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Lacerant Plainer has been at 11 events

HostFollowersTitleDateGuestsLinks
NovoPulp1,249*Ask @101942254766672606204 Your @107781032288819724254 Questions!* _Have your heard of NovoPulp, considered getting involved, but you had a few questions? Only just heard of us and want to know more? Then here is your chance to ask someone face to face!_  With around *2 months to go until the 2014 NovoPulp deadline passes*, we wanted to give everyone a chance to raise their hand and ask the questions that the rest of us didn't. Even if you can't attend the Hangout live, please leave your questions so you can watch the video afterwards and still get the information you need.  As the last HOA was aimed at the USA/Australian time-zones we have decided to make this Hangout more European friendly. The HOA will be on: SATURDAY 7th OF JUNE 2014 - 16:00 CET / 10:00 EDT  *Submission Status:* We are still in need of more short stories for this year but in particular *WE NEED ART*. So don't be shy, step forward :D For more information on *NovoPulp:* _The Speculative Fiction Anthology_ visit: http://www.NovoPulp.com For more frequent updates subscribe to our email list: http://eepurl.com/C_-Qf _Coming soon: FREE Bonus Content Only For Newsletter Subscribers!_ See you on air! Notifications: You have been notified of this HOA because you have circled the @107781032288819724254 page at some point. If you would prefer not to receive these limited notifications, or you want to be added to the notify list, then please let us know.NovoPulp Q&A HOA with Niamh Brown2014-06-07 16:00:0010  
NASA Goddard164,136On March 29, 2014, an X-class flare burst off the right side of the sun . . . and NASA was watching. Coordinating their observations, five NASA observatories and one ground-based telescope were able to see things in the flare they'd never seen before.  Numerous other NASA spacecraft provided additional data about what was happening on the sun during the event and what the effects were at Earth.  Join us at 2:30 p.m. EDT on Thursday, May 8, 2014, as researchers describe how multiple missions worked together to explore the sun's surface and atmosphere, layer by layer, providing unprecedented images of the onset of a solar flare.   In addition to the colorful pictures of the sun that NASA will share, participants will explain how such research can help scientists better understand what sets off these large explosions on the sun. Perhaps, someday scientists may be able to predict their onset, forewarning of the radio blackouts they can cause near Earth – blackouts that can interfere with military, airplane and ship communications. Participants include:  Adrian Daw: IRIS project scientist at NASA Goddard Albert Shih: RHESSI scientist at NASA Goddard Sabrina Savage: Hinode deputy project scientist at NASA Marshall Lucia Kleint: Bay Area Environmental Research Institute  Jeffrey Newmark: NASA HeadquartersNASA Hangout: All Eyes on the Sun2014-05-08 20:30:00653  
Space Fan News!5,421,115Hello Space Fans! Tonight there will be a total lunar eclipse tonight in the Western Hemisphere.  @109479143173251353583  will be heading to Cerritos College in Norwalk, CA to do some on-site outreach with Dr. @107316294793809570474. Internet permitting, we'll be attempting to bring in a live feed of the lunar eclipse from LA and hopefully connect with our friends from the @100902337165997768522  and bring in feeds from there too! If you're in the Los Angeles area, you are more than welcome to join us on site. The event starts at 10:30 p.m. PT and parking is free after 10 p.m. Cerritos College: 11190 Alondra Blvd. Norwalk, CA 90650 Parking Lot C-6 off of Studebaker, just south of Alondra Blvd. Not local? That's okay too! Share with us your pictures of the eclipse in the event below!  Keep Looking Up! #ScienceEveryday   #Space   #Astronomy   #Eclipse   #LunarEclipse   #BloodMoon  Lunar Eclipse Live!2014-04-15 08:00:00388  
STEM Women on G+154,926Join us for a STEM Women HOA as we speak to @114480095884024488890 on her career as a roboticist. Annika is an engineer who works on robotics and also a passionate STEM educator, teaching kids how to program and build robots through @101828427997295401901. She will talk to us about her exciting career path as a woman in STEM, what inspires her, and why supporting women in STEM is important.  This HOA will be hosted by Dr @108510686109338749229 and Dr @110756968351492254645  and you can tune in on Sunday April 13th at 4.30 PM Central/ 10.30PM UK. The hangout will be available for viewing on our YouTube channel (http://www.youtube.com/stemwomen) after the event.In The Spotlight, With Annika O'Brien2014-04-13 23:30:0055  
NovoPulp1,249Yes it is finally here! @107781032288819724254 (aka +#G+SF Anthologies), though @104121833908982880351 - Press Division, has published their first book: *_NovoPulp 2013/2014 Anthology._*  http://www.NovoPulp.com/store  To celebrate we are having a Launch Party HOA. SATURDAY 29th OF MARCH 2014 EST: 19:00 GMT: 23:00 SUNDAY 30th of MARCH 2014 CET: 00:00 AEDT: 10:00 READINGS FROM: @101942254766672606204  @108429362865809614439  OTHER GUESTS INCLUDE: @111830327627461921997  For those who don't know here is a little synopsis on the NovoPulp project: _Let’s bring back the best days of Pulp: Fiction written by and for those who love the genre. Pushing boundaries, asking the questions, demanding the answers, and even providing some._ _We collect, anthologise, and produce one volume a year of the very best Speculative Fiction that G+ can provide. All comers are welcome – we want everyone to have the chance to put their ideas before the world, to be the one who saw what the rest of us didn’t – or wouldn’t – and so change the world..._ *If you enjoy speculative fiction and great artwork you are in for a treat.* Even if you can't attend the HOA, if you can spread the word about the event or the book we would really appreciate it. You can find images and code for your website here: http://www.NovoPulp.com/spread-the-word To those that can make it please join us at the first NovoPulp Launch Party HOA this weekend (the 29th/30th of March 2014 - depending on your timezone). Notification Notice: If you were notified it is because you have circled the @107781032288819724254 (aka +#G+SF Anthology) page. We endeavour to keep these notifications to an absolute minimum, but if you would like to be removed or added to our notification circle please let us know. If you would like to be notified more frequently of NovoPulp news then please subscribe to our newsletter (http://eepurl.com/C_-Qf) or join our public Google+ community (https://plus.google.com/u/0/communities/115593955852120500953).    Thank you for all your support over the last two years :DNovoPulp 2013/2014 Anthology Launch Party HOA2014-03-30 00:00:0033  
The Huffington Post3,231,191@101423092138897438495 is talking ALL THINGS @105318954285548566943 with our own  @111048918866742956374 and @114666679887770354893! We'll be discussing the big Winners, the HUGE Snubs, and all the Moments from Sunday's broadcast.. especially the FUNNY via Host Ellen DeGeneres (and any other random bits of #lol )! Join us as we chat LIVE about the greatest speeches and take questions from all of you, the #awesomesauce audience on Monday, March 3, 2014 at 4:15 pm ET / 1:15 pm PT We want to hear from you as to who should win before the show starts (and who should've won, once it ends). You can submit your questions in both comments and using the Q&A app attached to the Hangout. More fun @115626641875816620951 here at #huffpost  on @101560853443212199687 ! #Oscars   #oscars2014   #movies   #bestpicture2014   #hangoutsonair    #academyawards2014  @109886274038066405139 @103646891144429179516 @116676026225486451226 @104518476962915543468 @104309716740433286280  #Her   #philomena   #nebraska   #dallasbuyersclub   http://huff.to/1jx2qiT : Our HuffPost #Oscars2014  coverage [Trailer Photo Credit: FREDERIC J. BROWN via Getty Images]Huffpost 2014 Oscars Recap Show w/Matt Rappaport and Nic Graham2014-03-03 22:15:0052  
Beyond Rubik's Cube5,231,952Rubik’s Fans Unite! Spend an afternoon with the world’s top Rubik’s Cube aficionados in an epic Google+ Hangout on Air. Join +Paul Hoffman CEO of the +Liberty Science Center as he hosts a discussion between some of the brightest thought leaders, math geeks, and speed cubers ever assembled; featuring an introduction by none other than +Erno Rubik himself. Hear why Oxford Mathematics Professor +Marcus du Sautoy thinks the Rubik’s Cube has a lot in common with the Large Hadron Collider. Muse over the poetry and aesthetics of science in our culture with renowned science writer, and exhibition curator +Margaret Wertheim. Marvel at the finger dexterity of world champion speed cuber +Anthony Brooks. Learn about what it takes to bring an exhibition to life with +Ann Neumann. Creative Director at the Liberty Science Center and +Michael Tyka artist and visionary who built the Groovik’s Cube at Burning Man. Seven of the most interesting people in the world will be gathered together to talk all things cube. You’re invited. Click-in July 18th at 2pm EST. Submit Hangout questions on this Events Page. Special thank you to +Michael Holden for that awesome picture we're using. Check him out www.michaelholden.com.The Beyond Rubik's Cube Hangout2013-07-18 20:00:00214  
TakePart43,099Seven years ago former Vice President Al Gore released An Inconvenient Truth, kick-starting a global conversation about climate change (available on Google Play: http://goo.gl/ElYcc). The issue is as pressing as ever and Gore and Jeff Skoll, the film's executive producer, want to hear your ideas (http://youtu.be/ih3fEHv4wqA).  Throughout the coming week add your thoughts and questions in the Science on G+ Community (http://goo.gl/39w5t). Gore and Skoll will choose the most insightful participants to join them in a live Hangout on Air on June 11th at 2PM EST - come back then to tune in to the Conversation! Google+ Conversation with Al Gore about Combating Climate Change2013-06-11 20:00:002181  
Jacob Dix36,191Post your sky images here. Comment on other's sky images. Mobile, DSLR, film are welcome. Have fun. The sky is beautiful.Sky 3!2012-09-29 00:30:0033  
Benjamin Cortis156,737*Photo Competition* September 2012 *Status: finished* *Thread:* Landscapes The images can be submitted the next *24 hours*. Then the event is closed and a voting phase starts from exactly *6 days*. The jury is the audience. During this period anyone can can vote by a +1 to his favorite picture. In one week, then the current state of the votes will be noted and the winners will be revealed to the public. *Rules:* Please note the current topic. Everyone can submit *only one* picture. Please no nudity or any other offensive pictures. *If anyone does not abide by the rules, his work will be removed from this event not be rated.* last competition: https://plus.google.com/u/0/events/c1nngcqt7dgr1qn315holkenh20 Let´s have fun.... ------------------------------------------------------------- *Fotowettbewerb* September 2012 *Status: beendet* *Thema:* Landschaften Die Bilder können in den nächsten *24 Stunden* eingereicht werden. Dann wird das Event geschlossen und eine Abstimmungsphase von genau *6 Tagen* beginnt. Die Jury ist das Publikum. In diesem Zeitraum kann jeder seine Stimme durch ein +1 unter seinem Lieblingsbild abgeben. In einer Woche wird dann der aktuelle Stand der Abstimmungen festgehalten und die Gewinner können der Öffentlichkeit preisgegeben werden. *Regeln:* Bitte beachtet das aktuelle Thema. Jeder kann *maximal ein* Bild einreichen. Bitte keine Nacktbilder oder keine anderen anstößigen Bilder. *Wenn sich jemand nicht an die Regeln hält wird aus diesem Event entfernt und nicht bewertet.* letzte Wettbewerb: https://plus.google.com/u/0/events/c1nngcqt7dgr1qn315holkenh20 Viel Spaß #foto #photo #wettbewerb #competition #event #photocompetition   #photocompetitionseptember  Photo Competition - September 20122012-09-05 10:00:00943  
Jacob Dix36,191For some time now I have been doing a project, an experiment, an exploration, a study in light. My object has been the sky, through the limited vantage point of my kitchen window and my backyard. The result, so far, is this album called *Sky*: http://goo.gl/phGuR Forget about that for right now. Show everyone your own sky! The best, the worst. I've seen people mention avoiding it because it means they have no "object" to shoot. Don't listen to those people. It is the most challenging palette of light there is. Let's see 'em! You have a full day and a half! Please spread the word too.Sky!2012-09-02 00:00:0023  

