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Rajini Rao has been shared in 531 public circles

You can see here the 50 latest shared circles.
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AuthorFollowersDateUsers in CircleCommentsReshares+1Links
Daniel Mihai Popescu44,271My Peacemakers!It's an old circle of highly valuable friends :)A "+1" will be highly regarded when I'll find again the opportunity to log here. You see me posting, but I do it from my browser. If you feel neglected, please don't be, because you are all in my heart, in your deserved place. #danielmihaipopescusharedcircle #maximumperformance Have a nice week, dear friends and future friends!2014-04-14 19:41:21494352543CC G+
Jeff Shapiro1,005Dangerous Women 2.0A circle of women of G+ who make us laugh, cry, engage, and above all, think. If you know someone who belongs in this circle (and we all do), nominate them!2014-04-11 22:29:0750002CC G+
Shashi S5,439PHILOSOPHY AND CREATIVE THINKERS_________________________________________This is the circle of people who have a modern out look of spirituality and thoughts. They have inspired me, engaged me over the years at Google+.If you have received this message, then you are already in the circle. If came to it through browsing, please add to find some real gem of creative people in your timeline. To be included in this circle, you need to be an engager with an attitude to share interesting thoughts, comments and ...1. Plus The Post2. Comment3. Add People To Circles4. Share The Circle!__Shashiॐ नमः शिवायOm Namah Shivaya#sharedcircle #topsharedcircle #circleoftheday #sharedcircle #trustinme #circlesharing #circleshare #circles #circleoftheday #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircles #share #vipsnowballcircle #sharedcircleoftheday #sharewithyou #followme #followers #followback #circle #googleplus #coolpeople #circleshare #sharedcircles #sharedcircle #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles     #circleshare #circlesharing  #fullcircleshare 2014-04-08 09:37:39111205CC G+
Shashi S5,439POWER OF EVE_______________This is the circle of women (I am the exception there, being a man - sorry about that), who have inspired me, engaged me over the years at Google+.If you have received this message, then you are already in the circle. If came to it through browsing, please add to find some real gem of thoughts in your timeline. To be included in this circle, you need to be an engager with an attitude to share interesting thoughts, comments and ...1. Plus The Post2. Comment3. Add People To Circles4. Share The Circle!__Shashiॐ नमः शिवायOm Namah Shivaya#sharedcircle #topsharedcircle #circleoftheday #sharedcircle #trustinme #circlesharing #circleshare #circles #circleoftheday #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircles #share #vipsnowballcircle #sharedcircleoftheday #sharewithyou #followme #followers #followback #circle #googleplus #coolpeople #circleshare #sharedcircles #sharedcircle #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles     #circleshare #circlesharing  #fullcircleshare 2014-04-08 09:31:41118002CC G+
Jean-Marc Luna36,938My buddies (432/2)of the G+ villageI am happy to share (finally) my first big circles (432/1 and 432/2) with you. It is also a way to thank you and to inform you of my consideration.You will find in these two circles all the people I follow regularly since my first steps on Google+ and which accompany me for soon two years in this beautiful adventure, bringing every day, by their sympathy, their humor, their knowledge, their generosity and their open-mindedness, a bit extra to my everyday life.I do not know everybody, I have crossed the path with some, I communicate more with some and many people became friends, thing which I did not expect by landing here.When I began, I was lucky enough to discover new interesting people, thanks to the system of circles sharing, and I hope that these both will be for you of the same utility.If you add a “plus”, maybe it will have an impact on climate change,if you share this circle, maybe Putin is going to get married with an ukrainian women in 2014,if you include me in your circles, maybe it will solve the problem of hunger in the world,Maybe ... but in fact, nothing is sure ;)A good day to all :)With a special thought for #dirktalamasca  #sharedcircles #circles #circlesharing  2014-03-31 15:30:374321214692CC G+
Daniel Mihai Popescu42,089This is Cats 2, a growing circle :) #danielmihaipopescusharedcircle #maximumperformance (based on Cat Circle recently shared by +Simona AN , meaning that a little bit more than a third is taken from there, and if there are actually more than that, this is a pure coincidence)Just a "+1" will be enough, my friends and future friends :)2014-03-31 12:46:11386343041CC G+
Daniel Mihai Popescu41,745I do not remember why I have called this circle Zero when I gave it this final form. Anyway, it's a circle of value, it's not a "push". So, don't feel obliged with anything. A "+1" will be greatly appreciated.Thank you very much! #danielmihaipopescusharedcircle   #maximumperformance  I still have some great difficulties to connect properly to G+, so I hope that you understand that. "Engagement" means connecting. I have to assure you that you haven't lost me :) Of course, if you feel that I don't "interact" with you as much as you like, don't be afraid and uncircle me! 2014-03-28 10:52:1148713273167CC G+
Richard Green61,119Engagers Showcase Circle, March 20, 2014If you received a notification, it means that you are included in my Engagers Showcase Circle. “Showcase” means that you are invited to leave a comment (on the original post) with a link to one of your own posts, which ideally should be one of your best recent posts.This circle consists of people who have engaged with one of my recent posts in the form of +1s, comments and reshares. I ran out of room, so my most recent posts will be included next time instead.Everyone mentioned below is also included in the circle.Michelangelo and the Jordan curve theoremhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/UN8TetdX48VThe Kelpieshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/M6aWXwu6zESAntoine's necklacehttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/4anPfBNTyjXThe Farey-Ford tessellationhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/GrZP3ajnRGUAlien Garden (reshared from +Kevin Clift)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/j55RpNfocNABetween a rock and a hard placehttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/WGNdNFneW1uAlan Turing: a universal Turing machine?https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/MUjAnVtL7hbVisual artist Aliza Razellhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/hbd3e6U1fhSBeet it (reshared from +Laura Ockel)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/U7RjV31mM7WChess played on a sphere... and other animalshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/LGXUE73Z3MoPass 'Em Onhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/iFCQcXfhNdDArizona sunset (reshared from +Debashish Samaddar)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/CR1yJ48g8CWThe inside of my fridge, through Glasshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/SQK6KoFL2rmBatmobile 1?https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/aV43AZenAd9Mary O'Malley ceramics (reshared from 2014-03-20 19:09:36469203169233CC G+
Becky Collins5,164 Social Sciences Circle :Circle of very #social #engagerspeople and companiesTo be included in my shares (#sharedcircle), be so kind to:1 - Do +1 t the post2 - Comment the post and specify your "category" (job or interest) Ex: Fashion, SEO, Companies, Social Media Marketing, Sailing, Photography, Bloggers/Writers, Web graphics and design, Italy, Artists, Sport, Finance/Economy ...3 - include the circle among your circles4 - share the circle (include yourself)Improve your popularity, be social be cool !#socialmedia  #media  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing  #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins2014-03-18 12:35:31305008CC G+
Daniel Mihai Popescu40,296This is Clare, a circle based on something created with great taste by +Clare Patrick :)If you want to add it, it'll be to your own comfort, otherwise, a "+1" will be greatly appreciated! #danielmihaipopescusharedcircle I wish you'll never experience my technical problems :)2014-03-16 23:06:2839210650157CC G+
Carlos Esteban39,158ENGAGERS and other INTERESTING PEOPLE Here you will find a sample of recent and repeat engagers, people that include me in shared circles, and people that publish interesting, useful or amusing posts. Add the circle and check them out. Maybe you like some of them! Feel free to re-share the circle :) Have a great Sunday! #circles #circlethis #circleyoushare #sharedcircles #addcircle #sharedpubliccircles #growfollowers #circleshare #publicsharedcircles #circleoftheweek #circlesharing #publiccircle #findcircles #circlemeup #sharedcircle #circleshare  #thursdaycircle   #thursdaycircleshared   #circlethursday #circle 2014#72014-03-16 14:11:22498584862CC G+
Daily Photography Themes16,531Curators CircleIt's been a while since we shared the latest Curators circle. So here they all are, all 468 of 'em. #dptcurators  (pd)2014-03-14 07:44:2446826829CC G+
