Login now

Not your profile? Login and get free access to your reports and analysis.

Tags

Sign in

The following tags have been added by users of CircleCount.com.
You can login on CircleCount to add more tags here.

  • Authors
  • Bloggers
  • Fantasy
  • Geeks
  • GooglePlus
  • Science
  • Science Fiction
  • Technology

Are you missing a tag in the list of available tags? You can suggest new tags here.

Login now

Do you want to see a more detailed chart? Check your settings and define your favorite chart type.

Or click here to get the detailed chart only once.

Lacerant Plainer has been at 11 events

HostFollowersTitleDateGuestsLinks
NovoPulp1,151Ask +Niamh Brown Your +NovoPulp Questions!Have your heard of NovoPulp, considered getting involved, but you had a few questions? Only just heard of us and want to know more? Then here is your chance to ask someone face to face! With around 2 months to go until the 2014 NovoPulp deadline passes, we wanted to give everyone a chance to raise their hand and ask the questions that the rest of us didn't. Even if you can't attend the Hangout live, please leave your questions so you can watch the video afterwards and still get the information you need. As the last HOA was aimed at the USA/Australian time-zones we have decided to make this Hangout more European friendly. The HOA will be on:SATURDAY 7th OF JUNE 2014 - 16:00 CET / 10:00 EDT Submission Status:We are still in need of more short stories for this year but in particular WE NEED ART. So don't be shy, step forward :DFor more information on NovoPulp: The Speculative Fiction Anthology visit: http://www.NovoPulp.comFor more frequent updates subscribe to our email list: http://eepurl.com/C_-QfComing soon: FREE Bonus Content Only For Newsletter Subscribers!See you on air!Notifications:You have been notified of this HOA because you have circled the +NovoPulp page at some point. If you would prefer not to receive these limited notifications, or you want to be added to the notify list, then please let us know.NovoPulp Q&A HOA with Niamh Brown2014-06-07 16:00:0010 
NASA Goddard95,940On March 29, 2014, an X-class flare burst off the right side of the sun . . . and NASA was watching.Coordinating their observations, five NASA observatories and one ground-based telescope were able to see things in the flare they'd never seen before.  Numerous other NASA spacecraft provided additional data about what was happening on the sun during the event and what the effects were at Earth. Join us at 2:30 p.m. EDT on Thursday, May 8, 2014, as researchers describe how multiple missions worked together to explore the sun's surface and atmosphere, layer by layer, providing unprecedented images of the onset of a solar flare.  In addition to the colorful pictures of the sun that NASA will share, participants will explain how such research can help scientists better understand what sets off these large explosions on the sun. Perhaps, someday scientists may be able to predict their onset, forewarning of the radio blackouts they can cause near Earth – blackouts that can interfere with military, airplane and ship communications.Participants include: Adrian Daw: IRIS project scientist at NASA GoddardAlbert Shih: RHESSI scientist at NASA GoddardSabrina Savage: Hinode deputy project scientist at NASA MarshallLucia Kleint: Bay Area Environmental Research Institute Jeffrey Newmark: NASA HeadquartersNASA Hangout: All Eyes on the Sun2014-05-08 20:30:00651 
Space Fan News!3,218,287Hello Space Fans!Tonight there will be a total lunar eclipse tonight in the Western Hemisphere. +Scott Lewis  will be heading to Cerritos College in Norwalk, CA to do some on-site outreach with Dr. +Thad Szabo. Internet permitting, we'll be attempting to bring in a live feed of the lunar eclipse from LA and hopefully connect with our friends from the +Virtual Star Party  and bring in feeds from there too!If you're in the Los Angeles area, you are more than welcome to join us on site. The event starts at 10:30 p.m. PT and parking is free after 10 p.m.Cerritos College: 11190 Alondra Blvd. Norwalk, CA 90650Parking Lot C-6 off of Studebaker, just south of Alondra Blvd.Not local? That's okay too! Share with us your pictures of the eclipse in the event below! Keep Looking Up!#ScienceEveryday   #Space   #Astronomy   #Eclipse   #LunarEclipse   #BloodMoon  Lunar Eclipse Live!2014-04-15 08:00:00393 
STEM Women on G+103,974Join us for a STEM Women HOA as we speak to +Annika O'Brien on her career as a roboticist. Annika is an engineer who works on robotics and also a passionate STEM educator, teaching kids how to program and build robots through +STEAMtrax. She will talk to us about her exciting career path as a woman in STEM, what inspires her, and why supporting women in STEM is important. This HOA will be hosted by Dr +Buddhini Samarasinghe and Dr +Zuleyka Zevallos  and you can tune in on Sunday April 13th at 4.30 PM Central/ 10.30PM UK. The hangout will be available for viewing on our YouTube channel (http://www.youtube.com/stemwomen) after the event.In The Spotlight, With Annika O'Brien2014-04-13 23:30:0055 
NovoPulp1,151Yes it is finally here!+NovoPulp (aka +#G+SF Anthologies), though +#HermitStudio - Press Division, has published their first book: NovoPulp 2013/2014 Anthology. http://www.NovoPulp.com/store To celebrate we are having a Launch Party HOA.SATURDAY 29th OF MARCH 2014EST: 19:00GMT: 23:00SUNDAY 30th of MARCH 2014CET: 00:00AEDT: 10:00READINGS FROM:+Niamh Brown +David Grigg OTHER GUESTS INCLUDE:+Charles Strebor For those who don't know here is a little synopsis on the NovoPulp project:Let’s bring back the best days of Pulp: Fiction written by and for those who love the genre. Pushing boundaries, asking the questions, demanding the answers, and even providing some.We collect, anthologise, and produce one volume a year of the very best Speculative Fiction that G+ can provide. All comers are welcome – we want everyone to have the chance to put their ideas before the world, to be the one who saw what the rest of us didn’t – or wouldn’t – and so change the world...If you enjoy speculative fiction and great artwork you are in for a treat. Even if you can't attend the HOA, if you can spread the word about the event or the book we would really appreciate it. You can find images and code for your website here:http://www.NovoPulp.com/spread-the-wordTo those that can make it please join us at the first NovoPulp Launch Party HOA this weekend (the 29th/30th of March 2014 - depending on your timezone).Notification Notice:If you were notified it is because you have circled the +NovoPulp (aka +#G+SF Anthology) page. We endeavour to keep these notifications to an absolute minimum, but if NovoPulp 2013/2014 Anthology Launch Party HOA2014-03-30 00:00:0032 
The Huffington Post2,489,614+The Huffington Post is talking ALL THINGS +Oscars with our own  +matthew rappaport and +Nicholas Graham! We'll be discussing the big Winners, the HUGE Snubs, and all the Moments from Sunday's broadcast.. especially the FUNNY via Host Ellen DeGeneres (and any other random bits of #lol )!Join us as we chat LIVE about the greatest speeches and take questions from all of you, the #awesomesauce audience on Monday, March 3, 2014 at 4:15 pm ET / 1:15 pm PTWe want to hear from you as to who should win before the show starts (and who should've won, once it ends). You can submit your questions in both comments and using the Q&A app attached to the Hangout.More fun +G+ Achievement Unlocked here at #huffpost  on +Google+ ! #Oscars   #oscars2014   #movies   #bestpicture2014   #hangoutsonair    #academyawards2014  +American Hustle +Huffpost 2014 Oscars Recap Show w/Matt Rappaport and Nic Graham2014-03-03 22:15:0053 
MLB2,338,847Cut4.comCut4 Google+ Hangout2013-08-15 21:30:0015 
Beyond Rubik's Cube3,077,920Rubik’s Fans Unite!Spend an afternoon with the world’s top Rubik’s Cube aficionados in an epic Google+ Hangout on Air.Join +Paul Hoffman CEO of the +Liberty Science Center as he hosts a discussion between some of the brightest thought leaders, math geeks, and speed cubers ever assembled; featuring an introduction by none other than +Erno Rubik himself.Hear why Oxford Mathematics Professor +Marcus du Sautoy thinks the Rubik’s Cube has a lot in common with the Large Hadron Collider.Muse over the poetry and aesthetics of science in our culture with renowned science writer, and exhibition curator +Margaret Wertheim.Marvel at the finger dexterity of world champion speed cuber +Anthony Brooks.Learn about what it takes to bring an exhibition to life with +Ann Neumann. Creative Director at the Liberty Science Center and +Michael Tyka artist and visionary who built the Groovik’s Cube at Burning Man.Seven of the most interesting people in the world will be gathered together to talk all things cube. You’re invited.Click-in July 18th at 2pm EST.Submit Hangout questions on this Events Page.Special thank you to +Michael Holden for that awesome picture we're using. Check him out www.michaelholden.com.The Beyond Rubik's Cube Hangout2013-07-18 20:00:00208 
Jacob Dix27,298Post your sky images here. Comment on other's sky images. Mobile, DSLR, film are welcome. Have fun. The sky is beautiful.Sky 3!2012-09-29 00:30:0034 
Benjamin Cortis142,757Photo Competition September 2012Status: finishedThread:LandscapesThe images can be submitted the next 24 hours.Then the event is closed and a voting phase starts from exactly 6 days.The jury is the audience. During this period anyone can can vote by a +1 to his favorite picture.In one week, then the current state of the votes will be noted and the winners will be revealed to the public.Rules:Please note the current topic.Everyone can submit only one picture.Please no nudity or any other offensive pictures.If anyone does not abide by the rules, his work will be removed from this event not be rated.last competition: https://plus.google.com/u/0/events/c1nngcqt7dgr1qn315holkenh20Let´s have fun....-Fotowettbewerb September 2012Status: beendetThema:LandschaftenDie Bilder können in den nächsten 24 Stunden eingereicht werden.Dann wird das Event geschlossen und eine Abstimmungsphase von genau 6 Tagen beginnt.Die Jury ist das Publikum. In diesem Zeitraum kann jeder seine Stimme durch ein +1 unter seinem Lieblingsbild abgeben.In einer Woche wird dann der aktuelle Stand der Abstimmungen festgehalten und die Gewinner können der Öffentlichkeit preisgegeben werden.Regeln:Bitte beachtet das aktuelle Thema.Jeder kann maximal ein Bild einreichen.Bitte keine Nacktbilder oder keine anderen anstößigen Bilder.Wenn sich jemand nicht an die Regeln hält wird aus diesem Event entfernt und nicht bewertet.letzte Wettbewerb: https://plus.google.com/u/0/events/c1nngcqt7dgr1qn315holkenh20Viel Spaß#foto #photo #wettbewerb #competition #event #photocompetition   #photocompetitionseptember  Photo Competition - September 20122012-09-05 10:00:00949 
Jacob Dix27,298For some time now I have been doing a project, an experiment, an exploration, a study in light. My object has been the sky, through the limited vantage point of my kitchen window and my backyard. The result, so far, is this album called Sky: http://goo.gl/phGuRForget about that for right now. Show everyone your own sky! The best, the worst. I've seen people mention avoiding it because it means they have no "object" to shoot. Don't listen to those people. It is the most challenging palette of light there is. Let's see 'em!You have a full day and a half! Please spread the word too.Sky!2012-09-02 00:00:0023 

Lacerant Plainer has been shared in 1,969 public circles

You can see here the 50 latest shared circles.
If this is your profile, you can check your dashboard to see all shared circles you have been included.