Lacerant Plainer has been shared in 2,276 public circles

You can see here the 50 latest shared circles.
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AuthorFollowersDateUsers in CircleCommentsReshares+1Links
Kelly Jean13,488If you received this Notice - You're in this Circle                       •-::-•:*:•-:¦:  Circle Share 10  :¦:-•:*:•.::-•                 •-::-•:*:•-:¦: Fall Share and Be Shared :¦:-•:*:•.::-•      •-::-•:*:•-:¦:  If you want to be shared in this circle  :¦:-•:*:•.::-• •-::-•:*:•-:¦:  Just share it and I will keep you in this circle  :¦:-•:*:•.::-•        •-::-•:*:•-:¦:  Boost your visibility on Google+  :¦:-•:*:•.::-•                       •-::-•:*:•-:¦:  Share the circle!  :¦:-•:*:•.::-•This circle contains people who really are interesting and active people on Google Plus.Grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:If you received the notice you are in this circle, then well done.If you would like to be included in the next Circle Share, you only have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post 5 - Follow  your dreams and smile to life.More you share More you get! :)I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#circles #shared #share #add #friends #circle #share #sharecircle #circleshar2015-05-05 14:37:31386000
Neil Bailey17,162If you received the notice you are in this circle, then well doneIf you would like to be included in the next #Circle Share, you only have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles (If you haven't already)2 - Share the circle (Publicly) - (cc) me in the comments on the share and I can add you to the next circle immediately. Otherwise I may not notice your activity!3 - Add +1 to the post.4 - Leave a comment if you like.5 - Add the circle or just check it out.Follow your dreams, Share and Be Shared.More you share more you get! :)Thanks!#viEgypt #between #eleventanthirteentcenturies #ir #migration #resultein #fusion #Arabs #anBerbers #wher #locals #werArabizeanAraculturabsorbeelements #madlam #ficiareligion #built #mosques #anbrought #Gao #Muslim #scholars #includinalMaghifounder #an #important #tradition #Sudanin #Muslim #scholarship #By #eleventcentury #somHausstates #– #sucas #Kano2015-05-05 07:41:03401114
Harry Clutton213In this Circle are Wonderful people with Beautiful and Interesting posts, You Must Have Them in Your #Circles#ankingdoms #sucas #thos #Akan #Edo #YorubanIgbo #peoplin #West #an #Swahilcoastatradinwns #east #By #nintcentury #strin #dynastistates #includin #earliest #Hausstates #stretcheacross #subSaharan #savannafrom #western #regions #centraSudan #most #powerfu #sstates #werGhanGao #an #KanemBornu #EmpirGhandeclinein #eleventcentury2015-05-05 07:12:062057910
Мысля от Эдгара2,769Активные пользователи Google+Приятно встретить кого-то, кто не знаком с моим прошлым.)It's nice to meet someone who is not familiar with my past .)Instagram ➤ https://instagram.com/mredgarcross/➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤ Дайте себе немного разнообразия и добавьте этих людей  в свои круги.➤ Следуйте этим простым шагам:   1) Добавить в круг 2) Plus оригинальный пост 3) Поделиться круг публично (и с ваших кругах / расширенный кружки) 4) Комментарий на исходное сообщение .Наслождайтесь общением с новыми интересными людьми !)И этоВам интересно кто я То ссылки тут :➤Мой канал на ютуб | My channel on YouTube  : http://www.youtube.com/user/MrEdgarcross➤Семьый канал на ютуб | Family Channel on YouTube : http://www.youtube.com/user/OlgaNise➤Игровой канал на ютуб | Game Channel on YouTube : http://www.youtube.com/channel/UCMchf3TnpVQr8ECWXowuT1A~@~@~@~@~@~@~@~@~@~@~@~@~@~@~Active users of Google+It's nice to meet someone who is not familiar with my past.)It's nice to meet someone who is not familiar with my past.)Give yourself a bit of variety and add these people to your circles.➤ Follow these simple steps: 1) Add a circle 2) plus the original post 3) Share circle publicly (and with your circles / extended circles) 4) Comment on the original post.Naslozhdaytes socializing with new people!)And I wonder who Etowah What links here:➤My channel on YouTube | My channel on YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/user/MrEdgarcross➤Semy channel on YouTube | Family channel on YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/user/OlgaNise➤Gaming channel on YouTube | Games channel on YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/channel/UCMchf3TnpVQr8ECWXowuT1A➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤#googleplustools #googleplusanalyticstools #googleplusanalytics #internetmarketingtools #googleplusmarketingtools #circleshare #circlesharing #sharedcircles #sharingcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #circlesunday #share #shared #followers 2015-05-04 19:44:11388001
Achintha chamath28,325CIRCLE SHARING The primary purpose of circle-sharing is to increase engagement #circle  2015-05-04 15:00:07123292131
Robert Connor38,649This is a shared circle of people that help G+ to growShare and be shared If you like this Circle, please share this post and Circle. If you want to be in the next #circle, share this circle and post a comment here! #but #succeedeby #MalEmpirwhicconsolidatemuc #western #Sudan #sex #thirteentcentury #Kanem #acceptelam #sex #eleventcenturyIn #foresteregions #West #n #coast #independent #kingdoms #grew #up #witlittlinfluencfrom #Muslim #nort #Kingdom #Nr #establhearoun #nintcentury #an #on #first #It #on #oldest #kingdoms #sex #presentday #Nigerian #ruleby #EzNr2015-05-04 05:34:29300101114
Mamy Shimomatsu5,566【 #CircleShare #newperson   #newpeople   #active   #Unusual 】Share this circle to PUBLICNew & Unusual Share Circle No.8Please, add and reshare. #topofthepeople #influencermarketing #sharedcircle #circleshare #circlethis #socialmediamarketing #socialmediastrategy #socialnetworking #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #circleoftheday #topofthecircle #howtoenlargecircle #enlargecircle #thursdaycircle #share #weekendcircle #weekend #weekendfun #circles #circleyoushare #publiccircle #sharedcircles #addcircle #sharedpubliccircles #circleshare #publicsharedcircles #circleoftheweek #circlesharing #sharedcircle #circleshare 2015-05-04 01:38:13334000
Grand Prince Hotel Dhaka Bangladesh399#CircleShare Update v.5.0!I'm dishing out another #googlecircleshare for my #marketing friends online.This is a shared circle of people that have followed me and have and influence in the marketing industry.they vary from successful and just starting out bu are all incredibly good people. wihout a dout, if you add them. you will have and even better google plus experience as the add you to their circles, plus share and comment on your posts. ............................................................................if you would like to be include on my next circle just follow these simple steps.1) Make sure you have already add me into your circles2) Plus comment and re-share this post in publicPlease make sure you plus re-share and comment on the original post otherwise I may miss it ( and we don't want that)............................................................................if you do not want to be included in a google circle please please write a message. I don't want to feel like your being spammed :)(The people who have interactive with my last share will be included in the comments below.)2015-05-03 15:20:51501191
Deepika Singh0#circle  #circleshare  #circlesharing  #circles  #sharedcircles  #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedcircleoftheday  #shared  2015-05-02 20:13:36221001
Deepika Singh0#circle  #circleshare  #circlesharing  #circles  #sharedcircles  #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedcircleoftheday  #shared  2015-05-02 20:13:02220000
Abu Rayhan (CBECL)1,487A circle of active people, add & be added. #sharedcircle #sharedcircleoftheday #circleoftheday #circleshared #circle  2015-05-02 15:23:49220000
Achintha chamath28,047#circlesharers   #sharedcircle   #circle   #circleoftheday  2015-05-02 12:02:21117002
AyJay Schibig93,323ENGAGERS  CIRCLE  5.1.15  Welcome to the latest  edition of my  active Engager's Circle. Add  it to grow your G+ network !  Please ReShare.#circleshare #circlesharing #sharedcircles  #share #followers #addcircles #publicsharedcircles 2015-05-02 05:27:17415364653
Harry Day18,108If You recieve this message You are included in circle !!!To get in, and to ensure you stay in #thebestfriends  circle you need to do the following:1. Include me in your #circles...!!!2.  Add the circle if you can, if not try again later.3. Plus this post...!!4. Publicly share this circle...!!5. Leave a comment on this circle so I know you have done the three steps above...!!!#West #Ironworkin #fully #establheby #roughly #Bin #many #areas #East #anWest #althougor #regions #didn't #begin #ironworkinunti #early #centuries #ACopper #objects #from #independent #center #civilization #wittradinlinks #Phoenicestablheby #Phoenicians #from #Tyron #northwest #n #coast #at #CarthageEuropean #exploration #began 2015-05-01 06:25:20344236
John Hannah20,238Circle share with new friendsHi friends follow this circle1 - Include me in your circles2 - Share the circle (Publicly)3 - Add +1 to the post.4 - Leave a comment if you like.I will thankful if you plus and #share this #circle!#AksumitEmpirSyroGreemsionaries #who #arriveby #way #ReSewerresponsiblfor #logicadevelopmentIn #early #tcentury #newly #formeArabian #anrulsincludesmalfamily #groups #huntergarers #sucas #San #peopern #larger #morstructuregroups #sucas #family #clan #groupings #Bantuspeakinpeoples #centraern #aneastern #heavily #structureclan2015-05-01 06:10:37369151332
George Clark18,461If you received the notice you are in this circle, then well doneIf you would like to be included in the next #Circle Share, you only have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles (If you haven't already)2 - Share the circle (Publicly) - (cc) me in the comments on the share and I can add you to the next circle immediately.  Otherwise I may not notice your activity!3 - Add +1 to the post.4 - Leave a comment if you like.5 - Add the circle or just check it out.Follow your dreams, Share and Be Shared.*More you share more you get! :)Thanks*#lamiCaliphatexpandein #Egypt #ann #sex #Nort #sex #short #whilocaBerber #elithabeen #integratein #Muslim #Aratribes #When #mayyacapitaDamascus #felin #tcentury #lamicenter #Mediterranean #shiftefrom #SyrQayrawan #sex #Nort #lamiNort #habecomdiversanhufor #mystics #scholars #jurts #anphilosophers #Durin #bovementioneperiolam #sprea2015-04-30 08:00:31471235
Circles Circles Circles55,266A Circle of Bloggers & Their BlogsThose included in this circle are active bloggers, and are also active on G+. Add them to your circles for added information on a variety of subjects, from health, to technology, food and gardening.Please re-share this circle in your stream.To be added:1- Add +Circles Circles Circles to your circles2- Write the URL of your blog in the comments section below3- Your blog must be an active blog (posts must be current)This Circle will be published on Wednesdays. Note: If you are in this list be sure to add your blog's URL on the About section of your G+ page. I will be featuring interesting blogs every so often, so it's important to have the blog's address. Looking forward to reading your blogs.If you know of anyone that may benefit from this circle, please ask them to join. Thank you.Current Circles  Published Mondays ORIGINAL CONTENT CREATORS: http://goo.gl/tknMt7Published Wednesdays:BLOGGERS & THEIR BLOGS: http://goo.gl/OZleYnOthers CirclesCREATIVES: http://goo.gl/XBE7WNSCIENCE: http://goo.gl/4UAeINTECHNOLOGY: http://goo.gl/Y1RDCnG+ Pages: http://goo.gl/jNZdWf                                                                         #circleshare                                                             2015-04-30 03:03:250403764
Technology Pools1,727"Circle brings together nice and interesting people.Join the Gathering Circle !! Full of nice and active friends #Engagers #EngagersCircle #SocialMedia #Google+ #SharedCircle #Marketing #SocialMediaMarketing  #Shared  #Social #GooglePlusTips #circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #bestcircle #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #sharedcircles "2015-04-28 10:54:59399001
Technology Pools1,727"Circle brings together nice and interesting people.Join the Gathering Circle !! Full of nice and active friends #Engagers #EngagersCircle #SocialMedia #Google+ #SharedCircle #Marketing #SocialMediaMarketing  #Shared  #Social #GooglePlusTips #circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #bestcircle #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #sharedcircles "2015-04-28 10:54:39351000
Mamy Shimomatsu5,426【 #CircleShare #newperson   #newpeople   #active   #Unusual 】Share this circle to PUBLICNew & Unusual Share Circle No.3Please, add and reshare. #topofthepeople #influencermarketing #sharedcircle #circleshare #circlethis #socialmediamarketing #socialmediastrategy #socialnetworking #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #circleoftheday #topofthecircle #howtoenlargecircle #enlargecircle #thursdaycircle #share #weekendcircle #weekend #weekendfun #circles #circleyoushare #publiccircle #sharedcircles #addcircle  #sharedpubliccircles #circleshare #publicsharedcircles  #circleoftheweek #circlesharing #sharedcircle #circleshare 2015-04-28 06:59:25334108
clips hot146special circle 2 #awesome   #circleoftheday   #circle   #socialmedia   #socia   #sharedcircle   #sharedcircleoftheday   #awesomepeople  2015-04-28 01:34:20335000
Carrier Air Conditioner0#sharedcircle #sharedcircleoftheday #circleoftheday  2015-04-27 14:03:57368000
BD Tigers0#sharedcircles #circlesharing #circleoftheday  2015-04-27 13:19:03492000
Robert Connor38,077This is a shared circle of people that help G+ to growShare and be shared If you like this Circle, please share this post and Circle. If you want to be in the next #circle, share this circle and post a comment here!#Britadmintration #untiBerlin #Conference #Berlin #Conferenchelin #– #an #important #event #sex #politicafutur #n #ethnigroups #It #conveneby #KinLeopolI #Belgium #anattendeby #European #powers #that #laiclaim #n #terriries #It #sought #brinan #en #Scramblfor #by #European #powers #by #agreeinon #politicadivion #anspheres #influency #set #up #politicadivions2015-04-27 07:58:35379236
Mamy Shimomatsu5,368【 #CircleShare #newperson   #newpeople   #active   #Unusual 】Share this circle to PUBLICNew & Unusual Share Circle No.3Please, add and reshare. #topofthepeople #influencermarketing #sharedcircle #circleshare #circlethis #socialmediamarketing #socialmediastrategy #socialnetworking #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #circleoftheday #topofthecircle #howtoenlargecircle #enlargecircle #thursdaycircle #share #weekendcircle #weekend #weekendfun #circles #circleyoushare #publiccircle #sharedcircles #addcircle  #sharedpubliccircles #circleshare #publicsharedcircles  #circleoftheweek #circlesharing #sharedcircle #circleshare 2015-04-27 01:57:07334118
John Hannah19,871Circle share with new friendsHi friends follow this circle1 - Include me in your circles2 - Share the circle (Publicly)3 - Add +1 to the post.4 - Leave a comment if you like.I will thankful if you plus and #share this #circle!#Population #est #Total #area #mi #kmB #Land #area #mi #kmB #Water #area #mi #kmB #House #seats #Alabama #AL #Montgomery #Birmingham #December #Alaska #AK #Juneau2015-04-25 07:35:08450504772
Mamy Shimomatsu5,164【 #CircleShare #newperson   #newpeople   #active   #Unusual 】Share this circle to PUBLICNew & Unusual Share Circle No.1.(20140413)Please, add and reshare. #topofthepeople #influencermarketing #sharedcircle #circleshare #circlethis #socialmediamarketing #socialmediastrategy #socialnetworking #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #circleoftheday #topofthecircle #howtoenlargecircle #enlargecircle #thursdaycircle #share #weekendcircle #weekend #weekendfun #circles #circleyoushare #publiccircle #sharedcircles #addcircle #sharedpubliccircles #circleshare #publicsharedcircles #circleoftheweek #circlesharing #sharedcircle #circleshare 2015-04-24 05:01:45334000
Daniel Gibbs25,166If you received a notification, please reshare to your #circlesIf you’d like to be added to the next circle share: • +1 this #circle • Share this circle to PUBLIC • Include me in your circles • Comment on this post#original #February #Retrieved #February #CIA #World #Ciagov #Archived #original #December #Retrieved #December #CI #World #Ciagov #Archived #original #December #Retrieved #December #IA #World #Ciagov #Archived #original #December #Retrieved #December #CIA #World #Ciagov2015-04-22 10:23:43408234
harish naidu124 here's the latest #SHARED CIRCLE  of people on Google+ who have been dubbed Social Media Mentors. These are people who spend their time pouring into others and helping them be more awesome in #SocialMedia . They lead by example and are sources of helpful, inspiring, and quality content.What to Do With This CircleWell first, hit the Add people button below. If you're on mobile, you won't be able to see that button so be sure to share this post somewhere you can get to it later when you're on your computer. Name this circle accordingly. I'm calling it "Social Media Mentors". Use whatever works for you. Next, check up on this circle throughout the next week or so. From your home stream, be sure to view the stream for this circle only (just to get rid of the clutter) and see which of these influencers you connect with the most. Engaging with these folks will not only connect you with them, but also an audience that is just like you-- other people who are trying to rock social media. So go make some connections and be on the lookout for my next crowdsourcing circle! 2015-04-22 09:15:49183000
Abu Rayhan (CBECL)1,228#sharedcircleoftheday #sharedcircle  2015-04-22 07:35:05221000
Simon Weiner6,3701.23 High Quality New Active Engager Circle. Enjoy:) #circle   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circles   #sharingcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #circlesunday #share #shared #followers #addcircles #publicsharedcircles #share #addpeople #addcircle #addfriends #circle #socialmedia #hillaryclinton   #president   #hillary2016  2015-04-20 07:39:36500005
Mamy Shimomatsu4,942【 #CircleShare #newperson   #newpeople   #active   #Unusual 】Share this circle to PUBLICNew & Unusual Share Circle No.10.(20140413)Please, add and reshare. #topofthepeople #influencermarketing #sharedcircle #circleshare #circlethis #socialmediamarketing #socialmediastrategy #socialnetworking #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #circleoftheday #topofthecircle #howtoenlargecircle #enlargecircle #thursdaycircle #share #weekendcircle #weekend #weekendfun #circles #circleyoushare #publiccircle #sharedcircles #addcircle #sharedpubliccircles #circleshare #publicsharedcircles #circleoftheweek #circlesharing #sharedcircle #circleshare 2015-04-20 03:32:483341011
Achintha chamath26,885#publiccircle   #sharedcircleoftheday   #sharedcircle   #circle  2015-04-20 02:35:56106000
Circles Circles Circles54,694A Circle of Bloggers & Their BlogsThose included in this circle are active bloggers, and are also active on G+. Add them to your circles for added information on a variety of subjects, from health, to technology, food and gardening.Please re-share this circle in your stream.To be added:1- Add +Circles Circles Circles to your circles2- Write the URL of your blog in the comments section below3- Your blog must be an active blog (posts must be current)This Circle will be published on Wednesdays. Note: If you are in this list be sure to add your blog's URL on the About section of your G+ page. I will be featuring interesting blogs every so often, so it's important to have the blog's address. Looking forward to reading your blogs.If you know of anyone that may benefit from this circle, please ask them to join. Thank you.Current Circles  Published Mondays ORIGINAL CONTENT CREATORS: http://goo.gl/ygSjSePublished Wednesdays:BLOGGERS & THEIR BLOGS: http://goo.gl/wLsbtEOthers CirclesCREATIVES: http://goo.gl/XBE7WNSCIENCE: http://goo.gl/4UAeINTECHNOLOGY: http://goo.gl/Y1RDCnG+ Pages: http://goo.gl/jNZdWf#circleshare                                                             2015-04-19 15:53:371316615
harish naidu83This circle contains people who are very active on Google+People in this Circle are top google+ engagers and great #resharers. These are people that will share and re-post your circles and other content. This is a good circle to connect with each other and gain followers. I highly suggest adding each person in this Circle to your circles as they are likely to interact with youIf you want to continue or wish to get in the next version please complete 1-4 below.INSTRUCTIONS1. Add me to your #circles, if you haven't done so already.2. +1 this circle.3. Publicly share this circle to public, your circles and extended circles.4. Comment to inform me that you have done the above three things.2015-04-17 18:08:42444000
Ruta a la Patagonia27,970┊ ☆ ┊☆ ┊ ☆ ┊Great Friends v42 CIRCLE  ┊ ☆ ┊☆ ┊☆┊_________________________________________________●❈●❈●❉●  Please Share From The Original Post! ●❈●❈●❉●▼▼▼▼ CLICK READ MORE FOR FULL CONTENT ▼▼▼▼*This is the Great Friends v42 Google Plus CircleIf you want to participate please kindly frollow the following rules::-)1. Add me to your circles if you haven´t done it already2. Share this circle to Public3. Plus or coment this post so we know you wish to participate in upcoming circlesPlease note: ● You must be an active Google+ user and shares useful content.● Your posts must be family-friendly. No adult, gambling, controversial, politics, religion blogs.Have a nice day!Your blogging friends of: +Ruta a la Patagonia  De camino al Sur el mejor hotel  para alojarte sobre ruta 5, antes de Santa Rosa La Pampa, esta en Trenque Lauquen:+Hotel Howard Johnson Trenque Lauquen Sobre ruta, con amplio parque, pileta climatizada, estacionamiento, wifi, restobar y mucho mas. Ya sea que vayas de camino a Bariloche, San Martin de los Andes, Villa la Angostura o cualquier otro destino de la cordillera o de la costa de la patagonia (por ruta 33).Consultanos en: www.hjtrenquelauquen.com.ar2015-04-17 13:30:50500565567
Мысля от Эдгара1,322Активные пользователи Google+Приятно встретить кого-то, кто не знаком с моим прошлым.)It's nice to meet someone who is not familiar with my past .)Instagram ➤ https://instagram.com/mredgarcross/➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤ Дайте себе немного разнообразия и добавьте этих людей  в свои круги.➤ Следуйте этим простым шагам:   1) Добавить в круг 2) Plus оригинальный пост 3) Поделиться круг публично (и с ваших кругах / расширенный кружки) 4) Комментарий на исходное сообщение .Наслождайтесь общением с новыми интересными людьми !)И этоВам интересно кто я То ссылки тут :➤Мой канал на ютуб | My channel on YouTube  : http://www.youtube.com/user/MrEdgarcross➤Семьый канал на ютуб | Family Channel on YouTube : http://www.youtube.com/user/OlgaNise➤Игровой канал на ютуб | Game Channel on YouTube : http://www.youtube.com/channel/UCMchf3TnpVQr8ECWXowuT1A~@~@~@~@~@~@~@~@~@~@~@~@~@~@~Active users of Google+It's nice to meet someone who is not familiar with my past.)It's nice to meet someone who is not familiar with my past.)Give yourself a bit of variety and add these people to your circles.➤ Follow these simple steps: 1) Add a circle 2) plus the original post 3) Share circle publicly (and with your circles / extended circles) 4) Comment on the original post.Naslozhdaytes socializing with new people!)And I wonder who Etowah What links here:➤My channel on YouTube | My channel on YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/user/MrEdgarcross➤Semy channel on YouTube | Family channel on YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/user/OlgaNise➤Gaming channel on YouTube | Games channel on YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/channel/UCMchf3TnpVQr8ECWXowuT1A➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤#googleplustools #googleplusanalyticstools #googleplusanalytics #internetmarketingtools #googleplusmarketingtools #circleshare #circlesharing #sharedcircles #sharingcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #circlesunday #share #shared #followers 2015-04-15 18:15:53501102
Daniel Gibbs24,387If you received a notification, please reshare to your #circlesIf you’d like to be added to the next circle share: • +1 this #circle • Share this circle to PUBLIC • Include me in your circles • Comment on this post#honorary #Asian #Nobel #laureate #having #spent #considerable #time #as #daughter #of #missionaries #based #many #of #her #novels #namely #Good #Earth #Mother #as #well #as #biographies #of #her #parents #of #their #time #Exile #Fighting #Angel #all #of #which #earned #her 2015-04-13 10:36:224447713
Galina Petrová7,814Обмен кругами#круги   #обмен  #кругляши #круглим   #круги #Google+   #SharedCircles   #circles   #circleshare   #sharedcircle   #circlesharing   #followers   #social  2015-04-11 13:19:47205000
Bruno Bolognese16,471This circle contains people who are very active on Google+If you received a notification, please reshare to your circlesIf you’d like to be added to the next circle share: • +1 this circle • Share this circle to PUBLIC • Include me in your circles • Comment on this post #reshare   #supercirle   #circleshared   #cirles   #goodpeople   #circleoftheday  2015-04-10 22:02:37388002
Circles Circles Circles54,367A Circle of Bloggers & Their BlogsThose included in this circle are active bloggers, and are also active on G+. Add them to your circles for added information on a variety of subjects, from health, to technology, food and gardening.Please re-share this circle in your stream.To be added:1- Add +Circles Circles Circles to your circles2- Write the URL of your blog in the comments section below3- Your blog must be an active blog (posts must be current)This Circle will be published on Wednesdays. Note: If you are in this list be sure to add your blog's URL on the About section of your G+ page. I will be featuring interesting blogs every so often, so it's important to have the blog's address. Looking forward to reading your blogs.If you know of anyone that may benefit from this circle, please ask them to join. Thank you.Current Circles  Published Mondays ORIGINAL CONTENT CREATORS: http://goo.gl/ygSjSePublished Wednesdays:BLOGGERS & THEIR BLOGS: http://goo.gl/5nNbVsOthers CirclesCREATIVES: http://goo.gl/XBE7WNSCIENCE: http://goo.gl/4UAeINTECHNOLOGY: http://goo.gl/Y1RDCnG+ Pages: http://goo.gl/jNZdWf#circleshare                                                             2015-04-10 04:48:08128332260
Air Conditioner Point0Adding people, building community, Sharing things. #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday  2015-04-09 16:31:39429000
Brian Mcquillan27,754Boost your visibility on Google+ - Share the #circle!To be added to or stay in this Circle - Share the circleIf you received the notice you are in this circle, then well done.If you would like to be included in the next Circle Share, you only have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles2 - Share the circle (Publicly)3 - Add +1 to the post.4 - Leave a comment if you like.I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#practiced #primarily #in #Israel #the #birthplace #and #historical #homeland #of #the #Hebrew #nation #which #today #consists #equally #of #those #Israelites #who #remained #in #AsiaNorth #Africa #and #those #who #returned #from #diaspora #in #Europe #North #America #and #other 2015-04-09 09:51:0938911653104
Allan watson25,049Active users on Google+. Circle ShareIf you received a notification, please reshare to your #circlesIf you’d like to be added to the next circle share: • +1 this circle • Share this circle to PUBLIC • Include me in your circles • Comment on this post#largest #Muslim #population #in #the #world #is #Indonesia #followed #by #Pakistan #India #Bangladesh #Iran #and #Turkey #Mecca #Medina #and #to #a #lesser #extent #Jerusalem #are #the #holiest #cities #for #Islam #in #all #the #world #These #religious #sites #attract #large #numbers2015-04-08 07:11:00476124
Kenneth Nicholson23,496This circle contains people who are very active on Google+People in this Circle are top google+ engagers and great #resharers. These are people that will share and re-post your circles and other content. This is a good circle to connect with each other and gain followers. I highly suggest adding each person in this Circle to your circles as they are likely to interact with youIf you want to continue or wish to get in the next version please complete 1-4 below.INSTRUCTIONS1. Add me to your #circles, if you haven't done so already.2. +1 this circle.3. Publicly share this circle to public, your circles and extended circles.4. Comment to inform me that you have done the above three things.#world #particularly #during #the #Hajj #and #Umrah #seasons #Iran #is #the #largest #ia #country #and #Pakistan #has #the #largest #Ahmadiyya #populationThe #Baháí #Faith #originated #in #Asia #in #Iran #Persia #and #spread #from #there 2015-04-08 07:01:10443447
Игра «от» Эдгара1,403Активные пользователи Google+Приятно встретить кого-то, кто не знаком с моим прошлым.)It's nice to meet someone who is not familiar with my past .)➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤ Дайте себе немного разнообразия и добавьте этих людей  в свои круги.➤ Следуйте этим простым шагам:   1) Добавить в круг 2) Plus оригинальный пост 3) Поделиться круг публично (и с ваших кругах / расширенный кружки) 4) Комментарий на исходное сообщение .Наслождайтесь общением с новыми интересными людьми !)И этоВам интересно кто я То ссылки тут :➤Мой канал на ютуб | My channel on YouTube  : http://www.youtube.com/user/MrEdgarcross➤Семьый канал на ютуб | Family Channel on YouTube : http://www.youtube.com/user/OlgaNise➤Игровой канал на ютуб | Game Channel on YouTube : http://www.youtube.com/channel/UCMchf3TnpVQr8ECWXowuT1A~@~@~@~@~@~@~@~@~@~@~@~@~@~@~Active users of Google+It's nice to meet someone who is not familiar with my past.)It's nice to meet someone who is not familiar with my past.)Give yourself a bit of variety and add these people to your circles.➤ Follow these simple steps: 1) Add a circle 2) plus the original post 3) Share circle publicly (and with your circles / extended circles) 4) Comment on the original post.Naslozhdaytes socializing with new people!)And I wonder who Etowah What links here:➤My channel on YouTube | My channel on YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/user/MrEdgarcross➤Semy channel on YouTube | Family channel on YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/user/OlgaNise➤Gaming channel on YouTube | Games channel on YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/channel/UCMchf3TnpVQr8ECWXowuT1A➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤➤#googleplustools #googleplusanalyticstools #googleplusanalytics #internetmarketingtools #googleplusmarketingtools #circleshare #circlesharing #sharedcircles #sharingcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #circlesunday #share #shared #followers #addcircles 2015-04-07 19:52:40500002
Swimming Pools Quotes1,870#sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek#bristol #somerset #london #britain2015-04-06 11:28:56400000
Technology Pools1,341Circle brings together nice and interesting people.Join the Gathering Circle !! Full of nice and active friends #Engagers #EngagersCircle #SocialMedia #Google+ #SharedCircle #Marketing #SocialMediaMarketing  #Shared  #Social #GooglePlusTips #circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #bestcircle #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #sharedcircles 2015-04-06 07:18:45401000
Circles Circles Circles54,011A Circle of Bloggers & Their BlogsThose included in this circle are active bloggers, and are also active on G+. Add them to your circles for added information on a variety of subjects, from health, to technology, food and gardening.Please re-share this circle in your stream.To be added:1- Add +Circles Circles Circles to your circles2- Write the URL of your blog in the comments section below3- Your blog must be an active blog (posts must be current)This Circle will be published on Wednesdays. Note: If you are in this list be sure to add your blog's URL on the About section of your G+ page. I will be featuring interesting blogs every so often, so it's important to have the blog's address. Looking forward to reading your blogs.If you know of anyone that may benefit from this circle, please ask them to join. Thank you.Current Circles  Published Mondays ORIGINAL CONTENT CREATORS: http://goo.gl/0H9WboPublished Wednesdays:BLOGGERS & THEIR BLOGS: http://goo.gl/i1ea8mPublished Thursdays:WOMEN ARE FROM VENUS : http://goo.gl/JOIEqzMEN ARE FROM MARS : http://goo.gl/h2x9QqPublished Fridays:A CIRCLE TO PAY IT FORWARD: http://goo.gl/K7sU0uOthers CirclesCREATIVES: http://goo.gl/XBE7WNSCIENCE: http://goo.gl/4UAeINTECHNOLOGY: http://goo.gl/Y1RDCnG+ Pages: http://goo.gl/jNZdWf#circleshare                                                             2015-04-04 01:31:11127322559
Ruta a la Patagonia25,609┊ ☆ ┊☆ ┊ ☆ ┊Patagonian Gems v21 CIRCLE  ┊ ☆ ┊☆ ┊☆┊_________________________________________________●❈●❈●❉●  Please Share From The Original Post! ●❈●❈●❉●▼▼▼▼ CLICK READ MORE FOR FULL CONTENT ▼▼▼▼*This is the Patagonian Gems v21 Google Plus CircleIf you want to participate please kindly frollow the following rules::-)1. Add me to your circles if you haven´t done it already2. Share this circle to Public3. Plus or coment this post so we know you wish to participate in upcoming circlesPlease note: ● You must be an active Google+ user and shares useful content.● Your posts must be family-friendly. No adult, gambling, controversial, politics, religion blogs.Have a nice day!Your blogging friends of:   +Ruta a la Patagonia  De camino al Sur el mejor hotel  para alojarte sobre ruta 5, antes de Santa Rosa La Pampa, esta en Trenque Lauquen: +Hotel Howard Johnson Trenque Lauquen Sobre ruta, con amplio parque, pileta climatizada, estacionamiento, wifi, restobar y mucho mas. Ya sea que vayas de camino a Bariloche, San Martin de los Andes, Villa la Angostura o cualquier otro destino de la cordillera o de la costa de la patagonia (por ruta 33).Consultanos en: www.hjtrenquelauquen.com.ar2015-04-03 22:17:39464121013

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Most comments: 61

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2015-02-02 07:30:34 (61 comments, 39 reshares, 133 +1s)Open 

Coldest city on Earth : If you thought you had it bad, Oymyakon (which literally means 'unfrozen water') in Siberia, is a bone-chilling minus 71.2  C (minus 96.16 F) at its lowest temperature. The high of -40F in January is quite seasonable for this place. The closest city of Yakutsk is surprisingly wealthy with an abundance of natural resources (diamonds, oil and gas). Amos Chapelle gives us a view into life in this frigid environment - “I remember feeling like the cold was physically gripping my legs, the other surprise was that occasionally my saliva would freeze into needles that would prick my lips."