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:27:36393013CC G+
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:26:50393033CC G+
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:26:17393012CC G+
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:25:52393011CC G+
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:25:16393204CC G+
Thibaut Delp22,406Time for some  #CircleShare   This is my  #Awesome  Circle! Awesome people for an awesome Google+ experience! Enjoy folks :)+Nothing but Circles +Shared Circles on G+ +Full Circle +Circles (CircleHub) 2014-03-07 19:15:572389712CC G+
Daniel Mihai Popescu39,070The Engagers!I have experimenting some technical difficulties with G+, so please be patient with me.If by "engagement" you meaning "sharing circles", it's something I have ceased to do from a few months now.It is more important to be in a circle, so people who add it, will add you as well, don't you think?I do not pretend anything from you in exchange to be in my circles, even if I know that it is customary to promise the moon if someone shares your circles and pats your back (this is a very euphemistic way of putting the problem). My circles are not based on that. I have expressed my opinions several times, so who knows me, in fact knows them too. I'm not teasing "new" ones to add me back, so that's not my circles' purpose.I have shared this one with the circle too, and  I hope you are all, just fine :)A "plus one" will be greatly appreciated. Thank you! #danielmihaipopescusharedcircle If I forgot someone, don't worry, I have many circles and circles combinations :) I have shared so little in the last weeks, because I couldn't log into G+ directly. Today looks like a miracle. Yesterday I could log for exactly ten minutes. But I keep the flow open, because I post directly from the browser or the blogs which have G+ buttons.The thing I'm most sorry for not being able to log in, is that I can't say "happy birthday" to the people celebrating their birthdays when I'm not here :)I hope they'll understand.2014-03-04 20:56:2045712278168CC G+
Jean-François Durocher3,158I've never shared any circle but I'll try it today. This circle is on that I built over the last month or so of interesting people on G+. Some are popular some are less but I think it's a good idea to give them all a try and see what they can bring to your Google+ experience.Thanks guys for this cool G+ experience. #engagers   #circles   #circle  2014-03-03 20:50:551865312CC G+
John Nuntiatio28,623#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #newcircle #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport #health   #entertainment  #news  2014-03-01 15:15:34459271930CC G+
Becky Collins3,213Baseball circle #Baseball  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins 2014-02-26 10:30:413883216CC G+
DEVILZART103This circle will add great, amazing, wonderful, and awesome content to you feed plus your page will receive massive engagement and ppplllluuuussss OnEs!!!   Welcome to +circle your circle with circles!!!!!  :DBoost your visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!To be added to the Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - include me in your circles 2 - Click add people and create your circle3 - share the circle (include yourself) 4 - add +1 to the post#circle   #circleshare   #circlesharing  #circulo   #kreise   #kreis   #круг   #круги   #круглим   #кругляши  #blogger   #blogging   #bloggers#サークル   #界   #cercle   #دائرة   #kring   #kringen   #nederland  +Circles +Circle Circle Circle +Circles by DzjieDzjee +Selected Circles 2014 +Awesome Circles +Socialize circles +Circles & Circles & Circles +Google+ Categorized Circles +Circles Circles Circles +Curating Content on Google+ +Team Circle Share +Shared Circles +Circle Shares Notifications +Urkel's Shared Circles +Shared Circles Magic G+ +Shared Circles on G+ +SharedCircles #googleplus #circle #sahrecircle #circleshare #circlesharing #circleshared #circleoftheday #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday 2014-02-25 06:41:2550015722CC G+
John Nuntiatio28,116circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #newcircle #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport #health   #entertainment   #news  2014-02-23 08:38:002986725CC G+
Becky Collins2,634Learning and Knowledge Management Circle - Feb22#circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins2014-02-22 06:31:49990014CC G+
Becky Collins2,634Marketing Circle : Feb 22#circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday +Becky Collins2014-02-22 06:29:4945517724CC G+
Scott Lewis119,839*The Amazing Women Circle*So as today's Hangout from +STEM Women on G+ w/ +Jonathan Eisen started, I decided to go back through my "Amazing Women's Circle" and feature the fantastic people that enrich my life, particularly in the fields of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. These brilliant women contribute regularly here on +Google+ and are a shining example of how it doesn't matter what sex or gender you are, everyone can do remarkable things.Please feel free to share this about and let me know in the comments if there are more Amazing Women I should add to this group! #STEMWomen   #GenderEquality   #Equality   #ScienceEveryday   #ScienceSunday  2014-02-16 21:06:57103261529CC G+
Ian Archibald16,093Circle of Google PlussersSo, I often get asked Who should I circle?  I say whomever strikes your interest. Find topics of interest and connect with those people who share that interest.I would very much like to share with you "my" circle of Plussers of whom I LOVE to engage with.  There are people in science, sports, networking, technology, comics, art and medicine found inside, and likely some others as well.  I've been spending the last couple years curating this list.I hope that you will connect with some of these folks!Have a great weekend everyone!2014-02-15 01:16:53326182224CC G+
Richard Green56,916Engagers Showcase Circle, February 14, 2014If you received a notification, it means that you are included in my Engagers Showcase Circle. “Showcase” means that you are invited to leave a comment (on the original post) with a link to one of your own posts, which ideally should be one of your best recent posts.This circle consists of people who have engaged with one of my recent posts in the form of +1s, comments and reshares. Because it has been so long since the last edition of this circle, some of my recent posts have not been included here, but I will include them next time.Everyone mentioned below is also included in the circle.Beware of geeks bearing gifshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/3jPVUtb4FemStanley Park (reshared from +Alex Milton)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/5PwJjn6qdhcThe Knight Sky (reshared from +Vincent Knight)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/9jAvErWz3ZrCornwall painting (reshared from +Paul Haworth)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/GaeDF8V3bTqPrairie dogshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/SUJSbQPdpA2Glass towers (reshared from +Graeme McRae)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/VspBXwaF8d2Crete coastline (reshared from +Ralph Reichert)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/jFCqBYxcubAMy cat Comethttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/1ZmQ5qKP5nrDispensing batterhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/CYbtWVa2EDmThe Diophantine quintuple conjecturehttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/FNDF7e8pW9XSculpture (reshared from +Henry Segerman)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/ZcqzpV7QSTfLapis lazuli beads (reshared 2014-02-15 00:24:58490226155240CC G+
Carlos Esteban35,966ENGAGERS and other INTERESTING PEOPLE Here you will find: ►A sample of recent and repeat engagers with my posts on #science, #animals and #landscape pictures, #sciencefiction and #humor. ►Some people that include me in the circles that they curate… or that have not included me yet but I would love to be :) ►And some people that publish interesting, useful or amusing posts regardless if they circle me back or not. The categories are not exclusive and many people are in more than one. Add the circle and check them out. Maybe you like some of them! Feel free to re-share the circle if you wish. I will appreciate it. Have a nice Valentine’s day!Carlos #circles #circlethis #circleyoushare #sharedcircles #addcircle #sharedpubliccircles #growfollowers #circleshare #publicsharedcircles #circleoftheweek #circlesharing #publiccircle #findcircles #circlemeup #sharedcircle #circleshare  #thursdaycircle   #thursdaycircleshared   #circlethursday #circle 2014#62014-02-14 19:25:01464614865CC G+
The Yacht Owner3,838+Daniel Mihai Popescu's friends, must be this page's friends as well!This circle is called Pure Value, so it is a circle to add.Actually, you may do as you like :) #theyachtownernet I am not sure that you receive the notifications, but I have shared this circle with you, be sure of that :)2014-02-13 15:50:05335462942CC G+
