the Titanic by Hugh Brewster, Laurie Coulter, and Ken Marschall. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0439042968/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0439042968&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=3L2JDNXDTMN4QV2B
• The Titanic: An Interactive History Adventure: 3 Story Paths, 35 Choices, 15 Endings by Bob Temple. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1429611820/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1429611820&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=SWYNINXYTJ6OP5Y2
• National Geographic Readers: Titanic by Melissa Stewart. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1426310595/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1426310595&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=UGREVDTF3LDAAKT6
• Inside the Titanic (A Giant Cutaway Book) by Hugh Brewster and Ken Marschall. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0316557161/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0316557161&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=2R7ZZMBIESUGCIHP
• Titanic: An Illustrated History by Donald Lynch, Ken Marschall, and Robert D. Ballard. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/078688147X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=078688147X&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=GKV3WMDZHXHJQNDO

Image credits:
•Top: The Titanic on April 11, 1912 in Cork Harbour. By Unknown photographer, photo taken on April 11, 1912 [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ATitanic-Cobh-Harbour-1912.JPG
•Center Left: The Boston Globe Headline: “Titanic Sinks, 1500 Die.” http://www.titanicuniverse.com/where-did-the-titanic-sink/2428
•Center Right: Map of the Titanic voyage, indicating the approximate spot of its sinking. By Prioryman (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC BY-SA 4.0-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0)], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ATitanic_voyage_map.png
•Bottom Left: Titanic size comparison. By Wikisearcher, Phrood, Sonnenwind, Bruce89, Rogilbert (Image:Vergleich Titanic.png) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AVergleich_Titanic_(fr).png
•Bottom Right: According to Underwater Explorer Robert Ballard, shoes of mother and daughter (bodies are eaten by marine animals, decompose, and bones dissolve at the Titanic’s depth, although some skeletal remains may eventually be found deep inside the ship’s internal rooms). Frame from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l25QT9YFQFM___

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2015-04-14 22:47:32 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 11 +1s)Open 

5 allergy-fighting foods (and 5 that'll make things worse). http://mhlthm.ag/WfgXgH 

5 allergy-fighting foods (and 5 that'll make things worse). http://mhlthm.ag/WfgXgH ___

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2015-04-14 17:16:01 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 8 +1s)Open 

Did you know?  The super talented singer songwriter Jason Mraz​ is a whole food, plant-based nutrition eater, follower, and ambassador. He is living proof that following a whole plant-based diet works, and he shares his journey in the latest issue of Naked Food Magazine.  He also shares one of his own plant-based dessert recipes!  You may still subscribe to receive this fabulous issue at https://checkout.subscriptiongenius.com/nakedfoodmagazine.com/

Did you know?  The super talented singer songwriter Jason Mraz​ is a whole food, plant-based nutrition eater, follower, and ambassador. He is living proof that following a whole plant-based diet works, and he shares his journey in the latest issue of Naked Food Magazine.  He also shares one of his own plant-based dessert recipes!  You may still subscribe to receive this fabulous issue at https://checkout.subscriptiongenius.com/nakedfoodmagazine.com/___

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2015-04-14 12:27:09 (3 comments, 3 reshares, 20 +1s)Open 

Precious Puppy Press-Ups
#lol   #funny   #precious   #puppy   #exercise   #bootcamp   #privatetrainer   #fitnesstraining   #cutenessoverload  

Dog named Teeny works out alongside experienced trainer Eric Ko
Trainer counts to four while completing press-ups with dog
Teeny leans over and gives Eric a kiss before starting again
The video was captured at the Dogaroo pet centre in Hong Kong
By JAKE POLDEN FOR MAILONLINE

Precious Puppy Press-Ups
#lol   #funny   #precious   #puppy   #exercise   #bootcamp   #privatetrainer   #fitnesstraining   #cutenessoverload  

Dog named Teeny works out alongside experienced trainer Eric Ko
Trainer counts to four while completing press-ups with dog
Teeny leans over and gives Eric a kiss before starting again
The video was captured at the Dogaroo pet centre in Hong Kong
By JAKE POLDEN FOR MAILONLINE___

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2015-04-14 05:55:32 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 10 +1s)Open 

Today in History: First 10-Day East-West Mail Arrived, 1860
On April 14, 1860 — 155 years ago today — Pony Express mail arrived in San Francisco, California and proved that mail coming from the Eastern United States could be delivered to California within its 10-day guaranteed delivery time. Of course, unlike today’s nearly instant email delivery, the Pony Express required, as a Help Wanted poster described, “young skinny, wiry fellows not over 18 … willing to risk death daily … Orphans preferred.” The New York Times reported, the first day that Pony Express mail arrived in San Francisco, “...citizens paraded the streets with bands of music, fireworks were set off … the best feeling was manifested by everybody.”

The Pony Express — a news, mail, and small package delivery service — opened to enhance communications, especially between people who lived on bothcoasts of an expanding ... more »

Today in History: First 10-Day East-West Mail Arrived, 1860
On April 14, 1860 — 155 years ago today — Pony Express mail arrived in San Francisco, California and proved that mail coming from the Eastern United States could be delivered to California within its 10-day guaranteed delivery time. Of course, unlike today’s nearly instant email delivery, the Pony Express required, as a Help Wanted poster described, “young skinny, wiry fellows not over 18 … willing to risk death daily … Orphans preferred.” The New York Times reported, the first day that Pony Express mail arrived in San Francisco, “...citizens paraded the streets with bands of music, fireworks were set off … the best feeling was manifested by everybody.”

The Pony Express — a news, mail, and small package delivery service — opened to enhance communications, especially between people who lived on both coasts of an expanding American continent. This new service debuted decades before radios and telephones were in wide use and relied upon horses and rider relay teams to complete a nearly 2,000-mile route that stretched from St. Joseph, Missouri to Sacramento, California and onto San Francisco, California. 

At its peak, the Pony Express used more than 100 stations, 80 riders, and up to 500 horses. However, the service lasted only 19 months, as it was quickly obsoleted by newer technology — the Pacific Telegraph line made communications over the long route almost instantaneous, certainly much quicker than the 10 days it generally took horseback riders with saddlebags to cross the extremely hazardous route. Interestingly, despite the dangerous trail, only one mail delivery was ever lost.

YouTube videos:
•The Pony Express: Wells Fargo and the History of the American West (length 03:06). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y1R-GeEd95c

Web sources:
•http://ponyexpress.org/pony-express-historical-timeline/
•http://ponyexpress.org/history/
•http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/pony-express-debuts
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pony_Express
•http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/on-this-day/april-3/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacific_Telegraph_Company
•http://www.nps.gov/poex/learn/historyculture/index.htm
•https://books.google.com/books?id=rwQXTcXs1EkC&pg=PA16&lpg=PA16&dq=Pony+Express+newspaper+headlines&source=bl&ots=ujhsrYBOda&sig=nTbdA0hV2FVCM-VJWtY-_--dNI4&hl=en&sa=X&ei=-1sqVZbiOInasATYr4CwCQ&ved=0CDUQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=Pony%20Express%20newspaper%20headlines&f=false

Book sources:
• The Saga of the Pony Express by Joseph J. Di Certo. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0878424520/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0878424520&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=5UJMTEXOI6IU43S3
• The Pony Express: The History and Legacy of America’s Most Famous Mail Service by Charles River Editors. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00GMPHNDY/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B00GMPHNDY&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=H2GZGPFHSPP7IP6V

Image credits:
•Top: Pony Express route, 1860, including “home” and “relay” stops.
•Bottom Left: Pony Express Advertisement.
•Bottom Middle: Pony Express Help Wanted poster.
•Bottom Right Top: Pony Express messenger badge.
•Bottom Right Middle: Pony Express mochila bag at the Smithsonian National Postal Museum. By Smithsonian National Postal Museum [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3APony_Express_mochila_exhibit.jpg
•Bottom Right Bottom: One of the first Pony Express riders.