The coldest place on Earth? Russian Vostok Research Station in East Antarctica. Read on....

Cool facts : Yakutsk is an economically vibrant place but it's extremely remote. There is a small airport but no railway, and the town boasts but one majorroa... more »

Most reshares: 130

posted image

2015-01-16 09:12:43 (34 comments, 130 reshares, 241 +1s)Open 

Geeking out : This is too cool to ignore. I usually stick to the science, but this one is here just for the fun of it. Seriously. See the full video here -  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0u7CWB40ezM#t=285 (it's totally worth it).

Article extract: Back in November, drone enthusiasts built a modified quadcopter they call the "Heli-Carrier" that was modeled after the giant aircraft that SHIELD flies in the Marvel movies, and showed that one small drone could take off from another. In this new video, the homebuilt helicarrier stays aloft longer and launches miniature jets. It's all a drone enthusiast's dreams. Maybe next time out they can land a helicarrier on a helicarrier.

From Hackaday : If you’re not familiar, the Helicarrier is a fictional ship, the pride of S.H.I.E.L.D’s air force, or is it their navy. It’s a massive aircraft carrier with fourhuge r... more »

Most plusones: 241

posted image

2015-01-16 09:12:43 (34 comments, 130 reshares, 241 +1s)Open 

Geeking out : This is too cool to ignore. I usually stick to the science, but this one is here just for the fun of it. Seriously. See the full video here -  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0u7CWB40ezM#t=285 (it's totally worth it).

Article extract: Back in November, drone enthusiasts built a modified quadcopter they call the "Heli-Carrier" that was modeled after the giant aircraft that SHIELD flies in the Marvel movies, and showed that one small drone could take off from another. In this new video, the homebuilt helicarrier stays aloft longer and launches miniature jets. It's all a drone enthusiast's dreams. Maybe next time out they can land a helicarrier on a helicarrier.

From Hackaday : If you’re not familiar, the Helicarrier is a fictional ship, the pride of S.H.I.E.L.D’s air force, or is it their navy. It’s a massive aircraft carrier with fourhuge r... more »

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2015-05-05 09:47:59 (1 comments, 0 reshares, 15 +1s)Open 

I have often wondered about escaping our gravity well : From the very basic fuel-based rockets to waveriders and scramjets to the multistage spacecraft, the slingshot and the use of dynamic soaring or photonic thrusters, this collection looks at a how to go into space motif.

Do let me know what you think.

I have often wondered about escaping our gravity well : From the very basic fuel-based rockets to waveriders and scramjets to the multistage spacecraft, the slingshot and the use of dynamic soaring or photonic thrusters, this collection looks at a how to go into space motif.

Do let me know what you think.___

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2015-05-05 06:02:25 (47 comments, 5 reshares, 59 +1s)Open 

My collections : While my collections are a work-in-progress, I have decided to make a list of them here for people to follow. You have the ability to follow collections based on interests that you have. You don't have to follow me anymore :) Similarly, over time, I will probably stop notifying people once collections work seamless to notify you (if you want to be notified).
                                                           
Here is my list of collections
 
(If you want me to include any of your posts in my collections, please ping me on the post so that I can take a look).
 
Sustainable Housing - https://plus.google.com/u/0/collection/YYIDX

The Future Car - https://plus.google.com/u/0/collection/IC4BX

Science of the Swarm -https://plus.google.com/u/0/collection/ImvXW

W... more »

My collections : While my collections are a work-in-progress, I have decided to make a list of them here for people to follow. You have the ability to follow collections based on interests that you have. You don't have to follow me anymore :) Similarly, over time, I will probably stop notifying people once collections work seamless to notify you (if you want to be notified).
                                                           
Here is my list of collections
 
(If you want me to include any of your posts in my collections, please ping me on the post so that I can take a look).
 
Sustainable Housing - https://plus.google.com/u/0/collection/YYIDX

The Future Car - https://plus.google.com/u/0/collection/IC4BX

Science of the Swarm - https://plus.google.com/u/0/collection/ImvXW

Weird and Fantastic Science - https://plus.google.com/u/0/collection/wdnXW

The Scientific Method - https://plus.google.com/u/0/collection/Q3TXW

Robotics - https://plus.google.com/u/0/collection/IMTXW

Climate Change - https://plus.google.com/u/0/collection/EpGXW

Battery Technology - https://plus.google.com/u/0/collection/ApU2V

Light (EM Spectra) - https://plus.google.com/u/0/collection/AXH2V

Mission Impossible ( Science Fiction ) - https://plus.google.com/u/0/collection/A4A2V

Hyperloop - https://plus.google.com/u/0/collection/gz-1V

Amazing Animals - https://plus.google.com/u/0/collection/wWCxR

Amazing Plants - https://plus.google.com/u/0/collection/ws_wR

Nanotechnology - https://plus.google.com/u/0/collection/ACCuR

Fusion - https://plus.google.com/u/0/collection/AZxtR
 
If you need to ask me anything, please do so in the comments. Thanks!___

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2015-05-04 19:17:54 (8 comments, 3 reshares, 14 +1s)Open 

Thanks to +Dmitry Shapiro for the announcements. My collections are on the tab - do take a look and let me know what you think!

Introducing Google+ Collections, a new way to group your posts by topic

Our happiest Google+ users are those who connect with others around shared interests and passions. So we set out to give people a place to express the things they love. Today, we’re announcing Google+ Collections, a new way to group your posts by topic.

Every collection is a focused set of posts on a particular topic, providing an easy way for you to organize all the things you’re into. Each collection can be shared publicly, privately, or with a custom set of people. Once you create your first collection, your profile will display a new tab where other people can find and follow your collections.

Posts in collections you follow will appear in your Home stream, with a link to easily jump right into the collection so you can get to similar content from that author. Collections give you a great way to find more of the stuff you love from the people you follow.

Collections is available on Android and the web, and iOS is coming later. For Android users, make sure to update your Google+ app to get access to Collections.

For inspiration on interesting topics, check out our Featured Collections page here: g.co/collections

Create your collections today and share what you love.___Thanks to +Dmitry Shapiro for the announcements. My collections are on the tab - do take a look and let me know what you think!

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2015-04-27 08:29:37 (4 comments, 14 reshares, 91 +1s)Open 

The Great Dying - Permian Extinction - Caused by Ocean Acidification

This is a different subject from my normal engineering/materials science related posts.  I wanted to stretch my brain a bit and hopefully understand this fascinating bit of the ancient history of Earth.  

You remember the theory of the asteroid that killed off the dinosaurs 65 million years ago.  There was a much more severe extinction event 252 million years ago that is called the Permian Extinction or the Great Dying.  From fossil records we know that almost all life in the oceans and most of the life on land went extinct over a period of 60,000 years, and it took up to 10 million years for life on Earth to recover.   

The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr) extinction event, colloquially known as the Great Dying or the Great Permian Extinction, occurred about 252 Ma (million years) ago, forming theboundary ... more »

The Great Dying - Permian Extinction - Caused by Ocean Acidification

This is a different subject from my normal engineering/materials science related posts.  I wanted to stretch my brain a bit and hopefully understand this fascinating bit of the ancient history of Earth.  

You remember the theory of the asteroid that killed off the dinosaurs 65 million years ago.  There was a much more severe extinction event 252 million years ago that is called the Permian Extinction or the Great Dying.  From fossil records we know that almost all life in the oceans and most of the life on land went extinct over a period of 60,000 years, and it took up to 10 million years for life on Earth to recover.   

The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr) extinction event, colloquially known as the Great Dying or the Great Permian Extinction, occurred about 252 Ma (million years) ago, forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods, as well as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras. It is the Earth's most severe known extinction event, with up to 96% of all marine species and 70% of terrestrial vertebrate species becoming extinct. It is the only known mass extinction of insects. Some 57% of all families and 83% of all genera became extinct. Because so much biodiversity was lost, the recovery of life on Earth took significantly longer than after any other extinction event, possibly up to 10 million years  ⓐ

Scientists were not clear what exactly caused this event but it is thought to have taken place in three phases.  Possible events were a gradual climate change and even a large astroid hitting the earth.  Most scientists agree that huge volcanoes in what is now Siberia triggered a massive release of Carbon Dioxide and other greenhouse gasses and this event was the main cause.  The Earth became much warmer and the oceans became more acidic, but there had not been direct evidence.

The researchers already knew a series of volcanic eruptions, which gave rise to a region of volcanic rock called the Siberian Traps, occurred around this time and covered up to 2.7 million square miles (7 million square kilometers) in lava. These lava floods, made of molten basalt rock, could have taken out the animals and plants directly in their paths. To have any global impact, however, the volcanic eruptions also would have needed to send airborne ash, soot and gases high into the atmosphere, the researchers noted.  ⓑ

Matthew Clarkson, a geochemist and postdoctoral fellow at the University of Otago in New Zealand and colleagues from the universities of Edinburgh and Exeter in the United Kingdom and the University of Bremen in Germany have found evidence that ocean acidification could have been the “final blow” in this extinction event.  

Now, there is direct evidence that ocean acidification dealt the final blow to species already suffering from these huge environmental changes. By analyzing boron embedded in limestone from the Permian and Triassic periods, researchers discovered an abrupt shift in ocean pH levels. The change in acidity corresponds to a drop in surface ocean pH levels of 0.6 to 0.7 pH units that lasted about 10,000 years. In comparison, modern ocean pH levels have fallen by 0.1 pH units since the Industrial Revolution, a 30 percent increase in acidity.   ⓕ

Clarkson examined boron from a section of limestone in the United Arab Emirates that was deposited on the supercontinent Pangaea's ancient shores.  
In modern seawater, boron isotope levels are controlled by ocean acidity. Scientists can measure the ratio of these isotopes in seashells and sediments deposited in the ocean today to gauge pH levels, and perform the same tests in rocks and fossils that are millions of years old. (Boron isotopes have different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei.)  ⓕ

Dr Clarkson says: “Scientists have long suspected that an ocean acidification event occurred during the greatest mass extinction of all time, but direct evidence has been lacking until now. This is a worrying finding, considering that we can already see an increase in ocean acidity today that is the result of human carbon emissions.”  ⓒ

”This work was highly collaborative and the results were only possible because we assembled a unique team of geochemists, geologists and modelers to tackle an important and long-standing problem.”  Professor Rachel Wood, School of GeoSciences  ⓔ

  
Abstract of the paper.
Ocean acidification triggered by Siberian Trap volcanism was a possible kill mechanism for the Permo-Triassic Boundary mass extinction, but direct evidence for an acidification event is lacking. We present a high-resolution seawater pH record across this interval, using boron isotope data combined with a quantitative modeling approach. In the latest Permian, increased ocean alkalinity primed the Earth system with a low level of atmospheric CO2 and a high ocean buffering capacity. The first phase of extinction was coincident with a slow injection of carbon into the atmosphere, and ocean pH remained stable. During the second extinction pulse, however, a rapid and large injection of carbon caused an abrupt acidification event that drove the preferential loss of heavily calcified marine biota.  ⓓ


ⓐ Wikipedia
Permian–Triassic extinction event
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permian%E2%80%93Triassic_extinction_event

ⓑ  LiveScience  2011
New Suspect in 'Great Dying': Massive Prehistoric Coal Explosion
http://www.livescience.com/17577-great-dying-coal-eruption.html

ⓕ  LiveScience
Ocean of Acid Blamed for Earth's 'Great Dying'
http://www.livescience.com/50440-ocean-acidification-killer-permian-extinction.html?

ⓒ  University of Otago Press Release
Greatest mass extinction driven by acidic oceans, study finds
http://www.otago.ac.nz/news/news/otago090195.html

 ⓓ  Science April 10, 2015  Paywall
Ocean acidification and the Permo-Triassic mass extinction
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/348/6231/229.abstract?

ⓔ  Professor Rachel Wood, School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh.  Press release.
Greatest extinction driven by acidic oceans
http://www.ed.ac.uk/news/2015/acidoceans-090415

Image: Photograph by University of Michigan Exhibit Museum of Natural History
The Permian period saw the creation of the supercontinent Pangaea, where shallow seas in and around the huge landmass offered a home to an abundance of life. This diorama at the University of Michigan's Museum of Natural History shows some of the flora and fauna that thrived in Permian seas, including trilobites, gastropods, clams, nautiluses, and corals.___

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2015-04-27 08:28:09 (13 comments, 10 reshares, 42 +1s)Open 

Wonderful exposition.

So what is all this science malarkey anyway?

The UK Science Council define science as ”the pursuit and application of knowledge and understanding of the natural and social world following a systematic methodology based on evidence”

As the Council explain, this methodology has some criteria…
”Scientific methodology includes the following:
Objective observation: Measurement and data (possibly although not necessarily using mathematics as a tool)
Evidence
Experiment and/or observation as benchmarks for testing hypotheses
Induction: reasoning to establish general rules or conclusions drawn from facts or examples
Repetition
Critical analysis
Verification and testing: critical exposure to scrutiny, peer review and assessment

Sounds all pretty straight forward doesn’t it?  A bit too straight forward perhaps.  We don’t all have a background in science so it’s not surprising that at times there is some confusion over what science is, how it is done, and what it can actually tell us about the natural and social world.  Fortunately for us, there have been three excellent open access articles have been published in +The Conversation this week which address some of the issues for communicating science:

Where’s the proof in science?  There is none
Astrophysist Geraint Lewis from the +The University of Sydney kicks of this fabulous trio by explaining one of the misconceptions of science: proof.  Yes that’s right, science doesn’t really prove anything.  So what does it do?  In his article, Geraint hands the last word over to Richard Feynman.  I think I will to:
”I have approximate answers and possible beliefs in different degrees of certainty about different things, but I’m not absolutely sure of anything.”
http://theconversation.com/wheres-the-proof-in-science-there-is-none-30570

Clearing up confusion between correlation and causation
Correlations are all to do with relationships between different factors.  Like chocolate and Nobel Prize winners.  Take a look at the graph below, produced by Franz Messerli of +Columbia University.  Apparently there is a correlation between chocolate consumption.  We can even put a number on this – a ‘P value’ to describe the ‘strength’ of the correlation.  In this case the value was 0.0001 – which means that “there is a less than one-in-10,000 probability of getting results like these if no correlation exists”  .  But as Mathematicians Jon Borwein and Michael Rose from the +University of Newcastle (UON), Australia explain, correlation does not imply causation, which means that increasing your chocolate consumption won’t increase your chances of winning the Nobel Prize.  http://theconversation.com/clearing-up-confusion-between-correlation-and-causation-30761

Why research beats anecdote in our search for knowledge
_”Certainty is seductive” writes Philosopher Tim Dean from the University of New South Wales, _”so we tend to cling to it.  We hunt for evidence that buttresses it, while ignoring or rejecting evidence that threatens to undermine it”.  Research, on the underhand, embraces uncertainty.  It isn’t about finding evidence to back your point of view, it’s about increasing our knowledge – and doing so with a scientifically backed evidence base.  For researchers, sometimes that means re-evaluating your point of view.  http://theconversation.com/why-research-beats-anecdote-in-our-search-for-knowledge-30654  


Image:  From Franz Messerli’s paper Chocolate Consumption, Cognitive Function, and Nobel Laureates published in the New England Journal of Medicine.  Franz added a disclaimer to his paper, that he ”regular daily chocolate consumption, mostly but not exclusively in the form of Lindt's dark varieties.” Unfortunately the paper is behind a paywall, but if you fancied a look you can find it here www.dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMon1211064

#science #sciencesunday #scicomm___Wonderful exposition.

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2015-04-27 08:22:48 (1 comments, 6 reshares, 33 +1s)Open 

5 COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT SCIENCE

We are lucky to live at a time when so many fascinating things are happening in science. Yet when I partake in any discussion, I'm often amazed at how many people carry misconceptions about what science is and how it works. 

This is tolerable given that we all have varied backgrounds and have studied different things - but I feel compelled to offer clarity in five areas that seem to endlessly provide confusion.


NUMBER  1: Science does NOT deal with Certainty

The purpose of science is to get a better grasp of reality. It is a process that attempts to produce the best explanations for what we observe. 

It is akin to charting new territory. You begin with a lot of guess work, mix in some trial and error, and ultimately you can produce a fairly reliable map of your surroundings. 
T... more »

5 COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT SCIENCE

We are lucky to live at a time when so many fascinating things are happening in science. Yet when I partake in any discussion, I'm often amazed at how many people carry misconceptions about what science is and how it works. 

This is tolerable given that we all have varied backgrounds and have studied different things - but I feel compelled to offer clarity in five areas that seem to endlessly provide confusion.


NUMBER  1: Science does NOT deal with Certainty

The purpose of science is to get a better grasp of reality. It is a process that attempts to produce the best explanations for what we observe. 

It is akin to charting new territory. You begin with a lot of guess work, mix in some trial and error, and ultimately you can produce a fairly reliable map of your surroundings. 

The only real difference is that science is a never-ending cycle of observation and refinement - and this is a very important distinction.

If you're in the city, you can be extremely certain the next thing you see coming down the road won't be a wagon pulled by a pack of wild dogs - even though its possible. You don't have to be absolutely certain for it to be a reliable statement.

Scientific knowledge works on the same basis. The aim of science is only to produce statements of varying degrees of certainty.


NUMBER 2: Possible and Probable are NOT the Same

Failure to recognize the disparity between what is possible and what is probable is one of the most fallacious slants against science.

Science by nature is very opened minded. The scientific method has discovered the structure of atoms and the essence of black holes - things that would otherwise seem completely implausible.

But thinking scientifically is not about weighing every idea equally.

Discussing the likelihood of a wagon pulled by dogs passing through city streets is so improbable it shouldn't even merit moment of your time. That's not because you're closed minded, it's because there isn't a single credible reason to consider the idea.

For the same reason, the application of science is not focused on what is possible. Anything is possible.

Science is concerned only with ideas that offer demonstrable reasons to be considered probable.


NUMBER 3: "Observe" does NOT mean "See"

It takes Neptune 165 years to orbit the sun.  No one alive has witnessed a full completion of its orbit. Yet we know with a very high degree of certainty the path that Neptune will take. Why?

You don't need to witness events to know with extreme levels of certainty that they occurred or that they will likely occur.

If actually "seeing" an event was the only reason to believe something, then blind people would have no reason to believe anything.

What is important here is to not mix up what is literally observable with what we can surmise

If you should find a small hole near the bottom of your kitchen wall, some mouse droppings in your cupboards, and tiny mouse footprints spread across your floor, you don't need to ever see a mouse to infer that you likely have one.

Like any crime scene investigation, you "observe" the evidence, interpret the facts, and if enough evidence exists, you arrive at an explanation of events. Your level of certainty varies directly with the amount of confirming evidence.

This is the essence of science.


NUMBER 4: Not all Science is "Accepted" Science

There are a lot of "scientific" ideas (those open to scientific study). The good ones are called hypotheses.

With enough confirming evidence and successful testing by the scientific community, a good hypothesis can transition to scientific theory.

As Einstein demonstrated when he overhauled Newtonian Physics, even the best scientific theories are not immune from revision or improvement.

A scientific theory is merely the best current explanation for the phenomena we observe that is accepted by the scientific community - in this sense, it is "accepted" science. 

But ideas have to begin somewhere, and a lot of them will often turn out to be bad ideas. This isn't a detriment, its merely part of the process of ultimately arriving at good ideas. As long as there are good reasons to consider a new idea, its worthy of some discussion. 

Many ideas currently being considered in the scientific community will prove to be wrong, but this in no way discredits science.
 
There is a huge difference between an idea that has some potential and one that is considered a scientific theory - they fall on opposite ends of the spectrum of certainty.


NUMBER 5: Trust and Faith are NOT Required in Science

When you arrive at an airport, it is not necessary for you to inspect the plane or speak with the pilot. You don't even need to understand aerodynamics. You trust that your plane will arrive at its destination because the airline has a history of reliable flight. 

In this sense, many people "trust" the scientific community, but it is unnecessary. The beauty of scientific knowledge is that it is demonstrable.

Every bit of scientific knowledge contains an explanation of how each conclusion was reached. If it did not, it would not be scientific. 

Pretending to have answers gets you nowhere in the scientific community. Claims to superior knowledge are inconsequential. Personal charisma and good looks play no part. What is relevant a willingness to have your ideas be scrutinized, thrashed, and proven false

The result is that no other process is as efficient at rooting out nonsense as the scientific method.

That isn't to say that science is infallible (no credible scientist would ever suggest that), nor that its void of corruption, motives,  or bias. But any accepted idea has stood up to the scrutiny and rigorous testing of scientists from all over the world.

That's worth something, but you don't have to trust any of it.

There is nothing about the scientific method that is based on any aspect of trust or faith - it is only concerned with what is demonstrable.