Daniel Mihai Popescu36,665A dear circle!Good Afternoon from my timeline, dear friends and future friends!This is a very interesting circle, so it'll do a lot of good for you if you'll add it to yours :) #danielmihaipopescusharedcircle #maximumperformance Here are some of my dearest friends on G+! Good luck!2014-02-13 13:32:50193433452CC G+
Vladimir Samsonov35,443Circle of the Most Active Users of Google+Круг наиболее активных пользователей Google+Good evening/night to friends on the other side of the globe, enjoy the day when it comes to your side!Share and be sharedНовый день новый круг!New day new circle!....#ForFriends #photo #EarthMyMother2014-02-13 11:33:12498194142229CC G+
Wilco Wings14,844Shared Circle of people suggested by other Plussers 2/6A call ( https://plus.google.com/112144785911700169746/posts/GhKufyejUCj ) to mention your most favorite people on +Google+, resulted in 6 shared circles. All blue heads, inactives, pages and non public posters are removed using +Circloscope. Those who abused this action had their mentions removed.#engagers   #sharedcircles   #circleshare   #share 2014-02-11 18:52:289418425CC G+
Roland Byrd8,552Inspirational PeopleThis is a circle of people I find inspiring on Google+.They may or may not add you back. Some of them aren't that active on G+ and some are. But if you enjoy being inspired and uplifted, I think you'll be glad you added them.Included in this circle are:+Xavier Smith+Rick Watson+M. J. J. Namal Dias+Bo Insogna+Clare Patrick +Syuzanna Avetisyan +L Maria Pa +Regina Guimard +Claire Jennings +Mike Fountain +Coyote Prophet +James Insogna+Monika Ljubičić+Rhonda Havlock+Khitam A+Deanna Elliott +Sanjeev Kumar+Jack C Crawford+2014-02-11 14:08:123637819CC G+
Larry Chuon74I'm new to Google+.  My circle of PlusOne is for those who are leveraging Google+ to grow their circle and business.2014-02-08 04:36:20236304CC G+
Aheste Beste8,429The New Circle of Mine named:''Nice People All Over The World'' #share   #sharedcircles   #circle   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #followers   #addcircle   #addpeople  2014-02-06 05:31:41460382741CC G+
Daniel Mihai Popescu35,101A circle made by you, dear friends!Nominated Wonders!It contains your nominees, in a share of mine, a few months ago.Together with my Invincible and a very few rewards, this is what is left for my stream!It's a circle to add! If you want to share it, it is up to you, I don't push you to do anything! I just mention that a "plus one" will be greatly appreciated. How hard is it? #danielmihaipopescusharedcircle #maximumperformance  2014-02-01 22:03:28383714769CC G+
Larry Fournillier1,047,030Awesome EngagersThis is my first circle share for 2014 and I would like to thank  all of you for the engagement over the past weeks.  Have a fun weekend everyone!(Note: I am not in the circle, so please share/add these people in for some great engagers in your network.) #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles    2014-02-01 01:34:3811144839CC G+
Ian Archibald14,517Google PlussersThis would be my circle of other awesome people who I have connected with over the past couple years here on Google+. Some awesome people here!As the cool kids say, These kids are dopeI don't take requests to add to this circle. To be added, engage with me, and the others here. You'll be noticed, trust me.2014-01-27 23:35:29320221930CC G+
Hertzer Tsaitwase788Sekali klik, teman google plus jadi bertambah.Ini merupakan circle spesial saya, dimana orang di dalam sini merupakan bule dan memiliki potensi aktif di google plus.Mau akun anda ada di dalamnya? Anda boleh bergabung dengan kami dengan memenuhi syarat di bawah ini :Syarat Gabung :> Akun google plus aktif (yang akan dioptimasi)> Harus mau +1 dan share ulang postingan shared circlenya> Harus follow google plus saya (agar saya mudah mengenali akun dan memantaunya, saya juga akan follow balik kalian)Syarat Pendukung :> Membuat artikel mengenai "cara memperbanyak followers google plus" dan diberi link ke url shared circle (saya ada materinya untuk diposting dan boleh copas artikel saya)=====================================================Jika merasa sanggup dengan semua syarat di atas, silahkan daftarkan diri anda.Cara Gabung :> Klik tambahkan orang dan buat lingkarang baru> Follow google plus saya> +1 dan share post ini>  komen dengan hastag #addmetosharedcircle  #Sharedcircle   #circle   #publiccircle  2014-01-27 16:17:5747919821CC G+
Carlos Esteban33,566ENGAGERS and other INTERESTING PEOPLE Here you will find: -A sample of recent and repeat engagers with my posts on #science , #animals and #landscape pictures, #sciencefiction and #humor . -Some people that include me in the circles that they curate… or that have not included me yet but I would love to be :) -And some people that publish interesting, useful or amusing posts regardless if they circle me back or not. The categories are not exclusive and many people are in more than one. Add the circle and check them out. Maybe you like some of them! Feel free to re-share the circle if you wish. I will appreciate it. Have a nice Sunday!Carlos #circles #circlethis #circleyoushare #sharedcircles #addcircle #sharedpubliccircles #growfollowers #circleshare #publicsharedcircles #circleoftheweek #circlesharing #publiccircle #findcircles #circlemeup #sharedcircle #circleshare   #thursdaycircle    #thursdaycircleshared    #circlethursday #circle  2014#42014-01-26 13:53:24495161151201CC G+
Mikhail Petrovsky63,280Good morning / evening to all.You'll love this circle. Photographers, artists and other interesting people!Это социальный круг / This social circleВам понравится этот круг, добавьте его себе. Фотографы, художники и другие интересные люди!#EarthMyMother #ForFriends #photo2014-01-26 01:55:44478421558CC G+
Daniel Mihai Popescu34,242A Late Night Circle, ladies and gentlemen :)It is harder day by day, to log and remain logged on G+ without my browser freezing after a few operations.I have the same problems +matt vovakiss had, even using Windows. #danielmihaipopescusharedcircle #maximumsharing This is an old circle of mine, with some new additions, so if you add it, you won't lose anything, you'll gain :)Good luck!2014-01-26 01:07:55460533558CC G+
John Nuntiatio25,447#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-01-25 19:41:45255729CC G+
Ravishankar Ramanathan9,848*Are you even a bit interested in Science ?  Add this to your circles then. Simple. *===========================+Peter Edenist  originally shared: TESLA Super Science Circle 2014!!!! : A quality circle curated carefully and tended over 2 years. If you like science or are interested in science, this circle is a must for you! Add and share for science.+Who is in this circle? NASA, KQED Science, MNN, Bioscienca, Scientists, (Garett Lisi too!).... have rejigged the circle for the nth time and cleaned it to include people who are active on the Science on G+ community. Community link is here http://goo.gl/46uFH and the Page is +Science on G+!Add and Share for Science! Its what makes our cars run, our cities exist, the lights burn and has been instrumental in our progress.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Want to nominate someone? Please do so in comments. If you want to recommend something let us know. People who are notified are part of the circle.#science #tesla #scienceongplus #scienceeveryday  2014-01-25 18:41:543253213CC G+
Peter Edenist29,163TESLA Super Science Circle 2014!!!! : A quality circle curated carefully and tended over 2 years. If you like science or are interested in science, this circle is a must for you! Add and share for science.+Who is in this circle? NASA, KQED Science, MNN, Bioscienca, Scientists, (Garett Lisi too!).... have rejigged the circle for the nth time and cleaned it to include people who are active on the Science on G+ community. Community link is here http://goo.gl/46uFH and the Page is +Science on G+!Add and Share for Science! Its what makes our cars run, our cities exist, the lights burn and has been instrumental in our progress.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Want to nominate someone? Please do so in comments. If you want to recommend something let us know. People who are notified are part of the circle. #science #tesla #scienceongplus #scienceeveryday  2014-01-25 16:26:413258081108CC G+
Artur M.36,283circle of people, with active life position in Google+Круг людей с активной жизненной позицией в Гугле+Если вы поделились этим кругом вчера, вы находитесь в нем сегодня. Если вы разделяете его с друзьями сегодня, вы будете в нем и завтра.2014-01-25 13:12:34481441364CC G+
Daniel Mihai Popescu0Circle O, a very interesting circle of mixed people :)It's packed up with my Invincible, and has also a few "rewards".Feel free to do anything you desire with it, but be sure that a plus one will be greatly appreciated :) #danielmihaipopescusharedcircle #maximumsharing  2014-01-22 23:03:19467603975CC G+
Daniel Mihai Popescu33,142An Experiment!I have the feeling that this is a very valuable circle :) #danielmihaipopescusharedcircle #maximumsharing [don't think please, that my other circles aren't valuable :)]You see, it is full, so the chances for this circle are greater to decrease, than to increase its membership :)2014-01-18 22:20:01500342642CC G+