#history #ponyexpress___

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2015-04-14 05:55:25 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 5 +1s)Open 

Today in History: First 10-Day East-West Mail Arrived, 1860
On April 14, 1860 — 155 years ago today — Pony Express mail arrived in San Francisco, California and proved that mail coming from the Eastern United States could be delivered to California within its 10-day guaranteed delivery time. Of course, unlike today’s nearly instant email delivery, the Pony Express required, as a Help Wanted poster described, “young skinny, wiry fellows not over 18 … willing to risk death daily … Orphans preferred.” The New York Times reported, the first day that Pony Express mail arrived in San Francisco, “...citizens paraded the streets with bands of music, fireworks were set off … the best feeling was manifested by everybody.”

The Pony Express — a news, mail, and small package delivery service — opened to enhance communications, especially between people who lived on bothcoasts of an expanding ... more »

Today in History: First 10-Day East-West Mail Arrived, 1860
On April 14, 1860 — 155 years ago today — Pony Express mail arrived in San Francisco, California and proved that mail coming from the Eastern United States could be delivered to California within its 10-day guaranteed delivery time. Of course, unlike today’s nearly instant email delivery, the Pony Express required, as a Help Wanted poster described, “young skinny, wiry fellows not over 18 … willing to risk death daily … Orphans preferred.” The New York Times reported, the first day that Pony Express mail arrived in San Francisco, “...citizens paraded the streets with bands of music, fireworks were set off … the best feeling was manifested by everybody.”

The Pony Express — a news, mail, and small package delivery service — opened to enhance communications, especially between people who lived on both coasts of an expanding American continent. This new service debuted decades before radios and telephones were in wide use and relied upon horses and rider relay teams to complete a nearly 2,000-mile route that stretched from St. Joseph, Missouri to Sacramento, California and onto San Francisco, California. 

At its peak, the Pony Express used more than 100 stations, 80 riders, and up to 500 horses. However, the service lasted only 19 months, as it was quickly obsoleted by newer technology — the Pacific Telegraph line made communications over the long route almost instantaneous, certainly much quicker than the 10 days it generally took horseback riders with saddlebags to cross the extremely hazardous route. Interestingly, despite the dangerous trail, only one mail delivery was ever lost.

YouTube videos:
•The Pony Express: Wells Fargo and the History of the American West (length 03:06). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y1R-GeEd95c

Web sources:
•http://ponyexpress.org/pony-express-historical-timeline/
•http://ponyexpress.org/history/
•http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/pony-express-debuts
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pony_Express
•http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/on-this-day/april-3/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacific_Telegraph_Company
•http://www.nps.gov/poex/learn/historyculture/index.htm
•https://books.google.com/books?id=rwQXTcXs1EkC&pg=PA16&lpg=PA16&dq=Pony+Express+newspaper+headlines&source=bl&ots=ujhsrYBOda&sig=nTbdA0hV2FVCM-VJWtY-_--dNI4&hl=en&sa=X&ei=-1sqVZbiOInasATYr4CwCQ&ved=0CDUQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=Pony%20Express%20newspaper%20headlines&f=false

Book sources:
• The Saga of the Pony Express by Joseph J. Di Certo. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0878424520/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0878424520&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=5UJMTEXOI6IU43S3
• The Pony Express: The History and Legacy of America’s Most Famous Mail Service by Charles River Editors. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00GMPHNDY/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B00GMPHNDY&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=H2GZGPFHSPP7IP6V

Image credits:
•Top: Pony Express route, 1860, including “home” and “relay” stops.
•Bottom Left: Pony Express Advertisement.
•Bottom Middle: Pony Express Help Wanted poster.
•Bottom Right Top: Pony Express messenger badge.
•Bottom Right Middle: Pony Express mochila bag at the Smithsonian National Postal Museum. By Smithsonian National Postal Museum [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3APony_Express_mochila_exhibit.jpg
•Bottom Right Bottom: One of the first Pony Express riders.

#history #ponyexpress___

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2015-04-13 13:02:46 (1 comments, 0 reshares, 6 +1s)Open 

Today in History: First East-to-West Transatlantic Flight Completed, 1928
On April 13, 1928 — 87 years ago today — the first East-to-West non-stop transatlantic flight crash landed on Greenly Island, Canada after taking off about 36-½ to 37 hours earlier from Baldonnel, Ireland. The flight was piloted by Hermann Koehl, James Fitzmaurice, and Guenther von Huenefeld. Their plane was a single-engine, all metal “Junkersmonoplane” (a.k.a. “The Junkers W 33 Bremen”). The plane was damaged on landing and the pilots had to be rescued; it never made it to the final destination, Mitchell Field, New York, but it did complete a long stretch over the Atlantic from one continent to another.

Charles Lindberg had made the first solo West-to-East transatlantic flight a year earlier, in May, 1927. The East-to-West trip was considered by many aviators to be much more challenging, as aconsequence ... more »

Today in History: First East-to-West Transatlantic Flight Completed, 1928
On April 13, 1928 — 87 years ago today — the first East-to-West non-stop transatlantic flight crash landed on Greenly Island, Canada after taking off about 36-½ to 37 hours earlier from Baldonnel, Ireland. The flight was piloted by Hermann Koehl, James Fitzmaurice, and Guenther von Huenefeld. Their plane was a single-engine, all metal “Junkersmonoplane” (a.k.a. “The Junkers W 33 Bremen”). The plane was damaged on landing and the pilots had to be rescued; it never made it to the final destination, Mitchell Field, New York, but it did complete a long stretch over the Atlantic from one continent to another.

Charles Lindberg had made the first solo West-to-East transatlantic flight a year earlier, in May, 1927. The East-to-West trip was considered by many aviators to be much more challenging, as a consequence of prevailing headwinds and unforeseen weather patterns.