AuthorFollowersDateUsers in CircleCommentsReshares+1Links
Simona AN65,202                                  ~ The CAT CIRCLE ~ /\„,„/\  ( =';'=)    /♥♥\   (.\.. . . /.) The cat has too much spirit to have no heart. ~ Ernest Menaul    You want a PAWESOME stream? Add #CATCIRCLE  in your circles!This is a circle of wonderful humans, very talented, smart, sensitive, with a good sense of humor... and my favorites in G+, of course! There are two conditions to be adopted in the #CATCIRCLE : to be pawesome and to be owned by at least a cat.Specific cat-pages and their curators are included by default.If you're notified, you're in #CATCIRCLE ! If you want out just tell me!Welcome Newcomers!♫ ♫ ♪ ♫ ♪ ♪ ♫ ♫ ♪ ♫ ♪ ♪ ♫ ♫ ♪ ♫ ♪ ♪ ♫ ♫ ♪ ♫ ♪ ♪ ♫ ♫ ♪ ♫ ♪ ♪ ♫ ♫ ♪ Everybody Wants To Be A Cat - The Cat Pack♫ ♫ ♪ ♫ ♪ ♪ ♫ ♫ ♪ ♫ ♪ ♪ ♫ ♫ ♪ ♫ ♪ ♪ ♫ ♫ ♪ ♫ ♪ ♪ ♫ ♫ ♪ ♫ ♪ ♪ ♫ ♫ ♪  Everybody wants to be in #CATCIRCLE ! #Caturday   #OneCatADayKeepsTheDoctorAway   #MyBelovedCats   #CaturdayEveryday   #CatsBigAndSmallTheBest   #HQSPAnimals   #WildLifeInTheCity   #CatLoversNetwork   #CircleCaturday   #CircleOfTheDay   #CircleCurators   #CrazyCircles   #ShareYourCircle   #Take2Seconds  to cuddle a cat! Or, #AdoptDon’tShop !    If you don't want to be notified, tell me.2014-09-13 20:15:083807314
Kenneth Nicholson2,896Circle of people, with active life position in Google+I would be grateful to all those who will join and share this circle.If  you would like to be part of the next circle please :-comment here and let me know.-Share and plus this post.- Add this circle to your circles I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#circles #circleshare #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #sharedcircleday #publiccircle #publiccirclesproject #publiccircleshare #addmetoyourcircles #addcircle #addpeople #awesomepeople #awesomesauce #awesomesauce2014-09-13 13:04:45493106104134
Brian Mcquillan6,433Increase your following with our Amazing CirclesTo be added to the Circle you have to do these simple steps: 1 - include me in your circles 2 - Click add people and create your circle 3 - share the circle (include yourself) 4 - add +1 to the post#powercircle #sharedcircle #topsharedcircle #circleoftheday #sharedcircle #trustinme #circlesharing #circleshare #circles #circleoftheday #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircles #share #vipsnowballcircle #sharedcircleoftheday #sharewithyou #followme #followers #followback2014-09-13 07:12:31493403853
Becky Collins16,373Young Adult Authors circle :Circle of very #social #engagerspeople and companiesTo be included in my shares (#sharedcircle), be so kind to:1 - Do +1 t the post2 - Comment the post and specify your "category" (job or interest) Ex: Fashion, SEO, Companies, Social Media Marketing, Sailing, Photography, Bloggers/Writers, Web graphics and design, Italy, Artists, Sport, Finance/Economy ...3 - include the circle among your circles4 - share the circle (include yourself)Improve your popularity, be social be cool !Keep yourself updated, enjoy the Shared Circles Hellenic Alliance, you can share your shared circles inside the upcoming Community:https://plus.google.com/communities/112552559573595396104  #socialmedia  #media  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing  #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins ?2014-09-13 05:03:59465137
Chris Cota29,847The #FridayCircle Share is in Effect. We have over 40 new members and as the tradition as been started I will continue to share this circle every time it grows.OK awesome on each   #snowballcircle share we average 50 engagements. I have passed 26,000   #folllowers gaining 1300 a month. TO BE A PART of the most active circle on   #googleplus it is simple!1. ADD the circle this insures you stay in it.2. Share the post.3. Plus the post4. Comment to be added once you have done this!That is all simple right!#circleshare #sharedcircles #snowballcircle #publicsharedcircles  #circleshare #circleshared #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles     #circlesharing #circlefriday #snowballcircle #thesnowballcircle #growthinfollowers #followfriday +Daniel Stock +Karen Michelle +Dubie Bacino +Michael Q Todd +Ralph Quintero +Brandon Ross +Soko Llc. - Soko Marketing  +Shared Circles on G+ +Tzarul Nicolai +Thomas Wooldridge +Thomas Hawk +Peter Trapasso +Peter Gregg +Ludovic Moreeuw +808 Audio2014-09-12 18:17:18412279
Shared Circle Magic1,173Increase your following with our Amazing CirclesNext circles to include only those resharing thisEven if you are included in this circle, +1 , comment and share this to be included in next 2 circles (after 12 Hours)Want to grow your follower list? Need more followers? Join my circles now To be added to the Circle you have to do these simple steps: 1 - include me in your circles 2 - Click add people and create your circle 3 - share the circle (include yourself) 4 - add +1 to the post(Comment on the original post so that I know you have shared)Optional: Checkout http://www.instagc.com/161602 and let me know your views, although not a compulsion but one's visiting or logging with their accounts on http://www.instagc.com/161602 will be given a special preference for next 5 circles in this week#powercircle #sharedcircle #topsharedcircle #circleoftheday #sharedcircle #trustinme #circlesharing #circleshare #circles #circleoftheday #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircles #share #vipsnowballcircle #sharedcircleoftheday #sharewithyou #followme #followers #followback #circle #googleplus #coolpeople #circleshare #sharedcircles #sharedcircle #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #circleshare #circl2014-09-12 05:07:13497231730
AyJay Schibig72,087ENGAGERS  CIRCLE  9.11.14   by  +AyJay Schibig RESHARE if you want to be included.Welcome to the latest  edition of my  active Engagers Circle. Add  it to grow your G+ network !  #circleshare #circlesharing #sharedcircles #sharingcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #circlesunday #share #shared #followers #addcircles #publicsharedcircles #share #addpeople #addcircle #addfriends #circle #socialmedia #ayjayscircles  2014-09-12 01:53:09499515365
Circles Circles Circles40,887A Circle of Bloggers & Their BlogsYour re-share is appreciated.Those included in this circle are active bloggers, and are also active on G+. Add them to your circles for added information on a variety of subjects, from health, to technology, food and gardening.Please re-share this circle in your stream.To be added:1- Add +Circles Circles Circles to your circles2- Write the URL of your blog in the comments section below3- Your blog must be an active blog (posts must be current)This Circle will be published on Wednesdays. Note: If you are in this list be sure to add your blog's URL on the About section of your G+ page. I will be featuring interesting blogs every so often, so it's important to have the blog's address. Looking forward to reading your blogs.If you know of anyone that may benefit from this circle, please ask them to join. Thank you.Current Circles  Published Mondays ORIGINAL CONTENT CREATORS : http://goo.gl/pt7vooPublished Wednesdays:BLOGGERS & THEIR BLOGS: http://goo.gl/ch1eH4Published Thursdays:WOMEN ARE FROM VENUS : http://goo.gl/ifnFxsMEN ARE FROM MARS : http://goo.gl/iYSIZLPublished Fridays:A CIRCLE TO PAY IT FORWARD:  http://goo.gl/lRJnQ5Others CirclesSCIENCE: http://goo.gl/xXWLPtTECHNOLOGY: http://goo.gl/z3z8l#circleshare                                                             2014-09-11 19:46:1780232439
Marlo Angelo Tito105,514Ace (Awesome Circle of IntEraction)I am not really used to sharing circles on Wednesdays/Thursdays but I guess I should get used to it. :-D(let me copy-paste this one... lol)So folks, this is circle Ace. And yes, you know it, this circle is filled with normal folks here in G+. Well that is, it's your definition of normal! :-D. Since this is not a themed circle or whatsoever, this circle has a pretty great mix as it shows a great diversity among the people. As I am done introducing these folks to you, you're might want to add them to know more! :-D  If you want to get into this circle, just tell me!And also if you want to be excluded from this circle, please also do tell me!This circle rolls every Wednesday or Thursday.SongS for the Week! Jon & Roy - Boon HelmRosie and Me - Come BackHave a nice day and God bless everyone! :-D #Circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circleoftheday   #shared   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday   #sharingcircles   #sharingiscaring   #add   #addcircle   #addpeople   #justanaverageteenagerwhoexpresseshisopinionsovertheinternetcircle  2014-09-11 10:51:243189296131
Robert Connor17,162Google + users that share unique and original contentsIf you received a notification below or in the comments, you're included. If you received a notification, please reshare to your circles.If you’d like to be added to the next circle share •         +1 this circle•         Share this circle to PUBLIC•         Include me in your circles•         Comment on this post#sharedcircle #publiccircleshare #circleshare #circleoftheday #circleshares #circlesharing #circlesshare #publicsharedcircle #publicsharedcircles #sharedcircleoftheday #sharedcircleoftheweek #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircle #todayspublicsharedcircle2014-09-09 08:23:1539810278132
1001PowerfulAffirmations.com10,232QUICK SHARE 208 09 2014This is just a newest quick share ofgreat engagers, sharers, plussers and peopleshow share interesting content.I am sure that adding and sharing thiscircle will cause your effortsto explode on G+:DDDDif you want to be shared keep sharing!1 - Include me in your circles2 - Share the circle (Publicly)3 - Add +1 to the post.4 - Leave a comment if you like.I will be more than thankful if you plus and share this circle!PS. Please share from the original post only:https://plus.google.com/110944922293502792188/posts/JssaYk35yXFThank you! Have a wonderful week!I love you guys!Ianhttp://bit.ly/IanCollinsAmazon+1001PowerfulAffirmations.com #circle #circles #public #publiccircle #circleshare  #circlesharing #sharedcircles  #sharedcircle #morefollowers  #sharingcircles #circleshare #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedpublicircles #sharedcircle #photography #photographer  #bestphotographer #topphotographer #AddCircle #FindCircles  #awesome #AwesomePeople #AwesomeCircle #addmetoyourcircles  #addcircle #addpeople #cir2014-09-08 09:27:134409362104
Kylie Jenner6,520#15 GOOGLE FRIENDS! -  RESHARE if you want to be included *'"*:•:••:*:•-:¦:*  *SHARE AND BE  SHARED*  *:¦:-•:*:••-:•:''''*  This is a super Circle and in it I put together a group of really interesting and active people on Google Plus to add in your circles.I'm talking about the top   Google + users that share unique and original contents.Follow   this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:boost   visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post 5 - Follow  your dreams and smile to life.More you share More you get! :)I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#circles #shared #share #add #friends #circle #share #sharecircle #circleshare2014-09-08 04:13:48340668
Simona AN64,726                                   ~ The phenomenal CAT CIRCLE ~ /\„,„/\  ( =';'=)    /♥♥\   (.\.. . . /.) One of the ways in which cats show happiness is by sleeping. ~ Cleveland Amory    You want a PAWESOME stream? Add #CATCIRCLE  in your circles!This is a circle of wonderful humans, very talented, smart, sensitive, with a good sense of humor... and my favorites in G+, of course! There are two conditions to be adopted in the #CATCIRCLE : to be pawesome and to be owned by at least a cat.Specific cat-pages and their curators are included by default.If you're notified, you're in #CATCIRCLE ! If you want out just tell me!Welcome Newcomers!♫ ♫ ♪ ♫ ♪ ♪ ♫ ♫ ♪ ♫ ♪ ♪ ♫ ♫ ♪ ♫ ♪ ♪ ♫ ♫ ♪ ♫ ♪ ♪ ♫ ♫ ♪ ♫ ♪ ♪ ♫ ♫ ♪ Everybody Wants To Be A Cat♫ ♫ ♪ ♫ ♪ ♪ ♫ ♫ ♪ ♫ ♪ ♪ ♫ ♫ ♪ ♫ ♪ ♪ ♫ ♫ ♪ ♫ ♪ ♪ ♫ ♫ ♪ ♫ ♪ ♪ ♫ ♫ ♪  Everybody wants to be in #CATCIRCLE ! #Caturday   #OneCatADayKeepsTheDoctorAway   #MyBelovedCats   #CaturdayEveryday   #CatsBigAndSmallTheBest   #HQSPAnimals   #WildLifeInTheCity   #CatLoversNetwork   #CircleCaturday   #CircleOfTheDay   #CircleCurators   #ShareYourCircle   #Take2Seconds  to cuddle a cat! Or, #AdoptACat !    If you don't want to be notified, tell me.2014-09-06 20:34:033781003088
Kylie Jenner6,429#15 GOOGLE FRIENDS! -  RESHARE if you want to be included *'"*:•:••:*:•-:¦:*  *SHARE AND BE  SHARED*  *:¦:-•:*:••-:•:''''*  This is a super Circle and in it I put together a group of really interesting and active people on Google Plus to add in your circles.I'm talking about the top   Google + users that share unique and original contents.Follow   this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:boost   visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post 5 - Follow  your dreams and smile to life.More you share More you get! :)I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#circles #shared #share #add #friends #circle #share #sharecircle #circleshare2014-09-06 15:33:31340344
Rosie Taylor8,053#2 GOOGLE FRIENDS! -  RESHARE if you want to be included *'"*:•:••:*:•-:¦:*  *SHARE AND BE  SHARED*  *:¦:-•:*:••-:•:''''*  This is a super Circle and in it I put together a group of really interesting and active people on Google Plus to add in your circles.I'm talking about the top   Google + users that share unique and original contents.Follow   this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:boost   visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post 5 - Follow  your dreams and smile to life.More you share More you get! :)I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#circles #shared #share #add #friends #circle #share #sharecircle #circleshare2014-09-06 14:47:154365512
Circles Circles Circles40,531A Circle of Bloggers & Their BlogsYour re-share is appreciated.Those included in this circle are active bloggers, and are also active on G+. Add them to your circles for added information on a variety of subjects, from health, to technology, food and gardening.Please re-share this circle in your stream.To be added:1- Add +Circles Circles Circles to your circles2- Write the URL of your blog in the comments section below3- Your blog must be an active blog (posts must be current)This Circle will be published on Wednesdays. Note: If you are in this list be sure to add your blog's URL on the About section of your G+ page. I will be featuring interesting blogs every so often, so it's important to have the blog's address. Looking forward to reading your blogs.If you know of anyone that may benefit from this circle, please ask them to join. Thank you.Current Circles  Published Mondays ORIGINAL CONTENT CREATORS : http://goo.gl/AR95dWPublished Wednesdays:BLOGGERS & THEIR BLOGS: http://goo.gl/tYfaFNPublished Thursdays:WOMEN ARE FROM VENUS : http://goo.gl/xSQLYZMEN ARE FROM MARS : http://goo.gl/QSsKQpPublished Fridays:A CIRCLE TO PAY IT FORWARD:  http://goo.gl/lRJnQ5Others CirclesSCIENCE: http://goo.gl/xXWLPtTECHNOLOGY: http://goo.gl/z3z8l#circleshare                                                             2014-09-05 17:51:2480242238
Rosie Taylor7,995#3 GOOGLE FRIENDS! -  RESHARE if you want to be included *'"*:•:••:*:•-:¦:*  *SHARE AND BE  SHARED*  *:¦:-•:*:••-:•:''''*  This is a super Circle and in it I put together a group of really interesting and active people on Google Plus to add in your circles.I'm talking about the top   Google + users that share unique and original contents.Follow   this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:boost   visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post 5 - Follow  your dreams and smile to life.More you share More you get! :)I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#circles #shared #share #add #friends #circle #share #sharecircle #circleshare2014-09-05 16:37:52388555
Tan Pham6,943 * [Super Circle Part 1] * - This is a game to expand the circle of friends. - If you see this message and you want to participate. Just perform the following actions: + Plus: Click +1 this post. + Comment: You note that any comments. + Share: You share this comment to more people. + Add: Select to add the button to connect with 500 people following, including me. The way to [Super Circle Part 2]: If you do all the steps above, of course, you have your bot acc add 1, and based on the number of people I will add up round [Super Circle Part 2], in addition to the many shared, and a new positive .. #Circle   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circleoftheday   #shared   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday   #sharing   #sharingcircles   #sharingiscaring   #sharingmeansthankyou   #add   #addcircle   #justanaverageteenagerwhoexpresseshisopinionsovertheinternetcircle  2014-09-05 03:13:023215612
Marlo Angelo Tito104,142Kira ("Kool" cIRcle of Awesome plussers)I am still adjusting to the new schedule of this circle. It's been a busy week, so I'm very sorry to keep you guys waiting... :-D(let me copy-paste this one... lol)So folks, this is circle Kira. And yes, you know it, this circle is filled with normal folks here in G+. Well that is, it's your definition of normal! :-D. Since this is not a themed circle or whatsoever, this circle has a pretty great mix as it shows a great diversity among the people. As I am done introducing these folks to you, you're might want to add them to know more! :-D  If you want to get into this circle, just tell me!And also if you want to be excluded from this circle, please also do tell me!SongS for the Week! Beirut - Port Of CallThe xx - Heart Skipped a Beat - LyricsHave a nice day and God bless everyone! :-D #Circle   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circleoftheday   #shared   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday   #sharing   #sharingcircles   #sharingiscaring   #sharingmeansthankyou   #add   #addcircle   #justanaverageteenagerwhoexpresseshisopinionsovertheinternetcircle  2014-09-04 15:12:293209673118
Chris Cota29,645The #Wednesdaycircle   is in Effect. We have over 40 new members and as the tradition as been started I will continue to share this circle every time it grows.OK awesome on each   #snowballcircle share we average 50 engagements. I have passed 26,000   #folllowers gaining 1300 a month. TO BE A PART of the most active circle on   #googleplus it is simple!1. ADD the circle this insures you stay in it.2. Share the post.3. Plus the post4. Comment to be added once you have done this!That is all simple right!#circleshare #sharedcircles #snowballcircle #publicsharedcircles  #circleshare #circleshared #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles     #circlesharing #circlefriday #snowballcircle #thesnowballcircle #growthinfollowers #followfriday +Daniel Stock +Karen Michelle +Dubie Bacino +Michael Q Todd +Ralph Quintero +Brandon Ross +Soko Llc. - Soko Marketing  +Shared Circles on G+ +Tzarul Nicolai +Thomas Wooldridge +Thomas Hawk +Peter Trapasso +Peter Gregg +Ludovic Moreeuw +808 Audio2014-09-04 03:52:154187616
Kylie Jenner6,355#15 GOOGLE FRIENDS! -  RESHARE if you want to be included *'"*:•:••:*:•-:¦:*  *SHARE AND BE  SHARED*  *:¦:-•:*:••-:•:''''*  This is a super Circle and in it I put together a group of really interesting and active people on Google Plus to add in your circles.I'm talking about the top   Google + users that share unique and original contents.Follow   this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:boost   visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post 5 - Follow  your dreams and smile to life.More you share More you get! :)I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#circles #shared #share #add #friends #circle #share #sharecircle #circleshare2014-09-02 17:03:443408915
John Wood13,028Circle share with new friendsHi friends follow this circle1 - Include me in your circles2 - Share the circle (Publicly)3 - Add +1 to the post.4 - Leave a comment if you like.I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#topofthepeople #influencermarketing #sharedcircle #circleshare #howtoenlargecircle #circlethis #socialmediamarketing #socialmediastrategy #socialnetworking #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #circleoftheday #topofthecircle #enlargecircle #thursdaycircle #share #weekendcircle #weekend #weekendfun #circles #circleyoushare #publiccircle #sharedcircles #addcircle #sharedpubliccircles #circleshare #publicsharedcircles #circleoftheweek #circlesharing #sharedcircle #circleshare #circle #googleplus #google #thankyou2014-09-02 07:32:42495413470
Becky Collins15,950Dance Related Circle :Circle of very #social #engagerspeople and companiesTo be included in my shares (#sharedcircle), be so kind to:1 - Do +1 t the post2 - Comment the post and specify your "category" (job or interest) Ex: Fashion, SEO, Companies, Social Media Marketing, Sailing, Photography, Bloggers/Writers, Web graphics and design, Italy, Artists, Sport, Finance/Economy ...3 - include the circle among your circles4 - share the circle (include yourself)Improve your popularity, be social be cool !Keep yourself updated, enjoy the Shared Circles Hellenic Alliance, you can share your shared circles inside the upcoming Community:https://plus.google.com/communities/112552559573595396104  #socialmedia  #media  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing  #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins ?2014-09-02 05:00:4347129933