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2014-04-11 21:45:27 (127 comments, 411 reshares, 528 +1s)

On The Shoulders of Giants

♀ A sepia print of an Indian woman, a Japanese woman and a woman from Syria, dated 1885. What do they have in common? Extraordinarily, each was the first licensed female medical doctor in their country of origin. They were trained at the Women's Medical College in Pennsylvania, the first of its kind in the country. This was a time before women had the right to vote. If they did attend college at all, it was at the risk of contracting "neuralgia, uterine disease, hysteria, and other derangements of the nervous system” (according to Harvard gynecologist Edward H. Clarke). 

An all-woman medical school was first proposed in 1846, supported by the Quakers and the feminist movement. Dr. Ellwood Harvey, one of the early teaching faculty, daringly smuggled out a slave, Ann Maria Weems, dressed as a male buggy driver, from rightoutsid... more »

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2014-03-22 21:41:23 (58 comments, 120 reshares, 268 +1s)

Victorian Diatom Art

In the mid to late 19th century, people became increasingly fascinated with science. Rising literacy led to a demand for books, and an anonymous book titled Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation became the rage (http://goo.gl/fYMl0m). Darwin proposed his theory of natural selection. Microscopes became cheap and readily available. They were used not only for scientific discovery, but also as tools for popular entertainment. Microscope clubs popped up and amateurs made their own slides. Clever entrepreneurs took advantage of the public's interest to make microscopic art by arranging hundreds or even thousands of tiny diatoms, butterfly scales or even beard hair (!) to generate these astonishing works of beauty. One such artist, Henry Dalton, used a boar hair and his own breath to move particles into position under a microscope. A newspaper article... more »

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2014-03-09 22:07:07 (86 comments, 12 reshares, 175 +1s)

Of Onion Jam and Patriarchal Hegemony

◑ What, you may justifiably wonder, does onion jam have to do with the patriarchal hegemony? Nothing, of course. Unless, you count yourself a member of my mad menagerie. Still, if you're looking for some delicious comfort food that's out of the ordinary, and willing to pay a paltry remuneration by nodding sympathetically through my maternal musings, Read On!

◑ Like any self-respecting feminist, I yearned for my pragmatic teenage daughter to espouse the cause. More women in STEM! Independence! Equity! So when she won a merit scholarship at one of the Seven Sisters colleges, I exerted my not-inconsiderable persuasive powers to get her to go there. Four years later, she's back, with a degree in neuroscience but somewhat bruised around the edges. Well, the college website did say heady and nervy, and that's what we got. Afterloo... more »

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2014-03-06 19:02:22 (63 comments, 89 reshares, 216 +1s)

SOFTWARE UPDATE: Gene Editing Could Rescue AIDS Patients

HIV Gains Foothold: The human immunodeficiency virus, HIV, gains entry into immune T cells by initially binding to the cell surface receptor protein CD4 and then recruiting a co-receptor, usually CCR5. Infected T cells eventually die and the patient becomes susceptible to other infections, described as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS. 

As Luck Would Have It: About ~700 years ago, a chance mutation in the CCR5 gene appeared that inactivated the receptor. This mutation, CCR5-Δ32, has a slight negative fitness effect because CCR5 is one of many chemokine receptors important in the inflammatory immune response. The mutation should have dwindled or disappeared. Instead, the mutation underwent intense positive selection, now prevalent in ~10% of the European population. Modeling studies suggestt... more »

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2014-02-23 15:02:03 (103 comments, 304 reshares, 374 +1s)

Dance of the Peacock Spider

Doing the Y: Only 4 mm in size, the Australian male peacock spider (Maratus volans) puts on an impressive courtship display, rivaling the Village People in Peacock Spider Dances to YMCA . Described by researchers as multi-modal, the dance includes 3rd leg waves, synchronized unfurling of colorful belly flaps, abdominal bobbing and pedipalp flickers. As if these visual displays were not enough, the spider generates bursts of vibrations carried through the ground to signal his passion for his lady love. 

Darwin's Dilemma: Is there an selective advantage to such complexity? How did it evolve? As the rituals get more elaborate, there may be diminishing returns given the limitations of biological cost and sensory perception. Translation: is it a waste of time? :) But studies show that redundant signals allow ourspid... more »

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2014-02-14 13:13:23 (58 comments, 41 reshares, 184 +1s)

An Academic Valentine: The Science Behind Flower Color

Morning Glory Buds are Red
And they Open to Bright Blue
But in NHX1 Mutants
They can't Change their Hue

✿ We all know that roses are red and violets are blue, but did you also know that vacuolar pH determines their hue? Flowers are colored by anthocyanin pigments that collect in the vacuoles of petal cells. Their color is determined by the acidity, or pH of the vacuole. Vacuolar pH is set by a balance of proton (H+) pumps and leaks. A family of leak proteins known as sodium hydrogen exchangers is found in all cells from yeasts, plants and animals. They work to keep vacuoles and other cell compartments from becoming too acidic.A dramatic example is that of the Japanese morning glory (Ipomoea nil) where mutants in the leak protein, NHX1, fail to achieve that brilliant blue when they flower.T... more »

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2014-02-04 23:00:11 (134 comments, 269 reshares, 316 +1s)

///\oo/\\\ Tarantula!

▶ All arthropods (insects, spiders and crabs) have a hard exoskeleton, which they must shed at intervals, to catch up on their growth. Known as ecdysis (from the Greek ekduo to strip off), the process is carefully coordinated, risky in the wild, and fraught with difficulties.

▶ For several days or even weeks before the molt, a tarantula will appear moody and sluggish, refusing to eat. It spins a cradle, called molting web (seen to the left of the gif), and lays on its back. Its heart rate increases dramatically and hemolymph ("blood") is pumped into the upper body (cephalothorax) so it nearly doubles in size. The pressure cracks the carapace along the sides and front. Wave like muscle contractions in the abdomen push the old exoskeleton, lifting it off like the lid of a can. Now comes the tricky part: the spider must workits... more »

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2014-02-02 14:28:32 (65 comments, 21 reshares, 166 +1s)

Hair, Tooth or Scale? 

Although at first glance, these three appendages appear to have little in relation to one another, there are intriguing hints of a common developmental origin. Can you guess the identity of today's Science Mystery Pix?

The Toothless Men of Sind: Our story begins in 1875, with Charles Darwin describing the curious case of a Hindu kindred whose males suffered a near absence of teeth and hair. This inherited condition, known as ectodermal dysplasia, was tracked down to defects in genes coding for a signaling protein (ectodysplasin-A or EDA) and its receptor (EDA receptor or EDAR). Similar hairless and toothless mutations were found in the mutant mouse strains Tabby and Downless, pointing to a common developmental origin for hair and teeth. 

Fighting Tooth and Scale : Which came first, teeth or scales? It isthoug... more »

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2014-01-30 23:04:24 (44 comments, 44 reshares, 210 +1s)

Homo aquaticus: The Science of an Underwater Gill

In 1962, underwater explorer Jacques Cousteau predicted the arrival of Homo aquaticus: people surgically equipped with gills who could live and breathe in any depth for any amount of time without harm. Lately, there has been a lot of buzz about Triton, a conceptual gill (http://goo.gl/pWkd5k) that supposedly could allow humans to breathe underwater. There are many reasons why this device is still in the realm of science fiction. But first, it's helpful to understand how some animals breathe air underwater. 