A HANDFUL OF GREAT QUOTES ON SCIENCE

"What makes a belief scientific isn't whether it turns out to be true or not, but the process by which it is arrived at." 
~ James Hogan

"There are many aspects of the universe that still cannot be explained satisfactorily by science; but ignorance only implies ignorance that may someday be conquered. To surrender to ignorance has always been premature, and it remains premature today."
 ~ Isaac Asimov

"I would rather have questions that can't be answered than answers which can't be questioned." 
~ Richard Feynman

“In questions of science, the authority of a thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a single individual.” 
~ Galileo Galilei

"Skeptical scrutiny is the means by which deep thoughts can be winnowed from deep nonsense." 
~ Carl Sagan

‘In searching for the truth and often questioning it, scholars, thinkers, philosophers, and scientists have immeasurably influenced our world.  Their medical breakthroughs, scientific discoveries, physical laws, and mathematical principles have imposed order, coherence, and clarity on what once seemed a random, indiscriminate, and lawless world.” 
~ Dennis Kimbro 


www.todd-william.com___

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2015-04-18 16:48:18 (12 comments, 11 reshares, 76 +1s)Open 

Destiny - Mission Impossible 34 : Dranke reaches a crossroads after he was able to track down the hacking device identified by the Hnnet. The story of Mission Impossible continues, read on to know more!

Mission Impossible is a space opera series written in flash fiction style. This is the 33rd installment. If you haven't read the series before, please start from the first episode.

If you wish to follow the series from the beginning, please follow it from this post - http://goo.gl/TFEbGN

Notifying select people who have opted in. If you wish to be notified, let me know in the comments. If you wish to stop notifications, let me know.

This episode goes out with special good wishes to +L.S. Cody.

#sciencefiction #saturdayscenes #scifi  

Destiny - Mission Impossible 34 : Dranke reaches a crossroads after he was able to track down the hacking device identified by the Hnnet. The story of Mission Impossible continues, read on to know more!

Mission Impossible is a space opera series written in flash fiction style. This is the 33rd installment. If you haven't read the series before, please start from the first episode.

If you wish to follow the series from the beginning, please follow it from this post - http://goo.gl/TFEbGN

Notifying select people who have opted in. If you wish to be notified, let me know in the comments. If you wish to stop notifications, let me know.

This episode goes out with special good wishes to +L.S. Cody.

#sciencefiction #saturdayscenes #scifi  ___

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2015-04-16 08:01:16 (30 comments, 2 reshares, 46 +1s)Open 

Cooking with light : So I was looking around to see what's new in kitchen appliances. I saw a Halogen oven. Kinda cool I thought. But what about safety? And what about how it works? What can one cook in it? I decided to check out what it was all about. What do you think?

Cooking with heat : We know about both convection and conduction. That is what we use in the kitchen almost everyday. But what about radiation? Light? Like the Sun uses. Well that is what a Halogen oven is all about.

The mechanics : The Sun makes Earth warm and light by sending out a mixture of visible light and invisible radiation. Electric light bulbs work the same way. Old-style, incandescent lampsmake light when electricity flows through a thin, coiled wire called a filament. The filament gets so hot that it glows white hot and gives off a bright light. This is actually a very inefficientw... more »

Cooking with light : So I was looking around to see what's new in kitchen appliances. I saw a Halogen oven. Kinda cool I thought. But what about safety? And what about how it works? What can one cook in it? I decided to check out what it was all about. What do you think?

Cooking with heat : We know about both convection and conduction. That is what we use in the kitchen almost everyday. But what about radiation? Light? Like the Sun uses. Well that is what a Halogen oven is all about.

The mechanics : The Sun makes Earth warm and light by sending out a mixture of visible light and invisible radiation. Electric light bulbs work the same way. Old-style, incandescent lampsmake light when electricity flows through a thin, coiled wire called a filament. The filament gets so hot that it glows white hot and gives off a bright light. This is actually a very inefficient way of making light, because most of the electrical energy the bulb uses is given off as heat and wasted. When you switch on a halogen ring, a dazzling bright red light immediately begins to pump out a mixture of infrared radiation and visible red light. This time, it's the radiant heat we're interested in harnessing and the light is the wasted byproduct. The heat travels out from the halogen lamp at the speed of light, instantly warming the contents in the oven. The content warms up by a mixture of radiation and conduction: heat radiates into the food from the halogen lamp, but it's also transmitted by conduction from the hot glass just beneath it. If you have soup in your cooking pot, it gradually warms up by convection just like with a conventional stove. So, while it's true to say that halogen ovens work using radiation, they actually cook with a mixture of conduction, convection, and radiation.

What about User reviews? : Well some love them. See customer reviews here http://goo.gl/IW68Oc. But there are some more detailed reviews in the links section of this post.

What about health and safety : Some people have burnt themselves. But then, they went wearing oven mitts. On the other hand, the technical details on the UK government site cites it to be as healthy as any other cooking and grilling - http://www.cfs.gov.hk/english/programme/programme_rafs/programme_rafs_ft_02_03.html

Links and Sources

http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/food-and-drink/features/how-i-fell-in-love-with-halogen-ovens-2098619.html

http://www.explainthatstuff.com/halogenhobs.html

http://assets.sylvania.com/assets/documents/ENGR_BLTN9.9eec8e28-950e-4995-a67e-ceddfc343c65.pdf

http://www.ehow.co.uk/info_7993457_difference-halogen-oven-convection-oven.html___

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2015-04-14 16:20:56 (41 comments, 24 reshares, 42 +1s)Open 

To rest or not to rest? : While there is a lot written about resting meats, the science is not always apparent. There are two sides to the argument.  Heston Blumenthal tells us the right way.  But then the famous chef has himself been guilty of food poisoning.

Have you tried not resting meat, it releases liquids and is often undercooked. Why is this? Read on to know more....


Temperature may be key : why does an un-rested steak expel more juices than a rested one? Turns out that it all has to do with temperature. We already know that the width of the muscle fibers is directly related to the temperature to which it is cooked, and to a degree, this change in shape is irreversible. A piece of meat that is cooked to 180°F (82.2°C) will never be able to hold on to as much liquid as it could in its raw state. But once that meat has cooled slightly, its structurerelaxe... more »

To rest or not to rest? : While there is a lot written about resting meats, the science is not always apparent. There are two sides to the argument.  Heston Blumenthal tells us the right way.  But then the famous chef has himself been guilty of food poisoning.

Have you tried not resting meat, it releases liquids and is often undercooked. Why is this? Read on to know more....


Temperature may be key : why does an un-rested steak expel more juices than a rested one? Turns out that it all has to do with temperature. We already know that the width of the muscle fibers is directly related to the temperature to which it is cooked, and to a degree, this change in shape is irreversible. A piece of meat that is cooked to 180°F (82.2°C) will never be able to hold on to as much liquid as it could in its raw state. But once that meat has cooled slightly, its structure relaxes—the muscle fibers widen up slightly again, and it's this small change in shape that makes all the difference.

The ten-minute rest : When you take your roast out of the oven, the moisture still inside needs some time to redistribute back through the meat. If you cut into it right away, the liquid will actually pool out and your beautiful roast will end up very dry. By letting it rest, the moisture is re-absorbed and your meat will be tender and juicy. There's also a second reason why you want to let it rest. A large piece of meat will actually continue to cook for a few minutes after you take it out of the oven. This is called carry-over cooking and is why many recipes tell you to take meat out of the oven a little before the meat is done cooking.

The anti-resting argument : Resting has other impacts, many detrimental. Cold steak- Another important thing happens during resting: The meat gets cold. There's a reason the plates are hot in steakhouses. We like our meat hot. It will cool off fast enough, why give it a running start? Overcooked meat- Another thing happens when the meat is resting: Carryover. Depending on the thickness and the amount of energy stored in the outer layer, the center can rise 5 to 10°F or more. That can take your perfectly cooked prime rib roast to particle board before you know it. And the hotter the center, the less moisture. Soft surface - While resting, the crust gets soft and wet, especially on the side that is in contact with the plate or cutting board. Spice rubs get muddy._

So what do you do?

References and Sources

http://www.seriouseats.com/2009/12/how-to-have-juicy-meats-steaks-the-food-lab-the-importance-of-resting-grilling.html

http://www.thekitchn.com/food-science-resting-meat-46678

http://www.scienceofcooking.com/meat/slow_cooking1.htm

http://amazingribs.com/tips_and_technique/mythbusting_resting_meat.html

Related paper: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S030881461100639X

Additional study: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0950329302000861

#food #science #meat  ___

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2015-04-13 11:27:06 (18 comments, 16 reshares, 90 +1s)Open 

The Strange Red Rock - Mission Impossible 33 : Follow the new installment of Mission Impossible which leads to a mysterious red planet. Another piece of the puzzle relating to the Jexx is also revealed. Keep reading to know more!

Mission Impossible is a space opera series written in flash fiction style. This is the 33rd installment. If you haven't read the series before, please start from the first episode.

If you wish to follow the series from the beginning, please follow it from this post - http://goo.gl/TFEbGN

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#sciencefiction #saturdayscenes #scifi  

The Strange Red Rock - Mission Impossible 33 : Follow the new installment of Mission Impossible which leads to a mysterious red planet. Another piece of the puzzle relating to the Jexx is also revealed. Keep reading to know more!

Mission Impossible is a space opera series written in flash fiction style. This is the 33rd installment. If you haven't read the series before, please start from the first episode.

If you wish to follow the series from the beginning, please follow it from this post - http://goo.gl/TFEbGN

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#sciencefiction #saturdayscenes #scifi  ___

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2015-04-05 09:32:38 (7 comments, 12 reshares, 102 +1s)Open 

What is a ferrofluid? : We have been seeing these gifs for some time now... often called 'science gifs' and 'amazing.' But what is the science behind ferrofluids? Ferrofluids are actually ferromagnetic particles (particles which can be magnetized) by means of an external field - often forming permanent magnets. At slightly larger than 15 nanometers, these particles act as domains and individual atoms clump together to display magnetism.

But smaller than 15 nm, the particles do not retain any alignment to an externally applied field. They 'flip' once the external magnetic field is removed. A ferrofluid uses this effect of superparamagnetism and once nano-sized particles of a ferromagnetic material are suspended in a surfactant, you have a fluid which can be easily magnetized and demagnetized.

Superparamagnets: Superparamagnets have fluctuating... more »

What is a ferrofluid? : We have been seeing these gifs for some time now... often called 'science gifs' and 'amazing.' But what is the science behind ferrofluids? Ferrofluids are actually ferromagnetic particles (particles which can be magnetized) by means of an external field - often forming permanent magnets. At slightly larger than 15 nanometers, these particles act as domains and individual atoms clump together to display magnetism.

But smaller than 15 nm, the particles do not retain any alignment to an externally applied field. They 'flip' once the external magnetic field is removed. A ferrofluid uses this effect of superparamagnetism and once nano-sized particles of a ferromagnetic material are suspended in a surfactant, you have a fluid which can be easily magnetized and demagnetized.

Superparamagnets: Superparamagnets have fluctuating magnetic moments with no applied field, but with an applied external magnetic field they become magnetized easily. This effect is size dependent. What are magnetic moments? These are nothing but the spin of the electrons in a material.
                                                         
Uses: Ferrofluids are made up of tiny magnetic fragments of iron suspended in oil (often kerosene) with a surfactant to prevent clumping (usually oleic acid). There are many commercial applications for ferrofluids--speakers and hard drives being the most common. The oily fluid prevents debris from entering hard drives when a small amount is placed between the magnets and shaft. In the case of speakers ferrofluids remove heat from the voice coils and help dampen the cone movement. They are also being studied as a contrast agent in MRI scans.

Source Popsci: http://www.popsci.com/diy/article/2009-09/making-ferrofluids-work-you

Wikipedia link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferrofluid
University of Wisconsin-Madison link: http://education.mrsec.wisc.edu/background/ferrofluid/

Research paper: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8228273

How to make your own Ferrofluid: http://www.instructables.com/id/Make-your-own-ferrofluid-in-5-minutes/

Wired link and videos: http://www.wired.com/2012/04/ferrofluid-videos/?viewall=true

Pic link: http://www.gifbay.com/gif/ferrofluid_sculpture-75030/ and http://www.gizmodo.com.au/tags/ferrofluid/

#ferrofluid #science  ___

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2015-04-05 08:30:59 (1 comments, 3 reshares, 32 +1s)Open 

Split ring resonators (SRR) : Refractive index of a material is vital in understanding how light propagates through the material. Refractive index 'n' is n=  sqare root of εμ. Where ε is the permittivity and μ is the permeability. for transparent materials, both these values are greater than zero. For metals, ε < 0 which is why metals are opaque to visible light.

Negative refractive Index : A material which has ε < 0 and μ < 0, is one in which the refractive index would be 'real' i.e. not imaginary. But a negative μ implies a negative refractive index ! This never happens in natural materials. But a metamaterial could be engineered in which we have sub-wavelength elements with just such properties.

Nanostructures : Since light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum, a split-ring resonator can act just like a LC circuit and displayproperti... more »

Split ring resonators (SRR) : Refractive index of a material is vital in understanding how light propagates through the material. Refractive index 'n' is n=  sqare root of εμ. Where ε is the permittivity and μ is the permeability. for transparent materials, both these values are greater than zero. For metals, ε < 0 which is why metals are opaque to visible light.

Negative refractive Index : A material which has ε < 0 and μ < 0, is one in which the refractive index would be 'real' i.e. not imaginary. But a negative μ implies a negative refractive index ! This never happens in natural materials. But a metamaterial could be engineered in which we have sub-wavelength elements with just such properties.

Nanostructures : Since light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum, a split-ring resonator can act just like a LC circuit and display properties of a resonator. Another aspect of unnatural electromagnetic wave propagation can be observed at the contact surface between two different materials, where one of them is electromagnetic metamaterial. Negative refraction breaks light waves reverse to what the standard physics postulates. Effects such as the one seen in the figure showing refraction (the wrong way!) this can be achieved with appropriately designed metamaterials.

Invisibility Cloaks : What SRR do is refract light at an angle which is analogous to chiral. The basic idea is to create an artificial crystal with significantly sub-wavelength periods. However, it has only been done for microwaves, since the wavelengths of visible light are small. Theoretically, it should be possible.

Source: http://www.mat.ucsb.edu/~g.legrady/academic/courses/10f200a/md/metamaterials.htm

Source (Karlsruhe Inst of Technology) : http://www.aph.kit.edu/wegener/english/264.php

Duke Univ: http://www.pratt.duke.edu/news/david-smith-creating-new-materials-go-beyond-nature

Courtesy Rice Univ Nanotechnology.

Wikipedia reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Split-ring_resonator , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Negative_refraction

Related: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v497/n7450/full/nature12158.html

Pics from Wikipedia, KIT, Nature and Rice Univ.

#scienceeveryday #science #nanotechnology #invisiblitycloak  ___

2015-04-03 16:20:55 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 5 +1s)Open 

Sharing to boost the signal. Please respond on the Original Post!

Looking for a support group for a friend : Trigger warning for depression, teen depression.
Can anyone recommend a support group for parents of clinically / severely depressed teenagers? Online groups would be great - and if you know of any good offline groups, this is for West Coast US. I can dm more details if you need.
Please feel free to dm me if you prefer.___Sharing to boost the signal. Please respond on the Original Post!

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2015-03-31 16:41:12 (17 comments, 14 reshares, 58 +1s)Open 

Subterfuge - Mission Impossible 32 : Follow the new installment of Mission Impossible as Dranke comes up with a sticky situation which stymies him. Keep reading to know more!

Mission Impossible is a space opera series written in flash fiction style. This is the 31st installment. If you haven't read the series before, please start from the first episode.

If you wish to follow the series from the beginning, please follow it from this post - http://goo.gl/TFEbGN

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#sciencefiction #saturdayscenes #scifi  

Subterfuge - Mission Impossible 32 : Follow the new installment of Mission Impossible as Dranke comes up with a sticky situation which stymies him. Keep reading to know more!

Mission Impossible is a space opera series written in flash fiction style. This is the 31st installment. If you haven't read the series before, please start from the first episode.

If you wish to follow the series from the beginning, please follow it from this post - http://goo.gl/TFEbGN

Notifying select people who have opted in. If you wish to be notified, let me know in the comments. If you wish to stop notifications, let me know.

#sciencefiction #saturdayscenes #scifi  ___

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2015-03-28 16:30:44 (7 comments, 7 reshares, 91 +1s)Open 

The Defense of Earth : The new fleets of darkmatter starcraft face off against the Jexx invasion in this installment of the story of Mission Impossible. Keep reading to know more!

Mission Impossible is a space opera series written in flash fiction style. This is the 31st installment. If you haven't read the series before, please start from the first episode.

Here is the chronology:
First Part: http://goo.gl/jWKDn2
Part 2 : http://goo.gl/8wRbHE
Part 3 : http://goo.gl/eIGokJ
Part 4 : http://goo.gl/gaEZS0
Part 5 : http://goo.gl/bXYxiy
Part 6 : http://goo.gl/mmVbF9
Part 7 : http://goo.gl/i3DDVi
Part 8  : http://goo.gl/IoWcF0
Part 9  : http://goo.gl/B6OQOG
Part 10: http://goo.gl/IP0ORs
Part 11: http://goo.gl/Gn8RDY
Part 12: http://goo.gl/0zEqPI
Part 13: http://goo.gl/dXTYrs
Part 14: http://goo.gl/ZybKaLmore »

The Defense of Earth : The new fleets of darkmatter starcraft face off against the Jexx invasion in this installment of the story of Mission Impossible. Keep reading to know more!

Mission Impossible is a space opera series written in flash fiction style. This is the 31st installment. If you haven't read the series before, please start from the first episode.

Here is the chronology:
First Part: http://goo.gl/jWKDn2
Part 2 : http://goo.gl/8wRbHE
Part 3 : http://goo.gl/eIGokJ
Part 4 : http://goo.gl/gaEZS0
Part 5 : http://goo.gl/bXYxiy
Part 6 : http://goo.gl/mmVbF9
Part 7 : http://goo.gl/i3DDVi
Part 8  : http://goo.gl/IoWcF0
Part 9  : http://goo.gl/B6OQOG
Part 10: http://goo.gl/IP0ORs
Part 11: http://goo.gl/Gn8RDY
Part 12: http://goo.gl/0zEqPI
Part 13: http://goo.gl/dXTYrs
Part 14: http://goo.gl/ZybKaL
Part 15: http://goo.gl/FrUZqX
Part 16: http://goo.gl/no9buZ
Part 17: http://goo.gl/G6KJeo
Part 18: http://goo.gl/ml0Y1A
Part 19: http://goo.gl/DBJjHf
Part 20: http://goo.gl/PT3jCj
Part 21: http://goo.gl/DXrXgp
Part 22: http://goo.gl/e1kEuu
Part 23: http://goo.gl/1EtW6U
Part 24: http://goo.gl/rK4EqX
Part 25: http://goo.gl/b7Vl04
Part 26: http://goo.gl/FQisEJ
Part 27: http://goo.gl/0Ywy0D
Part 28: http://goo.gl/RNuKtL
Part 29: http://goo.gl/dqdIYG
Part 30: http://goo.gl/0YHzlY
Part 31: http://goo.gl/sTS4We

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#sciencefiction #saturdayscenes #scifi  ___

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2015-03-27 16:33:20 (1 comments, 8 reshares, 46 +1s)Open 

Major Financing Funneling Into Hyperloop Development Companies .@HyperloopTech .@shervin

Seems like California and Texas are beating Colorado in development of Hyperloop technologies and routes. Below is the earth shaking news as reported by Bruce Upbin: Hyperloop Is Real: Meet The Startups Selling Supersonic Travel From startup to the speed…

Major Financing Funneling Into Hyperloop Development Companies .@HyperloopTech .@shervin

Seems like California and Texas are beating Colorado in development of Hyperloop technologies and routes. Below is the earth shaking news as reported by Bruce Upbin: Hyperloop Is Real: Meet The Startups Selling Supersonic Travel From startup to the speed…___

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2015-03-27 09:40:43 (1 comments, 3 reshares, 30 +1s)Open 

Elon Musk's Hyperloop Moves Closer to Becoming Reality

The Hyperloop, just an idea in the mind of Elon Musk two years ago, is moving closer to becoming reality.
Hyperloop Transportation Technologies has signed an agreement with a developer in central California to build a five-mile Hyperloop line in an area along Interstate 5.

"This is a phased process. We've done feasibility studies and now we will be able test all aspects of the Hyperloop," said Ahlborn.

Source:- http://www.nbcnews.com/tech/innovation/elon-musks-hyperloop-moves-closer-becoming-reality-n313276

Elon Musk's Hyperloop Moves Closer to Becoming Reality

The Hyperloop, just an idea in the mind of Elon Musk two years ago, is moving closer to becoming reality.
Hyperloop Transportation Technologies has signed an agreement with a developer in central California to build a five-mile Hyperloop line in an area along Interstate 5.

"This is a phased process. We've done feasibility studies and now we will be able test all aspects of the Hyperloop," said Ahlborn.

Source:- http://www.nbcnews.com/tech/innovation/elon-musks-hyperloop-moves-closer-becoming-reality-n313276___

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2015-03-27 09:40:15 (1 comments, 3 reshares, 21 +1s)Open 

A lot has to go right for a Hyperloop to actually be built. 

A lot has to go right for a Hyperloop to actually be built. ___

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2015-03-27 09:37:53 (1 comments, 0 reshares, 32 +1s)Open 

Was +Elon Musk's Hyperloop announcement just a concept declaration? - The SpaceX founder talks back the Hyperloop : Elon Musk has promised to reveal preliminary plans for a super-fast "Hyperloop" transporter on August 12th — but don't expect him to actually build it. In a Tesla earnings call yesterday, Musk said that he was too busy with existing ventures to work on a Hyperloop in the near future. "I think I kind of shot myself in the foot by ever mentioning the Hyperloop, because I'm too strung out," he said. "Obviously I have to focus on core Tesla business and on SpaceX business, and that's more than enough. But I did commit to publishing a design, and [I will] provide quite a detailed design, I think, on Monday."

Article Link:ht... more »

Was +Elon Musk's Hyperloop announcement just a concept declaration? - The SpaceX founder talks back the Hyperloop : Elon Musk has promised to reveal preliminary plans for a super-fast "Hyperloop" transporter on August 12th — but don't expect him to actually build it. In a Tesla earnings call yesterday, Musk said that he was too busy with existing ventures to work on a Hyperloop in the near future. "I think I kind of shot myself in the foot by ever mentioning the Hyperloop, because I'm too strung out," he said. "Obviously I have to focus on core Tesla business and on SpaceX business, and that's more than enough. But I did commit to publishing a design, and [I will] provide quite a detailed design, I think, on Monday."