Kylie Jenner6,361#16 GOOGLE FRIENDS! -  RESHARE if you want to be included *'"*:•:••:*:•-:¦:*  *SHARE AND BE  SHARED*  *:¦:-•:*:••-:•:''''*  This is a super Circle and in it I put together a group of really interesting and active people on Google Plus to add in your circles.I'm talking about the top   Google + users that share unique and original contents.Follow   this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:boost   visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post 5 - Follow  your dreams and smile to life.More you share More you get! :)I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#circles        2014-09-01 14:42:57340436
Rosie Taylor7,861#6 GOOGLE FRIENDS! -  RESHARE if you want to be included *'"*:•:••:*:•-:¦:*  *SHARE AND BE  SHARED*  *:¦:-•:*:••-:•:''''*  This is a super Circle and in it I put together a group of really interesting and active people on Google Plus to add in your circles.I'm talking about the top   Google + users that share unique and original contents.Follow   this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:boost   visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post 5 - Follow  your dreams and smile to life.More you share More you get! :)I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#circles #shared #share #add #friends #circle #share #sharecircle #circleshare2014-09-01 13:36:5943713720
Rosie Taylor7,775#6 GOOGLE FRIENDS! -  RESHARE if you want to be included *'"*:•:••:*:•-:¦:*  *SHARE AND BE  SHARED*  *:¦:-•:*:••-:•:''''*  This is a super Circle and in it I put together a group of really interesting and active people on Google Plus to add in your circles.I'm talking about the top   Google + users that share unique and original contents.Follow   this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:boost   visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post 5 - Follow  your dreams and smile to life.More you share More you get! :)I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#circles #shared #share #add #friends #circle #share #sharecircle #circleshare2014-08-30 19:10:1743761110
shareing circle9,454Google Friends! - You're in this Circle ♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥If You recieve this message You are included in circle !!!1. Add me to your circles, if you haven't done so already2. +1 this circle3. Publicly share this circle to public, your circles and extended circles.4. If possible, leave a comment on this circle so I know you have done the three steps above.2014-08-30 04:54:22486226
Hasna Areta Zakiya914Invite, Follow, Share and FUNhttp://www.akusukses.com#AMIKOM #seo #programmer #tipsandtricks #tips #blogging #sandbox #sukses #jogja #jogjakarta #indonesia #nasional #berita #news #tipsblog #tipsseo #php #IndonesiaOnly #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #programmerphp #akusukses #akusuksescom #Semangat #Inspirasi #Motivasi #Peluangusaha #BisnisRumahan #PeluangBisnis #BisnisOnline #Bisnis #JasaBuatWeb #JasaSkripsi #JasaTugasAkhir #JasaSEO #SEOMurah #BelajarWeb 2014-08-30 03:43:314497011
Amaresh Singh11Circle of Daymy Friends! - You're in this CircleWelcome this circle dated August 29th, 2014.To be considered:1- Add circles2- Ask to be included in the Original post3- Re-share Circle4- Plushttps://plus.google.com/u/0/+OnlineResultPortalPlus/posts/exebUVFcFeW (Indian Universities Circle http://goo.gl/77wQkX)#circleshare #circlesharing #sharedcircles #sharingcircles#sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #circlesunday #share#shared #followers #addcircles #publicsharedcircles #share#addpeople #addcircle #addfriends #circle #socialmedia2014-08-29 10:25:10484433065
Sunny CT835Need to grow your followers list? Join my circles now 3 new circles coming up this weekTo be added to the Circle you have to do these simple steps: 1 - include me in your circles 2 - Click add people and create your circle 3 - share the circle (include yourself) 4 - add +1 to the post(Comment Thank you Sunny so that I know you have shared)#powercircle #sharedcircle #topsharedcircle #circleoftheday #sharedcircle #trustinme #circlesharing #circleshare #circles #circleoftheday #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircles #share #vipsnowballcircle #sharedcircleoftheday #sharewithyou #followme #followers #followback #circle #googleplus #coolpeople #circleshare #sharedcircles #sharedcircle #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #circleshare #circlesharing #fullcircleshare #powercircle #sharedcircle #topsharedcircle #circleoftheday 2014-08-28 12:21:56369141024
Kerpi Burgan4,490#awesome #awesomepeople #chadwick #circle #circles #circlesharing #circleshare #circleoftheday #circleplus #community #followback #followers #gplus #influence #leadership #public #publiccircles #publicsharedcircles #reshare #reshared #reshareday #resharetags #ripples #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #sharewithyou #sharing #sharingcircle #socialmedia #theplus #tcs #team #круги   2014-08-28 10:14:29430428
shareing circle9,388Google Friends! - You're in this Circle ♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥If You recieve this message You are included in circle !!!1. Add me to your circles, if you haven't done so already2. +1 this circle3. Publicly share this circle to public, your circles and extended circles.4. If possible, leave a comment on this circle so I know you have done the three steps above.2014-08-28 09:29:2246631215
Rosie Taylor7,685#6 GOOGLE FRIENDS! -  RESHARE if you want to be included *'"*:•:••:*:•-:¦:*  *SHARE AND BE  SHARED*  *:¦:-•:*:••-:•:''''*  This is a super Circle and in it I put together a group of really interesting and active people on Google Plus to add in your circles.I'm talking about the top   Google + users that share unique and original contents.Follow   this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:boost   visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post 5 - Follow  your dreams and smile to life.More you share More you get! :)I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#circles #shared #share #add #friends #circle #share #sharecircle #circleshare2014-08-28 04:42:3243611914
Circles Circles Circles40,280A Circle of Bloggers & Their BlogsYour re-share is appreciated.Those included in this circle are active bloggers, and are also active on G+. Add them to your circles for added information on a variety of subjects, from health, to technology, food and gardening.Please re-share this circle in your stream.To be added:1- Add +Circles Circles Circles to your circles2- Write the URL of your blog in the comments section below3- Your blog must be an active blog (posts must be current)This Circle will be published on Wednesdays. Note: If you are in this list be sure to add your blog's URL on the About section of your G+ page. I will be featuring interesting blogs every so often, so it's important to have the blog's address. Looking forward to reading your blogs.If you know of anyone that may benefit from this circle, please ask them to join. Thank you.Current Circles  Published Mondays ORIGINAL CONTENT CREATORS : http://goo.gl/t1uWLJPublished Wednesdays:BLOGGERS & THEIR BLOGS: http://goo.gl/DLKhGNPublished Thursdays:WOMEN ARE FROM VENUS : http://goo.gl/tALHuWMEN ARE FROM MARS :  http://goo.gl/1JP8DLPublished Fridays:A CIRCLE TO PAY IT FORWARD:  http://goo.gl/lRJnQ5Others CirclesSCIENCE: http://goo.gl/xXWLPtTECHNOLOGY: http://goo.gl/z3z8l#circleshare                                                             2014-08-28 04:20:1880191738
Marlo Angelo Tito102,676Reese (ciRclE of awESome Engagers)This circle was greatly delayed because of scheduling difficulties. By the way, this circle will not be anymore released by Saturday/Sunday but it will be now released every Monday/Tuesday. Reboot is still under process and yea, I think that's all :-DNote: If you want to suggest some people or yourself to be added in this circle, just tag them in the comments. :-D(let me copy-paste this one... lol)So folks, this is circle Reese. And yes, you know it, this circle is filled with normal folks here in G+. Well that is, it's your definition of normal! :-D. Since this is not a themed circle or whatsoever, this circle has a pretty great mix as it shows a great diversity among the people. As I am done introducing these folks to you, you're might want to add them to know more! :-D  If you want to get into this circle, just tell me!And also if you want to be excluded from this circle, please also do tell me!SongS for the Week! Patrick Watson - ShameElla Henderson - GlowHave a nice day and God bless everyone! :-D #Circle   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circleoftheday   #shared   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday   #sharing   #sharingcircles   #sharingiscaring   #sharingmeansthankyou   #add   #addcircle   #addpeople   #justanaverageteenagerwhoexpresseshisopinionsovertheinternetcircle  2014-08-27 11:53:5531710786133
Diana Breath5,140#6 GOOGLE FRIENDS! -  RESHARE if you want to be included *'"*:•:••:*:•-:¦:*  *SHARE AND BE  SHARED*  *:¦:-•:*:••-:•:''''*  This is a super Circle and in it I put together a group of really interesting and active people on Google Plus to add in your circles.I'm talking about the top   Google + users that share unique and original contents.Follow   this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:boost   visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post 5 - Follow  your dreams and smile to life.More you share More you get! :)I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#circles #shared #share #add #friends #circle #share #sharecircle #circleshare2014-08-27 09:41:32488181121
Rosie Taylor7,549#6 GOOGLE FRIENDS! -  RESHARE if you want to be included *'"*:•:••:*:•-:¦:*  *SHARE AND BE  SHARED*  *:¦:-•:*:••-:•:''''*  This is a super Circle and in it I put together a group of really interesting and active people on Google Plus to add in your circles.I'm talking about the top   Google + users that share unique and original contents.Follow   this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:boost   visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post 5 - Follow  your dreams and smile to life.More you share More you get! :)I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#circles #shared #share #add #friends #circle #share #sharecircle #circleshare2014-08-26 15:36:494368610
shareing circle9,133my Friends! - You're in this Circle ♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥If You receive this message You are included in circle !!!  shared!2014-08-26 08:35:02496111020
The Dawn5,582  I present you my almost three years old, Google+ essential coregrown Circle! Inside you will find personally handpicked, unique and fascinating Beings of all different kinds. Most of them are well known even, global activists, rulers, think-tanks, smart individuals, a few every day people, influencers and other outstanding personalities. Check' em now please, don´t hesitate, convince yourselves first and later others (-; Thank you for passing by, perhaps commenting, plussing, sharing and being.  Yours sincerely of course most ways and technically hereby digital as well Doctor Olivier Klastat aka Dawn Jones aka The Dawn aka Falcondawn  #Cologne   #Deutz   #NRW   #Germany   #Europe   #Google   #World   #Circleshare   #Share   #Circle   #Plussers   #Doctor   #OK   #Olivier   #Klastat   #Jones   #Dawn   #Love   #Peace   #Future   #Progress   #Improvements   #USA   #Russia   #Falcondawn     2014-08-25 23:34:24500615
Robert Connor15,579A Circle of Photographers/Artists/CreatorsShare always for pleasure not for an obligationIf you want to be included:☛ add me☛ give a +1☛ comment☛ and reshare (must be public)#GooglePlus #CircleShare #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circleshared #publiccirclesproject #publicsharedcircles #circleoftheday #google #circle #circles #publiccircle #sharedcircles #sharedcircle #morefollowers #sharingcircles #circleshare #sharedpubliccircles #sharedpublicircles #sharedcircle #AddCircle #FindCircles #addcircle #circlemeup #circlesdiscovery #circleshare #circlesharing #publiccircle #publicsharedcircles #SharedCircles #circlesharing #circleshare #circleoftheday #sharedpubliccircles 2014-08-22 10:50:26495122102140
Circles Circles Circles39,718A Circle of Bloggers & Their BlogsYour re-share is appreciated.Those included in this circle are active bloggers, and are also active on G+. Add them to your circles for added information on a variety of subjects, from health, to technology, food and gardening.Please re-share this circle in your stream.To be added:1- Add +Circles Circles Circles to your circles2- Write the URL of your blog in the comments section below3- Your blog must be an active blog (posts must be current)This Circle will be published on Wednesdays. Note: If you are in this list be sure to add your blog's URL on the About section of your G+ page. I will be featuring interesting blogs every so often, so it's important to have the blog's address. Looking forward to reading your blogs.If you know of anyone that may benefit from this circle, please ask them to join. Thank you.Current Circles  Published Mondays ORIGINAL CONTENT CREATORS : http://goo.gl/aG63uLPublished Wednesdays:BLOGGERS & THEIR BLOGS: http://goo.gl/6O91rKPublished Thursdays:WOMEN ARE FROM VENUS : http://goo.gl/YA2q9GMEN ARE FROM MARS :  http://goo.gl/Re2NFePublished Fridays:A CIRCLE TO PAY IT FORWARD:  http://goo.gl/D9AkbWOthers CirclesSCIENCE: http://goo.gl/xXWLPtTECHNOLOGY: http://goo.gl/z3z8l#circleshare                 #sharingcircles                 #bloggers               #blogs       #bloggersandtheirblogs  2014-08-21 03:41:0378352248
1001PowerfulAffirmations.com8,996NEW GREAT CIRCLENEW GREAT CIRCLENEW GREAT CIRCLEYou are included in this greatshared circletherefore you receivedthis notificationHERE YOU CAN FIND THE LINKTO THE ORIGINAL POSTYOU MAY WANT TO SHARE:https://plus.google.com/110944922293502792188/posts/Ujyqo2pQySh00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000This is simply my newest circleI have created recently.I have done my best to includeengagers sharers and plusserswho share a great contentI am sure you will enjoy this circleas I do, because well...People included in this circleare worth of anyone's attention.if you want to be sharedSHAREhttps://plus.google.com/110944922293502792188/posts/Ujyqo2pQyShI wish you a lot of funand I wish you a great week!!!Thank you again!+1001PowerfulAffirmations.com http://bit.ly/IanCollinsAmazon00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000TO RESERVE YOUR PLACE IN AN UPCOMING SHAHERS CIRCLEPLEASE FOLLOW THESE SIMPLE STEPS:1.Make sure you have already added me into your circles2.Reshare this post in PUBLIC3.Reshare from the Original Post (LINK BELOW)!LINK TO THE ORIGINAL POST:https://plus.google.com/110944922293502792188/posts/Ujyqo2pQySh00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000I LOVE YOU GUYS!+1001PowerfulAffirmations.com http://bit.ly/IanCollinsAmazon#circle #circles #public #publiccircle #circleshare   #circlesharing #sharedcircles   #sharedcircle #morefollowers   #sharingcircles #circleshare #sharedpubliccircles   2014-08-20 10:57:0040811373122
Hasna Areta Zakiya914#AMIKOM #seo #programmer #tipsandtricks #tips #blogging #sandbox #sukses #jogja #jogjakarta #indonesia #nasional #berita #news #tipsblog #tipsseo #php #IndonesiaOnly #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #programmerphp #akusukses #akusuksescom #Semangat #Inspirasi #Motivasi #Peluangusaha #BisnisRumahan #PeluangBisnis #BisnisOnline #Bisnis #JasaBuatWeb #JasaSkripsi #JasaTugasAkhir #JasaSEO #SEOMurah #BelajarWeb #Penulis #google 2014-08-20 09:26:444497010
Harry Day6,067This circle is an awesome group of people who remain active on my daily posts, share frequently, and have otherwise helped me get the most out of Google Plus.If you wanna be here, do as in the Sharers Code:AddPlusLeave your  a commentShare publicly#awesome #awesomepeople #chadwick #circle #circles #circlesharing #circleshare #circleoftheday #circleplus #community #followback #followers #gplus #influence #leadership #public #publiccircles #publicsharedcircles #reshare #reshared #reshareday #resharetags #ripples #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #sharewithyou #sharing #sharingcircle #socialmedia #theplus #tcs #team2014-08-20 08:21:37487592875
Simona AN63,480                                   ~ The phenomenal CAT CIRCLE ~ /\„,„/\  ( =';'=)    /♥♥\   (.\.. . . /.) If we treated everyone we meet with the same affection we bestow upon our favorite cat, they, too, would purr. ~ Martin Buxbaum    You want a PAWESOME stream? Add #CATCIRCLE  in your circles!This is a circle of wonderful humans, very talented, smart, sensitive, with a good sense of humor... and my favorites in G+, of course! There are two conditions to be adopted in the #CATCIRCLE : to be pawesome and to be owned by at least a cat.Specific cat-pages and their curators are included by default.If you're notified, you're in #CATCIRCLE ! If you want out just tell me!Welcome Newcomers!♫ ♫ ♪ ♫ ♪ ♪ ♫ ♫ ♪ ♫ ♪ ♪ ♫ ♫ ♪ ♫ ♪ ♪ ♫ ♫ ♪ ♫ ♪ ♪ ♫ ♫ ♪ ♫ ♪ ♪ ♫ ♫ ♪ Disney Jazz "Belle"♫ ♫ ♪ ♫ ♪ ♪ ♫ ♫ ♪ ♫ ♪ ♪ ♫ ♫ ♪ ♫ ♪ ♪ ♫ ♫ ♪ ♫ ♪ ♪ ♫ ♫ ♪ ♫ ♪ ♪ ♫ ♫ ♪  Everybody wants to be in #CATCIRCLE                          #Caturday   #MyBelovedCats   #OneCatADayKeepsTheDoctorAway   #CatsBigAndSmallTheBest   #HQSPAnimals   #WildLifeInTheCity   #CatLoversNetwork   #SleepySaturday   #CircleOfTheDay   #CircleCurators   #Take2Seconds  to cuddle a cat! Or, #AdoptACat !    If you don't want to be notified, tell me.2014-08-16 17:09:52375933094
Becky Collins15,071Dance Circle : Circle of very #social #engagerspeople and companiesTo be included in my shares (#sharedcircle), be so kind to:1 - Do +1 t the post2 - Comment the post and specify your "category" (job or interest) Ex: Fashion, SEO, Companies, Social Media Marketing, Sailing, Photography, Bloggers/Writers, Web graphics and design, Italy, Artists, Sport, Finance/Economy ...3 - include the circle among your circles4 - share the circle (include yourself)Improve your popularity, be social be cool !Keep yourself updated, enjoy the Shared Circles Hellenic Alliance, you can share your shared circles inside the upcoming Community:https://plus.google.com/communities/112552559573595396104  #socialmedia  #media  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing  #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins ?2014-08-16 05:13:064828314
Elizabeth Rose3,940#2 GOOGLE FRIENDS! -  RESHARE if you want to be included *'"*:•:••:*:•-:¦:*  *SHARE AND BE  SHARED*  *:¦:-•:*:••-:•:''''*  This is a super Circle and in it I put together a group of really interesting and active people on Google Plus to add in your circles.I'm talking about the top   Google + users that share unique and original contents.Follow   this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:boost   visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post 5 - Follow  your dreams and smile to life.More you share More you get! :)I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#circles #shared #share #add #friends #circle #share #sharecircle #circleshare2014-08-16 04:53:4733414816
Joe Ford8,291My circle of Geeks. Sharing for +Mark Reid - a noob to these parts. But also as part of #followfriday  of course.2014-08-15 13:48:29265212
Hasna Areta Zakiya914Share, Add, Follow, Visit http://www.akusukses.com#AMIKOM #seo #programmer #tipsandtricks #tips #blogging #sandbox #sukses #jogja #jogjakarta #indonesia #nasional #berita #news #tipsblog #tipsseo #php #IndonesiaOnly #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #programmerphp #akusukses #akusuksescom #Semangat #Inspirasi #Motivasi #Peluangusaha #BisnisRumahan #PeluangBisnis #BisnisOnline #Bisnis #JasaBuatWeb #JasaSkripsi #JasaTugasAkhir #JasaSEO #SEOMurah #BelajarWeb #Penulis 2014-08-15 03:39:114537313
Circles Circles Circles39,393A Circle of Bloggers & Their BlogsYour re-share is appreciated.Those included in this circle are active bloggers, and are also active on G+. Add them to your circles for added information on a variety of subjects, from health, to technology, food and gardening.Please re-share this circle in your stream.To be added:1- Add +Circles Circles Circles to your circles2- Write the URL of your blog in the comments section below3- Your blog must be an active blog (posts must be current)This Circle will be published on Wednesdays. Note: If you are in this list be sure to add your blog's URL on the About section of your G+ page. I will be featuring interesting blogs every so often, so it's important to have the blog's address. Looking forward to reading your blogs.If you know of anyone that may benefit from this circle, please ask them to join. Thank you.Current Circles  Published Mondays ORIGINAL CONTENT CREATORS : http://goo.gl/oKsFH7Published Wednesdays:BLOGGERS & THEIR BLOGS: http://goo.gl/hWwUE2Published Thursdays:WOMEN ARE FROM VENUS : http://goo.gl/YA2q9GMEN ARE FROM MARS :  http://goo.gl/Re2NFePublished Fridays:A CIRCLE TO PAY IT FORWARD:   http://goo.gl/TSpZxCOthers CirclesSCIENCE: http://goo.gl/xXWLPtTECHNOLOGY: http://goo.gl/z3z8lh#circleshare                 #sharingcircles                 #bloggers               #blogs     #bloggersandtheirblogs  2014-08-15 01:38:5677302749