Breathe, Breathe in the Air: Like us, insects breathe oxygen from air, using a system of canals connected to the outside by breathing holes or spiracles. So how do aquatic insects survive submerged underwater, often for their entire lives? Mosquito larvae develop tiny snorkeling tubes, called... more »

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2014-01-21 18:51:26 (62 comments, 29 reshares, 139 +1s)

Genetics of Obesity

Weight Watchers: How much you weigh depends on many metabolic pathways, brain signals that regulate appetite, and environmental factors such as your lifestyle and diet. At least some of this is coded by genes, but narrowing down which ones is like finding the proverbial needles in a haystack. There are millions of gene variants, known as single-nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs (pronounced snips), between any two people, than can be read from a sample of DNA (from a cheek swab). A Genome Wide Association Study or GWAS (pronounced Gee-Wahs) compares gene variants between two groups of people, say skinny and overweight, to see if any particular variant is associated with a trait, like obesity.  If any particular SNP is significantly more frequent in obese people, compared to the skinny group, then that SNP could mark a gene associated with bodywei... more »

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2014-01-11 17:01:46 (72 comments, 43 reshares, 220 +1s)

Science Mystery Pix

Art or Nature?: This beautiful image reminds me of the art of Van Gogh: Willows at Sunset (http://goo.gl/E0rYPo), perhaps? But it's actually a photomicrograph of an insect part. Can you guess what it may be? Hint: it's useful during aquatic sex :) 

Rheinberg Illumination: This image was colorized using a form of microscopy invented in 1896 by Julius Rheinberg. Quite simply, a two colored filter, usually cut from sheets of acetate, is placed in front of the light source. One color makes up the background while the other is diffracted by the object under study. It's a cheap and creative way to bring art into science! A nice explanation can be found here: http://www.cellsalive.com/enhance1.htm

Photo credit: Spike Walker / Wellcome Images

#ScienceEveryday    #ISeeTheWorldWithScience  

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2013-12-29 23:38:50 (96 comments, 341 reshares, 569 +1s)

The Biology of Transparency

The Invisible Man: Have you ever wished to be invisible? Transparency is quite common in biology, being particularly useful as camouflage in the open ocean where there is nothing to hide behind. There is an astonishing variety of transparent jellyfish, glass squid, worms and this creepy-crawly crustacean from the "twilight zone" of the deep sea seen in the image. 

How does it work? To be transparent, light must pass through without being absorbed or scattered. Most organic molecules do not absorb light in the visible range, except for the visual pigments of the eyes, which must absorb light to function. Light scattering is caused by changes in refractive index which determines how light is bent as it passes through (see http://goo.gl/7l6zFC). To be perfectly transparent, the refractive index should be thesame... more »

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2013-12-24 14:43:26 (72 comments, 69 reshares, 253 +1s)

Science Santa and a Cellular Christmas

Twas the night before Christmas, when all through the lab
Not a creature was stirring, not even a postgrad.
The pipetmen and tip boxes were arranged with care,
In hopes that science elves soon would be there.

The postdocs were nestled all snug in their beds,
While visions of job offers danced in their heads.
And the PI, at home, took off her many caps
And rested her brains for a well-deserved nap. 

When from the cell culture room there arose such a clatter
The grad student rushed to see what was the matter? 
Away to the culture hood he flew in a flash
Turned off the UV light and raised up the sash.

The neurospheres bobbed merrily in their own private party
Transiently transfected, they proliferated smartly.
The epithelial cells broke free from their tightj... more »

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2013-12-20 13:27:02 (60 comments, 80 reshares, 218 +1s)

The Science of Snow!

❆ Stellar dendrites are falling. Rimed crystals are piling on so heavily, they you may see graupel. If you're lucky you may spot a split star or a rare capped column. No, I'm not talking gibberish! You can check the “Meteorological Classification of Natural Snow Crystals,” (1966) by Magano and Lee.  Did you know that there are 80 official patterns of snowflakes? Their characteristic 6-sided shape comes from the hexagonal lattice of water molecules: each vertex has an oxygen atom with the edges formed by hydrogen bonds on either side (see http://goo.gl/8ZUI0G). 

Is it true that no two snowflakes are alike? The short answer is yes! At the atomic level, suppose one snow crystal has 10^18 water molecules, of which 10^15 will contain deuterium isotope (hydrogen with mass of 2 instead of 1) or an isotope of oxygen (mass of 18instead o... more »

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2013-12-15 17:31:27 (19 comments, 60 reshares, 176 +1s)

Dendritic Forests and Purkinje Cell Trees

The Little Brain: Tucked under and in the back of our two major brain hemispheres is the cerebellum (Latin for "little brain"). Best known for coordinating fine motor skills, the cerebellum receives signals from the spinal cord and other parts of the brain to refine and compute an output that lets us reach out and precisely touch an object with the tip of our finger. All of this output is made by a single type of cell: the Purkinje neuron. Not surprisingly, they have been described as, "the only source of news, the sole TV network, the cerebellar state-controlled media".

A Primer on Purkinje Neurons: These are among the largest and earliest neuron types to be described (by Czech anatomist Jan Evangelista Purkyně in 1837). Arranged in a domino-like layer (image 1-2) in thecereb... more »

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2013-12-08 15:27:42 (78 comments, 33 reshares, 129 +1s)

Pedigree Puzzle: Why is there a Gender Bias in Autism?

Autism Spectrum Disorders are more frequently diagnosed in males than females: commonly four times as often, although that bias climbs to 11:1 in the case of Asperger's syndrome. The underlying reasons are complex and many plausible theories have been proposed. Let's begin by looking at one example of pronounced gender bias in autism, seen in this pedigree chart. A pedigree chart is used by geneticists to track genotypes (such as a particular mutation) and phenotypes (such as appearance of a disease) over many generations of an extended family.  If you've never deciphered one before, this is your chance to figure out what those squares and circles mean! 

How to Read a Pedigree Chart: To begin, girls are circles and boys are squares - helpfully colorized to pink or blueto fi... more »

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2013-11-29 19:55:22 (98 comments, 98 reshares, 271 +1s)

Petrichor: Smell of the Earth

A heavenly scent: Do you love the smell of soil after a fresh bout of rain? Are you a fan of the earthy smell of beets? There is a word for that: petrichor.  It comes from the Greek petros, meaning stone and ichor, the fluid that flows in the veins of the gods. It is defined as "the distinctive scent which accompanies the first rain after a long warm dry spell". 

Geosmin: After puzzling over the smell of soil for over a hundred years, scientists have pinned the source to Streptomyces, the soil bacterium that also gifts us with the most antibiotics. The bacteria release volatile compounds when disturbed, like the bicyclic alcohol, geosmin (named for "earthy smell"). Did you know that the human nose is incredibly sensitive to geosmin? We can detect as little as ten parts per trillion! 

One h... more »

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2013-11-28 15:41:56 (113 comments, 214 reshares, 365 +1s)

Turkey and Tryptophan: Thanksgiving Myth Debunked

ƵƵƶƶ Why do we feel sleepy after a big meal? You've probably blamed the Thanksgiving turkey for having too much tryptophan, an amino acid that the body converts to serotonin and melatonin, two sleep-inducing compounds. But it turns out that tryptophan has to be consumed on an empty stomach and not with gourmandish excess of cranberry sauce and pumpkin pie, to be effectively blamed for your soporific state.  Did you know that even oat bran and soybeans contain more tryptophan than turkey? Check out this infographic ▶ http://goo.gl/pQtLTp .

ƵƵƶƶ Another popular theory is that after a big meal, our body diverts blood supply to the gut, and away from the brain, to help digestion. While this seems logical, it turns out that cerebral blood flow and oxygenation are kept stablethrough more »

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2013-11-24 14:53:16 (88 comments, 47 reshares, 180 +1s)

Good Fat is BAT!

Beige, Brite, Brown or White: If you thought all fat was white and wobbly, think again. Some fat depots are colored brown because they are rich in mitochondria- powerhouses of energy loaded with iron-containing cytochrome proteins (bottom panel in image). Beige/Brite fat cells are in between white and brown fat. Human infants have stores of this brown adipose tissue (BAT), up to 5% of their body weight, between their shoulder blades and in their neck, colored green in the MRI scan (top image). Hibernating animals stock up on brown fat too. Why? Because brown fat generates heat.

The Heat is On: Our mitochondria are factories that extract energy from food and store it in the form of a proton (Hydrogen ion) gradient across their borders. Like water cascading down a fall turns a turbine to generate electricity, thisgra... more »

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2013-11-02 18:06:29 (92 comments, 5 reshares, 210 +1s)

Diwali: Then and Now

⌘ Picture a little girl, shaken awake in the pre-dawn darkness by her mother, shivering before a "head bath" with a pail of steaming hot water from the big copper water heater in the kitchen. Squeaky clean, her hair dried and braided into long mogra flower-laden plaits, she puts on some pretty gold bangles (from an ever-expanding stash of jewelry destined for her future bridal finery) and dresses in a brand new, long skirt of Kanchipuram silk, the traditional and sacred fabric of southern India. After excitedly holding a little sparkler on the balcony, she joins her family for a Diwali feast, full of sweets and special treats that last all day long, while explosions of crackers and the acrid smell of smoke fill the city air.  