YouTube videos:
•1928 Transatlantic Flight of the Bremen Aircraft mini-documentary (no sound, music; lenth 03:45). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7t2TsCYECpo 
•Original German film footage of the planning, take-off, crash landing, rescue of the crew, and post-flight celebrations of the first East-to-West transatlantic flight in April, 1928, beginning from Berlin (silent; length 12:16). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NU7Sa8QcLCw
•Slideshow of first plane to cross the Atlantic Ocean East-to-West (caution-loud music; length 01:04): Junkers W 33 Bremen. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zSyU55SPBCA

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bremen_(aircraft)
•http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0004537.html
•http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermann_K%C3%B6hl
•http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ehrenfried_G%C3%BCnther_Freiherr_von_H%C3%BCnefeld
•http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Fitzmaurice
•http://www.edwardnjackson.com/Daily_News.html
•http://www.charleslindbergh.com/history/paris.asp
•http://www.charleslindbergh.com/history/timeline.asp

Book sources:
• Transatlantic Flight: A Picture History, 1873-1939 by Joshua Stoff. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0486407276/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0486407276&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=6OYDM6K4RYUVS5E2

Memorabilia:
•1928 Newspaper Headline of First East-to-West Transatlantic Flight. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00QL4IVUU/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B00QL4IVUU&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=WOGRAQP3QRJV5XS2
•Junkers plane, similar to plane used in first East-to-West transatlantic flight. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B003IF9VFY/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B003IF9VFY&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=L4SHZJIWUWJJQMQC

Image credits:
•Top: “Junkers” plane at its crash landing spot. By Edward N. Jackson (Library and Archives Canada / PA-126212) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AJunkers_aircraft_Bremen.jpg
•Bottom Left: Google Map of origination and destination point of first East-West flight across the Atlantic Ocean.
•Bottom Right: (from left to right) Mrs. Hermann Koehl, Hermann Koel, James Fitzmaurice, German Chancellor Wilhelm Marx, Guenther von Huenefeld, and the Finance Minister of Germany. Bundesarchiv, Bild 102-06094 / CC-BY-SA [CC BY-SA 3.0 de (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/de/deed.en)], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ABundesarchiv_Bild_102-06094%2C_Berlin%2C_Empfang_der_Ozeanflieger.jpg

#history #monoplane #transatlantic___

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2015-04-12 13:39:03 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 8 +1s)Open 

Today in History: First Man Traveled in Space, 1961
On April 12, 1961 — 54 years ago today — Soviet Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin performed the first manned-space flight in history. At this point in the Space Race between the 2 super-powers after World War II, the U.S. and the U.S.S.R., the U.S.S.R. was ahead in firsts: 

(1) First satellite launched into space, Sputnik 1, on October 4, 1957.
(2) First animal to enter Earth orbit, Laika (dog), on November 3, 1957.
(3) First firing of a rocket in Earth orbit, Luna 1, and first near pass at Moon, launched January 2, 1959.
(4) First data communications from space (telemetry) during the Luna 1 mission in January, 1959.
(5) First man-made object to reach the surface of the Moon or any other celestial body, on September 14, 1959.
(6) First photographs of the far side of the Moon in late 1959.
(7) First animalsretu... more »

Today in History: First Man Traveled in Space, 1961
On April 12, 1961 — 54 years ago today — Soviet Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin performed the first manned-space flight in history. At this point in the Space Race between the 2 super-powers after World War II, the U.S. and the U.S.S.R., the U.S.S.R. was ahead in firsts: 

(1) First satellite launched into space, Sputnik 1, on October 4, 1957.
(2) First animal to enter Earth orbit, Laika (dog), on November 3, 1957.
(3) First firing of a rocket in Earth orbit, Luna 1, and first near pass at Moon, launched January 2, 1959.
(4) First data communications from space (telemetry) during the Luna 1 mission in January, 1959.
(5) First man-made object to reach the surface of the Moon or any other celestial body, on September 14, 1959.
(6) First photographs of the far side of the Moon in late 1959.
(7) First animals returned safely from orbit, on August 19, 1960.
(8) First man in space on April 11, 1961.

It was this amazing record of early achievements in space by the U.S.S.R. that may have caused U.S. President Kennedy to deliver his famous “Moon Shot” speech before a joint session of Congress the very next month, on May 15, 1961, in which he asked Congress for a funding commitment to land a man on the moon and return him safely.

YouTube videos:
•Yuri Gagarin: 108 minutes that changed the world (length: 03:24). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=umY92y25DrA
•Vostok-1 launch (humankind’s first spaceflight; length 00:56). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tfhulSjjGXA&list=PL3C42BA0DE26A29AE&index=17
•Yuri Gagarin, 12 April 1961, First Human in Orbit (no audio narration; length 05:13). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uUDyO3u0QYs
•Yuri Gagarin on BBC TV on July 11, 191 (translator involved; length 06:58). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MzzBr65ZFwM
•Gagarin: Untold Story of First Man in Space (RT documentary; length 25:59). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G6H9zqKtb5w
•https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TUXuV7XbZvU

Web sources:
•http://sputniknews.com/science/20110330/163289008.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuri_Gagarin
•http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/first-man-in-space
•http://www.space.com/16159-first-man-in-space.html
•http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/sts1/gagarin_anniversary.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_space_exploration_milestones,_1957%E2%80%931969

Book sources:
• The Cosmonaut Who Couldn’t Stop Smiling: The Life and Legend of Yuri Gagarin by Andrew L. Jenks. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B0082D48PA/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B0082D48PA&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=HWEOH72KWCSBVOHI
• The Great Space Race by Don Dennis. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00A8A73IO/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B00A8A73IO&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=O2CJBQ7MREK4EAQF

Image credits:
•Top Left: Launch of the Vostok 1, the first manned spaceflight with Yuri Gagarin on board. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/b/b6/Vostok1_big.gif
•Top Middle: Newspaper Headline reporting on the the first manned spaceflight by the U.S.S.R. http://myweb.tiscali.co.uk/thedixieflatline/rants/07_pics/gagarin.jpg
•Top Right: Vostok-1 space capsule. http://www.iainclaridge.co.uk/blog/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/vostok1_1.jpg
•Bottom: Vostok-1 informational drawing. http://api.ning.com/files/mepC6MLwLKgWqai7Z4alGH7G5zt-h75*Lc3rx0mwNneMmEjuHWNoXm4Lx9MeegQ0DWOHcifDE4gucs0dwaf7UcraVCePT3-e/vostok1_1600px.jpg

#history #space___

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2015-04-11 14:31:36 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 7 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Satellite First Rescued & Repaired in Space, 1984
On April 11, 1984 — 31 years ago today — the first malfunctioning satellite was rescued and repaired in space! Astronauts on board the Space Shuttle Challenger rendezvoused with the Solar Maximum Satellite, used tools and the Shuttle’s extension “arm” to bring the Solar Maximum satellite into the shuttle’s cargo bay where they made repairs to the satellite and then released it back into its observational orbit so it could provide valuable measurements of solar activity.

The U.S. had mastered the difficult procedures required to rendezvous and dock with orbiting spacecraft during its Gemini Program in the early 1960s. So it was relatively easy for the Space Shuttle to track down the Solar Maximum Satellite (SolarMax), which had been placed in an Earth orbit in early 1980 to study the Sun, particularlysolar flare... more »

Today in History: Satellite First Rescued & Repaired in Space, 1984
On April 11, 1984 — 31 years ago today — the first malfunctioning satellite was rescued and repaired in space! Astronauts on board the Space Shuttle Challenger rendezvoused with the Solar Maximum Satellite, used tools and the Shuttle’s extension “arm” to bring the Solar Maximum satellite into the shuttle’s cargo bay where they made repairs to the satellite and then released it back into its observational orbit so it could provide valuable measurements of solar activity.