Article Link: http://www.theverge.com/2013/8/8/4602644/elon-musk-has-no-plans-to-actually-build-his-hyperloop-design

Earlier post on the Hyperloop: https://plus.google.com/u/0/103586346709495625226/posts/GRPm3YXFrcK

Wiki link on the Hyperloop : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperloop ( +SpaceX news)

Tesla 2nd Quarter earnings: http://www.wired.com/autopia/2013/08/tesla-2nd-quarter-2013/ (GAAP accounting headaches. My view, accounting is a concept, one has to get to the bottom of sale and lease back and future earnings discounting before one decides its ok to take into earnings).

Pictures are only artists imaginings of the concept, and are not actual pictures of the concept!

#spacex #elonmusk #hyperloop #transportation #sustainability #speed  ___

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2015-03-27 09:37:47 (3 comments, 4 reshares, 38 +1s)Open 

Hyperloop : As expected +Elon Musk did quite a stellar job with the big reveal. Yes, he's right, we should use tech in a way we can do better and more sustainable transport. Mass transit is a serious issue for all humankind.

It's actually surprisingly close to what some early predictions forecasted: an elevated, low-friction, high-speed track based on pods, which would ferry people, and even cars, long distances at more than 700 miles per hour. The pods will ride on air bearings. The pod produces air, and it’s pumped out of little holes on these skis. This is something that is used quite a bit in industry. You can move huge, heavy objects with very low friction, using air bearings.

Because the rail system would be elevated, there would be fewer land-rights issues. But that's not going to solve everything, and could considerably increase the price tag. About every7... more »

Hyperloop : As expected +Elon Musk did quite a stellar job with the big reveal. Yes, he's right, we should use tech in a way we can do better and more sustainable transport. Mass transit is a serious issue for all humankind.

It's actually surprisingly close to what some early predictions forecasted: an elevated, low-friction, high-speed track based on pods, which would ferry people, and even cars, long distances at more than 700 miles per hour. The pods will ride on air bearings. The pod produces air, and it’s pumped out of little holes on these skis. This is something that is used quite a bit in industry. You can move huge, heavy objects with very low friction, using air bearings.

Because the rail system would be elevated, there would be fewer land-rights issues. But that's not going to solve everything, and could considerably increase the price tag. About every 70 miles, an electric motor would provide a boost to the individual pods, shooting them farther along the track. The same system could slow down the pods as they approach their destination, and the energy taken from that could be rerouted to power the next batch of pods.

Article Link: http://www.popsci.com/technology/article/2013-08/elon-musks-hyperloop

Earlier post on the Hyperloop: https://plus.google.com/u/0/110884604033336753419/posts/DCyZmjcNfvL

Initial post on the Hyperloop: https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/103586346709495625226/+lacerantplainer/posts/GRPm3YXFrcK

+Gary Ray R's well written post on the reveal: https://plus.google.com/u/0/117751903650439005786/posts/bHAdS6T52Qu

#science #scienceeveryday #masstransit #hyperloop #elonmusk #spacex  ___

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2015-03-27 09:37:43 (1 comments, 3 reshares, 29 +1s)Open 

The Hyperloop opensource transportation concept : Who will be the first to create it? My bet is on China. They already have the of the only functioning Maglev system. This is natural progression for them. Recent discussions have drawn chuckles and derision from a number of sources including Conan O'Brien and in an interview of people on the street - "_I'll always remember today as the last time I heard about this incredible project," one woman said_.

It makes me really sad to see the myopic and short sighted view of the public at large and inability to take bold steps to better our condition. (sorry for the mini rant).
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+Elon Musk's commentary "_Is there truly a new mode of transport; a fifth mode after planes, trains, cars and boats; that meets (safety, speed,... more »

The Hyperloop opensource transportation concept : Who will be the first to create it? My bet is on China. They already have the of the only functioning Maglev system. This is natural progression for them. Recent discussions have drawn chuckles and derision from a number of sources including Conan O'Brien and in an interview of people on the street - "_I'll always remember today as the last time I heard about this incredible project," one woman said_.

It makes me really sad to see the myopic and short sighted view of the public at large and inability to take bold steps to better our condition. (sorry for the mini rant).
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+Elon Musk's commentary "_Is there truly a new mode of transport; a fifth mode after planes, trains, cars and boats; that meets (safety, speed, economic) criteria and is practical to implement? Many ideas for a system with most of those properties have been proposed and should be acknowledged,....but they all possess, it would seem, one or more fatal flaws that prevent them from coming to fruition._"

Constraining the problem "The Hyperloop (or something similar) is, in my opinion, the right solution for the specific case of high traffic city pairs that are less than about 1500 km or 900 miles apart. Around that inflection point, I suspect that supersonic air travel ends up being faster and cheaper."


Full opensource document: http://www.teslamotors.com/sites/default/files/blog_attachments/hyperloop_alpha3.pdf

Article link on the Tesla blog: http://www.teslamotors.com/blog/hyperloop

Earlier post on Hyperloop: https://plus.google.com/110884604033336753419/posts/4kFbVeC9VhY

The Hyperloop mystery: https://plus.google.com/110884604033336753419/posts/DCyZmjcNfvL

Initial links: https://plus.google.com/103586346709495625226/posts/GRPm3YXFrcK

Mocking the Hyperloop: http://news.investors.com/technology-click/083013-669509-elon-musk-hyperloop-puts-entrepreneur-in-comic-spotlight.htm

#hyperloop #elonmusk #engineering #technology  ___

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2015-03-27 09:37:34 (2 comments, 0 reshares, 6 +1s)Open 

Imagine being able to meet your loved ones across the world. And not having to go through airports and long haul flights .... Imagine if we could reduce our carbon footprint by over half. Imagine if we had a safe, quick and superior way to travel. This is why I think Hyperloop should be a reality. So far the concept is only U.S. based, but a global network of hyperloop is technically possible.

People power : Speaking at the MIT-China Innovation and Entrepreneurship Forum on Saturday, JumpStartFund CEO and founder Dirk Ahlborn explained how his organization is hoping to harness the expertise of people who are willing to contribute their time to the project in exchange for nothing but equity. Denver-based JumpStartFund recently announced that former SpaceX mission director Dr. Marco Villa and former president of the American Society of Civil Engineers Dr Patricia Galloway have agreed... more »

Imagine being able to meet your loved ones across the world. And not having to go through airports and long haul flights .... Imagine if we could reduce our carbon footprint by over half. Imagine if we had a safe, quick and superior way to travel. This is why I think Hyperloop should be a reality. So far the concept is only U.S. based, but a global network of hyperloop is technically possible.

People power : Speaking at the MIT-China Innovation and Entrepreneurship Forum on Saturday, JumpStartFund CEO and founder Dirk Ahlborn explained how his organization is hoping to harness the expertise of people who are willing to contribute their time to the project in exchange for nothing but equity. Denver-based JumpStartFund recently announced that former SpaceX mission director Dr. Marco Villa and former president of the American Society of Civil Engineers Dr Patricia Galloway have agreed to provide technical advice for the project, which has been incorporated under the name Hyperloop Transportation Technologies.

Skepticism remains : According to the timeline, we should also expect to see an official kickoff soon. The team hopes to release an updated white paper by the end of March that will "conclusively answer all the tough questions, prove that the design is feasible, and collect reasonable estimates for schedule and cost."

I'll do it myself if no one else does : The technocrat +Elon Musk (of +Tesla Motors fame) knows it's no small task to build the Hyperloop. In fact, he doesn't have much time on his hands these days, so he's hoping someone else takes on the project. But if no one does, Musk says he'd at least build a Hyperloop prototype.

'People power' link : http://pandodaily.com/2013/11/20/hundreds-of-applicants-are-lining-up-to-work-on-the-hyperloop-project-says-interim-ceo/

Hyperloop Nation (infographic) from PopSci : http://www.popsci.com/article/technology/interactive-infographic-what-would-hyperloop-nation-look-0?dom=PSC&loc=slider&lnk=2&con=IMG

'Skepticism remains' article link: http://news.cnet.com/8301-17938_105-57610495-1/is-a-hyperloop-prototype-really-possible-by-2015/

Elon Musks announcement: http://www.businessinsider.in/Elon-Musk-Ill-Build-A-Hyperloop-Prototype-If-No-One-Else-Does/articleshow/25684297.cms

Earlier post on Hyperloop: https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/103586346709495625226/+LacerantPlainerWrites/posts/4kFbVeC9VhY

Who will make the Hyperloop (earlier post) : https://plus.google.com/110884604033336753419/posts/FHPW9GWGzEc

Technical details of Hyperloop from +Gary Ray R : https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/103586346709495625226/117751903650439005786/posts/bHAdS6T52Qu

Pics courtesy : +Popular Science, whiteclouds (via +CNET)

#hyperloop #science #masstransit  ___

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2015-03-27 09:37:22 (1 comments, 3 reshares, 27 +1s)Open 

A Science Fiction World : Smithsonian hosts  'The Future is here' : The invite list has some awesome names such as Brian Greene,  Adam Steltzner, Rich Devaul etc. The names are like a who's who of futurists and scientists. But can we do a guessing game? What will they talk about? Where will the conversation go? While one cannot predict what they would bring forth, here is my list of things one would like to hear about....

Transhumanism : But naturally. With people like David Brin around, it would have to include all forms of transhumanism, Cyborgs, remotely controlled beings, robots with artificial DNA etc. See an earlier post here http://goo.gl/LU23b3

Living Quarters : Quite literally living buildings. Self-sustaining and self-powered. I would definitely talk about these. See earlier posts http://goo.gl/tMRLGj and http://goo.gl/KfO5qn
more »

A Science Fiction World : Smithsonian hosts  'The Future is here' : The invite list has some awesome names such as Brian Greene,  Adam Steltzner, Rich Devaul etc. The names are like a who's who of futurists and scientists. But can we do a guessing game? What will they talk about? Where will the conversation go? While one cannot predict what they would bring forth, here is my list of things one would like to hear about....

Transhumanism : But naturally. With people like David Brin around, it would have to include all forms of transhumanism, Cyborgs, remotely controlled beings, robots with artificial DNA etc. See an earlier post here http://goo.gl/LU23b3

Living Quarters : Quite literally living buildings. Self-sustaining and self-powered. I would definitely talk about these. See earlier posts http://goo.gl/tMRLGj and http://goo.gl/KfO5qn

Economical way to go into space : With a much lower carbon footprint. There are already a lot of technologies in the works, and I posted a story on my blog based on some of the science which exists - http://goo.gl/u2ekqZ (I would also include dynamic soaring, fusion power, the railgun cum scramjet, but the laser based story is something which I think has the best potential).

Power : Reduce cost of power through fusion (http://goo.gl/1DW0bD), Space based solar power (http://goo.gl/5yi0Gr), Luna ring (http://goo.gl/a71BCC), Biomimicry (http://goo.gl/lXWSnh) and using microbes (http://goo.gl/I871zI). Alternate energy post here http://goo.gl/vBUr5a.

Redefining transportation : Virus powered cars (http://goo.gl/rpz3VE), The hyperloop perhaps (http://goo.gl/bm6Nts). ETT is still waiting for us (http://goo.gl/im2KAu) and so much more!

Nanobots and Nanotechnology : Nanobot post here (http://goo.gl/4VT0bG) and Nanomachine mimics nature's protien factory (http://goo.gl/JdzoSN). More recently a post on Material science, nanotechnology and biology meet here (http://goo.gl/XNU2ui).

There are so many new areas I have missed out like 3D printing, self-assembling robots and nanobots, Artifical DNA, Stem cell research, work on graphene. What is your guess??

For more details look at this post shared by +Thomas Dolby  here http://goo.gl/KUFNts

Originally tagged via +Avinash Jaisinghani..... on the Smithsonian event.

Speaker list includes: +David Brin, +Sara Seager, +Richard DeVaul and Brian Greene.

More food for thought: http://arstechnica.com/science/2014/04/habitable-exoplanets-are-bad-news-for-humanity/

Pics courtesy: Smithsonianmag, giantlife.com

#futurism #prediction #sciencefiction #scifi  ___

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2015-03-27 09:37:15 (2 comments, 6 reshares, 48 +1s)Open 

While all the noise has died down : One company floated by a crowdfunding site called Jumpstartfund has taken up the challenge of bringing the Hyperloop to reality. Its a long way away as yet, but Hyperloop Transportation Technologies Inc. is real and a bunch of dedicated people are working on making this reality.

Smart people on it : The incorporated entity has a fancy name and all, but it’s less a standard company than a group of about 100 engineers all over the country who spend their free time spitballing ideas in exchange for stock options. That said, these gals and guys applied for the right to work on the project (another 100 or so were rejected) and nearly all of them have day jobs at companies like Boeing, NASA, Yahoo!, Airbus, SpaceX, and Salesforce. They’re smart. And they’re organized.

Working groups : The team is split into working groups, basedon th... more »

While all the noise has died down : One company floated by a crowdfunding site called Jumpstartfund has taken up the challenge of bringing the Hyperloop to reality. Its a long way away as yet, but Hyperloop Transportation Technologies Inc. is real and a bunch of dedicated people are working on making this reality.

Smart people on it : The incorporated entity has a fancy name and all, but it’s less a standard company than a group of about 100 engineers all over the country who spend their free time spitballing ideas in exchange for stock options. That said, these gals and guys applied for the right to work on the project (another 100 or so were rejected) and nearly all of them have day jobs at companies like Boeing, NASA, Yahoo!, Airbus, SpaceX, and Salesforce. They’re smart. And they’re organized.

Working groups : The team is split into working groups, based on their interests and skills, that cover various aspects of the massive project, including route planning, capsule design, and cost analysis. They work mostly over email, with weekly discussions of their progress. Hierarchy is minimal, but leaders have naturally emerged, says Ahlborn. And if a decision needs to be made, as CEO, he makes the call. A lot of the work is being done by 25 UCLA students. The school’s SUPRASTUDIO design and architecture program partnered with JumpStartFund, and now the students are working on all the design solutions the new transit system would require.

Route : The UCLA students working on potential routes imagine networks criss-crossing the country, as well as Europe and Asia. This is where things get fanciful: we’re at least 10 years away from a commercially viable Hyperloop, and the idea of a national network is hard to imagine. They tacked on the idea of a “Mini Hyperloop,” which would offer shorter routes into and around cities.

Progress : So JumpStartFund and the UCLA students have made good progress, but there’s a lot to figure out before anyone gets to tackle the really fun parts like testing, permitting, and construction. Ahlborn says the questions of how to build the low-pressure tube and the pylons that support it have mostly been solved, and creating the capsules shouldn’t be too tricky. The hard part is moving the capsules within the tube, and seeing how fast they can go. To eliminate friction in the tube, Musk proposed using a compressor to create a pocket of air under the capsule. That’s the cheapest approach, Ahlborn says, but it has its drawbacks. His team is looking at the possibility of using magnetic levitation and other alternatives. “We want to find the best possible way to make this work.”

Sources and References

http://www.wired.com/2014/12/jumpstartfund-hyperloop-elon-musk/#slide-id-1684287 (pic courtesy)

Earlier post "light of day" : http://goo.gl/TC25uN

Earlier post "Concept declaration" : http://goo.gl/SdYLli

Earlier post "Hyperloop" : http://goo.gl/wm4TXj

Earlier post "No long haul flights" : http://goo.gl/E4SrSY

http://www.techtimes.com/articles/22618/20141220/elon-musk-hyperloop-dream-may-soon-become-reality-thanks-to-crowdsourcing.htm

http://www.engadget.com/2014/12/19/engineers-progress-hyperloop-trains/

#hyperloop #Elonmusk +Elon Musk ___

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2015-03-27 09:36:53 (1 comments, 5 reshares, 83 +1s)Open 

SF to LA in under 30 minutes? First #Hyperloop #prototype to begin in 2015: autode.sk/1Ag68YW 

SF to LA in under 30 minutes? First #Hyperloop #prototype to begin in 2015: autode.sk/1Ag68YW ___

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2015-03-27 09:33:36 (4 comments, 7 reshares, 48 +1s)Open 

Infrared Dawn : I have been following the next big story in astronomy, and that is undoubtedly the emergence of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) which is an origami-inspired infrared telescope which will be placed most probably in the Lagrange point (L2) which means after unfolding, the telescope will keep up with the Earth's revolution around the Sun. Why is it exciting? It is like a Hubble on steroids. Astronomers don't even know how much they will learn once the JWST sees first light.

Article Extract: Ball Aerospace had delivered all 18 hexagonal segments of the observatory’s honeycomb-like, 6.5-meter primary mirror, designed to look into a past 13 billion years distant. From an observation platform, you could see one of the mirrors on display in the Spacecraft Systems Development and Integration Facility, the largest clean room in the world.

Two decades aftera... more »

Infrared Dawn : I have been following the next big story in astronomy, and that is undoubtedly the emergence of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) which is an origami-inspired infrared telescope which will be placed most probably in the Lagrange point (L2) which means after unfolding, the telescope will keep up with the Earth's revolution around the Sun. Why is it exciting? It is like a Hubble on steroids. Astronomers don't even know how much they will learn once the JWST sees first light.

Article Extract: Ball Aerospace had delivered all 18 hexagonal segments of the observatory’s honeycomb-like, 6.5-meter primary mirror, designed to look into a past 13 billion years distant. From an observation platform, you could see one of the mirrors on display in the Spacecraft Systems Development and Integration Facility, the largest clean room in the world.

Two decades after astronomers first convened to discuss what sort of space-based observatory should succeed the Hubble Space Telescope, Hubble’s three-times-as-large, 100-times-as-powerful replacement, whose fabrication was overseen by primary contractor Northrop Grumman, finally seemed to be coming together. “Going from Hubble to the James Webb Space Telescope is like going from a biplane to the jet engine,” said Mikulski.

No one disputes that the Webb will be an extraordinary machine, one that will allow astronomers to look farther back in time than they’ve ever been able to see, to the earliest galaxies that formed after the Big Bang. The gold coating on its mirror segments, totalling about a golf ball’s worth and spread in a thin layer across the surface of each segment, will absorb light on the blue end of the spectrum, allowing the observatory to see a bandwidth between 0.6 to 28 microns, firmly in the infrared and stretching just slightly into the visible spectrum.

Amazing discoveries ahead : Once [we] started seeing things with Hubble that [we'd] never seen before, [we] pushed it harder and harder to do new things. The same will happen with the James Webb Space Telescope. We will discover new things that we have no way of knowing about today, no way of guessing [because] our intuition isn't able to take us there. And those will be the great discoveries that actually show up in the coming 20 years, in the coming 30 years. It is really, in many ways, the golden age of astronomy — it's the very best time ever to be an astronomer. (Michael Shara)

Main article Link: http://www.airspacemag.com/space/infrared-dawn-next-space-telescope-will-be-hubble-x-100-180951409/?no-ist (also courtesy pic top right)

Additional Link: http://io9.com/heres-why-you-should-be-excited-about-the-james-webb-sp-1594279578

Earlier post (Amazing JWST) : https://plus.google.com/110884604033336753419/posts/Zr69vhsbyWh

Additional Earlier post: https://plus.google.com/110884604033336753419/posts/Rui2CdtJLpq

Space telescopes takes inspiration from Origami: https://plus.google.com/110884604033336753419/posts/5anQtZ6UwK6

Origami based solar array: https://plus.google.com/110884604033336753419/posts/AxWEXydnSVu

Pic link middle right and source : http://www.jwst.nasa.gov/

Pic link bottom right and source: http://www.stsci.edu/jwst/overview/gallery

Video link: (Technical version) James Webb Space Telescope Deployment In Detail

Wikipedia link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Webb_Space_Telescope

pic link on left: http://www.planetsedu.com/planet/jupiter/

NASA link to the JWST: http://webb.nasa.gov/orbit.html

#jameswebb #space #astronomy  ___

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2015-03-27 09:33:00 (6 comments, 6 reshares, 26 +1s)Open 

The Prism : The prism fascinated me in school. I wondered how it would 'break' up light into it's constituent colors. That was what we were taught. But of course, there is so much more to why that happens. White light is not 'pristine'... it already has all the colors. In fact the colors are part of white light. To understand this, one has to ask 'what is color'. Color is nothing but our perception of the different wavelengths of light. Our perception of color is not the same as the perception of color which a mantis shrimp has for example (which sees much more of the EM spectrum than us) or a cat (which sees less of the spectrum than humans).

Of course the prism is just glass (or some transparent material). It sits on a triangular base and has rectangular sides. In school I imagined it was some special material !

Refraction and speed of light in... more »

The Prism : The prism fascinated me in school. I wondered how it would 'break' up light into it's constituent colors. That was what we were taught. But of course, there is so much more to why that happens. White light is not 'pristine'... it already has all the colors. In fact the colors are part of white light. To understand this, one has to ask 'what is color'. Color is nothing but our perception of the different wavelengths of light. Our perception of color is not the same as the perception of color which a mantis shrimp has for example (which sees much more of the EM spectrum than us) or a cat (which sees less of the spectrum than humans).

Of course the prism is just glass (or some transparent material). It sits on a triangular base and has rectangular sides. In school I imagined it was some special material !

Refraction and speed of light in materials : Refraction simply means that light travels at a different speed in different materials. It's fast in air, and slower in water or glass. This has the effect of changing the direction of light, or bending it, when it moves from one material to the other.

But why do different colors go in different directions?  This is because different colors of light travel at different speeds in the glass. So from the analogy above, slower speeds in the glass make the light bend more. We call this effect dispersion, since it disperses the colors in different directions. Blue light travels slightly slower in glass than red light, so it bends a sharper angle when it enters the glass from air. In physics, we say the glass has a higher refractive index for blue light than red light. There is a formula (Snell's Law) that you can use to calculate angles from refractive index, or the other way around.