⌘ Fast-forward many decades later, and the little girl has given up the silks and bracelets for adisc... more »

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2013-10-27 13:39:28 (81 comments, 124 reshares, 252 +1s)

A Balancing Act

Nature's Gyroscope: Your ear does much more than hear. While the snail shaped cochlea of the inner ear (pictured below) is superbly adapted for picking up sound vibrations (by deflections of hair cells described in last week's post), the rest of the inner ear is a complex labyrinth of tubes and chambers that keeps our lives in balance. 

Up, Side and Down: Since we live in a three dimensional world, we have three fluid-filled semicircular canals arranged at right angles to each other, along the x, y and z planes. Each semicircular canal senses a different movement of our head: up and down, side to side, and tilt. When we move our head, the fluid inside the canal moves and presses on a tear shaped bulb at one end. The bulb (ampulla) has a collection of mechanically sensitive hair cells embedded in a jelly like matrix.Defl... more »

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2013-10-20 11:56:53 (61 comments, 128 reshares, 279 +1s)

How Hearing Happens

The Hair Cell: When a young student heard that the lab next to mine studied frog hair cells, she exclaimed, "Oh? I didn't know frogs had hair!" Actually, hair cells, so named because of the curious stacked arrangement of hair-like stereocilia emerging from their crowns (image a), are the cells that detect sound.  About 16,000 of them line the snail shaped cochlea of our inner ear, picking up sound induced vibrations of the fluid inside our ears of less than 1 nanometer. The remarkable hair cell is what gives us humans the ability to detect sound of frequency ranging from 20 Hz to 20 kHz. 

Mechanosensation: How does a hair cell detect sound? The secret lies in the way the stereocilia are stacked. Each one is connected to an adjacent taller 'hair" by a tenuous thread, known as tip link (imageb). A... more »

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2013-10-14 23:57:50 (64 comments, 6 reshares, 174 +1s)

Pumping up Pumpkin Pie

✿ My postdoctoral advisor, Carolyn Slayman, could strike fear into us by the deceptively mild statement..”Wouldn’t it be nice..?” We all knew what that meant. At least another couple of months of experiments, if we were lucky. Twenty years later, I will confess to pumping up science. Just when my lab folk think they have a story neatly wrapped up, topped with a colorful title and shiny journal to target, I have no qualms in raising the bar on expectations up another notch. It’s the same with recipes. Who can resist the urge to dress up a nice but bland sauce, sneak in more spices or fiddle with the fixings? So when a collection of 50 canned pumpkin recipes came my way, I considered it only the start of a culinary excursion.

✿ Take for example, the Pumpkin Alfredo sauce: whisk together a cup each of pumpkin puree and lightcream, seas... more »

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2013-10-13 13:48:40 (77 comments, 131 reshares, 347 +1s)

Fiddle-de-dee: The male fiddler crab is a fine example of how evolutionary pressure can select an exaggerated physical trait: while one claw is small and used for feeding, the other is grossly enlarged, reaching up to 2/3 of his body weight! The female has symmetrical, small claws. So, does size matter? 

Ornament vs. Armament: The large claw of the male fiddler crab is a sexual ornament, like the feathers of a peacock. With it, he waves flirtatiously at the susceptible female, enticing her to his sand burrow. The larger and more conspicuous his claw, the greater his chance at mating success. It is also an effective weapon, used to threaten and wage battles with competing males. But these are competing demands: large and light claws may be waved at lower energy costs, whereas heavy claws with powerful muscles are better in fights. Studies show thatcl... more »

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2013-10-07 20:10:34 (42 comments, 52 reshares, 175 +1s)

A Part of the Puzzle: NHE9 and Autism

❑ People with autism have difficulty with social interaction, language delay and stereotyped interests or repetitive behaviors that vary widely in severity between individuals. Currently diagnosed at rates of 1 in 88 children, autism spectrum disorders are an urgent public health issue. 

❑ Autism is one of the most inheritable of neurodevelopmental disorders. We know this from twin studies, family trees and rare chromosomal abnormalities. But it is also the most complex - because no single gene contributes to more than 1% of autism cases. We describe this as extremely heterogenic.  Most likely, these myriad genes impact a few common pathways, such as signaling between nerve cells. Although geneticists trawl through massive banks of DNA sequence and clinical data to uncover candidate genes, each one still hasto be... more »

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2013-09-28 15:53:01 (44 comments, 35 reshares, 187 +1s)

The Dance of Virulence

Double Agent: The fungus Candida albicans lives a double life. It co-exists as a harmless "commensal" inside our mouth, gut and urino-genital tract. Occasionally, it flares up as thrush, treatable with over the counter medication. But given the opportunity to breach our defenses, Candida can cross into the bloodstream and switch from peaceful coexistence to attack mode, producing long filaments that dig into tissues and destroy them. You can see the yeast-like buds germinating into hyphae on the left image. On the right, hyphae labeled with green fluorescent protein insert between intestinal cells (marked in red, with blue nuclei) in a macabre dance of virulence. This is particularly dangerous to people with weak immune systems (HIV/AIDS, cancer) who have less than 50% survival rates with systemic candidiasis. 

More than... more »

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2013-09-22 20:15:35 (79 comments, 3 reshares, 180 +1s)

It is with sadness that I am informing you the death of +Kevin Staff 
on Thursday, September 12 in Loma Linda, California. 

He was known by his unique animated gifs. On his posts,  he expressed a passion for Coffee, Photography, Arts, Architecture, Design, Science, motivational quotes and travelling. 

He will be deeply missed by his family, friends and members of his circles. 

Please join me for a moment's thought in remembrance of a true gentleman, caring person and wonderful human being. 

#kevinstaff   #coffee   #animatedgifs   #gifs   #geek  

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2013-09-22 16:55:25 (42 comments, 149 reshares, 248 +1s)

The Master Archer

▶ Lurking under the water surface in the estuaries and mangroves of India and Polynesia, the archer fish Toxotes (from the Greek Τοξοτης for archer) precisely aims a ballistic jet of water that knocks off a hapless insect from the shrubbery above, sending it tumbling into the water where it is promptly devoured. To dislodge prey anchored firmly to the vegetation with forces up to 10 times their body weight, the water jet must achieve a power of 3000 Watts/kg within a fraction of a second. Since this intrepid hunter was first described 250 years ago, scientists have puzzled over this mastery of archery.

Fishy Physics: Biologists first considered a mechanism similar to the chameleon, where energy is stored in coils of collagen inside the tongue (explained in the Chameleon Catapult post http://goo.gl/B5fPVS). But dissection of the archerfish revea... more »

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2013-09-18 22:16:51 (26 comments, 54 reshares, 200 +1s)

Jellies to GFP

The Story: Drifting along the currents off the west coast of N. America, the jellyfish Aequoria victoria gives off bursts of blue luminescence when a protein called aequorin binds calcium. The blue light is absorbed by another protein with the unimaginative name of green fluorescent protein (GFP), and the jellyfish now glows...surprise...green! After scientist Osamu Shimomura first observed that GFP could fluoresce independently of any added factors, Doug Prasher cloned the GFP gene and worked out its DNA sequence. At Prasher's seminar, Martin Chalfie realized the potential of GFP: he could insert the gene behind any promoter (on switch) and the cell would glow green when the gene was turned on. Prasher handed out the cloned gene to Chalfie and hundreds of labs. This led to a multitude of uses of GFP, now a favorite workhorse in... more »

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2013-09-15 13:09:14 (95 comments, 61 reshares, 304 +1s)

Do You Like Green Eggs And Ham?

Yes, I like them, Sam-I-Am
White eggs, Brown eggs,  Pink ones too
But Tell me, how Do they turn Blue?
(With apologies to Dr. Seuss) 

Egg color in birds evolved for obvious reasons of camouflage and recognition, and for less obvious reasons such as thermal regulation, protection against UV light, and even antimicrobial defense. Chicken eggs are commonly white (no pigment), or brown (protoporphyrin). Rare breeds from China and Chile lay blue eggs, colored by the bile pigment biliverdin, a breakdown product of the hemoglobin in red blood cells.  Biliverdin is normally excreted by liver cells into the bile. So how does it end up in the egg shell? 