The U.S. had mastered the difficult procedures required to rendezvous and dock with orbiting spacecraft during its Gemini Program in the early 1960s. So it was relatively easy for the Space Shuttle to track down the Solar Maximum Satellite (SolarMax), which had been placed in an Earth orbit in early 1980 to study the Sun, particularly solar flares. About 9 months into its mission, the satellite’s attitude control system partially failed — 2 fuses (out of 4) failed. Mission controllers were forced to rely on a back-up system to maintain the proper attitude for observing the sun, and this back-up system caused the satellite to wobble around its sun-positioned orbit. SolarMax had been fitted with a “grapple fixture” in case such an emergency repair would ever be required; the fixture allowed the space shuttle’s arm to capture it, stabilize it, and bring it into the cargo bay if necessary for maintenance work.

Because Solar Max was in a wobble mode to begin with, astronauts first performed an EVA (extravehicular activity = space walk) in an attempt to manually stabilize the satellite. Their actions served only to exacerbate the wobble, so the space shuttle moved closer to the satellite. The first attempt to grab the satellite with the extended robotic arm (nicknamed “Canadarm” because it was primarily developed and manufactured in Canada) was successful, and Canadarm manipulated the satellite into the cargo bay where it was secured and then fixed on a further EVA, and released back into orbit. The space repair enabled SolarMax to provide another 5 years of robust solar data collection before its mission naturally ended in late 1989 when it disintegrated upon its re-entry into the Earth’s atmosphere.

YouTube videos:
•Solar Maximum satellite repair: Space Shuttle STS-41-C Post Flight Press Conference Film 1984 (part 1; length 12:21). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eLZvnIEwkF4
•Solar Maximum satellite repair: Space Shuttle STS-41-C Post Flight Press Conference Film 1984 (part 2; length 08:00). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=419rX9-_zBQ

Web sources:
•http://www.csmonitor.com/1984/0411/041131.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_Maximum_Mission
•http://er.jsc.nasa.gov/seh/solmax.html
•http://www.americaspace.com/?p=56478
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-41-C
•https://books.google.com/books?id=WN_CAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA291&lpg=PA291&dq=sts-41+solar+max+cargo+bay&source=bl&ots=9fRKKaf71N&sig=KlRi1-tHn1R3waV2VXkAYH0J5VQ&hl=en&sa=X&ei=fAUoVaqzCLCasQS2kICYAg&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAzgK#v=onepage&q=sts-41%20solar%20max%20cargo%20bay&f=false
•http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/shuttle/missions/41-c/mission-41-c.html

Book sources:
• Repairing Solar Max: The Solar Maximum Repair Mission by T. McMahan and V. Neal. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/128727692X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=128727692X&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=SMXTTLJTQ7HBWRMM

Image credits:
•Left: Astronauts James D. van Hoften (left) George D. Nelson (right) working together to repair Solar Maximum satellite secured in the cargo bay of Space Shuttle Challenger. By NASA (Great Images in NASA Description) [Public domain or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ASMMS_repair_by_STS-41C_Astronauts.jpg 
•Right Top: Artist’s drawing of Solar Maximum satellite with labels showing its various components. http://lowres-picturecabinet.com.s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/43/main/9/88321.jpg
•Right Middle: Artist’s drawing of Solar Maximum Rendezvous and Retrieval into Shuttle’s Cargo Bay using its extension arm. http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19840020814.pdf
•Right Bottom: Solar Maximum satellite secured in the cargo bay of the space shuttle. http://www.americaspace.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/41c-solar-max.jpg

#history #space #spacerepair___

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2015-04-10 17:39:56 (1 comments, 0 reshares, 7 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Streaming-media industry launched, 1995
On April 10, 1995 — 20 years ago today — Robert Glaser debuted “RealAudio,” the first software to allow real-time, streaming for the web. And thus, the streaming industry was born! Before RealAudio, web users experienced long waits while audio files, which usually contained huge amounts of data, downloaded completely. With Glaser’s streaming technology, the user could begin listening immediately as a data stream began flowing as soon as the user clicked on an audio file. RealAudio caught on quickly with web users, especially because Glaser offered the RealAudio software for free and charged web-media companies for server software. 

[I need a paragraph here that describes what has happened in the streaming industry since Glaser’s launch of RealAudio.]

YouTube videos:
•Interview with Rob Glaser,Founder of Rea... more »

Today in History: Streaming-media industry launched, 1995
On April 10, 1995 — 20 years ago today — Robert Glaser debuted “RealAudio,” the first software to allow real-time, streaming for the web. And thus, the streaming industry was born! Before RealAudio, web users experienced long waits while audio files, which usually contained huge amounts of data, downloaded completely. With Glaser’s streaming technology, the user could begin listening immediately as a data stream began flowing as soon as the user clicked on an audio file. RealAudio caught on quickly with web users, especially because Glaser offered the RealAudio software for free and charged web-media companies for server software. 

[I need a paragraph here that describes what has happened in the streaming industry since Glaser’s launch of RealAudio.]

YouTube videos:
•Interview with Rob Glaser, Founder of RealNetworks. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=INe7DaUe2BQ

Web sources:
•https://books.google.com/books?id=qi-ItIG6QLwC&pg=PA121&lpg=PA121&dq=robert+glaser+releases+realaudio+%22april+10%22&source=bl&ots=uyQNAzS4FH&sig=eMB2cVBYQ4zCdzgUg00fOUJbHR4&hl=en&sa=X&ei=qYgmVavgA9TIsAS1noC4Ag&ved=0CB4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=robert%20glaser%20releases%20realaudio%20%22april%2010%22&f=false
•http://www.realnetworks.com/our-story/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RealAudio
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Audio_codec
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streaming_media

Book sources:
• Streaming Audio: The FezGuys Guide by Jon Luini and Allen Whitman. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0735712808/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0735712808&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=7YEOZFMMUHUAYUQV
• Awakening: The Music Industry in the Digital Age by Mark Mulligan. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00VUA29I0/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B00VUA29I0&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=LSV2YPGGFIWBRXKH

Image credits:
•Right: Robert Glaser, inventor of RealAudio. http://www.quotessays.com/images/rob-glaser-6.jpg
•Left Bottom: 1995 RealAudio logo.

#streaming #streamingmusic #realaudio___

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2015-04-09 17:43:15 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 5 +1s)Open 

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2015-04-09 05:47:44 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 5 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Facebook acquired photo-sharing network, Instagram, 2012
On April 9, 2012 — 3 years ago today — Facebook acquired Instagram, the photo-sharing network that was just 1-½ years old, had only 13 employees, but had attracted 30 million iPhone users and was growing exponentially. Instagram was being courted by both Twitter and Facebook. Kara Swisher reported that Twitter was offering in the mid-$500 million for Instagram (all of the offered price in stock and no cash). Zuckerberg of Facebook quickly befriended the CEO of Instagram, Kevin Systrom, invited Systrom into his home for an intensive conversation about mutual goals, and offered Systrom $1 billion for Instagram, including $300 million in cash. The deal was accepted and announced on this day in 2012 (over a month before the Facebook IPO).