Activity

Average numbers for the latest posts (max. 50 posts, posted within the last 4 weeks)

24
comments per post
25
reshares per post
117
+1's per post

3,688
characters per posting

Top posts in the last 50 posts

Most comments: 169

posted image

2014-08-09 06:16:41 (169 comments, 302 reshares, 1254 +1s) 

Lego for adults: At least for building houses : While the claims of green building seems a little over the top, the whole concept of the 'Smart Bricks' does bring out the geek in me. And getting a huge robot to build something for you is even cooler ;)

Article extract: Kite Bricks is currently developing a modular construction system that is so much like Lego, I’m not sure what’s harder to believe: the fact that this is serious proposal, that it doesn’t infringe the toymaker’s patent, or that no one has done it yet. The patent (pending) for their "Smart Bricks" reads like a legally binding contract for a particularly prescriptive playdate.

In comparison to standard bricks or concrete blocks, the Smart Brick claims to offer greater thermal energy control, lower construction costs and greater versatility. The specially formulated concrete blocks  aredesigned ... more »

Most reshares: 302

posted image

2014-08-09 06:16:41 (169 comments, 302 reshares, 1254 +1s) 

Lego for adults: At least for building houses : While the claims of green building seems a little over the top, the whole concept of the 'Smart Bricks' does bring out the geek in me. And getting a huge robot to build something for you is even cooler ;)

Article extract: Kite Bricks is currently developing a modular construction system that is so much like Lego, I’m not sure what’s harder to believe: the fact that this is serious proposal, that it doesn’t infringe the toymaker’s patent, or that no one has done it yet. The patent (pending) for their "Smart Bricks" reads like a legally binding contract for a particularly prescriptive playdate.

In comparison to standard bricks or concrete blocks, the Smart Brick claims to offer greater thermal energy control, lower construction costs and greater versatility. The specially formulated concrete blocks  aredesigned ... more »

Most plusones: 1254

posted image

2014-08-09 06:16:41 (169 comments, 302 reshares, 1254 +1s) 

Lego for adults: At least for building houses : While the claims of green building seems a little over the top, the whole concept of the 'Smart Bricks' does bring out the geek in me. And getting a huge robot to build something for you is even cooler ;)

Article extract: Kite Bricks is currently developing a modular construction system that is so much like Lego, I’m not sure what’s harder to believe: the fact that this is serious proposal, that it doesn’t infringe the toymaker’s patent, or that no one has done it yet. The patent (pending) for their "Smart Bricks" reads like a legally binding contract for a particularly prescriptive playdate.

In comparison to standard bricks or concrete blocks, the Smart Brick claims to offer greater thermal energy control, lower construction costs and greater versatility. The specially formulated concrete blocks  aredesigned ... more »

Latest 50 posts

posted image

2014-09-14 05:15:43 (46 comments, 67 reshares, 154 +1s) 

Simulated Brains and the Boltzmann Brain Hypothesis : While reading about the Human Brain Project and the U.S. parallel project called the BRAIN initiative, I came upon the Boltzmann Brain Hypothesis. Combining quantum probabilities with something emerging out of chaos. Sounds crazy? I'm very skeptical, but the physics allows it. Does not mean there are space brains floating around, but it makes for an interesting thought. Read for yourself...

Is a simulated brain conscious? : Notwithstanding what Watson can do, it is not an artificial intelligence. But think of this... Imagine standing in an open field with a bucket of water balloons and a couple of friends. You've decided to play a game called "Mind." Each of you has your own set of rules. Maybe Molly will throw a water balloon at Bob whenever you throw a water balloon at Molly. Maybe Bob will splash both of you.... more »

Simulated Brains and the Boltzmann Brain Hypothesis : While reading about the Human Brain Project and the U.S. parallel project called the BRAIN initiative, I came upon the Boltzmann Brain Hypothesis. Combining quantum probabilities with something emerging out of chaos. Sounds crazy? I'm very skeptical, but the physics allows it. Does not mean there are space brains floating around, but it makes for an interesting thought. Read for yourself...

Is a simulated brain conscious? : Notwithstanding what Watson can do, it is not an artificial intelligence. But think of this... Imagine standing in an open field with a bucket of water balloons and a couple of friends. You've decided to play a game called "Mind." Each of you has your own set of rules. Maybe Molly will throw a water balloon at Bob whenever you throw a water balloon at Molly. Maybe Bob will splash both of you. The details don't matter. That game would look a lot like the way neurons, the cells that make up your brain and nerves, interact with one another. They sit around inside an ant or a bird or Stephen Hawking and follow a simple set of rules. Sometimes they send electrochemical signals to their neighbors. Sometimes they don't. No single neuron "understands” the whole system.

Now imagine that instead of three of of you in that field there were 86 billion -- about the number of neurons in an average brain. And imagine that instead of playing by rules you made up, you each carried an instruction manual written by the best neuroscientists and computer scientists of the day -- a perfect model of a human brain. No one would need the entire rulebook, just enough to know their job. If the lot of you stood around, laughing and playing by the rules whenever the rulebook told you, given enough time you could model one or two seconds of human thought.

Boltzmann Brains : The weirdness gets even weirder when you consider that according to many theorists, not all the possible minds in the universe are biological or mechanical. In fact, under this interpretation the vast majority of minds look nothing like anything you or I will ever encounter. Here's how it works: Quantum physics -- the 20th century branch of science that reveals the hidden, exotic behavior of the particles that make up everything -- states that nothing is absolute. An unobserved electron isn't at any one point in space, really, but spread across the entire universe as a probability distribution; the vast majority of that probability is concentrated in a tight orbit around an atom, but not all of it. This still works as you go up in scale. But the probability in 'empty space' is not zero.

As eons pass and the stars burn themselves out and the universe gets far emptier than it is today, that quantum randomness becomes very important. It's probable that the silent vacuum of space will be mostly empty. But every once in a while, clumps of matter will come together and dissipate in the infinite randomness. And that means, or so the prediction goes, that every once in a while those clumps will arrange themselves in such a way perfect, precise way that they jolt into thinking, maybe just for a moment, but long enough to ask, "What am I?"

These are the Boltzmann Brains, named after the nineteenth-century physicist Ludwig Boltzmann. These strange late-universe beings will, according to one line of thinking, eventually outnumber every human, otter, alien and android who ever lived or ever will live. In fact, assuming this hypothesis is true, you, dear reader, probably are a Boltzmann Brain yourself. After all, there will only ever be one "real' version of you. But Boltzmann Brains popping into being while hallucinating this moment in your life -- along with your entire memory and experiences -- they will keep going and going, appearing and disappearing forever in the void.

Source Article Link: http://www.popsci.com/article/science/simulated-brain-conscious?dom=PSC&loc=recent&lnk=7&con=is-a-simulated-brain-conscious

Additional link: http://io9.com/5883983/how-do-we-know-the-universe-isnt-already-ruled-by-giant-space-brains

Paper: http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.1969

Link to Watson AI: https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/103586346709495625226/+LacerantPlainerWrites/posts/WUshxSrWkve

Discovermag link: http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/cosmicvariance/2008/12/29/richard-feynman-on-boltzmann-brains/#.VBUcNxZkmwQ

NewScientist link: http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21829184.400-string-theory-may-limit-space-brain-threat.html#.VBUcMBZkmwQ

More on the Human Brain Project: https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/103586346709495625226/+LacerantPlainerWrites/posts/XMgcVENCKH5

The US BRAIN Project: http://blog.suny.edu/2014/09/seeking-a-deeper-understanding-of-how-the-brain-works/

Pics courtesy: http://goo.gl/p2MWtr and http://goo.gl/ZIyR37

#boltzmannbrains #physics #science  ___

posted image

2014-09-12 14:57:51 (16 comments, 20 reshares, 68 +1s) 

Metamorphosis : The Science of the changing body plan. Metamorphosis is a change in the body structure of organisms (usually rapid) involving cell growth and differentiation. It is fascinating to study and even more so to see it in action. The process is quite gruesome, and there is a good reason why very small kids are not told how a caterpillar transforms into a butterfly. The primary role of metamorphosis seems to be to have a different ecological niche for larval forms and adults. It may all be about survival....

Caterpillars; the inside story : If you look inside a caterpillar you won't see a butterfly all rolled up waiting to emerge. You'll just see more caterpillar and some well-chewed leaves. But with a decent microscope and some excellent navigation skills you might glimpse some tiny disc-shaped bags of cells here and there. They're called imaginal discs, and... more »

Metamorphosis : The Science of the changing body plan. Metamorphosis is a change in the body structure of organisms (usually rapid) involving cell growth and differentiation. It is fascinating to study and even more so to see it in action. The process is quite gruesome, and there is a good reason why very small kids are not told how a caterpillar transforms into a butterfly. The primary role of metamorphosis seems to be to have a different ecological niche for larval forms and adults. It may all be about survival....

Caterpillars; the inside story : If you look inside a caterpillar you won't see a butterfly all rolled up waiting to emerge. You'll just see more caterpillar and some well-chewed leaves. But with a decent microscope and some excellent navigation skills you might glimpse some tiny disc-shaped bags of cells here and there. They're called imaginal discs, and once the caterpillar silks itself up in a chrysalis they kick into action, each one of them growing into an antenna, eye, wing or other butterfly bit.

Eating it's own tissue : During the week or two spent in its chrysalis (pupation) the caterpillar gradually digests all of its own tissue, releasing the nutrients that all those imaginal discs then use to grow into butterfly wings, legs, feelers and the rest. It's the ultimate in recycling makeovers, and it's due to some interdependent hormonal changes that make puberty look like a doddle.

Hormones control the process : The thing that drives caterpillars (and other flying insect larvae) to stop feeding their faces, settle down somewhere safe, and pupate, is the hormone ecdysone. It's the same hormone that causes the larvae to moult each time they outgrow their current skin. The reason this final moult into a butterfly is so different from the earlier ones is because the level of another hormone; juvenile hormone; is suddenly lower.

Juvenile hormone is the great controller of metamorphosis, by delaying it until the caterpillar has moulted and grown enough to produce a decent-sized butterfly. It works by blocking the genes in the imaginal discs, keeping those wannabe butterfly cells in a holding pattern. So while juvenile hormone is being pumped out of tiny glands behind the brain, all the caterpillar can do is feed, grow and — when instructed by ecdysone — moult. (It's so good at preventing larvae from maturing that a lot of insecticides have been based on artificial juvenile hormone).

A complete makeover : Butterflies are pretty and all, but that's not the only pay-off for all that metamorphic effort. Butterflies and caterpillars don't just look different; they've got different ideas of what constitutes food and accommodation. While caterpillars live off leaves and are plant-bound, those butterflies that do feed only drink nectar, and they can fly from place to place looking for love and somewhere to lay the progeny. Those fundamental differences mean the adults don't compete with the juveniles for food or habitat, so the species has a better shot at making it. Which probably goes a long way towards explaining why more than half the animal species on the planet are insects that undergo the same kind of complete metamorphosis. As far as evolutionary strategies go, it's gold. And come mating time it doesn't hurt that the adults are almost always better lookers than all those larvae that only a mother could love.