Organic anion transporters are proteins that move a large number of compounds- drugs, toxins, hormones and bile pigments, across cell membranes, as part ofthe liv... more »

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2013-09-01 13:33:54 (95 comments, 166 reshares, 367 +1s)

The Beat Goes On 

The Cardiomyocyte: Your heart beats about 72 times per minute, or 100,000 times a day, clocking an average of 2.5 billion times in a lifetime and working harder than any other muscle in your body. After all, it has to pump some 2000 gallons of blood around 60 miles of blood vessels each day. No matter how hard you train, the skeletal muscles of your arms or legs could never keep this up. So spare some love for the cardiac muscle cell, or cardiomyocyte

The Pacemaker: The heart marches to its own tune, unlike the skeletal muscle which gets direct input from a motor nerve. Indeed, the heart would be an unwieldy mess if each individual fiber needed a motor nerve connection.  Instead, every beat of the heart starts within the sinoatrial node (SAN) containing <10,000 pacemaker cells equipped with a built-in clockworkmechan... more »

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2013-08-30 23:58:02 (10 comments, 19 reshares, 132 +1s)

Crowd Funding CytoComp

CytoComp is a revolutionary biological computer. +Gerd Moe-Behrens is seeking YOUR help to fund this project. For details, see:  http://cytocomp-bitstarter-mooc.herokuapp.com

Help CytoComp win: The crowd funder page for CytoComp is participating in a competition arranged by Stanford University. So far is CytoComp among the Top10Social (number of Tweets), more specific on 3rd place 3 in a class which started with 100 000 people. see the leader board http://startupmooc.org The winner will get additional support from Stanford Univ. for the project.

Made by MOOC: This page was build in the frame of Stanford University MOOC class, Startup Engineering by Balaji S. Srinivasan, Vijay S. Pande https://www.coursera.org/course/startup "Learn the engineering skills needed to build a technology startup from the ground up."Ger... more »

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2013-08-25 20:52:20 (102 comments, 25 reshares, 147 +1s)

Science Mystery Photo: Are these the pages of an ancient book? Flaming rivulets of lava? Go ahead and take a wild guess. 

Hint: These are extraordinarily efficient assembly lines producing up to 31,000 "products" per second or 2.7 billion per day! The special arrangement seen in the photos increases the surface area of the "factories" by 20 fold, with optimum spacing for maximum efficiency. 

Cool Fact: The products of this factory are released by a mechanism known as surface tension catapult, achieving speeds of  1.8 m per sec, although they only need to be ejected about 1 mm or so. 

Shhh! Do you already know what this is? Don't be a spoilsport, be a fun guy (or gal!). Share an interesting fact about it in the comments. We'll all be wiser in the end. 

Photo credits: Brian J. Kelly, KipTaylo... more »

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2013-08-18 19:35:31 (145 comments, 204 reshares, 420 +1s)

Rattler!  Did you know that the western diamondback rattlesnake Crotalus atrox can rattle its tail continuously for hours at frequencies approaching 90 Hz (90 times per sec)? This is twice as fast as a hummingbird's wings. 

Nailing the Noise: The tail-end of the rattlesnake has a series of hollow "buttons" linked together, each made of keratin (found in our nails) and modified from the snake's scales. At birth, there is only one pre-button, but each time a snake sheds its skin, another button emerges at the end. It's a myth that one can tell the age of a rattlesnake from the number of buttons, because a snake may molt variably in a year and the buttons do break off with use.  

Sound production in animals, is energetically expensive. But the rattler is an evolutionary marvel, optimized for minimal cost and maximal efficiency(for t... more »

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2013-08-17 18:15:24 (65 comments, 100 reshares, 262 +1s)

Play of Color: Imagine a gem so iridescently beautiful that a phrase, play of color , is coined just to describe it. How does an ordinary sludge of sand and water, boringly described as hydrated silicon dioxide (SiO2. nH2O), express every color in the spectrum of light?

Precious opal is formed when a solution of silica seeps through cracks in a rock very slowly : at a rate of one centimetre thickness every five million years. Under pressure, spheres of silica 150-300 nanometers wide, deposit in crystalline arrays. This regular packing, spaced close enough to the wavelength of light, has the effect of a diffraction grating, and the scattered light can be described by Bragg's Law. Nearly all the earth's supply of precious opal comes from Australia, formed in the Cretaceous period, more than a hundred million years ago. 

Eric the Pliosaur: Now imagine a... more »

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2013-08-13 11:43:07 (59 comments, 56 reshares, 214 +1s)

Waterproofin' with Hydrophobin

● Did you know that on average, there are between 1,000 and 10,000 fungal spores in every cubic meter of air? You breathe between 10 and 20 cubic meters of air every day, and every breath contains between 1 and 10 spores, of many different types. 

● These spores have a secret to staying dry and airborne: they are covered by a unique coat protein called hydrophobin, that repels water, but allows gases to exchange, like a botanical GORE-TEX. One side of the layer is water-loving, and the other is as repellent to water as Teflon or paraffin.

● Molecules of hydrophobin self-assemble to form a "rodlet" pictured in the inset, that has surprising similarity to amyloid fibrils found in plaques in the brains of Alzheimer's patients. So not only could this protein lead to better design of nanoparticles(e.g.,... more »

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2013-08-11 17:57:23 (155 comments, 37 reshares, 182 +1s)

See Me

Are you ready to solve this week's science mystery picture and pick up the latest in research along the way? If you know the identity of this object, don't give it away , but share some interesting (or obscure!) fact about it. Don't be shy, let your imagination fly. 

Hint: This object has the fastest response to light in the biological world.

Why is this cool? A recent study revealed the unexpected finding that the initial response to light was mechanical: light triggered tiny (less than one micrometer) synchronized contractions in this array that then opened mechano-sensitive ion channels to change distribution of electric charge across the surface. This form of signaling is known as mechanotransduction and is faster than more conventional chemical signaling. Do you know of a human sense that uses mechanical... more »

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2013-08-09 10:41:09 (46 comments, 54 reshares, 184 +1s)

The Golden Goose Award celebrates federally funded research that is seemingly obscure but turns out to have an unforeseen positive impact on society. This year, the prize goes to Dr. John Eng whose discovery of the peptide exendin-4 from the venom of the 2-foot long pink-and-black Gila Monster has provided relief to millions of diabetics. 

From Lizard to Laboratory: In 1990, Dr. Eng was intrigued by research at the NIH showing that venom from some snakes and lizards caused the pancreas to expand, as if they were overstimulated. He noted that the Gila Monster only eats about twice a year,  yet its blood sugar levels were strikingly constant.  The lizard deals with long periods of not eating by slowing its metabolism way down, and then turns it back on like the flick of a switch. He went on to discover exendin-4, a protein naturally found in the saliva and body of theGi... more »

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2013-08-08 12:02:37 (60 comments, 30 reshares, 146 +1s)

Nothing to Laugh About 

Macabre Mask: The feeding cups of Naegleria fowleri, a single celled protist, may look comical but there is nothing funny about an infection of amebic meningitis: death within a week, with less than 1% survival rate. Fortunately, infections are very rare ("the medical equivalent of being struck by lightning") although, paradoxically, the amoeba is abundant, living on bacteria in the sediments of warm lakes, ponds and hot springs, where lots of people swim. So relax, you're not likely to be infected with the "brain eating ameoba". But how would the amoeba get to your brain, anyway?

Highway to Hell Or Stairway to Heaven? Water forced up the nose could carry a form of the amoeba (trophozoid) that can get past the lining to the olfactory nerves that detect smells. From there, its a short ride to theo... more »

2013-08-04 20:51:29 (10 comments, 5 reshares, 36 +1s)

Science Engager's Circle
The Science on Google+ Community (http://goo.gl/uhJCN) is approaching 100,000 members!! To celebrate, we are making changes to the community categories to increase engagement and to highlight high quality posts (see http://goo.gl/EPPOAn for details). We are also starting a new Science Hangout On Air called “Posterside Hangouts”. The first Posterside Hangout will be announced soon! We also put together this really great circle of Science Engagers. Every profile and page in the circle can be found in the +Science on Google+: A Public Database (see http://goo.gl/Yz8KR to access the database). Thanks to everyone who is following and contributing to the community and page! 