How refraction actually works (Quantum Electrodynamics) : Another way to answer this is through QED which talks about how light interacts with atoms of the material it is traversing. I will not even attempt to explain this here. But Richard Feynman got a nobel prize in Physics explaining the phenomenon. See Richard Feynman Lecture on Quantum Electrodynamics: QED. 1/8 . You can even get his book and read about it.

Article Source: http://scienceline.ucsb.edu/getkey.php?key=1542

Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prism

Additional reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optics

'The strange theory of light' : http://qed.wikina.org/refraction/

Ask a scientist : http://www.newton.dep.anl.gov/askasci/phy00/phy00612.htm

Additional source: http://www.nevis.columbia.edu/~conrad/classes/QED4.html

Earlier post 'How we perceive color' : http://goo.gl/g5b7Xb

Related post 'Why do soap bubbles sometimes appear colored and sometimes appear transparent' : http://goo.gl/f0Haxx

Pic courtesy: From Wikipedia

#science #scienceeveryday #light  ___

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2015-03-27 09:32:01 (3 comments, 0 reshares, 5 +1s)Open 

The Expanding Universe : what is meant by the universe "expanding faster than the speed of light." However, for the simplest interpretation of your question, the answer is that the universe does expand faster than the speed of light, and, perhaps more surprisingly, some of the galaxies we can see right now are currently moving away from us faster than the speed of light! As a consequence of their great speeds, these galaxies will likely not be visible to us forever; some of them are right now emitting their last bit of light that will ever be able to make it all the way across space and reach us (billions of years from now). After that, we will observe them to freeze and fade, never to be heard from again.

Varying Speed of Light theory: The physicist João Magueijo has proposed a heretical question: What if the speed of light; now accepted as one of the unchanging foundations of... more »

The Expanding Universe : what is meant by the universe "expanding faster than the speed of light." However, for the simplest interpretation of your question, the answer is that the universe does expand faster than the speed of light, and, perhaps more surprisingly, some of the galaxies we can see right now are currently moving away from us faster than the speed of light! As a consequence of their great speeds, these galaxies will likely not be visible to us forever; some of them are right now emitting their last bit of light that will ever be able to make it all the way across space and reach us (billions of years from now). After that, we will observe them to freeze and fade, never to be heard from again.

Varying Speed of Light theory: The physicist João Magueijo has proposed a heretical question: What if the speed of light; now accepted as one of the unchanging foundations of modern physics; were not constant?  Magueijo, a native of Portugal, puts forth the heretical idea that in the very early days of the universe light traveled faster—an idea that if proven could dethrone Einstein and forever change our understanding of the universe. He is a pioneer of the varying speed of light (VSL) theory of cosmology; an alternative to the more mainstream theory of cosmic inflation; which proposes that the speed of light in the early universe was of 60 orders of magnitude faster than its present value. Joao Magueijo's radical ideas intend to turn that Einsteinian dogma on its head. Marueijo is trying to pick apart one of Einstein’s most impenetrable tenets, the constancy of the speed of light. This idea of a constant speed (about 3×106 meters/second); is known as the universal speed limit. Nothing can, has, or ever will travel faster than light.

Magueijo ; who received his doctorate from Cambridge, has been a faculty member at Princeton and Cambridge, and is currently a professor at Imperial College, London; says: not so. His VSL theory presupposes a speed of light that can be energy or time-space dependent.


Article Link: http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/question.php?number=575

Additional source: http://www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblog/2012/08/light-traveled-faster-in-the-early-universe-todays-most-popular.html

Mike Hawkins asks similar questions: http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg15721271.900-constant-chaos--was-the-speed-of-light-different-in-the-early-universe.html

Wikipedia link on speed of light: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speed_of_light

Abc link: http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2013/03/05/3701140.htm

Pic  detail: Black Holes distort space-time preventing even light from escaping its gravitational pull once a photon passes beyond the event horizon. (Source: NASA/CXC/April Hobart)

#science #scienceeveryday #sciencesunday #speedoflight #universe #expansion  ___

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2015-03-27 09:31:19 (3 comments, 2 reshares, 25 +1s)Open 

How Plants use the quantum effect of light: Plants convert 95 to 99% of the light they receive into energy.... how? The quantum key to doing that lies in a phenomenon known to physicists as quantum coherence, according to research published in Nature. Quantum coherence describes how more than one molecule interacts with the same energy from one incoming photon at the same time.

In essence, rather than the energy from a particular photon choosing one route to pass through the photosynthetic system, it travels through multiple channels simultaneously, allowing it to pick the quickest route. "The energy of the absorbed light is finding more than one pathway to move along at any one time," explains physical chemist Greg Scholes of the University of Toronto, leader of the research group that highlighted the effect. "We can't pinpoint the energy of that light. It's... more »

How Plants use the quantum effect of light: Plants convert 95 to 99% of the light they receive into energy.... how? The quantum key to doing that lies in a phenomenon known to physicists as quantum coherence, according to research published in Nature. Quantum coherence describes how more than one molecule interacts with the same energy from one incoming photon at the same time.

In essence, rather than the energy from a particular photon choosing one route to pass through the photosynthetic system, it travels through multiple channels simultaneously, allowing it to pick the quickest route. "The energy of the absorbed light is finding more than one pathway to move along at any one time," explains physical chemist Greg Scholes of the University of Toronto, leader of the research group that highlighted the effect. "We can't pinpoint the energy of that light. It's shared in a very special way."

such insights might help inform how to efficiently transfer energy over long atomic distances quickly in human-made systems to harvest sunlight—benefiting from nature's 2.7-billion-year head start in optimizing such systems.

Article Link: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=shining-a-light-on-plants-quantum-secret

Additional link: http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/2013/jan/11/proteins-boost-quantum-coherence-in-bacteria

Research link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1074552110001675

Maximizing Photosynthesis: http://facweb.bhc.edu/eastcampus/faculty/Larsonan/courses/Ag_283/283lec/Section_3/Photosynthesis.pdf

#science #scienceeveryday   #photosynthesis   #quantum   #quanta   #enegy   #energyefficiency #plants #lpsamazingplantfacts___

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2015-03-27 09:30:51 (2 comments, 2 reshares, 8 +1s)Open 

Photonic Laser thruster : In the simplest of terms, its using light (photons) to create propulsion, as is done with the solar sail, except this is targeted. Now NASA has announced funding to the Y.K.Bae corporation. While this is a concept still, it is quite interesting :)

Article Extract: Young K. Bae wants us to travel to the moon within hours, and to Mars within days. Rocket fuel won't allow our spacecraft to reach those speeds—Bae wants to do it with lasers. Bae has been working on the concept for years, originally receiving NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) funding in 2007 before that program was discontinued. But with NIAC's recent resurrection, Bae's research is back on track.

A laser is generated in a cavity between two mirrors, and fired between them continuously. The interaction of the photons between these two plates is then fired out of thel... more »

Photonic Laser thruster : In the simplest of terms, its using light (photons) to create propulsion, as is done with the solar sail, except this is targeted. Now NASA has announced funding to the Y.K.Bae corporation. While this is a concept still, it is quite interesting :)

Article Extract: Young K. Bae wants us to travel to the moon within hours, and to Mars within days. Rocket fuel won't allow our spacecraft to reach those speeds—Bae wants to do it with lasers. Bae has been working on the concept for years, originally receiving NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) funding in 2007 before that program was discontinued. But with NIAC's recent resurrection, Bae's research is back on track.

A laser is generated in a cavity between two mirrors, and fired between them continuously. The interaction of the photons between these two plates is then fired out of the launch platform. The platform remains in orbit, controlled by conventional thrusters. However, it fires at a craft, which does the brunt of the actual space travel. By continuously firing a laser at the craft, you can push it and allow it to build up momentum without chemical or nuclear fuel. And by reducing the need for fuel consumption, you also reduce the overall weight of the mission, creating more room for payloads.

Article Link: http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/space/deep/cosmic-concept-laser-powered-space-travel-16020462

Additional link: http://www.centauri-dreams.org/?p=29341

Link to +Wikipedia on laser propulsion: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laser_propulsion

NASA NIAC website link: http://www.nasa.gov/press/2013/august/nasa-selects-2013-nasa-innovative-advanced-technology-concepts-for-continued-study/#.Uo4jhuKNA-8

Engadget link: http://www.engadget.com/2007/02/24/bae-institute-crafts-magical-photonic-laser-thruster/

Pics courtesy: Thelivingmoon, nextbigfuture, novuslight.com via Y. K. Bae Corporation.

#science #nasa #lasers  ___

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2015-03-27 09:29:38 (1 comments, 5 reshares, 16 +1s)Open 

Split ring resonators (SRR) : Refractive index of a material is vital in understanding how light propagates through the material. Refractive index 'n' is n=  sqare root of εμ. Where ε is the permittivity and μ is the permeability. for transparent materials, both these values are greater than zero. For metals, ε < 0 which is why metals are opaque to visible light.

Negative refractive Index : A material which has ε < 0 and μ < 0, is one in which the refractive index would be 'real' i.e. not imaginary. But a negative μ implies a negative refractive index ! This never happens in natural materials. But a metamaterial could be engineered in which we have sub-wavelength elements with just such properties.

Nanostructures : Since light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum, a split-ring resonator can act just like a LC circuit and displayproperti... more »

Split ring resonators (SRR) : Refractive index of a material is vital in understanding how light propagates through the material. Refractive index 'n' is n=  sqare root of εμ. Where ε is the permittivity and μ is the permeability. for transparent materials, both these values are greater than zero. For metals, ε < 0 which is why metals are opaque to visible light.

Negative refractive Index : A material which has ε < 0 and μ < 0, is one in which the refractive index would be 'real' i.e. not imaginary. But a negative μ implies a negative refractive index ! This never happens in natural materials. But a metamaterial could be engineered in which we have sub-wavelength elements with just such properties.

Nanostructures : Since light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum, a split-ring resonator can act just like a LC circuit and display properties of a resonator. Another aspect of unnatural electromagnetic wave propagation can be observed at the contact surface between two different materials, where one of them is electromagnetic metamaterial. Negative refraction breaks light waves reverse to what the standard physics postulates. Effects such as the one seen in the figure showing refraction (the wrong way!) this can be achieved with appropriately designed metamaterials.

Invisibility Cloaks : What SRR do is refract light at an angle which is analogous to chiral. The basic idea is to create an artificial crystal with significantly sub-wavelength periods. However, it has only been done for microwaves, since the wavelengths of visible light are small. Theoretically, it should be possible.

Source: http://www.mat.ucsb.edu/~g.legrady/academic/courses/10f200a/md/metamaterials.htm

Source (Karlsruhe Inst of Technology) : http://www.aph.kit.edu/wegener/english/264.php

Duke Univ: http://www.pratt.duke.edu/news/david-smith-creating-new-materials-go-beyond-nature

Courtesy Rice Univ Nanotechnology.

Wikipedia reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Split-ring_resonator , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Negative_refraction

Related: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v497/n7450/full/nature12158.html

Pics from Wikipedia, KIT, Nature and Rice Univ.

#scienceeveryday #science #nanotechnology #invisiblitycloak  ___

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2015-03-27 09:27:56 (2 comments, 3 reshares, 16 +1s)Open 

Why do soap bubbles sometimes appear colored and sometimes appear transparent? : This is an interesting question and leads down many paths. To start to answer this question, we need to understand the nature of a thin film and how light acts on it.

Glass window thought experiment : Imagine for instance you are looking through a window at night. If you shine a torch through the window, you can see a bit of light reflected back. This is because not only does the light pass through the window, it was two reflections - one from the front of the glass sheet, and another through the back of the glass sheet. If the glass sheet is made very very thin, we notice that lesser and lesser reflections are seen. Why is this? The very thin transparent surfaces often display 'destructive interference.' Out of phase wavelengths cancel out. And you get either a colored image or none at all.... more »

Why do soap bubbles sometimes appear colored and sometimes appear transparent? : This is an interesting question and leads down many paths. To start to answer this question, we need to understand the nature of a thin film and how light acts on it.

Glass window thought experiment : Imagine for instance you are looking through a window at night. If you shine a torch through the window, you can see a bit of light reflected back. This is because not only does the light pass through the window, it was two reflections - one from the front of the glass sheet, and another through the back of the glass sheet. If the glass sheet is made very very thin, we notice that lesser and lesser reflections are seen. Why is this? The very thin transparent surfaces often display 'destructive interference.' Out of phase wavelengths cancel out. And you get either a colored image or none at all. Depending on a number of factors such as refractive index, we can actually model destructive interference of light incident on surfaces.

Bubble and light : You end up with the two different rays being either in phase with each other (constructive interference), completely out of phase (destructive interference), or somewhere in between. The path length difference at a certain point on a soap bubble might cause destructive interference for blue light, but constructive interference for red light. You’ll end up seeing red at that spot.

Anti-glare glasses : The same fundamental principle is used in this everyday application. Many coatings consist of transparent thin film structures with alternating layers of contrasting refractive index. Layer thicknesses are chosen to produce destructive interference in the beams reflected from the interfaces, and constructive interference in the corresponding transmitted beams. This makes the structure's performance change with wavelength and incident angle, so that color effects often appear at oblique angles. A wavelength range must be specified when designing or ordering such coatings, but good performance can often be achieved for a relatively wide range of frequencies: usually a choice of IR, visible, or UV is offered.

Earlier post on Bubble physics: https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/103586346709495625226/+LacerantPlainerWrites/posts/h355mkifmtH

Main pic and source article : http://twilit.wordpress.com/2008/03/15/bubbles-and-interference/

+Wikipedia source article and pic on right : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-reflective_coating and http://goo.gl/Hr3D9w

Additional link: http://curiosity.discovery.com/question/ati-reflective-coating

More about types of interference : http://www.phys.uconn.edu/~gibson/Notes/Section5_2/Sec5_2.htm

Pic courtesy bottom right and article : http://www.webexhibits.org/causesofcolor/15E.html

Interference phenomena source article: http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/interference/soapbubbles/

Reference : http://farside.ph.utexas.edu/teaching/302l/lectures/node155.html

#science #scienceeveryday #bubble___

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2015-03-27 09:21:32 (4 comments, 21 reshares, 66 +1s)Open 

What is fire, electricity and magnetism - and how are they related? : At the atomic level these are very different from what we would assume at the macro level. In some ways they are all related, since it has to do with the movement of electrons and creation of charge. When you see a match light, what happens is energy is released. While most of it is in the Infrared spectrum (What we call heat), there is also some of it released in the visible spectrum (light). The release is due to the Oxygen bonding with the material you are burning. While the effect may be too small to be seen in a matchstick, there is electricity and magnetism at work here too. You can see the effect on the Sun. Our Sun (or any star) is a miasma of incandescent plasma.  One way to see this is to notice that the solar flares that leap from its surface are directed along the Sun’s (generally twisted up and spotty) magneticfi... more »

What is fire, electricity and magnetism - and how are they related? : At the atomic level these are very different from what we would assume at the macro level. In some ways they are all related, since it has to do with the movement of electrons and creation of charge. When you see a match light, what happens is energy is released. While most of it is in the Infrared spectrum (What we call heat), there is also some of it released in the visible spectrum (light). The release is due to the Oxygen bonding with the material you are burning. While the effect may be too small to be seen in a matchstick, there is electricity and magnetism at work here too. You can see the effect on the Sun. Our Sun (or any star) is a miasma of incandescent plasma.  One way to see this is to notice that the solar flares that leap from its surface are directed along the Sun’s (generally twisted up and spotty) magnetic fields. So what is this all about?

Electricity : The nucleus of an atom is surrounded by negatively charged particles called electrons. The negative charge of an electron is equal to the positive charge of a proton, and the number of electrons in an atom is usually equal to the number of protons. When the balancing force between protons and electrons is upset by an outside force, an atom may gain or lose an electron. When electrons are "lost" from an atom, the free movement of these electrons constitutes an electric current.

Different colors in flames : Electrons on atoms have different amounts of energy proportional to the distance of their orbital from the nucleus. Electrons (which are negative) close to the positive nucleus have lower potential energy; those in "higher" energy levels farther away have more energy. In order for an e- to "jump" from a lower level to a higher one it must absorb energy, often in the form of light. Conversely when an e- "falls" from a higher level to a lower one, it gives off energy, again in the form of a photon of light.

Magnetism : All materials experience magnetism, some more strongly than others. Both electric and magnetic interactions are elements of a single phenomenon called electromagnetism. There are four fundamental forces: the strong force, the weak force, gravitation and the electromagnetic force. The field of electromagnetism deals with how electrically charged particles interact with each other and with magnetic fields.

Electrons : The picture you often see of electrons as small objects circling a nucleus in well defined "orbits" is actually quite wrong. As we now understand it, the electrons aren't really at any one place at any time at all. Instead they exist as a sort of cloud. The cloud can compress to a very small space briefly if you probe it in the right way, but before that it really acts like a spread-out cloud. For example, the electron in a hydrogen atom likes to occupy a spherical volume surrounding the proton. If you think of the proton as the size of a grain of salt, then the electron cloud would have about a ten foot radius. If you probe, you'll probably find the electron somewhere in that region.

What is plasma : The big difference between regular gas and plasma is that in a plasma a fair fraction of the atoms are ionized.  That is, the gas is so hot, and the atoms are slamming around so hard, that some of the electrons are given enough energy to (temporarily) escape their host atoms.  The most important effect of this is that a plasma gains some electrical properties that a non-ionized gas doesn’t have; it becomes conductive and it responds to electrical and magnetic fields.  In fact, this is a great test for whether or not something is a plasma.

References and links:

http://helios.gsfc.nasa.gov/qa_sp_ev.html

https://van.physics.illinois.edu/qa/listing.php?id=2348

http://physics.info/energy/

http://www.askamathematician.com/2011/01/q-if-atoms-are-made-up-of-electrons-protons-and-neutrons-and-the-majority-of-the-volume-of-an-atom-is-space-why-do-things-appear-solid/

http://www.physlink.com/Education/AskExperts/ae569.cfm

http://van.physics.illinois.edu/qa/listing.php?id=1195

https://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/Petrology/WhatAtomsLookLike.HTM

http://www.askamathematician.com/2013/05/q-is-fire-a-plasma-what-is-plasma/

https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/a-description-of-fire-at-an-atomic-level.421438/

Pic courtesy : www.flavorage.com

#science #scienceeveryday___

posted image

2015-03-27 09:19:33 (1 comments, 4 reshares, 25 +1s)Open 

Searching for answers in the bottom of a Whisky glass : The answer is related to fluid dynamics. This was discovered by Howard Stone, an engineer at Princeton University. Read on more to know about the Marangoni effect and how it is related to this pic...

Why : Stone initially suspected that something called the coffee ring effect might be at play: When coffee dries, particles are pulled to the edge of where the liquid makes contact with the cup, creating ring-like patterns as the water evaporates. Similarly, the differing evaporation tendencies of alcohol and water can create interesting patterns.

The Marangoni effect : First described by 19th-century physicist Carlo Marangoni; alcohol and water have different surface tensions—that’s the degree of attraction liquid molecules have to other surfaces (in this case a cup or a glass). Alcohol has a lower surfaceten... more »

Searching for answers in the bottom of a Whisky glass : The answer is related to fluid dynamics. This was discovered by Howard Stone, an engineer at Princeton University. Read on more to know about the Marangoni effect and how it is related to this pic...

Why : Stone initially suspected that something called the coffee ring effect might be at play: When coffee dries, particles are pulled to the edge of where the liquid makes contact with the cup, creating ring-like patterns as the water evaporates. Similarly, the differing evaporation tendencies of alcohol and water can create interesting patterns.

The Marangoni effect : First described by 19th-century physicist Carlo Marangoni; alcohol and water have different surface tensions—that’s the degree of attraction liquid molecules have to other surfaces (in this case a cup or a glass). Alcohol has a lower surface tension than water, and alcohol evaporation drives the surface tension up and pushes more liquid away from areas of high alcohol concentration. The Marangoni number, a dimensionless value, can be used to characterize the relative effects of surface tension and viscous forces.

Practical Applications : Based on this work, the lab team has a hypothesis: “Very small amounts of the additives that come from how whisky is made contribute to the kinds of patterns you actually see,” says Stone. Different additives or variations in the manufacturing process might possibly produce different patterns. The research has some practical implications. Better understanding of these types of fluid flows could prove useful in a lot of industrial situations that involve liquids, particularly liquids that contain particles of sediment or other material, such as printing inks. In the meantime, Button hopes his images raise questions in the minds of viewers that may give them some interesting conversation starters at cocktail parties. “The science behind the imagery provides that extra added layer of thought and complexity,” he says.

Article Link: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/physics-whiskys-aesthetically-pleasing-residue-180953451/

Research Paper: http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/DFD14/Session/H2.3

Additional link: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/25/science/art-in-a-whisky-glass-neatly-explained.html?partner=rss&emc=rss&_r=2

Wikipedia link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marangoni_effect

PM link: http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/heres-why-whisky-evaporations-make-gorgeous-patterns#slide-1


All pics courtesy NYTimes: Ernie Button (photographer), Howard Stone et al.

#science #scienceeveryday  ___

posted image

2015-03-27 09:17:55 (2 comments, 6 reshares, 47 +1s)Open 

Articles on photograph of light as a wave and a particle : Well it's not really a photograph. It is a visualization. It is quite something, but it's not what the media would have you believe. Photons have this ability to knock electrons around in some materials. I actually posted about Plasmons here http://goo.gl/9nnQEd . Knowing how plasmons work, scientists have used a nanowire (5.7 μm length, ≃67 nm radius) to act as a light source by using an incident laser beam and then used electrons to visualize a standing wave. This kind of explains the wave nature of light. On the other hand, as the electrons pass close to the standing wave of light, they "hit" the light's particles, the photons. As mentioned above, this affects their speed, making them move faster or slower. This change in speed appears as an exchange of energy "packets" (quanta) between electrons andphoton... more »

Articles on photograph of light as a wave and a particle : Well it's not really a photograph. It is a visualization. It is quite something, but it's not what the media would have you believe. Photons have this ability to knock electrons around in some materials. I actually posted about Plasmons here http://goo.gl/9nnQEd . Knowing how plasmons work, scientists have used a nanowire (5.7 μm length, ≃67 nm radius) to act as a light source by using an incident laser beam and then used electrons to visualize a standing wave. This kind of explains the wave nature of light. On the other hand, as the electrons pass close to the standing wave of light, they "hit" the light's particles, the photons. As mentioned above, this affects their speed, making them move faster or slower. This change in speed appears as an exchange of energy "packets" (quanta) between electrons and photons. The very occurrence of these energy packets shows that the light on the nanowire behaves as a particle.