Instagram was co-founded by Kevin Systrom, a Stanford Universitygrad... more »

Today in History: Facebook acquired photo-sharing network, Instagram, 2012
On April 9, 2012 — 3 years ago today — Facebook acquired Instagram, the photo-sharing network that was just 1-½ years old, had only 13 employees, but had attracted 30 million iPhone users and was growing exponentially. Instagram was being courted by both Twitter and Facebook. Kara Swisher reported that Twitter was offering in the mid-$500 million for Instagram (all of the offered price in stock and no cash). Zuckerberg of Facebook quickly befriended the CEO of Instagram, Kevin Systrom, invited Systrom into his home for an intensive conversation about mutual goals, and offered Systrom $1 billion for Instagram, including $300 million in cash. The deal was accepted and announced on this day in 2012 (over a month before the Facebook IPO).

Instagram was co-founded by Kevin Systrom, a Stanford University graduate with a B.S. in management science and engineering. While at Stanford, Systrom interned for Twitter (actually for Odeo, before it became Twitter). After graduating, Systrom worked for 2 years at Google in product marketing for Gmail, Google Calendar, Google Docs, Google Spreadsheets, and later in Corporate Development. He left Google to join “Nextstop,” a location/business recommendation startup founded by ex-Googlers.

When Nextstop was acquired by Facebook in 2010, Systrom started a company, “Burbn,” with Mike Krieger, a friend that Systrom had met through Stanford. Initially, Systrom and Krieger wrote Nextstop in HTML5 to be a check-in service, like Foursquare, including additional features, such as planning recurring visits, earning points for meeting friends, posting photos, commenting. As the product was slow in growing, Systrom and Krieger recalled a lesson they had learned at Stanford and through their brief work experiences: Users do not want a complicated product.

Inasmuch as Systrom had always been interested in photography, they decided to focus on one specific feature and make it an app for the iPhone — photo-sharing, and call it Instagram (a combination of “instant” and “telegram”). After focusing on this single app, Systrom and Krieger found themselves with a company worth $1 billion (at least to Mark Zuckerberg) within 18 months! .

YouTube videos:
•Interview by Kevin Rose of Instagram Founder, Kevin Systrom. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IPigMKugJhY
•Jason Silva on the Instagram Generation (02:31). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QEUnYah1aRw
•Mark Zuckerberg: Building the Facebook Empire. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5WiDIhIkPoM

Web sources:
•http://dealbook.nytimes.com/2012/04/09/facebook-buys-instagram-for-1-billion/?_r=0
•http://techcrunch.com/2012/04/09/facebook-to-acquire-instagram-for-1-billion/
•http://business.time.com/2013/04/09/a-year-later-instagram-hasnt-made-a-dime-was-it-worth-1-billion/
•http://fortune.com/2012/04/09/breaking-facebook-buying-instagram-for-1-billion/
•http://www.vanityfair.com/news/business/2013/06/kara-swisher-instagram
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instagram
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kevin_Systrom
•http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/facebook/9195380/Whos-getting-rich-from-Facebooks-1bn-Instagram-deal.html

Book sources:
• The Instagram Book by Steve Crist. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1623260353/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1623260353&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=VB3M7LEIL7EW3C5B
• Instagram Marketing on Fire by Anthony Joiner. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00JSJWYBM/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B00JSJWYBM&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=5FDFTM22O7PNYDTM
• Instagram: Insider Tips and Secrets on How to Gain Followers and Likes that Work Fast by Neo Monefa. http://www.amazon.com/Instagram-Followers-Marketing-Business-Professional-ebook/dp/B00TGHF8D2/ref=pd_sim_b_3?ie=UTF8&refRID=1051WGQVEN37SHFBKGRG

Image credits:
•Top: Instagram logo. http://zoompf.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/instagram-logo-side.jpg
•Middle Left: Kevin Systrom, Founder of Instagram. By TechCrunch [CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AKevin_Systrom_2013_(cropped).jpg
•Middle Right: Mark Zuckerberg, the Happy Acquirer. Reuters/Rick Wilking via Business Insider. http://www.businessinsider.com/yc-funds-mark-zuckerberg-look-alike-2013-5
•Bottom: Facebook logo. http://www.osnc.net/facebook-logo.jpg

#history #instagram #facebook #systrom #zuckerbergmonth before the Facebook IPO).

Instagram was co-founded by Kevin Systrom, a Stanford University graduate with a B.S. in management science and engineering. While at Stanford, Systrom interned for Twitter (actually for Odeo, before it became Twitter). After graduating, Systrom worked for 2 years at Google in product marketing for Gmail, Google Calendar, Google Docs, Google Spreadsheets, and later in Corporate Development. He left Google to join “Nextstop,” a location/business recommendation startup founded by ex-Googlers. When Nextstop was acquired by Facebook in 2010, Systrom started a company, “Burbn,” with Mike Krieger, a friend that Systrom had met through Stanford. Initially, Systrom and Krieger wrote Nextstop in HTML5 to be a check-in service, like Foursquare, including additional features, such as planning recurring visits, earning points for meeting friends, posting photos, commenting. As the product was slow in growing, Systrom and Krieger recalled a lesson they had learned at Stanford and through their brief work experiences: Users do not want a complicated product. Inasmuch as Systrom had always been interested in photography, they decided to focus on one specific feature and make it an app for the iPhone — photo-sharing, and call it Instagram (a combination of “instant” and “telegram”). After focusing on this single app, Systrom and Krieger found themselves with a company worth $1 billion within 18 months! (at least to Mark Zuckerberg).

YouTube videos:
•Interview by Kevin Rose of Instagram Founder, Kevin Systrom. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IPigMKugJhY
•Jason Silva on the Instagram Generation (02:31). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QEUnYah1aRw
•Mark Zuckerberg: Building the Facebook Empire. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5WiDIhIkPoM

Web sources:
•http://dealbook.nytimes.com/2012/04/09/facebook-buys-instagram-for-1-billion/?_r=0
•http://techcrunch.com/2012/04/09/facebook-to-acquire-instagram-for-1-billion/
•http://business.time.com/2013/04/09/a-year-later-instagram-hasnt-made-a-dime-was-it-worth-1-billion/
•http://fortune.com/2012/04/09/breaking-facebook-buying-instagram-for-1-billion/
•http://www.vanityfair.com/news/business/2013/06/kara-swisher-instagram
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instagram
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kevin_Systrom
•http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/facebook/9195380/Whos-getting-rich-from-Facebooks-1bn-Instagram-deal.html

Book sources:
• The Instagram Book by Steve Crist. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1623260353/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1623260353&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=VB3M7LEIL7EW3C5B
• Instagram Marketing on Fire by Anthony Joiner. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00JSJWYBM/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B00JSJWYBM&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=5FDFTM22O7PNYDTM
• Instagram: Insider Tips and Secrets on How to Gain Followers and Likes that Work Fast by Neo Monefa. http://www.amazon.com/Instagram-Followers-Marketing-Business-Professional-ebook/dp/B00TGHF8D2/ref=pd_sim_b_3?ie=UTF8&refRID=1051WGQVEN37SHFBKGRG

Image credits:
•Top: Instagram logo. http://zoompf.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/instagram-logo-side.jpg
•Middle Left: Kevin Systrom, Founder of Instagram. By TechCrunch [CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AKevin_Systrom_2013_(cropped).jpg
•Middle Right: Mark Zuckerberg, the Happy Acquirer. Reuters/Rick Wilking via Business Insider. http://www.businessinsider.com/yc-funds-mark-zuckerberg-look-alike-2013-5
•Bottom: Facebook logo. http://www.osnc.net/facebook-logo.jpg

#history #instagram #facebook #systrom #zuckerberg___

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2015-04-08 17:50:19 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 0 +1s)Open 

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2015-04-08 11:10:40 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 8 +1s)Open 

Today in History: IBM Introduced the IBM/360 System, 1964
On April 7, 1964 — 51 years ago today — CEO of IBM, Thomas J. Watson, announced a revolutionary computer system, the IBM/360 System. Before the 360, there were a multitude of different business computers, none of which understood or talked to each other. With the 360 line of computers, all of that changed with a revolutionary architecture — programs written on a smaller 360 model computer could run on a larger 360 model computer. As a business expanded, the investment it made in software was leveraged rather than discarded.