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2013-07-30 12:59:15 (90 comments, 22 reshares, 180 +1s)

Animal, mineral or vegetable? If you can guess the identity of the object in this image, leave a hint or a cool fact in the comments (but try not to give the game away)! 

Story (and Hint): It was January, 1862 when Charles Darwin first laid eyes on a specimen of the Madagascar orchid Angraecum sesquipedale and exclaimed, "Good Heavens". He went on to predict that an object like the one in this photo would be found. A few years later, Alfred Wallace agreed with Darwin's hypothesis, saying of the orchid, "I maintain...that the laws of multiplication, variation, and survival of the fittest, already referred to, would under certain conditions necessarily lead to the production of this extraordinary XXX". Wallace made a drawing of his prediction, and was proved correct a few decades later.  

Photo attribution: Steve Gschmeissner
#ScienceEveryday ... more »

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2013-07-28 17:03:14 (117 comments, 57 reshares, 243 +1s)

What do you see? An alien sun rising over some distant desert landscape? Arid rivers marking the surface of Mars? Leave your guesses in the comments! #ISeeTheWorldWithScience  

Forests in Flames: Actually, this photo was commissioned by the United Nations to bring attention to deforestation from coca cultivation. Three countries account for the global cocaine production: Peru, Columbia and Bolivia. A study led by SUNY professor Liliana Dávalos showed that in a 5 year period, coca cultivation led to the destruction of 890 square kilometers of rainforest. That accounts for ~6 percent of rainforest loss, totaling 14,000 square kilometers, or an area slightly larger than Jamaica. Spraying with herbicide proved to be an ineffective deterrent: for every 30 hectares sprayed, only one was eradicated. In contrast, government protection of land seemed to prevent illegal growthof c... more »

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2013-07-25 23:25:32 (67 comments, 97 reshares, 320 +1s)

The Appendix: Don't close the book on it yet!

● The vermiform appendix is the poster child of vestigial organs leading to the joke that, "Its major importance would appear to be financial support of the surgical profession." Like the wings of an ostrich or the eyes of the blind cave-dwelling catfish, the appendix no longer supports the function that it was designed to do: digest tough cell walls of plants. In herbivores, this function resides in the caecum, an off shoot of the large intestine, that houses symbiotic bacteria, producing enzymes (cellulases) by fermentation. Did you know that in the koala, the caecum is longer than the animal itself?! But, as Darwin noted, in hominids -apes and humans, the switch from a leafy to predominantly fruit diet made the caecum redundant and eventually, it degenerated into the finger-like appendix. Although we still eatp... more »

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2013-07-21 16:34:34 (90 comments, 57 reshares, 176 +1s)

Going Rogue : How does a cancer spread to become metastatic?  
Why do cells that are tightly packed or neatly arranged in rows (epithelia), come loose and become insidiously mobile? The answer lies in a basic developmental process known as EMT, short for epithelial to mesenchymal transition

❑ During EMT, cells no longer know which way is up (i.e., lose their polarity), break off their cell-cell junctions and extend pseudopodia or foot-like processes that help them move. In the image below, colon cancer cells were caught in the act of rearranging their junctional proteins (in red and green) to become amorphous, drug-resistant and invasive. Even more dangerous, these cells acquire stem cell properties, allowing them to seed new cancers. In short, cells lose their mature, differentiated form and recapitulate their origins. 

❑ But EMT, and its reverseprocess... more »

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2013-07-14 12:48:27 (63 comments, 96 reshares, 250 +1s)

Artificial Chromosomes: Care for a Pair?

⌘ How about a new pair of chromosomes to add to the 23 pairs you already own? They make a great vehicle to insert new genes to reprogram cells, to replace defective or damaged genes. Current forms of gene therapy use modified viruses to deliver a stripped down version of a gene into cells. But these minigenes are hard to control. They may insert randomly into the chromosome and disrupt some essential function (“insertional mutagenesis”), trigger undesired immune response to the viral carrier, or rarely, activate a cancer-causing gene. Artificial chromosomes offer an alternative system of gene delivery. 

Of YACs, BACs and Life HACs: Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) were first introduced 30 years ago, followed by bacterial versions (BACs) which are used in research as a convenient way to clone and sequence DNA fromother ge... more »

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2013-07-06 13:57:32 (95 comments, 19 reshares, 144 +1s)

A Frondly Challenge!  Banish the moth balls from your brain. Guess the biological identity of this macrophoto.

Clever Clue: The most sensitive chemical detector known in biology, the object in this image can selectively sniff one molecule in a cubic meter of air.
 
How to Play: If you're sure you know what this is, don't give the game away. Instead, contribute some scientific tidbit of information on the topic. Have fun, be creative, the loonier the better ;)

#ScienceEveryday  

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2013-07-04 18:44:58 (37 comments, 64 reshares, 227 +1s)

Cellular Fireworks : To celebrate #4thofjuly .

When a cell embarks on mitosis, the envelope around the nucleus disappears and long rods known as microtubules assemble to form a spindle. Chromosomes line up at the equator of this spindle and are pulled to opposite poles in a carefully orchestrated event driven by chemical gradients of key proteins in the cell. Images of Mitosis From L to R:

⁂ A protein, known as RanGTP (yellow), brings cargo to the neighborhood of the mitotic spindle (red) so it can be assembled. A gradient of this protein, spreading out from the chromosomes, is key to the perfect alignment of chromosomes along the equator of the spindle. http://goo.gl/EgQzv

⁂ Chromosomes (blue) are being pulled to opposite poles of four dividing cells of an embryo by the fibers of the mitotic spindle (orange). http://goo.gl/eKl62

⁂Chrom... more »

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2013-06-22 20:46:48 (59 comments, 123 reshares, 253 +1s)

Viral Vectors Versus Viral Video: This video, going viral on G+, documents the case of a 7 year old girl with acute leukemia who was cured of her cancer last year, apparently by pitting one disease (cancer) with another (HIV-AIDS)! Breathless science enthusiasts are marveling at the justice of curing cancer with HIV!

• Actually, HIV is simply being used as a "vector" or carrier for gene therapy because it naturally binds to receptors on the target cells, in this case, T cells. Researchers can use different viruses to target different cells by matching infectious viruses with their natural hosts. Of course, only the viral shell is used, with viral genes being replaced by the genes of choice; that is, the virus is crippled, and cannot cause disease (AIDS).

• The idea is to introduce a gene ("chimeric antigen receptor") into immune T cells that wouldmak... more »

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2013-06-08 13:13:15 (115 comments, 124 reshares, 274 +1s)

A Vaccine for Addiction: For the 1.9 million cocaine users in the US alone, addiction is a problem for which no FDA-approved therapy exists. Now, a vaccine effective on primates is ready for human trials.

● Cocaine blocks the recycling of dopamine so that it accumulates in the brain, prolonging and amplifying signaling in reward centers to generate that pleasurable "high". Over time, dopamine receptors (pink buckets in image) decrease, requiring higher doses of cocaine and causing a vicious cycle of dependence. There are drugs that interfere with cocaine's action but they alter these important signaling pathways and have side effects.

The Cocaine Vaccine  triggers an immune response to the drug, that "eats up the cocaine in the blood like a little Pac-Man before it can reach the brain,” says Dr. Ronald G. Crystal, of Weill CornellMedica... more »

2013-06-06 00:52:58 (18 comments, 5 reshares, 47 +1s)

Smokin' Science Circle
We took 500 active profiles from the  +Science on Google+: A Public Database and put them into this circle.  Be careful, this circle is smokin' hot! #scienceeveryday    

Don't forget to check out the Science on Google+ Community: http://goo.gl/mTTxX

Database
Search Communities: http://goo.gl/Rvyez
Search Pages: http://goo.gl/WCohT
Search Profiles: http://goo.gl/Yz8KR
Add Profile or Page to Database: http://goo.gl/yEg7M
Add Community to Database: http://goo.gl/zh0xJ

Buttons

A special service of CircleCount.com is the following button.

The button shows the number of followers you have directly in a small button. You can add this button to your website, like the +1-Button of Google or the Like-Button of Facebook.






You can add this button directly in your website. For more information about the CircleCount Buttons and the description how to add them to another page click here.

Rajini RaoTwitter