Article source: http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2011/12/07/3384014.htm

Bacteria play a role in metamorphosis (Butterfly Microbiome): http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/01/140130111005.htm

Paper (related): http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982211008311

Wikipedia link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metamorphosis

+Scientific American article: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/insect-metamorphosis-evolution/

3D Scan of a chrysalis: http://phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2013/05/14/3-d-scans-caterpillars-transforming-butterflies-metamorphosis/

Additional link: http://www.ansp.org/explore/online-exhibits/butterflies/lifecycle/

Earlier post on the Axolotl: https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/103586346709495625226/+LacerantPlainerWrites/posts/Stt7dQb8vg5

Pics courtesy : http://goo.gl/vsl0Jn, http://goo.gl/mqhyJa and the  +National Geographic  link above.

#metamorphosis #scienceeveryday #sciencesunday  ___

posted image

2014-09-11 09:16:54 (29 comments, 10 reshares, 48 +1s) 

Mission impossible 4: 'Ed' : Dranke's story continues, as the alien fleet makes contact. The story continues by popular demand. Hope you all like it.

If you haven't read the earlier stories, here is the chronology:

First Part: http://goo.gl/jWKDn2

Part 2: http://goo.gl/8wRbHE

Part 3: http://goo.gl/eIGokJ

Part 4: http://goo.gl/gaEZS0

Mission impossible is a four-part flash fiction series set in the distant future. If you like science fiction and space opera, this may be an interesting read.

Tagging +Heidi Bouman +Micha Fire +Yoongyee Poh +Yoon-Mi Kim +Robin Laurén +Harry Tuttle +Randy Culler +L.S. Cody +Basement Kitty +Martin Conterez +Brigitte W. +Charles Strebor +Elizabeth Therese Niwel +David Preston +Marjorie Fowler +Mike Mackley - thanks for the support!

#scifi #sciencefiction ... more »

Mission impossible 4: 'Ed' : Dranke's story continues, as the alien fleet makes contact. The story continues by popular demand. Hope you all like it.

If you haven't read the earlier stories, here is the chronology:

First Part: http://goo.gl/jWKDn2

Part 2: http://goo.gl/8wRbHE

Part 3: http://goo.gl/eIGokJ

Part 4: http://goo.gl/gaEZS0

Mission impossible is a four-part flash fiction series set in the distant future. If you like science fiction and space opera, this may be an interesting read.

Tagging +Heidi Bouman +Micha Fire +Yoongyee Poh +Yoon-Mi Kim +Robin Laurén +Harry Tuttle +Randy Culler +L.S. Cody +Basement Kitty +Martin Conterez +Brigitte W. +Charles Strebor +Elizabeth Therese Niwel +David Preston +Marjorie Fowler +Mike Mackley - thanks for the support!

#scifi #sciencefiction #flashfiction #blog  ___

posted image

2014-09-10 14:55:28 (15 comments, 26 reshares, 104 +1s) 

Solar paint : Organic Photovoltaics (OPV) has paved the way to flexible solar cells using roll-to-roll technology. The next step is to spray it on any surface. Challenges still exist of degradation, efficiency and thin-film transparent coatings. But cutting edge technology on OPV is breaking new ground everyday. Will we soon see solar paint which can be sprayed on your roof, walls and cars? It's some time away, but rapid strides are being made in the chemistry at the nano level. And I'm sanguine.

OPVs : Conventional photovoltaic technology uses large, heavy, opaque, dark silicon panels while  organic photovoltaic technology enables more translucent and more flexible cells. OPVs need have greater efficiency, longer duration and low production cost - or at least some combination of those. Legacy solar panels have not improved in decades.

Solar paint is close... more »

Solar paint : Organic Photovoltaics (OPV) has paved the way to flexible solar cells using roll-to-roll technology. The next step is to spray it on any surface. Challenges still exist of degradation, efficiency and thin-film transparent coatings. But cutting edge technology on OPV is breaking new ground everyday. Will we soon see solar paint which can be sprayed on your roof, walls and cars? It's some time away, but rapid strides are being made in the chemistry at the nano level. And I'm sanguine.

OPVs : Conventional photovoltaic technology uses large, heavy, opaque, dark silicon panels while  organic photovoltaic technology enables more translucent and more flexible cells. OPVs need have greater efficiency, longer duration and low production cost - or at least some combination of those. Legacy solar panels have not improved in decades.

Solar paint is close : Scientists have dreamed of painting solar cells to generate energy on just about any surface, but efficiency has been a problem; researchers were happy to get one percent just a couple of years ago. At last, though, it looks like viable paint-on power is close at hand. A team at the University of Sheffield has developed spray-on cells that should be both cheap and capable. The trick is to coat an object in perovskite, a calcium titanium oxide mineral -- it's inexpensive like organic solar cells, but absorbs light nearly as well as silicon. In the lab, the technology isn't quite ready for prime time. A spray-based cell gets about 11 percent efficiency versus 19 percent at perovskite's ideal performance. However, it's still early days. Scientists believe that their approach could scale up to the same manufacturing techniques used for spray painting vehicles. If that happens, it's conceivable that your future car (and virtually any other device) could harvest the sun's rays without the steep costs and awkward product designs that are frequently involved when you use old-fashioned solar panels.

Hybrid tech : The invention involves the development of a completely printable organic solar cell based on semiconducting polymer nanoparticles dispersed in water. Essentially these tiny particles in suspension are a water-based paint, which can be printed or coated over large areas. In the first instance these coatings will be put onto plastic sheets that can be placed on the roof of a house. However, in the longer term it will be possible to directly paint a roof or building surface.

Source: http://www.science20.com/news_articles/organic_photovoltaic_technology_may_be_solar_panels_of_the_future-144048

Source: http://www.engadget.com/2014/08/03/spray-painted-solar-cells/

Additional source: http://www.abc.net.au/tv/newinventors/txt/s3008638.htm

Article on Notre Dame research: http://research.nd.edu/research-stories/college-of-science/solar-paint-could-generate-electricity-on-roof-or-home-siding/

Paper: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/nn204381g

Research link: http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-03002-9_99

Pic source: http://goo.gl/64YywS and http://goo.gl/XoAA0o

#solar #energy #technology #paint  ___

posted image

2014-09-09 15:48:09 (12 comments, 6 reshares, 44 +1s) 

Mission impossible : The story of Dranke and his crew continues : Due to popular demand, here is the next installment of the flashfiction series. Do tell me if you liked it.

If you haven't read the first two, here is the chronology:

First piece of the story : http://www.lacerantplainer.com/2014/09/mission-impossible.html

Second piece of the story: http://www.lacerantplainer.com/2014/09/mission-impossible-2-cat-and-mouse.html

Third part of the story: http://www.lacerantplainer.com/2014/09/mission-impossible-3-contact.html

Tagging +Heidi Bouman +Micha Fire +Yoon-Mi Kim +Yoongyee Poh +Robin Laurén +Niamh Brown +Harry Tuttle +Randy Culler +L.S. Cody since all you guys liked the earlier installments!

#sf #sciencefiction  

Mission impossible : The story of Dranke and his crew continues : Due to popular demand, here is the next installment of the flashfiction series. Do tell me if you liked it.

If you haven't read the first two, here is the chronology:

First piece of the story : http://www.lacerantplainer.com/2014/09/mission-impossible.html

Second piece of the story: http://www.lacerantplainer.com/2014/09/mission-impossible-2-cat-and-mouse.html

Third part of the story: http://www.lacerantplainer.com/2014/09/mission-impossible-3-contact.html

Tagging +Heidi Bouman +Micha Fire +Yoon-Mi Kim +Yoongyee Poh +Robin Laurén +Niamh Brown +Harry Tuttle +Randy Culler +L.S. Cody since all you guys liked the earlier installments!

#sf #sciencefiction  ___

posted image

2014-09-08 04:38:19 (30 comments, 28 reshares, 117 +1s) 

Timelapse : This is not news, but I've been looking at Google's Time-Lapse Earth project and some of it is fascinating. The pic shown below shows the retreat of the glacier over the last two decades. Reseach at Google is involved in some real path-breaking stuff, in collaboration with NASA. Why is this important? It shows how deforestation is rampant in some parts of the world, it tracks the growth of cities and infrastructure. And you can actually see your own region in the interactive map in the links. Don't miss it!

Article Extract : Google Earth Engine is an incredible satellite tour through the recent history of our planet, showing year-by-year images from 1984-2012. Watch as cities expand, glaciers retreat, and seas vanish in a matter of decades.

Google Earth Engine uses composites of annual Landsat images to create these amazing views of how the world... more »

Timelapse : This is not news, but I've been looking at Google's Time-Lapse Earth project and some of it is fascinating. The pic shown below shows the retreat of the glacier over the last two decades. Reseach at Google is involved in some real path-breaking stuff, in collaboration with NASA. Why is this important? It shows how deforestation is rampant in some parts of the world, it tracks the growth of cities and infrastructure. And you can actually see your own region in the interactive map in the links. Don't miss it!

Article Extract : Google Earth Engine is an incredible satellite tour through the recent history of our planet, showing year-by-year images from 1984-2012. Watch as cities expand, glaciers retreat, and seas vanish in a matter of decades.

Google Earth Engine uses composites of annual Landsat images to create these amazing views of how the world has changed over the last 28 years. Google offers a handful of suggested time travel destinations, but you can look up any place you like—your hometown, places that have endured natural disasters, places that have been altered by human hands and by nature.

Time-lapse Earth is powerful because it helps us to access and construct the story of our planet. That story will become richer with each release, as we continue to improve fidelity and add data. The story-teller is everyone — scientists and citizens alike provide the real value by interacting, exploring, layering their knowledge upon the globe, and sharing their insights so that we can all better understand our world.

Article link from iO9: http://io9.com/time-lapse-satellite-images-show-how-earth-has-changed-500793507

Source Googleresearch : http://googleresearch.blogspot.co.uk/2013/06/building-visual-planetary-time-machine.html?view=flipcard

Link: https://earthengine.google.org/#intro

Additional link: https://www.google.com/earth/outreach/tools/earthengine.html

Interactive map: https://earthengine.google.org/timelapse/timelapseplayer_v2.html?timelapseclient=http://earthengine.google.org/timelapse/data

+Google +Google Earth +Google Science Fair 

#timelapse #earth  ___

posted image

2014-09-07 10:38:36 (26 comments, 23 reshares, 116 +1s) 

The Ringworld concept in SF : Larry Niven dreamt up this megastructure based on the fact that Dyson spheres had two drawbacks. One was that it could not possibly have the same gravity everywhere due to the centrifugal force being concentrated around the 'equator' of the sphere. Niven's solution? Get rid of the sphere and just keep the equator. While the science is still not verified and the concept may well be in the realm of impossibility, it makes for great story telling.

Megastructure : Sci-fi author Larry Niven conjured up such a megastructure for his award-winning 1970 book Ringworld. Niven imagined a ring with a radius of 93 million miles—the sun-Earth distance—with the sun placed at the center. The ring' would reach 600 million miles across and a million miles tall. The vast landscape could comfortably support perhaps trillions of humans (or anothersim... more »

The Ringworld concept in SF : Larry Niven dreamt up this megastructure based on the fact that Dyson spheres had two drawbacks. One was that it could not possibly have the same gravity everywhere due to the centrifugal force being concentrated around the 'equator' of the sphere. Niven's solution? Get rid of the sphere and just keep the equator. While the science is still not verified and the concept may well be in the realm of impossibility, it makes for great story telling.

Megastructure : Sci-fi author Larry Niven conjured up such a megastructure for his award-winning 1970 book Ringworld. Niven imagined a ring with a radius of 93 million miles—the sun-Earth distance—with the sun placed at the center. The ring' would reach 600 million miles across and a million miles tall. The vast landscape could comfortably support perhaps trillions of humans (or another similarly ambitious, technologically advanced race).

Huge scale : Niven figured a Ringworld would have a thickness of a few thousand feet, and require raw materials with a mass equal to that of Jupiter. Mountain "walls" a thousand miles high would line each rim, preventing the atmosphere from leaking into space.

Viability : Could a Ringworld ever be made? While the concept does not bend physics past the point of breaking, it would require truly extreme engineering and an utter mastery of the forces of nature. According to Anders Sandberg, a research fellow at Oxford University's Future of Humanity Institute who has studied megastructure concepts, a Ringworld "is an amazingly large structure that's way beyond what we can normally imagine, but it's also deeply problematic."

Issues : To get Earth-like gravity, the Ringworld would need to spin at nearly three million miles per hour. Very fast, to be sure. But in a frictionless space environment, it could be doable. Although it would be equidistant from its central star at all points, the Ringworld would not, in fact, be gravitationally stable. Any perturbing force from, say, a meteorite strike or a close encounter with another star could throw the Ringworld out of attractive equilibrium and onto on a cataclysmic collision course.For residents of the Ringworld, that sun would always be directly overhead at a perpetual high noon. To create a day–night cycle and save plant life from frying, Niven envisioned a set of "shadow squares" around the sun at about Mercury's distance from Earth. The parts of Ringworld between the squares would experience roving daylight, while the eclipsed portions would rest in the shade. The whole length of the Ringworld would be checkered light and dark. Solar panels on the immense shadows squares could collect energy to power the structure. Energy could be beamed via laser from the squares to receiver stations along the Ringworld's rim, away from inhabited "land."

Article link: http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/space/deep/could-we-build-a-ringworld-17166651?click=pp

Wikipedia link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ringworld

Related Elysium : http://www.space.com/22326-elysium-movie-space-colonies-future.html

Paper: http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Big+Dumb+Objects+in+science+fiction%3A+sublimity,+banality,+and...-a0149303037

Research paper on Shell worlds: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S009457651200344X

Main pic: from larryniven.net, pic bottom right from http://goo.gl/bd62eU and pic top right from http://goo.gl/ewrs4E (for illustration purposes only).

#ringworld #niven #megastructures  ___

posted image

2014-09-06 12:48:09 (26 comments, 41 reshares, 124 +1s) 

Murmurations : is the term used to describe birds flocking and swarming in the sky. Very often, it will take just one bird to change the direction of the swarm. While I have written about swarms before, physicist Andrea Cavagna who studies Bose-Einstein condensates has compared the swarming physics to that of a superfluid; atoms which fall into place in a Bose-Einstein condensate. Sounds far-fetched? read on to know more...

Movement : Cavagna was hardly the first scientist to be intrigued by these acrobatics—known, in a rare instance of technical language coinciding with poetry, as “murmurations.” Other animals that travel in groups showing the same uncanny ability to move in apparent unison away from a predator or toward a food source. One 20th-century ornithologist seriously proposed that they coordinated their movements by telepathy. That possibility hasn’t found muchsupport... more »

Murmurations : is the term used to describe birds flocking and swarming in the sky. Very often, it will take just one bird to change the direction of the swarm. While I have written about swarms before, physicist Andrea Cavagna who studies Bose-Einstein condensates has compared the swarming physics to that of a superfluid; atoms which fall into place in a Bose-Einstein condensate. Sounds far-fetched? read on to know more...

Movement : Cavagna was hardly the first scientist to be intrigued by these acrobatics—known, in a rare instance of technical language coinciding with poetry, as “murmurations.” Other animals that travel in groups showing the same uncanny ability to move in apparent unison away from a predator or toward a food source. One 20th-century ornithologist seriously proposed that they coordinated their movements by telepathy. That possibility hasn’t found much support in biology. The other explanation is that a signal to change direction originates with one or a few individuals, probably on the periphery (the ones most likely to see a threat), and travels as a wave front across the flock, like a ripple spreading across a pond from a dropped pebble. It is just an artifact of human vision that we can’t see it happen in real time. But high-speed cameras can capture it, and computers can model the behavior.