The twist : When UV light hits a metal surface, it causes an emission of electrons. Albert Einstein explained this "photoelectric" effect by proposing that light – thought to only be a wave – is also a stream of particles. Even though a variety of experiments have successfully observed both the particle- and wave-like behaviors of light, they have never been able to observe both at the same time. A research team led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL has now carried out an experiment with a clever twist: using electrons to image light. The researchers have captured, for the first time ever, a single snapshot of light behaving simultaneously as both a wave and a stream of particles.

Plasmons? : A plasmon is a collective excitation of the electronic "fluid" in a piece of conducting material, like ripples on the surface of a pond are a collective mode of the water molecules of the liquid.

Is this new? : Not really. There have been other experiments in 2012 which have confirmed the duality of light.

Sources and References

http://phys.org/news/2015-03-particle.html

Link to original research paper: http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2015/150302/ncomms7407/full/ncomms7407.html

http://www.gizmag.com/first-photograph-light-particle-wave/36361/

Earlier duality experiment: http://www.livescience.com/24509-light-wave-particle-duality-experiment.html

Earlier post on plasmons: https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/103586346709495625226/+LacerantPlainerWrites/posts/MCxkMzautA7

http://www.popsci.com/light-photographed-wave-and-particle-first-time

Pic courtesy: Popsci and original research papers.

#science  ___

posted image

2015-03-03 09:12:14 (11 comments, 16 reshares, 81 +1s)Open 

Articles on photograph of light as a wave and a particle : Well it's not really a photograph. It is a visualization. It is quite something, but it's not what the media would have you believe. Photons have this ability to knock electrons around in some materials. I actually posted about Plasmons here http://goo.gl/9nnQEd . Knowing how plasmons work, scientists have used a nanowire (5.7 μm length, ≃67 nm radius) to act as a light source by using an incident laser beam and then used electrons to visualize a standing wave. This kind of explains the wave nature of light. On the other hand, as the electrons pass close to the standing wave of light, they "hit" the light's particles, the photons. As mentioned above, this affects their speed, making them move faster or slower. This change in speed appears as an exchange of energy "packets" (quanta) between electrons andphoton... more »

Articles on photograph of light as a wave and a particle : Well it's not really a photograph. It is a visualization. It is quite something, but it's not what the media would have you believe. Photons have this ability to knock electrons around in some materials. I actually posted about Plasmons here http://goo.gl/9nnQEd . Knowing how plasmons work, scientists have used a nanowire (5.7 μm length, ≃67 nm radius) to act as a light source by using an incident laser beam and then used electrons to visualize a standing wave. This kind of explains the wave nature of light. On the other hand, as the electrons pass close to the standing wave of light, they "hit" the light's particles, the photons. As mentioned above, this affects their speed, making them move faster or slower. This change in speed appears as an exchange of energy "packets" (quanta) between electrons and photons. The very occurrence of these energy packets shows that the light on the nanowire behaves as a particle.

The twist : When UV light hits a metal surface, it causes an emission of electrons. Albert Einstein explained this "photoelectric" effect by proposing that light – thought to only be a wave – is also a stream of particles. Even though a variety of experiments have successfully observed both the particle- and wave-like behaviors of light, they have never been able to observe both at the same time. A research team led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL has now carried out an experiment with a clever twist: using electrons to image light. The researchers have captured, for the first time ever, a single snapshot of light behaving simultaneously as both a wave and a stream of particles.

Plasmons? : A plasmon is a collective excitation of the electronic "fluid" in a piece of conducting material, like ripples on the surface of a pond are a collective mode of the water molecules of the liquid.

Is this new? : Not really. There have been other experiments in 2012 which have confirmed the duality of light.

Sources and References

http://phys.org/news/2015-03-particle.html

Link to original research paper: http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2015/150302/ncomms7407/full/ncomms7407.html

http://www.gizmag.com/first-photograph-light-particle-wave/36361/

Earlier duality experiment: http://www.livescience.com/24509-light-wave-particle-duality-experiment.html

Earlier post on plasmons: https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/103586346709495625226/+LacerantPlainerWrites/posts/MCxkMzautA7

http://www.popsci.com/light-photographed-wave-and-particle-first-time

Pic courtesy: Popsci and original research papers.

#science  ___

posted image

2015-03-02 09:03:36 (13 comments, 6 reshares, 47 +1s)Open 

Hyperloop: The third rail : While all the excitement has died down in the news cycles, few technologists, engineers and firms are still interested in the idea. +Elon Musk himself has been involved in a test track, and this ultracool design video. Do take a look....

Hyperloop construction to start next year : OK, it will only run five miles around central California, and it won’t come anywhere close to the 800 mph Musk promised, but it’s a start. The Hyperloop, detailed by the SpaceX and Tesla Motors CEO in a 57-page alpha white paper in August 2013, is a transportation network of above-ground tubes that would span hundreds of miles. Thanks to extremely low air pressure inside those tubes, capsules filled with people zip through them at near supersonic speeds.

The idea is to build a five-mile track in Quay Valley, a planned community (itself a grandiose idea) that willbe ... more »

Hyperloop: The third rail : While all the excitement has died down in the news cycles, few technologists, engineers and firms are still interested in the idea. +Elon Musk himself has been involved in a test track, and this ultracool design video. Do take a look....

Hyperloop construction to start next year : OK, it will only run five miles around central California, and it won’t come anywhere close to the 800 mph Musk promised, but it’s a start. The Hyperloop, detailed by the SpaceX and Tesla Motors CEO in a 57-page alpha white paper in August 2013, is a transportation network of above-ground tubes that would span hundreds of miles. Thanks to extremely low air pressure inside those tubes, capsules filled with people zip through them at near supersonic speeds.

The idea is to build a five-mile track in Quay Valley, a planned community (itself a grandiose idea) that will be built from scratch on 7,500 acres of land around Interstate 5, midway between San Francisco and Los Angeles. Construction of the hyperloop will be paid for with $100 million Hyperloop Transportation Technologies expects to raise through a direct public offering in the third quarter of this year.

What is Quay valley? : Quay Valley is a solar-powered city that doesn't exist yet, between San Francisco and Los Angeles. Estimates for an actual Hyperloop between those two existing metropolises starts at six billion dollars and skeptics estimate the price could be much higher. So $100 million for a test track that's technically between San Fransisco and Los Angeles? Well, it's a step in the right direction.

The designs are put together by a group of nearly 200 engineers all over the country who spend their free time spitballing ideas in exchange for stock options, and have day jobs at places like Boeing, NASA, and Airbus. They and a group of 25 students at UCLA’s graduate architecture program are working on a wide array of issues, including route planning, capsule design, and cost analysis.

The partnership with Quay Valley makes sense for both parties. It’s a chunk of private land where Ahlborn doesn’t have to grapple with the right-of-way issues that have plagued California’s high-speed rail project. Quay Hays has been trying to build his housing and commercial development project for nearly a decade (the 2008 recession put the plan on hold). The Hyperloop fits with his vision of a place where cars take a back seat to non-polluting public transit systems (Ahlborn says the track and station will run as least partly on solar power).

Pod racer competitions The announcement comes less than a month after Musk announced that he would also build a Hyperloop Test Track, probably in Texas, where student engineers could have a pod racer competition to test out designs for Hyperloop pods. Quartz notes that while the Texas track will focus on fine-tuning the technology, the California track will be more designed to see how the technology functions in society. We can't wait to see what happens if they both get off the ground.

Links and references

Earlier post on Jumpstartfund: http://goo.gl/lGZN6i

Earlier post on the Hyperloop: http://goo.gl/sxTptX

Earlier post on the Hyperloop reveal: http://goo.gl/EirLKn

http://www.popsci.com/new-5-mile-around-hyperloop-test-track-will-cost-100-million

http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/quay-valley-solar-powered-self-sustaining-hyperloop-connected-city-future-1489641

http://www.wired.com/2015/02/construction-hyperloop-track-starts/___

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2015-02-21 10:49:22 (17 comments, 16 reshares, 55 +1s)Open 

The Defense of Earth : The new fleets of darkmatter starcraft face off against the Jexx invasion in this installment of the story of Mission Impossible. Keep reading to know more!

Mission Impossible is a space opera series written in flash fiction style. This is the 31st installment. If you haven't read the series before, please start from the first episode.

Here is the chronology:
First Part: http://goo.gl/jWKDn2
Part 2 : http://goo.gl/8wRbHE
Part 3 : http://goo.gl/eIGokJ
Part 4 : http://goo.gl/gaEZS0
Part 5 : http://goo.gl/bXYxiy
Part 6 : http://goo.gl/mmVbF9
Part 7 : http://goo.gl/i3DDVi
Part 8  : http://goo.gl/IoWcF0
Part 9  : http://goo.gl/B6OQOG
Part 10: http://goo.gl/IP0ORs
Part 11: http://goo.gl/Gn8RDY
Part 12: http://goo.gl/0zEqPI
Part 13: http://goo.gl/dXTYrs
Part 14: http://goo.gl/ZybKaLmore »

The Defense of Earth : The new fleets of darkmatter starcraft face off against the Jexx invasion in this installment of the story of Mission Impossible. Keep reading to know more!

Mission Impossible is a space opera series written in flash fiction style. This is the 31st installment. If you haven't read the series before, please start from the first episode.

Here is the chronology:
First Part: http://goo.gl/jWKDn2
Part 2 : http://goo.gl/8wRbHE
Part 3 : http://goo.gl/eIGokJ
Part 4 : http://goo.gl/gaEZS0
Part 5 : http://goo.gl/bXYxiy
Part 6 : http://goo.gl/mmVbF9
Part 7 : http://goo.gl/i3DDVi
Part 8  : http://goo.gl/IoWcF0
Part 9  : http://goo.gl/B6OQOG
Part 10: http://goo.gl/IP0ORs
Part 11: http://goo.gl/Gn8RDY
Part 12: http://goo.gl/0zEqPI
Part 13: http://goo.gl/dXTYrs
Part 14: http://goo.gl/ZybKaL
Part 15: http://goo.gl/FrUZqX
Part 16: http://goo.gl/no9buZ
Part 17: http://goo.gl/G6KJeo
Part 18: http://goo.gl/ml0Y1A
Part 19: http://goo.gl/DBJjHf
Part 20: http://goo.gl/PT3jCj
Part 21: http://goo.gl/DXrXgp
Part 22: http://goo.gl/e1kEuu
Part 23: http://goo.gl/1EtW6U
Part 24: http://goo.gl/rK4EqX
Part 25: http://goo.gl/b7Vl04
Part 26: http://goo.gl/FQisEJ
Part 27: http://goo.gl/0Ywy0D
Part 28: http://goo.gl/RNuKtL
Part 29: http://goo.gl/dqdIYG
Part 30: http://goo.gl/0YHzlY
Part 31: http://goo.gl/sTS4We

Notifying select people who have opted in. If you wish to be notified, let me know in the comments. If you wish to stop notifications, let me know.

#sciencefiction #saturdayscenes #scifi  ___

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2015-02-18 17:02:29 (27 comments, 16 reshares, 91 +1s)Open 

The story of the battery :  Luigi Galvani first noticed a frog leg twitching when he touched it with a scalpel. He called it 'animal electricity.' For a long time, researchers dissected the electric eel, hoping to see what made it possible for the animal to hold charge.

Alessandro Volta hypothesized that the frog's leg twitched due to two metals being joined by a via-media. He then came up with the voltaic pile (pictured) which was Zinc and Copper plates separated by cloth or cardboard soaked in brine.

Even today, this basic design is still the same in batteries. While materials have changed, the plates and the electrolytes is what is needed to create a battery. Volta’s discoveries so impressed the world that in November 1800 the French National Institute invited him to lectures at events in which Napoleon Bonaparte participated. Napoleon helped with theex... more »

The story of the battery :  Luigi Galvani first noticed a frog leg twitching when he touched it with a scalpel. He called it 'animal electricity.' For a long time, researchers dissected the electric eel, hoping to see what made it possible for the animal to hold charge.

Alessandro Volta hypothesized that the frog's leg twitched due to two metals being joined by a via-media. He then came up with the voltaic pile (pictured) which was Zinc and Copper plates separated by cloth or cardboard soaked in brine.

Even today, this basic design is still the same in batteries. While materials have changed, the plates and the electrolytes is what is needed to create a battery. Volta’s discoveries so impressed the world that in November 1800 the French National Institute invited him to lectures at events in which Napoleon Bonaparte participated. Napoleon helped with the experiments, drawing sparks from the battery, melting a steel wire, discharging an electric pistol and decomposing water into its elements.

How do Eels generate electricity? : The cells of all living things generate electrical charges. In an electric eel (Electrophorus electricus), thousands of modified muscle cells in the thick tail are lined up like batteries in a flashlight. Though each cell generates only about 0.15 volts, in a large electric eel, six thousand cells may be stacked to make one giant battery that can generate as much as 600 volts for a short pulse. A standard car battery generates 12 volts, so an electric eel has 50 times the shocking power of a car battery.

Can an eel power your car? : The dream of the electric eel car is not all that crazy. The fish generates a current by pumping charged potassium and sodium ions out of its special muscle cells. The negatively charged ions inside the cells increase until it opens just the right channels to cause electrons to flood out of the cell. Quite a shock ensues. Researchers from Yale University and the National Institute of Standards and Technology envision synthetic eel cells with improved energy efficiency bundled together in a bio-battery.  We’re not quite to the point where we can build artificial versions of complex cells, but the researchers  have created a simplified battery based on the principles of the electric eel: two artificial cells, each containing a salt solution within a lipid wall. If the salt concentrations are different, then poking the cells produces a slight charge. One day this technology may power implanted medical devices or even wearable, near-organic electronics — maybe even your car. But for now, however, you’ll have to make due with a boring, everyday electric car.

How Frankenstien was imagined : Mary Shelley knew all about Galvani, Volta and Aldini. Humphry Davy and William Nicholson -- the era's leading electrical researchers -- were friends of her father. In 1816, at age 19, she spent the summer in Geneva, Switzerland with Lord Byron and her future husband, Percy Shelley. The season was cold and rainy, and they spent many evenings around the fire, reading German ghost stories and discussing electricity's potential to reanimate corpses.

Links and Sources

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_battery

http://www.stufftoblowyourmind.com/blog/electric-eels-power-car/

http://askanaturalist.com/how-do-electric-eels-generate-electricity/

http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2008/10/22/2398277.htm

http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/when_was_the_battery_invented

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alessandro_Volta#See_also

http://www.insidescience.org/content/science-made-frankenstein/1116

Pics courtesy: w1tp.com and bioexpedition.com

Since Volta's birthday popped up on my Google page.

#science #battery #eel  ___

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2015-02-15 07:46:34 (3 comments, 1 reshares, 39 +1s)Open 

Beautiful work by +Charles Strebor. Love the gold leaf effect!

Fractal with Frax: Wigglelicious
Get it spinning

If you have Frax installed on your device(s) and would like to load this image, you can do so on the link below.

#Frax #Fractals #Maths #Shapes ___Beautiful work by +Charles Strebor. Love the gold leaf effect!

posted image

2015-02-14 12:11:40 (11 comments, 10 reshares, 57 +1s)Open 

War Games : The new Captains show better discipline in managing their formations as Dranke gets a handle on his new responsibilities in this installment of the story of Mission Impossible. Keep reading to know more!

Mission Impossible is a space opera series written in flash fiction style. This is the 30th installment. If you haven't read the series before, please start from the first episode.

Here is the chronology:
First Part: http://goo.gl/jWKDn2
Part 2 : http://goo.gl/8wRbHE
Part 3 : http://goo.gl/eIGokJ
Part 4 : http://goo.gl/gaEZS0
Part 5 : http://goo.gl/bXYxiy
Part 6 : http://goo.gl/mmVbF9
Part 7 : http://goo.gl/i3DDVi
Part 8  : http://goo.gl/IoWcF0
Part 9  : http://goo.gl/B6OQOG
Part 10: http://goo.gl/IP0ORs
Part 11: http://goo.gl/Gn8RDY
Part 12: http://goo.gl/0zEqPI
Part 13: http://goo.gl/dXTYrsmore »

War Games : The new Captains show better discipline in managing their formations as Dranke gets a handle on his new responsibilities in this installment of the story of Mission Impossible. Keep reading to know more!

Mission Impossible is a space opera series written in flash fiction style. This is the 30th installment. If you haven't read the series before, please start from the first episode.

Here is the chronology:
First Part: http://goo.gl/jWKDn2
Part 2 : http://goo.gl/8wRbHE
Part 3 : http://goo.gl/eIGokJ
Part 4 : http://goo.gl/gaEZS0
Part 5 : http://goo.gl/bXYxiy
Part 6 : http://goo.gl/mmVbF9
Part 7 : http://goo.gl/i3DDVi
Part 8  : http://goo.gl/IoWcF0
Part 9  : http://goo.gl/B6OQOG
Part 10: http://goo.gl/IP0ORs
Part 11: http://goo.gl/Gn8RDY
Part 12: http://goo.gl/0zEqPI
Part 13: http://goo.gl/dXTYrs
Part 14: http://goo.gl/ZybKaL
Part 15: http://goo.gl/FrUZqX
Part 16: http://goo.gl/no9buZ
Part 17: http://goo.gl/G6KJeo
Part 18: http://goo.gl/ml0Y1A
Part 19: http://goo.gl/DBJjHf
Part 20: http://goo.gl/PT3jCj
Part 21: http://goo.gl/DXrXgp
Part 22: http://goo.gl/e1kEuu
Part 23: http://goo.gl/1EtW6U
Part 24: http://goo.gl/rK4EqX
Part 25: http://goo.gl/b7Vl04
Part 26: http://goo.gl/FQisEJ
Part 27: http://goo.gl/0Ywy0D
Part 28: http://goo.gl/RNuKtL
Part 29: http://goo.gl/dqdIYG
Part 30: http://goo.gl/0YHzlY

Notifying select people who have opted in. If you wish to be notified, let me know in the comments. If you wish to stop notifications, let me know.

#sciencefiction #saturdayscenes #scifi  ___

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2015-02-08 05:58:06 (42 comments, 29 reshares, 104 +1s)Open 

Shocking discovery : Well not really. I just couldn't resist the headline. Scientists have found bacteria which can live off poisonous heavy metals. The net effect is that some bacteria deposit electrons on the heavy metal, in some other cases, bacteria do the reverse. The result is that the bacteria are actually eating and breathing electricity. While this is not breaking news of any sort, its fascinating by itself.

Bacteria grow wire-like probes : The bacterium grows special wires out of its membrane that transport electrons from inside the cell and deposit them on the heavy metal. Maganese oxide works, but so do other heavy metals like lead. Other discoveries revealed bacteria that are doing the reverse—they scavenge electrons from metal and minerals. The electron exchange completes that circuit. The result is life that eats and breathes electricity. Still, it gets weirder.O... more »

Shocking discovery : Well not really. I just couldn't resist the headline. Scientists have found bacteria which can live off poisonous heavy metals. The net effect is that some bacteria deposit electrons on the heavy metal, in some other cases, bacteria do the reverse. The result is that the bacteria are actually eating and breathing electricity. While this is not breaking news of any sort, its fascinating by itself.

Bacteria grow wire-like probes : The bacterium grows special wires out of its membrane that transport electrons from inside the cell and deposit them on the heavy metal. Maganese oxide works, but so do other heavy metals like lead. Other discoveries revealed bacteria that are doing the reverse—they scavenge electrons from metal and minerals. The electron exchange completes that circuit. The result is life that eats and breathes electricity. Still, it gets weirder. One of Nealson’s graduate students, Annette Rowe, has found six new bacterial strains dredged from the ocean floor that don’t need a source of carbon at all, reports Powell. They can live off of electricity alone.

Mechanism : Unlike any other living thing on Earth, electric bacteria use energy in its purest form. Experiments growing bacteria on battery electrodes demonstrate that these novel, mind-boggling forms of life are essentially eating and excreting electricity. That should not come as a complete surprise, says Kenneth Nealson at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles. We know that life, when you boil it right down, is a flow of electrons: "You eat sugars that have excess electrons, and you breathe in oxygen that willingly takes them." Our cells break down the sugars, and the electrons flow through them in a complex set of chemical reactions until they are passed on to electron-hungry oxygen.

'Eating' Electricity : Nealson's team is one of a handful that is now growing these bacteria directly on electrodes, keeping them alive with electricity and nothing else – neither sugars nor any other kind of nutrient. The highly dangerous equivalent in humans, he says, would be for us to power up by shoving our fingers in a DC electrical socket.

One step closer to a fuel cell? : Researchers would later use the bacteria to construct a microbial "fuel cell" in which bacteria handed off electrons not to rust, but to an electrode that could harvest this current. If some microbes could generate the energy they needed by moving electrons outside their cells, Girguis and colleagues wondered, could others do the same by taking electrons in? "That question brought us back to iron," he said. "The microbes that are the focus of this paper are the mirror image of the ones that eat rust. Instead of using iron oxide to breathe, they actually make iron oxides from free iron."

References, sources and links

http://www.popsci.com/have-we-found-alien-life

http://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/microbes-breathe-and-eat-electricity-make-us-re-think-what-life-180953883/?no-ist

http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn25894-meet-the-electric-life-forms-that-live-on-pure-energy.html#.VNb5KS4wBIz

Related paper : http://mbio.asm.org/content/4/1/e00420-12

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140310144000.htm

Additional paper: http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2014/140226/ncomms4391/full/ncomms4391.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microbial_fuel_cell

#science #fuelcell #bacteria  ___

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2015-02-02 07:30:34 (61 comments, 39 reshares, 133 +1s)Open 

Coldest city on Earth : If you thought you had it bad, Oymyakon (which literally means 'unfrozen water') in Siberia, is a bone-chilling minus 71.2  C (minus 96.16 F) at its lowest temperature. The high of -40F in January is quite seasonable for this place. The closest city of Yakutsk is surprisingly wealthy with an abundance of natural resources (diamonds, oil and gas). Amos Chapelle gives us a view into life in this frigid environment - “I remember feeling like the cold was physically gripping my legs, the other surprise was that occasionally my saliva would freeze into needles that would prick my lips."