Within a few years, IBM’s decision to bet its future on this new line of computers proved to be one of the best business decisions ever made. By 1969, IBM had become so dominant in the computer industry that the Justice Department of the Johnson Administration, on its last day in office, sued IBM foranti-co... more »

Today in History: IBM Introduced the IBM/360 System, 1964
On April 7, 1964 — 51 years ago today — CEO of IBM, Thomas J. Watson, announced a revolutionary computer system, the IBM/360 System. Before the 360, there were a multitude of different business computers, none of which understood or talked to each other. With the 360 line of computers, all of that changed with a revolutionary architecture — programs written on a smaller 360 model computer could run on a larger 360 model computer. As a business expanded, the investment it made in software was leveraged rather than discarded.

Within a few years, IBM’s decision to bet its future on this new line of computers proved to be one of the best business decisions ever made. By 1969, IBM had become so dominant in the computer industry that the Justice Department of the Johnson Administration, on its last day in office, sued IBM for anti-competitive practices — not allowing other computer manufacturers to run its “360” “all-around” software. IBM spent over a decade defending itself from such charges and the Reagan Administration eventually dismissed the suit. But, in the meantime, Microsoft seized on an opportunity to take advantage of IBM’s best anti-competitive behavior.

Oddly enough, Nicholas Katzenbach, the former head (from 1964 to 1966) of the Johnson Justice Department that filed the suit against IBM in January of 1969 was elected vice president and general counsel of IBM almost simultaneously. To be sure, at the time the suit was filed, Katzenbach was not the U.S. Attorney General but the Undersecretary of State (1966 to 1969).

YouTube videos:
•The IBM System/360 Revolution (length 01:50:47). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8c0_Lzb1CJw

Web sources:
•http://archive.computerhistory.org/resources/text/IBM/IBM.360.1964.102646246.pdf
•http://www.computerhistory.org/revolution/mainframe-computers/7/161
•https://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/mainframe/mainframe_PR360.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_System/360
•http://alegion63.tripod.com/bob/id23.html
•http://www.historyofcomputercommunications.info/Book/5/5.2JusticeDept-IBM-ATT.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicholas_Katzenbach

Book sources:
• IBM’s 360 and Early 370 Systems by Emerson W. Pugh, Lyle R. Johnson, and John H. Palmer. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262517205/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0262517205&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=PB7QL2IMW33QIFEU
• Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and its Technology by Emerson W. Pugh. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262512823/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0262512823&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=GA54ZAPKGUVFNQGE
• Computer Architecture: Concepts and Evolution (2 volume set) by Gerrit A. Blaauw and Frederick P. Brooks Jr. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0201105578/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0201105578&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=JPFTGMUWJMD7FWC6

Image credits:
•Left: IBM 360
•Right: Thomas J. Watson announcing the IBM System/360 on April 7, 1964. Courtesy of the Computer History Museum. http://www.computerhistory.org/revolution/mainframe-computers/7/161/576

#history #IBM /360 #IBM___

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2015-04-06 11:45:30 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 5 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Pioneer 11 launched, 1973
On April 6, 1973 — 42 years ago today — Pioneer 11 blasted off its launchpad with a goal of flying by Jupiter and Saturn to study these planets on its eventual journey to the edges of our Solar System and beyond. The spacecraft (artist’s depiction, below left) carried a plaque that featured figures of a human male and female along with several symbols designed to provide information about Earth (the same plaque, designed by Carl Sagan and SETI founder Frank Drake, was first attached to Pioneer 10; for more plaque information, please see https://plus.google.com/+BradAcker/posts/Z8vwdG8etP2). NASA scientists made the last contact with Pioneer 11 on September 30, 1995, but it is heading outside our solar system and is traveling toward the constellation Sagittarius.

Pioneer 11’s twin, Pioneer 10, had launched a little over a year earlieron Marc... more »

Today in History: Pioneer 11 launched, 1973
On April 6, 1973 — 42 years ago today — Pioneer 11 blasted off its launchpad with a goal of flying by Jupiter and Saturn to study these planets on its eventual journey to the edges of our Solar System and beyond. The spacecraft (artist’s depiction, below left) carried a plaque that featured figures of a human male and female along with several symbols designed to provide information about Earth (the same plaque, designed by Carl Sagan and SETI founder Frank Drake, was first attached to Pioneer 10; for more plaque information, please see https://plus.google.com/+BradAcker/posts/Z8vwdG8etP2). NASA scientists made the last contact with Pioneer 11 on September 30, 1995, but it is heading outside our solar system and is traveling toward the constellation Sagittarius.

Pioneer 11’s twin, Pioneer 10, had launched a little over a year earlier on March 3, 1972, and it, too, had been sent toward Jupiter. Pioneer 11 got 3x closer to Jupiter than Pioneer 10 and was able to use Jupiter’s gravity to propel it toward Saturn. The knowledge gained from both Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 was used in developing the subsequent planetary exploration Voyager missions in the late 1970s. It is expected Pioneer 11 will take about 4 million years to reach a Sagittarius star.

YouTube videos:
•Pioneer 11 Animation and Archive Footage (no sound; length 06:01). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w8fjxcRMHGM
•Pioneer 11 Saturn Encounter as It Happened (length: 25:53). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2FkyIE1A8_8

Web sources:
•http://www.brainyhistory.com/days/april_5.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pioneer_11
•http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/missions/profile.cfm?MCode=Pioneer_11
•http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/multimedia/gallery.cfm?Category=Spacecraft&Mission=Pioneer_11&ImageOf=0
•http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/multimedia/videos.cfm?&Mission=Pioneer_11
•http://www.space.com/17785-pioneer-11.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sagittarius
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pioneer_10

Book sources:
• The Depths of Space: The Story of the Pioneer Planetary Probes by Mark Wolverton.
http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0309090504/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0309090504&linkCode=as2&tag=empoweringnews-20&linkId=BI3A3XGF2YVUBN2T

Image credits:
•Left: Artist’s depiction of Pioneer 10/11 in heading into interstellar space. By NASA Ames Research Center. http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/multimedia/display.cfm?IM_ID=2903
•Right Top: Pioneer 11 lift-off on April 5, 1973 atop an Atlas-Centaur rocket. By NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA-MSFC) (MIX 9139575, MSFC-75-SA-4105-2C) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pioneer_G_(Pioneer_11)_launch.jpg
•Right Bottom: Trajectory of Pioneer 11 between Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 and headed in the opposite direction of Pioneer 10. http://www.newscientist.com/data/images/ns/cms/dn11304/dn11304-1_600.jpg

#history #space-exploration #pioneer11___

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2015-04-05 11:57:53 (1 comments, 0 reshares, 10 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Launched, 1991
On April 5, 1991 — 24 years ago today — the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) was launched from the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Atlantis and operated for over 9 years until its controlled demise on June 4, 2000 (when it re-entered the Earth’s atmosphere and disintegrated over the Pacific Ocean). The CGRO was the heaviest payload ever flown in space at the time of its launch — 37,000 lbs. (17,000 kilograms), and included (1) the Burst and Transient Source Experiment, (2) the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment, (3) the Imaging Compton Telescope, and (4) the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment. Each of these instruments improved measurements by a factor of 10 over previous space instruments.