Swarm faster than individuals : Prince­ton biologist Iain Couzin and MIT oceanographer Nicholas Makris have shown that in the presence of a predator, or a potential food source, or an opportunity to spawn, a wave of movement crosses a school of fish five to ten times faster than any one of them can swim—“incredibly well orchestrated,” says Couzin, “like a ballet.” The fish they’ve studied exhibit a threshold response, changing course only when a sufficiently large fraction of their visible neighbors have.

Wave Phenomena : As for starlings, Cavagna and his collaborators have shown recently that each keeps track of the six or seven closest starlings, adjusting its flight to stay in synchrony. In a new paper, they show how a signal originating with a single individual can cross a hundred-yard-wide flock in a fraction of a second, with virtually no distortion or diminution. The equations that describe this are those that govern waves—rather than, say, the diffusion of a gas or liquid. In the broadest sense, the same laws that photons obey are in play when a flock of starlings encounters a peregrine falcon.

Article Link: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/how-just-one-bird-can-urge-entire-flock-change-directions-180952426/?no-ist

Related paper: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003347213000432

Swarming behavior: http://people.esam.northwestern.edu/~cristian/research_body.html

Must watch video link: amazing starlings murmuration (full HD) -www.keepturningleft.co.uk

Main pic source : http://www.rspb.org.uk/discoverandenjoynature/discoverandlearn/birdguide/name/s/starling/roosting.aspx

Gif and video source: http://americablog.com/2014/01/stunning-flock-starlings-video.html

Time lapse of bird flight patterns : http://www.visualnews.com/2014/01/27/bird-flights-mapped-into-time-lapse-sky-performances/

#scienceeveryday #sciencesunday #swarm  ___

posted image

2014-09-05 10:18:13 (22 comments, 17 reshares, 97 +1s) 

Rosetta prepares for landing : After over 10 years of getting there, the Rosetta spacecraft is now looking at landing sites on Comet 67P/C-G. The Philae lander will be deployed for the first ever 'soft landing' on a comet. After a journey of 4 billion miles, the ESA robotic spacecraft is set to make history in November...

Article Extract: The Rosetta spacecraft has captured remarkable views of the comet on its way into orbit. Images of the comet revealed that Comet 67P/C-G is actually two connected pieces hurtling through space together. The smaller "head" and larger "body" of the comet are connected by a bright "neck," as seen in photos of the comet taken by Rosetta.

ESA has announced that on September 15, the team from the Rosetta mission will reveal the landing site for the Philae lander. After traveling on a 10-year, 6.4 billion... more »

Rosetta prepares for landing : After over 10 years of getting there, the Rosetta spacecraft is now looking at landing sites on Comet 67P/C-G. The Philae lander will be deployed for the first ever 'soft landing' on a comet. After a journey of 4 billion miles, the ESA robotic spacecraft is set to make history in November...

Article Extract: The Rosetta spacecraft has captured remarkable views of the comet on its way into orbit. Images of the comet revealed that Comet 67P/C-G is actually two connected pieces hurtling through space together. The smaller "head" and larger "body" of the comet are connected by a bright "neck," as seen in photos of the comet taken by Rosetta.

ESA has announced that on September 15, the team from the Rosetta mission will reveal the landing site for the Philae lander. After traveling on a 10-year, 6.4 billion kilometer journey, Rosetta has been gently captured by comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, an oddly-shaped and mysterious two-lobed comet. Yet, how will the small Philea attempt the landing? Very carefully, because a second chance is not possible. Philae cannot pull up and try again.

The landing mechanisms are: landing legs with ice screws, propulsion system and harpoons. The legs were designed with the intent of landing softly. The harpoons are designed to secure Philae to the surface. The gravity of the comet is so weak, Philae could bounce off the surface or roll over. The purpose of the harpoons — to be fired at the moment of contact — is to prevent bouncing off the surface or tipping over. The direction and strength of gravity at the landing site will not be absolutely known so there is the risk of roll over after landing, albeit very slowly. Tipping over is mitigated by screws under the footpads to penetrate the surface immediately after landing.

"We're going to going to ride along with this comet. We're going to have a ringside seat," Matt Taylor, ESA Rosetta project scientist, said Wednesday as the spacecraft arrived at Comet 67P/C-G. "It's going to be an awesome ride. Stay tuned."

Article source: http://www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblog/2014/08/were-at-the-comet-rosetta-robotic-probe-poised-to-enter-orbit.html

Additional article source : http://www.universetoday.com/114154/how-do-you-land-on-a-comet-very-carefully/

ESA link: http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Science/Rosetta/Call_for_media_Rosetta_landing_site_announcement

Photos from Space.com: http://www.space.com/24266-rosetta-comet-mission-photos-esa.html

Wikipedia link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosetta_%28spacecraft%29

Earlier post on the awakening of Rosetta: https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/103586346709495625226/+LacerantPlainerWrites/posts/PXyyeKsb5eA

Pic credit from main article in dailygalaxy. http://goo.gl/nVA43M

#scienceeveryday #rosetta  ___

posted image

2014-09-04 04:39:13 (16 comments, 6 reshares, 42 +1s) 

Dranke's story continues : By popular demand. Here is the link - http://www.lacerantplainer.com/2014/09/mission-impossible-2-cat-and-mouse.html

(For some reason it does not display the new post properly on G+)

Since +Yoon-Mi Kim +Yoongyee Poh and +Harry Tuttle asked :)





#scifi #sciencefiction  

Dranke's story continues : By popular demand. Here is the link - http://www.lacerantplainer.com/2014/09/mission-impossible-2-cat-and-mouse.html

(For some reason it does not display the new post properly on G+)

Since +Yoon-Mi Kim +Yoongyee Poh and +Harry Tuttle asked :)





#scifi #sciencefiction  ___

posted image

2014-09-03 08:38:26 (21 comments, 14 reshares, 61 +1s) 

Mission Impossible : My new flashfiction story up on my blog www.lacerantplainer.com

Hope you like it.





#sciencefiction #scifi  

Mission Impossible : My new flashfiction story up on my blog www.lacerantplainer.com

Hope you like it.





#sciencefiction #scifi  ___

posted image

2014-09-01 10:28:24 (24 comments, 18 reshares, 85 +1s) 

Soil Carbon : The statistics are undeniable, we need to do much more to manage Carbon emissions. While countries duel it out to manage the political and economic ramifications, not really making a dent in the increase in emissions, we already know of some things which can be done to manage Carbon fixing. And it's being researched now. It involves microbes, plants and the soil. Read on to know more....

Carbon in the soil : There are 2,500 billion tons of carbon in soil, compared with 800 billion tons in the atmosphere and 560 billion tons in plant and animal life. And compared to many proposed geoengineering fixes, storing carbon in soil is simple: It’s a matter of returning carbon where it belongs.

How the soil loses carbon : "If we treat soil carbon as a renewable resource, we can change the dynamics," says Goreau. "When we have erosion, wel... more »

Soil Carbon : The statistics are undeniable, we need to do much more to manage Carbon emissions. While countries duel it out to manage the political and economic ramifications, not really making a dent in the increase in emissions, we already know of some things which can be done to manage Carbon fixing. And it's being researched now. It involves microbes, plants and the soil. Read on to know more....

Carbon in the soil : There are 2,500 billion tons of carbon in soil, compared with 800 billion tons in the atmosphere and 560 billion tons in plant and animal life. And compared to many proposed geoengineering fixes, storing carbon in soil is simple: It’s a matter of returning carbon where it belongs.

How the soil loses carbon : "If we treat soil carbon as a renewable resource, we can change the dynamics," says Goreau. "When we have erosion, we lose soil, which carries with it organic carbon, into waterways. When soil is exposed, it oxidizes, essentially burning the soil carbon. We can take an alternate trajectory."

Microbes play a huge role : As basic as soil carbon is, there’s much scientists are just learning about it. One promising strategy, says Goreau, is bolstering soil microbiology by adding beneficial microbes to stimulate the soil cycles where they have been interrupted by use of insecticides, herbicides, or fertilizers.

Plants also move Carbon into the soil : Plants with mycorrhizal connections can transfer up to 15 percent more carbon to soil than their non-mycorrhizal counterparts. The most common mycorrhizal fungi are marked by threadlike filaments called hyphae that extend the reach of a plant, increasing access to nutrients and water. These hyphae are coated with a sticky substance called glomalin, discovered only in 1996, which is instrumental in soil structure and carbon storage.

A gentler way of going about carbon sequestration : Absent carbon and critical microbes, soil becomes mere dirt, a process of deterioration that’s been rampant around the globe. Many scientists say that regenerative agricultural practices can turn back the carbon clock, reducing atmospheric CO2 while also boosting soil productivity and increasing resilience to floods and drought. Such regenerative techniques include planting fields year-round in crops or other cover, and agroforestry that combines crops, trees, and animal husbandry. Recognition of the vital role played by soil carbon could mark an important if subtle shift in the discussion about global warming, which has been heavily focused on curbing emissions of fossil fuels. But a look at soil brings a sharper focus on potential carbon sinks. Reducing emissions is crucial, but soil carbon sequestration needs to be part of the picture as well, says Lal. The top priorities, he says, are restoring degraded and eroded lands, as well as avoiding deforestation and the farming of peatlands, which are a major reservoir of carbon and are easily decomposed upon drainage and cultivation.

Storing Carbon in Deserts : Even at our current level of knowledge, many see great potential for storing carbon in soil. Lal of Ohio State says that restoring soils of degraded and desertified ecosystems has the potential to store in world soils an additional 1 billion to 3 billion tons of carbon annually, equivalent to roughly 3.5 billion to 11 billion tons of CO2 emissions. (Annual CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning are roughly 32 billion tons.)

Source and pic on left  : http://e360.yale.edu/feature/soil_as_carbon_storehouse_new_weapon_in_climate_fight/2744/

Additional information: http://cee.mit.edu/cee-in-focus/2009/spring/carbon-sequestration

Related article on health: http://newsoffice.mit.edu/2014/cutting-carbon-health-care-savings-0824

Stanford research: http://web.stanford.edu/group/gcep/cgi-bin/gcep-research/all/increasing-carbon-storage-within-soils-by-controlling-key-microbial-respiration-processes/

Paper 'The Microbial Pump' : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3209167/

Green machine from NewScientist: http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn19063-green-machine-bacteria-will-keep-co2-safely-buried.html#.VARCkWNkmwQ

Pic credit : http://www.morning-earth.org/Graphic-E/BIOSPHERE/Bios-C-PlantsNew.html

Pic on left: Soil in a long-term experiment appears red when depleted of carbon (left) and dark brown when carbon content is high (right). Pic on right: Mycorrhizal fungi are marked by threadlike filaments called hyphae which are coated with glomalin, instrumental in soil structure and carbon storage.___

posted image

2014-08-31 07:02:38 (31 comments, 43 reshares, 310 +1s) 

Flight of the Falcon ....... no, the Robohawk? : This clumsy title was what I actually thought when watching the video. Clear Flight Solutions has created a robotic bird to scare off other birds especially around airports. I was a little taken aback at how realistic it is, using wing deformation to glide, just like a real bird.

The genesis : Nijenhuis is a student of applied physics and fluid dynamics at the Technical University of Twente in the Netherlands. When wings are fixed, we're fine. We can run tests and calculate forces and as a result have been able to develop planes that take us all over the globe. "But the minute wings start moving, we really have a problem," Nijenhuis says. "It's all about very complex, three-dimensional flow. What a bird actually does is so complex that it's incredibly difficult to mimic."

Creating the... more »

Flight of the Falcon ....... no, the Robohawk? : This clumsy title was what I actually thought when watching the video. Clear Flight Solutions has created a robotic bird to scare off other birds especially around airports. I was a little taken aback at how realistic it is, using wing deformation to glide, just like a real bird.

The genesis : Nijenhuis is a student of applied physics and fluid dynamics at the Technical University of Twente in the Netherlands. When wings are fixed, we're fine. We can run tests and calculate forces and as a result have been able to develop planes that take us all over the globe. "But the minute wings start moving, we really have a problem," Nijenhuis says. "It's all about very complex, three-dimensional flow. What a bird actually does is so complex that it's incredibly difficult to mimic."

Creating the Robohawk : The big concept ended up being flexibility. Instead of just flapping from one joint like a rigid two-by-four, bird wings deform across their entire length as they move through the air. For the Robirds, Nijenhuis complemented the basic hinging motion with a pitching motion on the wing tips -- the further outward you go, the more the heavy-duty foam wings deform upwards and downwards. The result, when paired with some on-board sensors and sophisticated stabilisation software, is a fairly convincing approximation of bird flight.

Why is it important to fly like a bird : Getting close to the mark is important for the Robirds to do their job. Nijenhuis says two things are needed to trigger birds' flight instinct: a silhouette and wing movement. "If it doesn't look like a predator, they don't care. And if it doesn't move like a predator, they don't care either."

Article source: http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2014-08/27/robohawks-terrorise-real-birds

Link to company details: http://www.roboticstoday.com/institutions/clear-flight-solutions

Company website: http://clearflightsolutions.com/

Earlier version of a 'scarecrow' hawk : http://www.electricpig.co.uk/2008/09/12/robohawk-strike-panic-into-pigeons/

#robotics #hawk  ___

posted image

2014-08-30 07:00:57 (22 comments, 69 reshares, 326 +1s) 

How Penguins increase their speed : The story of Penguins using supercavitation to reduce drag is not new. What is new is humans figuring out how to duplicate the effect. First with torpedoes, and now there is work on submarines. How does it work? Penguins are awesome for more than one reason....

Fluid Dynamicists : Penguins, already fluid dynamicists by nature, have developed clever methods of increasing their speed to escape from the leopard seals that prey on them. In the clip, notice from 1:55 onward as the penguins swim for the surface and leap onto the ice - they leave a trail of bubbles in their wake. The penguins are using supercavitation to decrease their drag. When the penguins first dive in to the water, they splay their feathers out in the air and then lock them closed in the water, trapping pockets of air beneath them. When the need for a burst of speed arises, the... more »

How Penguins increase their speed : The story of Penguins using supercavitation to reduce drag is not new. What is new is humans figuring out how to duplicate the effect. First with torpedoes, and now there is work on submarines. How does it work? Penguins are awesome for more than one reason....

Fluid Dynamicists : Penguins, already fluid dynamicists by nature, have developed clever methods of increasing their speed to escape from the leopard seals that prey on them. In the clip, notice from 1:55 onward as the penguins swim for the surface and leap onto the ice - they leave a trail of bubbles in their wake. The penguins are using supercavitation to decrease their drag. When the penguins first dive in to the water, they splay their feathers out in the air and then lock them closed in the water, trapping pockets of air beneath them. When the need for a burst of speed arises, the penguin shifts its feathers to release the air, coating most of its body in a layer of bubbles. Because the drag in air is much less than the drag in water, this enables the bird to achieve much higher speeds than they normally do when swimming.

Rocketing speeds : Essentially, the air buffer means that the majority of the body of the penguin isn't in the water at all, but rather cruising inside an air bubble with just the head and fins protruding to allow for maneuvering. Since the drag between air and water is far less than the drag between penguin and water, for all practical purposes the penguins get to totally ignore the fact that they're swimming and, while they still have enough air stored in their feathers to maintain the bubble, pretend like they're flying instead, which is how they can put on those rocket-like bursts of speed. Penguins would only be able to reach four or nine feet per second otherwise, but they can triple double or triple those speeds with their special bubble boost.

China's attempt at creating a supercavitating submarine : The submarine of the future may come to America in a super fast bubble, traveling under water. Researchers at China's Harbin Institute of Technology developed a new concept for submarine “supercavitation,” where an underwater vessel creates a pocket of air around itself. Inside this bubble, the submarine can travel much faster without friction of water creating drag and slowing it down. Theoretically, a supercavitated vessel using rocket engines could travel inside that air pocket at almost the speed of sound.