The coldest place on Earth? Russian Vostok Research Station in East Antarctica. Read on....

Cool facts : Yakutsk is an economically vibrant place but it's extremely remote. There is a small airport but no railway, and the town boasts but one majorroa... more »

Coldest city on Earth : If you thought you had it bad, Oymyakon (which literally means 'unfrozen water') in Siberia, is a bone-chilling minus 71.2  C (minus 96.16 F) at its lowest temperature. The high of -40F in January is quite seasonable for this place. The closest city of Yakutsk is surprisingly wealthy with an abundance of natural resources (diamonds, oil and gas). Amos Chapelle gives us a view into life in this frigid environment - “I remember feeling like the cold was physically gripping my legs, the other surprise was that occasionally my saliva would freeze into needles that would prick my lips."

The coldest place on Earth? Russian Vostok Research Station in East Antarctica. Read on....

Cool facts : Yakutsk is an economically vibrant place but it's extremely remote. There is a small airport but no railway, and the town boasts but one major road leading in and out of it. Known as the "Road of Bones," it was built by gulag inmates under Stalin's regime.

Schools don't close unless the temperatures fall below minus 58 degrees Fahrenheit. Farmers bring their cows to the village's watering hole—a "thermal" spring that stays a few degrees above freezing—then lead them back to their insulated stables.

Wearing glasses outdoors can cause them to stick to the wearer’s face. This is just one of the more menial problems of the extremely cold weather.

Bathrooms are mostly outdoors, because indoor plumbing presents a challenge due to frozen pipes. Residents have cars, but must leave them running outside, sometimes overnight, so the mechanics don't freeze up. Even so, sometimes more extreme measures are necessary. "A guy I was staying with left his car running all night, but even so, in the morning, the drive shaft was completely frozen. Without any ceremony, he pulled out a little flamethrower, went under the truck and started fanning the bottom of his truck with a flamethrower."

Expensive city : Emergency fuel shipments to Siberian cities cost Russia an estimated $500 million per year. According to Clifford Gaddy, it would be less expensive for the country to simply fly laborers into Siberia to extract the natural resources and then fly them out again instead of paying to keep Siberian cities functioning.

References and sources

http://www.smithsonianmag.com/travel/photos-coldest-city-earth-180953888/?no-ist

http://www.wired.com/2015/01/amos-chapple-the-coldest-place-on-earth/#slide-id-1700585

http://www.weather.com/travel/news/breathtaking-photos-coldest-city-world-20140128

http://www.slate.com/blogs/atlas_obscura/2014/01/31/yakutsk_siberia_surviving_winter_in_the_world_s_coldest_city.html

http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2013/09dec_coldspot/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lowest_temperature_recorded_on_Earth

Pic courtesy: Smithsonianmag

#cold #facts  ___

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2015-01-31 17:01:48 (18 comments, 9 reshares, 60 +1s)Open 

A Star is born : The simplest of questions often takes us down some fabulous paths. How is a star created? It seemed so basic - well dust gets together in a supernova, they coalesce and gravity pulls it all together. If there is enough matter, it gets superdense and fusion is sparked off. Well that is the basic understanding. Fascinating how simple concepts make it possible for us to live. Or is it as simple as we are making it out to be?

Protostars : The core of the cloud collapses faster than the outer parts, and the cloud begins to rotate faster and faster to conserve angular momentum. When the core reaches a temperature of about 2,000 degrees Kelvin, the molecules of hydrogen gas break apart into hydrogen atoms. Eventually the core reaches a temperature of 10,000 degrees Kelvin, and it begins to look like a star when fusion reactions begin. When it has collapsed to about 30... more »

A Star is born : The simplest of questions often takes us down some fabulous paths. How is a star created? It seemed so basic - well dust gets together in a supernova, they coalesce and gravity pulls it all together. If there is enough matter, it gets superdense and fusion is sparked off. Well that is the basic understanding. Fascinating how simple concepts make it possible for us to live. Or is it as simple as we are making it out to be?

Protostars : The core of the cloud collapses faster than the outer parts, and the cloud begins to rotate faster and faster to conserve angular momentum. When the core reaches a temperature of about 2,000 degrees Kelvin, the molecules of hydrogen gas break apart into hydrogen atoms. Eventually the core reaches a temperature of 10,000 degrees Kelvin, and it begins to look like a star when fusion reactions begin. When it has collapsed to about 30 times the size of our sun, it becomes a protostar.

Equiblirum : When the pressure and temperature in the core become great enough to sustain nuclear fusion, the outward pressure acts against the gravitational force. At this stage the core is about the size of our sun. The remaining dust envelope surrounding the star heats up and glows brightly in the infrared part of the spectrum. At this point the visible light from the new star cannot penetrate the envelope. Eventually, radiation pressure from the star blows away the envelope and the new star begins its evolution. The properties and lifetime of the new star depend on the amount of gas that remains trapped. A star like our sun has a lifetime of about 10 billion years and is just middle-aged, with another five billion years or so left.

Webb science : Groups of stars make up galaxies, while planets and ultimately life arise around stars.  Although stars have been the main topic of astronomy for thousands of years, we have begun to understand them in detail only in recent times through the advent of powerful telescopes and computers. A hundred years ago, scientists did not know that stars are powered by nuclear fusion, and 50 years ago they did not know that stars are continually forming in the Universe.  Researchers still do not know the details of how clouds of gas and dust collapse to form stars, or why most stars form in groups, or exactly how planetary systems form.

Powerhouse : At present, the only way we have of initiating hydrogen fusion is to use nuclear fission: the so-called "hydrogen" bomb uses the explosion of a plutonium bomb to (very briefly) ignite uncontrolled fusion of the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium.  We cannot control fusion, although much research on the subject has been conducted over the past 40 years.  The Sun dodges these problems and fuses hydrogen via its sheer, overwhelming bulk.  The pressure at its center squeezes the gas there to fourteen times the density of lead.  The temperature is 15 million K°.

H/t to +Cyndi S. Jameson for pointing me in this direction.

Sources and references:

Northwestern : http://faculty.wcas.northwestern.edu/~infocom/The%20Website/birth.html

BBC: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/ocr_gateway_pre_2011/living_future/8_big_bang1.shtml

Scientific American: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-is-a-star-born/

ESA: http://www.esa.int/esaKIDSen/SEMY06WJD1E_OurUniverse_0.html

NASA (James Webb) : http://jwst.nasa.gov/birth.html

#science #scienceeveryday #stars  ___

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2015-01-31 09:28:54 (15 comments, 16 reshares, 59 +1s)Open 

Pandemonium : Admiral Dranke takes on his new responsibilities in this installment of the story of Mission Impossible. Keep reading to know more!

Mission Impossible is a space opera series written in flash fiction style. This is the 28th installment. If you haven't read the series before, please start from the first episode.

If you haven't read the earlier stories, here is the chronology:
First Part: http://goo.gl/jWKDn2
Part 2 : http://goo.gl/8wRbHE
Part 3 : http://goo.gl/eIGokJ
Part 4 : http://goo.gl/gaEZS0
Part 5 : http://goo.gl/bXYxiy
Part 6 : http://goo.gl/mmVbF9
Part 7 : http://goo.gl/i3DDVi
Part 8  : http://goo.gl/IoWcF0
Part 9  : http://goo.gl/B6OQOG
Part 10: http://goo.gl/IP0ORs
Part 11: http://goo.gl/Gn8RDY
Part 12: http://goo.gl/0zEqPI
Part 13: http://goo.gl/dXTYrs
Part 14:h... more »

Pandemonium : Admiral Dranke takes on his new responsibilities in this installment of the story of Mission Impossible. Keep reading to know more!

Mission Impossible is a space opera series written in flash fiction style. This is the 28th installment. If you haven't read the series before, please start from the first episode.

If you haven't read the earlier stories, here is the chronology:
First Part: http://goo.gl/jWKDn2
Part 2 : http://goo.gl/8wRbHE
Part 3 : http://goo.gl/eIGokJ
Part 4 : http://goo.gl/gaEZS0
Part 5 : http://goo.gl/bXYxiy
Part 6 : http://goo.gl/mmVbF9
Part 7 : http://goo.gl/i3DDVi
Part 8  : http://goo.gl/IoWcF0
Part 9  : http://goo.gl/B6OQOG
Part 10: http://goo.gl/IP0ORs
Part 11: http://goo.gl/Gn8RDY
Part 12: http://goo.gl/0zEqPI
Part 13: http://goo.gl/dXTYrs
Part 14: http://goo.gl/ZybKaL
Part 15: http://goo.gl/FrUZqX
Part 16: http://goo.gl/no9buZ
Part 17: http://goo.gl/G6KJeo
Part 18: http://goo.gl/ml0Y1A
Part 19: http://goo.gl/DBJjHf
Part 20: http://goo.gl/PT3jCj
Part 21: http://goo.gl/DXrXgp
Part 22: http://goo.gl/e1kEuu
Part 23: http://goo.gl/1EtW6U
Part 24: http://goo.gl/rK4EqX
Part 25: http://goo.gl/b7Vl04
Part 26: http://goo.gl/FQisEJ
Part 27: http://goo.gl/0Ywy0D
Part 28: http://goo.gl/RNuKtL

Notifying select people who have opted in. If you wish to be notified, let me know in the comments. If you wish to stop notifications, let me know.

#sciencefiction #saturdayscenes #scifi  ___

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2015-01-24 05:48:19 (22 comments, 16 reshares, 65 +1s)Open 

Moving On :  Events move apace as Dranke meets his old command officer and everything seems to be changing. Mission Impossible is a space opera series written in flash fiction style. This is the 27th installment. If you haven't read the series before, please start from the first episode.

If you haven't read the earlier stories, here is the chronology:
First Part: http://goo.gl/jWKDn2
Part 2 : http://goo.gl/8wRbHE
Part 3 : http://goo.gl/eIGokJ
Part 4 : http://goo.gl/gaEZS0
Part 5 : http://goo.gl/bXYxiy
Part 6 : http://goo.gl/mmVbF9
Part 7 : http://goo.gl/i3DDVi
Part 8  : http://goo.gl/IoWcF0
Part 9  : http://goo.gl/B6OQOG
Part 10: http://goo.gl/IP0ORs
Part 11: http://goo.gl/Gn8RDY
Part 12: http://goo.gl/0zEqPI
Part 13: http://goo.gl/dXTYrs
Part 14: http://goo.gl/ZybKaL
Part 15: http://goo.gl/FrUZqX... more »

Moving On :  Events move apace as Dranke meets his old command officer and everything seems to be changing. Mission Impossible is a space opera series written in flash fiction style. This is the 27th installment. If you haven't read the series before, please start from the first episode.

If you haven't read the earlier stories, here is the chronology:
First Part: http://goo.gl/jWKDn2
Part 2 : http://goo.gl/8wRbHE
Part 3 : http://goo.gl/eIGokJ
Part 4 : http://goo.gl/gaEZS0
Part 5 : http://goo.gl/bXYxiy
Part 6 : http://goo.gl/mmVbF9
Part 7 : http://goo.gl/i3DDVi
Part 8  : http://goo.gl/IoWcF0
Part 9  : http://goo.gl/B6OQOG
Part 10: http://goo.gl/IP0ORs
Part 11: http://goo.gl/Gn8RDY
Part 12: http://goo.gl/0zEqPI
Part 13: http://goo.gl/dXTYrs
Part 14: http://goo.gl/ZybKaL
Part 15: http://goo.gl/FrUZqX
Part 16: http://goo.gl/no9buZ
Part 17: http://goo.gl/G6KJeo
Part 18: http://goo.gl/ml0Y1A
Part 19: http://goo.gl/DBJjHf
Part 20: http://goo.gl/PT3jCj
Part 21: http://goo.gl/DXrXgp
Part 22: http://goo.gl/e1kEuu
Part 23: http://goo.gl/1EtW6U
Part 24: http://goo.gl/rK4EqX
Part 25: http://goo.gl/b7Vl04
Part 26: http://goo.gl/FQisEJ
Part 27: http://goo.gl/0Ywy0D

Mission impossible is a science fiction series set in the distant future. Notifying select people who have opted in.

#saturdayscenes #scifi___

posted image

2015-01-19 09:49:02 (35 comments, 51 reshares, 151 +1s)Open 

Animal doctors : No really. This is not a post about vets. This is about how animals self-medicate.... including parrots, dogs, cats, chimps, elephants and a host of other creatures. There is even a word for it. Zoopharmacognosy is derived from zoo which means animal, pharma  which stands for drug and gnosy, which means knowing. Next time you see your dog or cat eating grass, you know it's a part of their self-medication regime.

Neighbourhood pharmacy : Bears, deer, elk, and various carnivores, as well as great apes, are known to consume medicinal plants apparently to self-medicate. Some lizards are believed to respond to a bite by a venomous snake by eating a certain root to counter the venom. Baboons in Ethiopia eat the leaves of a plant to combat the flatworms that cause schistosomiasis.

More widespread than one would assume : Birds, bees, lizards,... more »

Animal doctors : No really. This is not a post about vets. This is about how animals self-medicate.... including parrots, dogs, cats, chimps, elephants and a host of other creatures. There is even a word for it. Zoopharmacognosy is derived from zoo which means animal, pharma  which stands for drug and gnosy, which means knowing. Next time you see your dog or cat eating grass, you know it's a part of their self-medication regime.

Neighbourhood pharmacy : Bears, deer, elk, and various carnivores, as well as great apes, are known to consume medicinal plants apparently to self-medicate. Some lizards are believed to respond to a bite by a venomous snake by eating a certain root to counter the venom. Baboons in Ethiopia eat the leaves of a plant to combat the flatworms that cause schistosomiasis.

More widespread than one would assume : Birds, bees, lizards, elephants, and chimpanzees all share a survival trait: They self-medicate. These animals eat things that make them feel better, or prevent disease, or kill parasites like flatworms, bacteria, and viruses, or just to aid in digestion. Even creatures with brains the size of pinheads somehow know to ingest certain plants or use them in unusual ways when they need them. Anyone who has seen a dog eat grass during a walk has witnessed self-medication. The dog probably has an upset stomach or a parasite.

Cats may be eating grass for nutrients : In particular, a nutrient that grass provides for cats is folic acid. This is a vital precursor for your cat's ability to synthesize hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is what supplies your cat's organs with oxygen. We all know oxygen is pretty important.

Other examples : Red and green macaws, along with many animals, eat clay to aid digestion and kill bacteria. Pregnant lemurs in Madagascar nibble on tamarind and fig leaves and bark to aid in milk production, kill parasites, and increase the chances of a successful birth. Pregnant elephants in Kenya eat the leaves of some trees to induce delivery.

How does one determine if an animal is self-medicating? : Huffman established widely used criteria for judging when an animal is self-medicating. First, the plant eaten cannot be a regular part of the animal’s diet; it is used as medicine not food. Second, the plant must provide little or no nutritional value to the animal. Third, the plant must be consumed during those times of year—for example, the rainy season—when parasites are most likely to cause infections. Fourth, other animals in the group don’t participate. If the activity meets these standards, it is safe to assume the animal is self-medicating, Huffman says. Researchers have observed the practice in 25 regions involving 40 different plants.

Learned behavior? : The obvious question is how do the animals—some of them not noted for intelligence—learn to do this? How did sparrows and finches learn to collect nicotine-heavy cigarette butts to reduce mite infections in their nests? How do honey bees and wood ants know to line their nests with resin to combat bacteria? We don't know for sure, but there is a strong hypothesis.

Article Link: http://www.pnas.org/content/111/49/17339.full

News article: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2868348/Do-animals-SELF-MEDICATE-Dogs-elephants-chimps-parrots-use-natural-remedies-treat-digestive-problems-induce-birth.html

Wikipedia link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zoopharmacognosy#Mammals_2

Pic courtesy: http://www.baxterboo.com/fun/a.cfm/why-does-my-pet-eat-grass

Related TED event: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WNn7b5VHowM

Research paper: Huffman M. (1997) Current evidence for self-medication in primates: A multidisciplinary perspective. Yearb Phys Anthropol 104(suppl 25):171–200.

#science #scienceeveryday  ___

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2015-01-16 09:12:43 (34 comments, 130 reshares, 241 +1s)Open 

Geeking out : This is too cool to ignore. I usually stick to the science, but this one is here just for the fun of it. Seriously. See the full video here -  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0u7CWB40ezM#t=285 (it's totally worth it).

Article extract: Back in November, drone enthusiasts built a modified quadcopter they call the "Heli-Carrier" that was modeled after the giant aircraft that SHIELD flies in the Marvel movies, and showed that one small drone could take off from another. In this new video, the homebuilt helicarrier stays aloft longer and launches miniature jets. It's all a drone enthusiast's dreams. Maybe next time out they can land a helicarrier on a helicarrier.

From Hackaday : If you’re not familiar, the Helicarrier is a fictional ship, the pride of S.H.I.E.L.D’s air force, or is it their navy. It’s a massive aircraft carrier with fourhuge r... more »

Geeking out : This is too cool to ignore. I usually stick to the science, but this one is here just for the fun of it. Seriously. See the full video here -  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0u7CWB40ezM#t=285 (it's totally worth it).

Article extract: Back in November, drone enthusiasts built a modified quadcopter they call the "Heli-Carrier" that was modeled after the giant aircraft that SHIELD flies in the Marvel movies, and showed that one small drone could take off from another. In this new video, the homebuilt helicarrier stays aloft longer and launches miniature jets. It's all a drone enthusiast's dreams. Maybe next time out they can land a helicarrier on a helicarrier.

From Hackaday : If you’re not familiar, the Helicarrier is a fictional ship, the pride of S.H.I.E.L.D’s air force, or is it their navy. It’s a massive aircraft carrier with four huge repulsor engines built into it, borrowing tech from Stark Industries. The shear size of it is what makes it completely ridiculous, but at the same time, it’s also unbelievably awesome. Unfortunately, repulsor technology doesn’t seem to exist yet, so the FliteTest crew had to settle with a set of 8 brushless outrunner motors, with two per “engine”. The whole thing is almost 6′ long. It doesn’t handle that well (not surprising!) but they were able to launch another RC  plane off of it, mid-flight! Landing however… well you’ll have to watch the video.

Sources

http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/gadgets/tech-news/video-flitetest-helicarrier-marvel-shield-17635604?click=pm_latest

http://hackaday.com/2015/01/13/lego-avengers-assemble-to-the-helicarrier/

http://www.gizmodo.com.au/2015/01/taking-off-and-landing-on-the-avengers-helicarrier-drone-looks-so-fun/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helicarrier

#Helicarrier #geek #lego  ___

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2015-01-14 20:07:24 (13 comments, 0 reshares, 40 +1s)Open 

Happy 23+++ to the degree which the log takes you +Charles Strebor ! Have a great one.

 I make crazy pics. Usually really blurry and its hard to think what it could have been. But then I've not used any filters or manipulated it. Other than my alien brain. 

#happybirthday  

Happy 23+++ to the degree which the log takes you +Charles Strebor ! Have a great one.

 I make crazy pics. Usually really blurry and its hard to think what it could have been. But then I've not used any filters or manipulated it. Other than my alien brain. 

#happybirthday  ___

posted image

2015-01-10 07:52:08 (21 comments, 8 reshares, 57 +1s)Open 

Remember the 'Happy People Vertical Transporters in The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy ? : This is not really the same, but ThyssenKrupp is working on bringing ropeless elevators (Called 'Multi') which uses Maglev and can use multiple elevators in the same shaft, saves space and can go both up-down and sideways. It actually solves a lot of problems architects and designers are faced with. Read on to know more....

Why is this amazing? : The system has been compared to how modern underground train networks operate, with multiple elevator cabins running in a loop. As there are no cables the elevators can go forwards, backwards, up and down. The new elevator system could allow architects to create more innovative buildings. "If you did a cross-section cut of a high-rise building, 40 to 60 percent is going to be consumed by elevator space."... more »

Remember the 'Happy People Vertical Transporters in The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy ? : This is not really the same, but ThyssenKrupp is working on bringing ropeless elevators (Called 'Multi') which uses Maglev and can use multiple elevators in the same shaft, saves space and can go both up-down and sideways. It actually solves a lot of problems architects and designers are faced with. Read on to know more....

Why is this amazing? : The system has been compared to how modern underground train networks operate, with multiple elevator cabins running in a loop. As there are no cables the elevators can go forwards, backwards, up and down. The new elevator system could allow architects to create more innovative buildings. "If you did a cross-section cut of a high-rise building, 40 to 60 percent is going to be consumed by elevator space." “This opens up vast possibilities in building design,” Patrick Bass, CEO of ThyssenKrupp North America, Inc., tells Popular Science. “We now can enable buildings as tall or as high as they can go, and we also now enable different shapes and configurations of the space within buildings.”

The issue with building height and rope weight : In addition, current elevators can only go so far in terms distance. Once an elevator gets longer than about 2,000 feet, the steel ropes are too heavy to lift the car. In the world’s tallest building, the 2,722-foot tall Burj Khalifa in Dubai, the ground elevators only go as high as 1,654 feet. To gain access to the top floor, people must transfer to a second set of elevators located at the top of the building.  (See earlier post on Ultrarope by Kone here - http://goo.gl/3xmxcZ )

Sideways for large buildings : Julian Olley, director at Ove Arup & Partners Ltd., is intrigued by the possibility. “It could be advantageous for people to go sideways, like in the new Apple building, where it’s not high, but it’s half a kilometer round — a huge donut building. Whether that would ever be commercially viable is up for interpretation.”

Article link: http://www.popsci.com/ground-breaking-elevator-design-allows-both-horizontal-and-vertical-cars

Wired link: http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2014-12/02/thyssenkrupp-wonkavator

ThyssenKrupp website: http://www.thyssenkrupp.com/en/presse/art_detail.html&eid=TKBase_1417074157421_1378444349___

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