The CGRO was the second to be deployed of NASA’s 4 Great observatory platforms:

1. Hubble Telescope— deploye... more »

Today in History: Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Launched, 1991
On April 5, 1991 — 24 years ago today — the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) was launched from the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Atlantis and operated for over 9 years until its controlled demise on June 4, 2000 (when it re-entered the Earth’s atmosphere and disintegrated over the Pacific Ocean). The CGRO was the heaviest payload ever flown in space at the time of its launch — 37,000 lbs. (17,000 kilograms), and included (1) the Burst and Transient Source Experiment, (2) the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment, (3) the Imaging Compton Telescope, and (4) the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment. Each of these instruments improved measurements by a factor of 10 over previous space instruments.

The CGRO was the second to be deployed of NASA’s 4 Great observatory platforms:

1. Hubble Telescope — deployed by Space Shuttle Discovery on April 25, 1990, repaired in 1993, and subsequently enhanced on a number of spacewalks — was the first observatory put in space. Designed to be a long-term mission, placed 380 miles above the Earth’s surface, Hubble continues to this day to observe the Universe at visual, infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths.

2. Compton Gamma Ray Observatory — deployed on April 5, 1991 by Space Shuttle Atlantis — collected an enormous amount of data on the most violent physical processes going on in the Universe, for 9 years until it was destroyed.

3. Chandra X-Ray Observatory — deployed by Space Shuttle Columbia into an orbit 200x higher than Hubble (more than ⅓ of the way to the Moon) on July 23, 1999 — was designed to measure X-ray sources 100x fainter than those that were detected by any previous X-ray telescope. Although Chandra continues to provide data to Earth, NASA does not expect its components to last much longer (as it was originally designed for only a 5-year mission). 

4. Spitzer Space Telescope — launched from Cape Canaveral on a Delta II rocket on August 25, 1993 — was the 4th and final telescope of NASA’s Great Observatories program. It was designed to observe infrared sources in the Universe.

YouTube videos:
•Hubble, Compton Gamma Ray, Chandra X-Ray, Spitzer: “The Four Great Observatories” (length 5:25). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JT5qriudnRk
•STS-37 Space Shuttle Atlantis Space Launch (of Compton Gamma Ray Observatory) and Landing. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SDd4JZlBpiM
•Supernovas / Massive Gamma Ray Bursts: Facts (length 44:28). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SbTGru7s_ks

Web sources:
•http://www.spacetoday.org/DeepSpace/Telescopes/GreatObservatories/Compton/Compton.html
•http://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/cgro/index.html
•http://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/cgro/cgro/compton.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compton_Gamma_Ray_Observatory
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamma_ray
•http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1927/compton-bio.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Compton
•http://amazing-space.stsci.edu/resources/explorations/groundup/lesson/scopes/cgro/index.php
•http://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/postsecondary/features/F_NASA_Great_Observatories_PS.html
•http://chandra.harvard.edu/
•http://chandra.harvard.edu/about/top_ten.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chandra_X-ray_Observatory
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spitzer_Space_Telescope
•http://www.spitzer.caltech.edu/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_space_telescopes

Book sources:
• What are Gamma-Ray Bursts? by Joshua S. Bloom. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0691145571/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0691145571&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=RBXQUMWQCHXO7SKN
• Exploding Superstars: Understanding Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts by Alain Mazure. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0387095470/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0387095470&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=KTJY7QY4C7H4QDPV
• Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (AIP Conference Proceedings) by Neil Gehreils. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1563961040/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1563961040&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=MGUXDFMQAJKWHBEQ

Image credits:
•Top: Compton Gamma Ray Observatory being launched from the Space Shuttle Atlantis. http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/space/universe/exploration/compton_gamma_ray_observatory
•Bottom: Electromagnetic Spectrum. http://www.schome.ac.uk/wiki/images/3/36/EM_spectrum.jpg

#history #telescopes #NASA #Compton #gamma-rays #spaceshuttle___

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2015-04-04 17:10:10 (1 comments, 2 reshares, 8 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Microsoft founded, 1975
On April 4, 1975 — 40 years ago today — Microsoft was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen. 

In the late 1960’s in their private and elite Lakeside high school in Seattle (the only high school in the nation at the time to have access to an IBM/360), Gates and Allen formed a friendship around their passion for computing and their dream of writing commercial software for the impending personal computer revolution. With another “friend-of-a-friend” who could build computers, they started a company (“Traf-O-Data”) that built a computer with accompanying software to analyze traffic data. This company’s product failed to gain much traction, so the two friends next focused on college — Allen first attended Washington State University (Allen was a couple of years older than Gates) while Gates then headed to Harvard University inCambridge, MA. ... more »

Today in History: Microsoft founded, 1975
On April 4, 1975 — 40 years ago today — Microsoft was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen. 

In the late 1960’s in their private and elite Lakeside high school in Seattle (the only high school in the nation at the time to have access to an IBM/360), Gates and Allen formed a friendship around their passion for computing and their dream of writing commercial software for the impending personal computer revolution. With another “friend-of-a-friend” who could build computers, they started a company (“Traf-O-Data”) that built a computer with accompanying software to analyze traffic data. This company’s product failed to gain much traction, so the two friends next focused on college — Allen first attended Washington State University (Allen was a couple of years older than Gates) while Gates then headed to Harvard University in Cambridge, MA. 

Before graduating from Washington State University, Allen found a job at Honeywell in Boston — close to Gates at Harvard. After getting excited about seeing a Popular Electronics magazine reporting on the first personal computer kit — the Altair 8800 from MITS (Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems) — Gates and Allen knew they could write BASIC for the computer and greatly enhance its usefulness. Gates called the makers of the Altair 8800 and offered to demonstrate BASIC running on the system in about 8 weeks, and then Gates and Allen worked almost non-stop to develop the promised BASIC programming language interpreter. They finished the job the night before Allen flew from Boston to Albuquerque, NM, where the maker of the Altair (MITS) was located to demo their software. Upon successfully demonstrating the product, Allen accepted a job offer to become the Associate Director of Software for MITS in January of 1975. Gates dropped out of Harvard, disappointing his parents at first, and joined Allen in Albuquerque. Once Gates’s parents understood how passionate Bill was about starting a company with his friend, his parents were supportive of Bill’s decision. As soon as Gates had joined Allen in New Mexico, Gates and Allen formed a partnership that they named “Micro-soft” and commemorate April 4, 1975 as the founding date.