Main Article link (Dvice) : http://goo.gl/hHGjdG

NYT article link: http://goo.gl/Uf2fPk

Supercavitation effect: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supercavitation

Gizmodo link: http://goo.gl/8MuWf2

Popsci source: http://goo.gl/BvZr4B

Wired link to supercavitating submarines: http://goo.gl/kN1X1n

Additional article : http://goo.gl/Ad8l40

#penguins #science #submarine  ___

posted image

2014-08-29 07:25:54 (20 comments, 9 reshares, 78 +1s) 

Flying Snails : No not really. But this is a kind of an amusing story. It all started with Charles Darwin, who was fascinated that how very similar snails were found on diverse land masses. It was hypothesized that snails stick to birds. Some snails managed to hitch rides on logs or other floating items. But some snails have a slightly different method of travelling. Read on to know more.

Horn snails : The horn snails found their own life rafts: shore birds. Although the research group can't prove that the scenario is true, they think it could have gone like this: Nearly 1 million years ago, a wading heron gobbled a basking Pacific horn snail, shell and all. Luckily for this intrepid explorer, armored invertebrates can survive for days in the bellies of shore birds. Snug inside its unsuspecting taxi, the snail soared high above what was likely Mexico before being excreted in the... more »

Flying Snails : No not really. But this is a kind of an amusing story. It all started with Charles Darwin, who was fascinated that how very similar snails were found on diverse land masses. It was hypothesized that snails stick to birds. Some snails managed to hitch rides on logs or other floating items. But some snails have a slightly different method of travelling. Read on to know more.

Horn snails : The horn snails found their own life rafts: shore birds. Although the research group can't prove that the scenario is true, they think it could have gone like this: Nearly 1 million years ago, a wading heron gobbled a basking Pacific horn snail, shell and all. Luckily for this intrepid explorer, armored invertebrates can survive for days in the bellies of shore birds. Snug inside its unsuspecting taxi, the snail soared high above what was likely Mexico before being excreted in the Atlantic Ocean—a journey of about 200 kilometers or more. (From Sciencemag : http://goo.gl/FdHW7a)

Tough travellers : If a bird takes flight and keeps aloft for all five hours, a snail could be transported as far as 186 miles away. Should the snails take hold in their new homes, and should ducks sample the new population of gastropods, the snails could be dispersed even further still. Why the one species of snail was able to survive while the other three perished is not immediately clear. But van Leeuwen and co-authors suspect that the pre-existing adaptations of Hydrobia ulvae were key. The strong shell and other traits possessed by the snail species – thought to be defenses against predation and drying out when exposed – may better protect these snails from being crushed or killed by enzymes in duck digestive tracts. The snails just happened to have a suite of traits which allowed them to survive the internal journey. (From +WIRED : http://goo.gl/qHK6Z3)

Globetrotters : Plants and sedentary animals have long travelled great distances thanks to water, wind, or hitching a ride on other, more mobile animals. But the enormous distances travelled by these snails more commonly occurs in the plant than in the animal kingdom. Preece is now trying to collect molecular data as further evidence of globetrotting in these snails, beyond the Atlantic region. He points out that past research has also shown the creatures doing some mountaineering: they were found on a remote mountain peak on Madeira Island, Portugal, back in 1921. "They get around the world," says Preece. (From +Nature Publishing Group : http://goo.gl/CrLuZu)

Related research paper: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/279/1731/1061

Additional link: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/09/110914143643.htm

Main research paper: http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0032292

Pic Courtesy : http://goo.gl/m0vg2t

#snails #travel #scienceeveryday  ___

posted image

2014-08-27 07:53:44 (19 comments, 21 reshares, 111 +1s) 

Sources on the internet : I often link to basic information on topics to Wikipedia. And one needs to know how good the information is. Wikipedia has actually improved over time, and basic information is something which now pretty well edited and usually cited. Though more esoteric information and not very well-known topics are either not well cited or sketchy. Can you trust Wikipedia? Well depends on what you are looking for and how specialized the information is....

Basic Reference : The fact that Wikipedia is not a reliable source for academic research doesn't mean that it's wrong to use basic reference materials when you're trying to familiarize yourself with a topic. In fact, the library is stocked with introductory materials, and the Harvard librarians can point you to specialized encyclopedias in different fields. These sources can be particularly useful when you... more »

Sources on the internet : I often link to basic information on topics to Wikipedia. And one needs to know how good the information is. Wikipedia has actually improved over time, and basic information is something which now pretty well edited and usually cited. Though more esoteric information and not very well-known topics are either not well cited or sketchy. Can you trust Wikipedia? Well depends on what you are looking for and how specialized the information is....

Basic Reference : The fact that Wikipedia is not a reliable source for academic research doesn't mean that it's wrong to use basic reference materials when you're trying to familiarize yourself with a topic. In fact, the library is stocked with introductory materials, and the Harvard librarians can point you to specialized encyclopedias in different fields. These sources can be particularly useful when you need background information or context for a topic you're writing about. (http://goo.gl/UDPHmJ - From +Harvard University).

Universities and researchers are also involved in edits : While experienced editors can view the article history and discussion page, for normal users it is not so easy to check whether information from Wikipedia is reliable. University projects from California, Switzerland and Germany try to improve that by methods of formal analysis and data mining. A new journalism class at American University, “Wikipedia and Public Knowledge,” is organized around edit-a-thons, held each Tuesday at a prominent institution in Washington, including the National Archives and the National Museum of the American Indian. The 20 students in the class are expected to create or improve articles on Wikipedia and scan in and describe documents or images. (From NYT http://goo.gl/c4AaR6) and
(http://goo.gl/Avi8jz - From +Wikipedia itself)

Typical Issues : In only 10 years, Wikipedia has risen from obscurity to become the dominant information source for an entire generation. However, any visitor can edit any page on Wikipedia, which hardly fosters confidence in its accuracy. In this article, I review thousands of Wikipedia articles about candidates, elections, and officeholders to assess both the accuracy and the thoroughness of Wikipedia's coverage. I find that Wikipedia is almost always accurate when a relevant article exists, but errors of omission are extremely frequent. These errors of omission follow a predictable pattern. Wikipedia's political coverage is often very good for recent or prominent topics but is lacking on older or more obscure topics. (Quote from a Political scientist - http://goo.gl/IFOT4k)

Research Paper : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2012.01335.x/abstract?deniedAccessCustomisedMessage=&userIsAuthenticated=false

Related from +Princeton University : http://libguides.princeton.edu/content.php?pid=562095&sid=4636369

Nature article related : http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v438/n7070/full/438900a.html

Pic: http://goo.gl/rtMhfF

#wikipedia #reference #accuracy  ___

posted image

2014-08-26 09:57:49 (22 comments, 26 reshares, 97 +1s) 

The Flowing Earth : The Earth's mantle feels solid. But over millennia, we now understand that the mantle drops back towards the Earth's core and gets 'refreshed'.... this is the internal convection current in which the very ground you walk on acts like a fluid (Very much like how a pan of water acts when heated). This also can be modeled to explain the major Earthquakes and volcanoes.

How it works : The Earth's surface lithosphere, which rides atop the asthenosphere (the two components of the upper mantle), is divided into a number of plates that are continuously being created and consumed at their opposite plate boundaries. Accretion occurs as mantle is added to the growing edges of a plate, associated with seafloor spreading. This hot added material cools down by conduction and convection of heat. At the consumption edges of the plate, the material has... more »

The Flowing Earth : The Earth's mantle feels solid. But over millennia, we now understand that the mantle drops back towards the Earth's core and gets 'refreshed'.... this is the internal convection current in which the very ground you walk on acts like a fluid (Very much like how a pan of water acts when heated). This also can be modeled to explain the major Earthquakes and volcanoes.

How it works : The Earth's surface lithosphere, which rides atop the asthenosphere (the two components of the upper mantle), is divided into a number of plates that are continuously being created and consumed at their opposite plate boundaries. Accretion occurs as mantle is added to the growing edges of a plate, associated with seafloor spreading. This hot added material cools down by conduction and convection of heat. At the consumption edges of the plate, the material has thermally contracted to become dense, and it sinks under its own weight in the process of subduction usually at an ocean trench.

Viscous fluid : When the forces of buoyancy are applied over millions of years, this seemingly solid material does move and behaves like an extremely viscous fluid and "creeps" along slowly. Most of the worlds earthquakes and volcanoes occur at the boundaries between tectonic plates

How do we know this is how it works : "Obviously, we cannot go inside of the Earth to see what is happening there. However, the process of mantle convection should comply with fundamental physics laws, such as conservation of mass, momentum and energy. What we have done is to simulate the process of mantle convection by solving the equations which controls the process of mantle convection," says Li.

Source from Science20: http://www.science20.com/news_articles/earths_dynamic_interior-132911

Wikipedia source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mantle_convection

Additional source: http://www.indiana.edu/~geol105/images/gaia_chapter_3/mantle_convection.htm

Additional reference: http://maggiesscienceconnection.weebly.com/mantle-convection-plate-tectonics-earthquakes--volcanoes.html

Modeling: http://jspc-www.colorado.edu/~szhong/mantle.html

Paper: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012821X13006870

Additional paper: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012821X13005438

Earlier post 'On solid ground' : https://plus.google.com/110884604033336753419/posts/XzDdTHW1Cbu

Earlier post: https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/103586346709495625226/+LacerantPlainerWrites/posts/WFNZiu34ZH4

Main pic courtesy: http://goo.gl/KK9SVT, Addtional gifs created from Down To The Earth's Core HD) and plate tectonics

#science #geology #earth #mantle  ___

posted image

2014-08-25 09:49:15 (29 comments, 10 reshares, 85 +1s) 

Using warming to create energy : One of the things on my mind, especially since the realization that the oceans and seas of the world act as heat sinks (Article recently seen called 'Davy Jones’s heat locker') is that the heat which is trapped in these oceans could very well be used to create energy and use a part of the problem to create a solution! Find this wonderfully evocative... using the heat trapped in oceans to create energy!

What is OTEC? : Solar energy is also important to discuss in relation to energy from the ocean, as most of the ocean’s energy comes from the sun. Ocean currents, winds and waves are all created by the sun’s radiant energy, and that solar power can also be used to create electricity. Some solar power systems have been created to generate power for navigation, radio communication and research at sea. The water close to the surface of theocean... more »

Using warming to create energy : One of the things on my mind, especially since the realization that the oceans and seas of the world act as heat sinks (Article recently seen called 'Davy Jones’s heat locker') is that the heat which is trapped in these oceans could very well be used to create energy and use a part of the problem to create a solution! Find this wonderfully evocative... using the heat trapped in oceans to create energy!

What is OTEC? : Solar energy is also important to discuss in relation to energy from the ocean, as most of the ocean’s energy comes from the sun. Ocean currents, winds and waves are all created by the sun’s radiant energy, and that solar power can also be used to create electricity. Some solar power systems have been created to generate power for navigation, radio communication and research at sea. The water close to the surface of the ocean, which the sun heats to a higher temperature than deep water, can also be used to create electricity through a process called ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). (http://goo.gl/AFxjt1)

The Background : Oceans cover more than 70% of Earth's surface, making them the world's largest solar collectors. The sun's heat warms the surface water a lot more than the deep ocean water, and this temperature difference creates thermal energy. Just a small portion of the heat trapped in the ocean could power the world.

Ocean thermal energy is used for many applications, including electricity generation. There are three types of electricity conversion systems: closed-cycle, open-cycle, and hybrid. Closed-cycle systems use the ocean's warm surface water to vaporize a working fluid, which has a low-boiling point, such as ammonia. The vapour expands and turns a turbine. The turbine then activates a generator to produce electricity. Open-cycle systems actually boil the seawater by operating at low pressures. This produces steam that passes through a turbine/generator. And hybrid systems combine both closed-cycle and open-cycle systems. (http://goo.gl/j95PyL)

The Problems and the Positives : One problem is the low efficiencies of this technology. OTEC is still considered an emerging technology and efficiencies and processes need to be improved. Even then, some countries have gone ahead and planned OTEC plants. Plusses? They use the very warming of the oceans which has been worrying us, and have the advantage of being a huge power source. I have not found references, but it's logical that they would help cooling as well; more studies need to be done in this area, though some articles point to just such an effect. (http://goo.gl/nCiTGu)

Additional reference: http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/science_and_impacts/science/global-warming-faq.html

Planetary Heat sink: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/345/6199/897.abstract

Related article: http://news.sciencemag.org/climate/2014/08/earths-missing-heat-may-be-hiding-deep-atlantic

Wikipedia link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ocean_thermal_energy_conversion

China takes the lead: http://phys.org/news/2013-04-partnership-world-largest-otec-china.html

Related: http://www.tulane.edu/~sanelson/eens1110/energy.htm

Additional reading: http://www.science20.com/news_articles/deep_earth_recycling_of_the_oceanic_floor-137001

Mentioned article: http://www.economist.com/news/science-and-technology/21613161-mystery-pause-global-warming-may-have-been-solved-answer-seems

Pics courtesy: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/7527, http://investingreenenergy.com/taiwans-big-marine-energy-announcement/ and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ocean_thermal_energy_conversion

#OTEC #warming #energy  ___

posted image

2014-08-24 14:10:33 (19 comments, 34 reshares, 138 +1s) 

Games simulate the retina : This has been a problem which has been limited by the computing power we have. MIT researchers have got around the issue by inviting gamers to participate in a citizen science project. It takes 50 hours to map just one neuron with the best possible software, so this was a creative solution to a problem which researchers were facing. Read on to know more...

Gaming the Neural network : The human retina allows the eye to follow the path of a moving object, such as a Ping-Pong ball in play. Neuroscientists have been toiling for 50 years to explain how, but they lack the processing power to map the eye’s neural network. (With today’s cutting-edge modeling software, 100 people would have to work 24/7 for half a million years.) An online game called EyeWire, developed at MIT, harnesses the power of gamers instead. Each player navigates a single nerve’spath a... more »

Games simulate the retina : This has been a problem which has been limited by the computing power we have. MIT researchers have got around the issue by inviting gamers to participate in a citizen science project. It takes 50 hours to map just one neuron with the best possible software, so this was a creative solution to a problem which researchers were facing. Read on to know more...

Gaming the Neural network : The human retina allows the eye to follow the path of a moving object, such as a Ping-Pong ball in play. Neuroscientists have been toiling for 50 years to explain how, but they lack the processing power to map the eye’s neural network. (With today’s cutting-edge modeling software, 100 people would have to work 24/7 for half a million years.) An online game called EyeWire, developed at MIT, harnesses the power of gamers instead. Each player navigates a single nerve’s path across a tiny section of mouse retina. “It’s actually extremely challenging,” says Amy Robinson, EyeWire’s creative director. “No computer program can do it automatically.”

Mapping the connectome : By joining EyeWire, citizen scientists can help map the connectome, starting with connections between retinal neurons. EyeWire gameplay advances neuroscience by helping researchers discover how neurons connect and network to process information. Citizen scientists also help the EyeWire team develop advanced artificial intelligence and computational technologies for mapping the connectome.

Citizen scientists : Currently, there are 120,000 players on Eyewire, which was officially launched in December 2012. It’s a relatively small but very active community, that spends a total of 1,200 hours per day tracing neurocircuits, starting with retinal neurons. The game uses data from Max Plank Institute for Medical Research, but soon enough Seung Lab will be feeding in their own data as well.

From +Popular Science source: http://goo.gl/q7Xh24

From +Scientific American : http://goo.gl/lJ60hx

From +Nature Publishing Group : http://goo.gl/MFn7e4

Wikipedia Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EyeWire

Video link: EyeWire, A Game to Map the Brain from MIT

Blog: http://blog.eyewire.org/about/

Pic from PopSci, detail: The human retina at 480x magnification. A player's map in EyeWire is 4.1 micrometers wide; 1/20 the width of a human hair. Louise Hughes/Science Photo Library.