The early Microsoft created BASIC for the Altair, for the Apple II, and for Radio Shack’s TRS-80. On January 1, 1979, Gates and Allen moved the company back to their original home area, to Bellevue, WA (and then eventually to its current location in Redmond, WA). They formally incorporated the company as “Microsoft” on June 25, 1981 — just a few weeks before IBM introduced its PC with the operating system (MS-DOS 1.0) that Gates and Allen had “developed” for it. [Please also see: https://plus.google.com/+BradAcker/posts/RwWjmPW8TMk] The company was reincorporated in Delaware on September 19,1986, and then reincorporated in the state of Washington on November 1, 1993. Microsoft’s IPO (initial public offering) was held on March 13, 1986. 

YouTube videos:
•Paul Allen on Gates, Microsoft / 60 Minutes / CBS News. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4IM0SvIiMI4
•History of Microsoft—1975. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BLaMbaVT22E

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Microsoft
•http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/5085630.stm
•http://archive.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2008/04/dayintech_0404
•http://www.wired.com/2011/04/0404bill-gates-paul-allen-form-microsoft/
•http://fundersandfounders.com/how-bill-gates-started/
•http://www.biography.com/people/bill-gates-9307520
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_Gates
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Allen
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Traf-O-Data
•http://startup.nmnaturalhistory.org/gallery/story.php?ii=45
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Microsoft
•http://news.dice.com/2011/03/31/microsoft-co-founder-paul-allen-takes-a-swipe-at-bill-gates/
•http://dingeengoete.blogspot.com/2013/04/this-day-in-history-apr-04-1975.html
http://www.microsoft.com/investor/InvestorServices/FAQ/default.aspx

Book sources:
• Hard Drive: Bill Gates and the Making of the Microsoft Empire by James Wallace and Jim Erickson. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0887306292/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0887306292&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=J5K2UPRYOFIXOIFL
• Paul Allen: Idea Man / A Memoir by the Cofounder of Microsoft by Paul Allen. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1591845378/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1591845378&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=MQLUIQ4SYE6YZBJG

Image credits:
•Left: Bill Gates (left) and Paul Allen (right), 1975. http://www.wired.com/2011/04/0404bill-gates-paul-allen-form-microsoft/
•Right Top: Paul Allen (left) and Bill Gates (right), standing back to back with computer in the middle. 
•Bottom: Popular Electronics, published on November 29,1974. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/c/cb/Popular_Electronics_Cover_Jan_1975.jpg

#history #Microsoft___

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2015-04-03 11:33:30 (1 comments, 1 reshares, 8 +1s)Open 

I love these History Posts

Today in History: First spacecraft in history orbited the Moon, 1966
On April 3, 1966 — 49 years ago today — Soviet Union’s Luna 10 (a.k.a. Lunik 10) became the 1st spacecraft to orbit the Moon (or any celestial object). The Luna 10 spacecraft was launched from an Earth orbiting platform on March 31, 1966 and first entered lunar orbit on April 3, 1966. Among the instruments, it carried were (1) a magnetometer, (2) gamma-ray spectrometer, (3) gas discharge counters, (4) ion traps and charged-particle trap, (5) piezoelectric micrometer detector, (6) infrared detector, (7) low-energy x-ray photon counters. This instrument package, contained within a 1.5 meter tall by 75 cm diameter base (about 5 feet tall by 2-½ feet diameter base), collected useful information about the weakness of the Moon’s magnetic field, radiation belts around the Moon, the Moon’s atmosphere and surface composition, and the lunar region’s cosmic radiation and micrometeoroid density. 

Luna 10 orbited the Moon 460 times and made 219 data transmissions to Earth, before its battery died. Radio signal communications with the spacecraft were discontinued on May 30, 1966.

As the following list shows, the U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. were truly involved in a race to explore the Moon; at this particular point, the U.S.S.R. was arguably ahead, as the U.S.S.R.’s lunar missions were the first to successfully impact the Moon and orbit the Moon:

(1) USA - Pioneer - failed lunar orbiter (August 1958)
(2) USSR - Luna 1958A - failed lunar impactor (September 1958)
(3) USA - Pioneer 1 - failed lunar orbiter (October 1958)
(4) USSR - Luna 1958B - failed lunar impactor (October 1958)
(5) USA - Pioneer 2 - failed lunar orbiter (November 1958)
(6) USSR - Luna 1958C - failed lunar impactor (December 1958)
(7) USA - Pioneer 3 - failed lunar flyby (December 1958)
(8) USSR - Luna 1 - failed lunar impactor (January 1959)
(9) USSR - Luna 1959A - failed lunar impactor (June 1959)
(10) USA - Pioneer 4 - FIRST successful lunar flyby * (March 1959)
(11) USSR - Luna 2 - FIRST successful lunar impactor (September 1959)
(12) USSR - Luna 3 - successful lunar flyby (October 1959)
(13) USA - Pioneer P-3 - failed lunar flyby (November 1959)
(14) USA - Ranger 1 - failed earth-orbit test vehicle (August 1961)
(15) USA - Ranger 2 - failed earth-orbit test vehicle (November 1961)
(16) USA - Ranger 3 - failed lunar lander (January 1962)
(17) USA - Ranger 4 - failed lunar lander (April 1962)
(18) USA - Ranger 5 - failed lunar lander (October 1962)
(19) USSR - Sputnik 25 - failed lunar lander (January 1963)
(20) USSR - Luna 4 - failed lunar orbiter (April 1963)
(21) USA - Ranger 6 - failed lunar impactor (January 1964)
(22) USA - Ranger 7 - successful lunar impactor (July 1964)
(23) USA - Ranger 8 - successful lunar impactor (February 1965)
(24) USA - Ranger 9 - successful lunar impactor (March 1965)
(25) USSR - Luna 5 - failed lunar lander (May 1965)
(26) USSR - Luna 6 - failed lunar lander (June 1965)
(27) USSR - Zond 3 - successful lunar flyby (July 1965)
(28) USSR - Luna 7 - failed lunar lander (October 1965)
(29) USSR - Luna 8 - failed lunar lander (December 1965)
(30) USSR - Luna 9 - FIRST successful lunar lander (February 1966)
(31) USSR - Cosmos 111 - failed moon flyby (March 1966)
(32) USSR - Luna 10 - FIRST successful lunar orbiter (April 1966)

YouTube videos:
•1966: Luna 10 (in Russian; length: 01:53). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xuZOzwHbNVA

Web sources:
•http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1966-027A
•https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/missions/profile.cfm?MCode=Luna_10
•http://www.zarya.info/Diaries/Luna/Luna10.php
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luna_10
•http://www.lunarland.com/luna-moon-missions

Book sources:
• The Soviet Space Race with Apollo by Asif A. Siddiqi. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0813026288/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0813026288&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=X4A5W4T3IRDHNVDP
• Space Race: The Epic Battle Between America and the Soviet Union for Dominion of Space by Deborah Cadbury. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0061176281/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0061176281&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=3SGEZUJESUTGUUF3

Image credits:
•Luna 10. http://spacecraft.pagesperso-orange.fr/soyouz.htm

#history #USSR #SovietUnion #moon___I love these History Posts

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