#science #eye #eyewire #citizenscience  ___

posted image

2014-08-23 07:22:44 (40 comments, 68 reshares, 311 +1s) 

Dogs and their humans : I'm a little skeptical about the research, and there is correlation, but not causality. But this was an amusing story picked up by a number of websites. It makes for a funny anyway, even if  it's not science. Anecdotally, this may make sense, but that does not prove anything :)

Why you look like your dog : _Researchers recruited around 500 college students and asked them to look at photos of 40 people and dogs, all shown from the shoulders up, against white backgrounds. The people and dogs were paired, some in the correct combination of owner and pet, others randomly. The participants' task was to pick out which combinations of actual pets and owners, and they chose correctly 80 percent of the time. _

Its in the eyes : Next, the researchers obscured parts of the photos, covering either the dog's or the human's eyesor m... more »

Dogs and their humans : I'm a little skeptical about the research, and there is correlation, but not causality. But this was an amusing story picked up by a number of websites. It makes for a funny anyway, even if  it's not science. Anecdotally, this may make sense, but that does not prove anything :)

Why you look like your dog : _Researchers recruited around 500 college students and asked them to look at photos of 40 people and dogs, all shown from the shoulders up, against white backgrounds. The people and dogs were paired, some in the correct combination of owner and pet, others randomly. The participants' task was to pick out which combinations of actual pets and owners, and they chose correctly 80 percent of the time. _

Its in the eyes : Next, the researchers obscured parts of the photos, covering either the dog's or the human's eyes or mouth, Slate explains. The participants still did well if the mouths were covered, with a success rate of 73 percent. When the eyes were covered, however, that rate dropped drastically, with success becoming a matter of random chance. Encouraged by this finding, Slate writes, the team cropped the images to only show the eyes of the humans and their dogs. Impressively, students who saw just the eye photos had a 74 percent success rate.

Mechanism a mystery : The logical scientific explanation about our apparently superhuman (or at least subconscious) ability to extract meaningful psychological cues from eyes is still elusive. Nakajima is just as stumped as the rest of us about the underlying mechanism.

Article Link: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/why-you-look-your-dog-180952414/

Additional source (+Slate ) : http://goo.gl/b5ObWT

Paper : http://goo.gl/exvUIZ

Additional research: http://pss.sagepub.com/content/15/5/361.short

Pic courtesy: http://goo.gl/4Cq2M1

#dogs #humans___

posted image

2014-08-22 09:17:17 (22 comments, 21 reshares, 107 +1s) 

Airwaveguide : While lasers have been used before to send information to satellites, this relatively new discovery is quite fascinating. Fibre optic cables are usually preferred due to having a high refractive index, and with fibre optic cables being encased in material having lower refractive index, it is possible to reflect the light back to the core of the cable, preventing the beam from losing focus. Now researchers are trying to do the same thing with air. How? Read more to figure it out...

Focusing the beam : Milchberg and colleagues' made the equivalent of an optical fibre out of air by generating a laser with its light split into a ring of multiple beams forming a 'pipe'. They used very short and powerful pulses from the laser to heat the air molecules along the beam extremely quickly. Such rapid heating produced sound waves that took about a microsecond to... more »

Airwaveguide : While lasers have been used before to send information to satellites, this relatively new discovery is quite fascinating. Fibre optic cables are usually preferred due to having a high refractive index, and with fibre optic cables being encased in material having lower refractive index, it is possible to reflect the light back to the core of the cable, preventing the beam from losing focus. Now researchers are trying to do the same thing with air. How? Read more to figure it out...

Focusing the beam : Milchberg and colleagues' made the equivalent of an optical fibre out of air by generating a laser with its light split into a ring of multiple beams forming a 'pipe'. They used very short and powerful pulses from the laser to heat the air molecules along the beam extremely quickly. Such rapid heating produced sound waves that took about a microsecond to converge to the centre of the pipe, creating a high-density area surrounded by a low-density area left behind in the wake of the laser beams.

Air 'Pipe' : "A microsecond is a long time compared to how far light propagates, so the light is gone and a microsecond later those sound waves collide in the centre, enhancing the air density there," says Milchberg. The lower density region of air surrounding the centre of the air waveguide had a lower refractive index, keeping the light focused. "Any structure [even air] which has a higher density will have a higher index of refraction and thereby act like an optical fibre," says Milchberg.

The findings : The researchers found the signal was 50 per cent stronger than a signal obtained without an air waveguide. The findings show the air waveguide can be used as a "remote collection optic," says Milchberg. "This is an optical fibre cable that you can reel out at the speed of light and place next to [something] that you want to measure remotely, and have the signal come all the way back to where you are."

Article link: http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2014/07/23/4049345.htm?topic=energy

Research paper : http://www.opticsinfobase.org/optica/abstract.cfm?uri=optica-1-1-5

Additional link: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/08/140819125946.htm

Phys.org link: http://phys.org/news/2014-07-optical-cables-thin-air.html

Main pic: from abc.net.au. Additional pics http://news.discovery.com/tech/gear-and-gadgets/optical-fiber-made-out-of-thin-air-140723.htm and http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2014-07/23/optical-fibres-made-from-air

#science #technology___

posted image

2014-08-21 11:47:30 (30 comments, 27 reshares, 150 +1s) 

The Prism : The prism fascinated me in school. I wondered how it would 'break' up light into it's constituent colors. That was what we were taught. But of course, there is so much more to why that happens. White light is not 'pristine'... it already has all the colors. In fact the colors are part of white light. To understand this, one has to ask 'what is color'. Color is nothing but our perception of the different wavelengths of light. Our perception of color is not the same as the perception of color which a mantis shrimp has for example (which sees much more of the EM spectrum than us) or a cat (which sees less of the spectrum than humans).

Of course the prism is just glass (or some transparent material). It sits on a triangular base and has rectangular sides. In school I imagined it was some special material !

Refraction and speed of light in... more »

The Prism : The prism fascinated me in school. I wondered how it would 'break' up light into it's constituent colors. That was what we were taught. But of course, there is so much more to why that happens. White light is not 'pristine'... it already has all the colors. In fact the colors are part of white light. To understand this, one has to ask 'what is color'. Color is nothing but our perception of the different wavelengths of light. Our perception of color is not the same as the perception of color which a mantis shrimp has for example (which sees much more of the EM spectrum than us) or a cat (which sees less of the spectrum than humans).

Of course the prism is just glass (or some transparent material). It sits on a triangular base and has rectangular sides. In school I imagined it was some special material !

Refraction and speed of light in materials : Refraction simply means that light travels at a different speed in different materials. It's fast in air, and slower in water or glass. This has the effect of changing the direction of light, or bending it, when it moves from one material to the other.

But why do different colors go in different directions?  This is because different colors of light travel at different speeds in the glass. So from the analogy above, slower speeds in the glass make the light bend more. We call this effect dispersion, since it disperses the colors in different directions. Blue light travels slightly slower in glass than red light, so it bends a sharper angle when it enters the glass from air. In physics, we say the glass has a higher refractive index for blue light than red light. There is a formula (Snell's Law) that you can use to calculate angles from refractive index, or the other way around.

How refraction actually works (Quantum Electrodynamics) : Another way to answer this is through QED which talks about how light interacts with atoms of the material it is traversing. I will not even attempt to explain this here. But Richard Feynman got a nobel prize in Physics explaining the phenomenon. See Richard Feynman Lecture on Quantum Electrodynamics: QED. 1/8 . You can even get his book and read about it.

Article Source: http://scienceline.ucsb.edu/getkey.php?key=1542

Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prism

Additional reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optics

'The strange theory of light' : http://qed.wikina.org/refraction/

Ask a scientist : http://www.newton.dep.anl.gov/askasci/phy00/phy00612.htm

Additional source: http://www.nevis.columbia.edu/~conrad/classes/QED4.html

Earlier post 'How we perceive color' : http://goo.gl/g5b7Xb

Related post 'Why do soap bubbles sometimes appear colored and sometimes appear transparent' : http://goo.gl/f0Haxx

Pic courtesy: From Wikipedia

#science #scienceeveryday #light  ___

2014-08-20 21:07:28 (0 comments, 2 reshares, 17 +1s) 

A Space Opera community for people who may be interested. +John Ward is the founder of this initiative. Some high powered authors are also posting there. Its still very new, so you can check out the new leather smell on the bridge of the spacecraft :) 

#spaceopera  

A Space Opera community for people who may be interested. +John Ward is the founder of this initiative. Some high powered authors are also posting there. Its still very new, so you can check out the new leather smell on the bridge of the spacecraft :) 

#spaceopera  ___

posted image

2014-08-20 20:19:42 (7 comments, 0 reshares, 6 +1s) 

Deflector shields are a common Sci-Fi trope. Isaac Asimov actually used deflector shields as one of the key advances in the Foundation series. 

What are your favorite space opera stories with deflector shields?

Star Wars deflector shields : This is not news really. We have our own deflector shield on Earth. One which keeps us safe from harmful cosmic rays. Earlier posts on the Earth's shields here http://goo.gl/0E6j4W and here http://goo.gl/vb4uyY... Now Physics students have designed a concept for a deflector shield. With one problem...

Article Extract: Those fancy light shields they use in Star Wars to protect themselves against laser attacks aren't necessarily the stuff of science fiction after all. According to three fourth-year physics students at the University of Leicester, not only is the technology scientifically feasible, the science behind the principle is already in use today.

The students worked from the assumption that surrounding an object with a field of super-hot plasma, held in place by an electromagnetic field, would work in the same way. The denser the plasma, the higher the frequency of electromagnetic radiation (the laser blasts) would be deflected. There are a few problems, though. The first is that the magnetic field would have to be pretty strong to hold the plasma in place — requiring a larger generator than could fit on, say, an X-Wing. The other is that the shield deflects electromagnetic radiation — which includes, well, light. This would leave whoever was inside the shield unable to see anything outside.

Article Link: http://www.cnet.com.au/physics-students-design-real-world-star-wars-deflector-shields-339347173.htm

Full paper in the Journal of Physics Special Topics: http://goo.gl/JTypRu ( Shields Up! The Physics of Star Wars - J. McGuire, A. Toohie and A. Pohl, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester )

Additional link : http://phys.org/news/2014-05-physics-students-concept-star-wars-style.html

Pics courtesy: Main article in CNET (Left) and NASA (http://goo.gl/vMWL3P ) on right

#starwars #shield #deflector #maythe4thbewithyou  ___Deflector shields are a common Sci-Fi trope. Isaac Asimov actually used deflector shields as one of the key advances in the Foundation series. 

What are your favorite space opera stories with deflector shields?

posted image

2014-08-20 15:54:25 (67 comments, 28 reshares, 126 +1s) 

Science Posts : are often about new discoveries or about science and related technology. I post a lot within this area. I have often found that while my posts have engagement, it gets hard to explain why the commenter has to stick to the science.

Why can't I talk about my experience : Of course you can, but one has to preface it by saying it is my experience, or its not something backed by research. And be ready to be called on it. Very often commenters will continue to talk about their experiences as if that 'proves' something. Experiences do not make science. It is an experience. What you observe may not be what another person observes. Or it may not be repeatable. (See the Scientific method here http://en.citizendium.org/wiki/scientific_method )

How to make your point scientifically : Science posts may be wrong. That is the nature of science.... more »

Science Posts : are often about new discoveries or about science and related technology. I post a lot within this area. I have often found that while my posts have engagement, it gets hard to explain why the commenter has to stick to the science.

Why can't I talk about my experience : Of course you can, but one has to preface it by saying it is my experience, or its not something backed by research. And be ready to be called on it. Very often commenters will continue to talk about their experiences as if that 'proves' something. Experiences do not make science. It is an experience. What you observe may not be what another person observes. Or it may not be repeatable. (See the Scientific method here http://en.citizendium.org/wiki/scientific_method )

How to make your point scientifically : Science posts may be wrong. That is the nature of science. Sometimes the science may be based on hypothesis which may have counterpoints, but these are continuously tested and refined. Theories are based on observations, so they have a body of work behind them. These are not 'guesses.' Be respectful to the original poster, since often science posts have a lot of work and research which has gone into it. Make your point with research from reputable sites and link back to the research. If you are not sure about it's veracity, ask an expert (There are many on Google Plus).

Does a study make it true : This one is fraught with issues. Often studies may not have a large enough sample size. Or the conclusions one may draw from a study may not be correct. Most scientists are extremely wary of making assertions, even in their own field. They know that there are a lot of variables which need to be taken into account. Science begins with skepticism. Every study needs to be evaluated.

Making your point : Oftentimes, you can make your point with just one comment on a post. Sometimes you make need to make a followup comment. Don't keep repeating your point, making the same assertion again and again. Talking over people does not make you right. It only makes them lose respect for what you are trying to say. Calling someone names is the lowest form of engagement. Do not let it sink to that level.

'Converting' someone : Don't comment to 'convert' someone to your point of view. Science is not about who talks louder or says it more often or cites more studies. Its about relevance, facts, study and repetition. (See my earlier post here How to do science : https://plus.google.com/110884604033336753419/posts/VJrxUt6gUmi )

Science doesn't play favorites : Mentioning Einstein does not make you right. Any scientist would tell you that there are things they do not know. The journey in science is the finding out. One has to live with things which are still not known, and scientists are the best at this way of being.

Join in the journey of finding out, rather than knowing : Science is fascinating. It is incredible. It really is. There is so much I learn just by reading and writing (researching) about how things work, its really something everyone should indulge in. It's brain food. Knowing something is the end of asking. Revel in the journey, not the end.

#science #howto #googleplus  ___

posted image

2014-08-18 09:51:36 (60 comments, 17 reshares, 104 +1s) 

Food choices : This one is a doozy. Apparently we may be influenced by our gut microbiota to devour food, even some which may not be good for us. Researchers are not very clear how this happens, but the study is interesting. So we may not be zombies, but we can be controlled..... I say we are pwned !

Controlled : New research published this week in the journal BioEssays from researchers from UC San Francisco, Arizona State University, and the University of New Mexico says that the microbes that grow in our guts (known as the microbiome) might direct us to make food choices that will help them grow big and strong -- even if those foods make us grow big and fat.

Microbes manipulate us : Some of the foods that can enhance the fitness of the microbes include fat and sugar, which obviously isn't so great for the rest of our body. The exact way in which the microbes... more »

Food choices : This one is a doozy. Apparently we may be influenced by our gut microbiota to devour food, even some which may not be good for us. Researchers are not very clear how this happens, but the study is interesting. So we may not be zombies, but we can be controlled..... I say we are pwned !

Controlled : New research published this week in the journal BioEssays from researchers from UC San Francisco, Arizona State University, and the University of New Mexico says that the microbes that grow in our guts (known as the microbiome) might direct us to make food choices that will help them grow big and strong -- even if those foods make us grow big and fat.

Microbes manipulate us : Some of the foods that can enhance the fitness of the microbes include fat and sugar, which obviously isn't so great for the rest of our body. The exact way in which the microbes exert their influence over us isn't entirely clear, but the researchers postulate that they release some type of signaling molecule. "Microbes have the capacity to manipulate behavior and mood through altering the neural signals in the vagus nerve, changing taste receptors, producing toxins to make us feel bad, and releasing chemical rewards to make us feel good," says a statement about the research.

Balance of power : The speed with which the microbiome can change may be encouraging to those who seek to improve health by altering microbial populations. Optimizing the balance of power among bacterial species in our gut might allow us to lead less obese and healthier lives, according to the authors.

Possible Applications : "Targeting the microbiome could open up possibilities for preventing a variety of disease from obesity and diabetes to cancers of the gastro-intestinal tract. We are only beginning to scratch the surface of the importance of the microbiome for human health," she said.

Main article in +ScienceDaily : http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/08/140815192240.htm

Background paper: http://goo.gl/V2V59m

Earlier post 'You are more bacteria than you are you' : http://goo.gl/BYrFDF

Earlier post 'Love me, love my microbiome' : http://goo.gl/7EWwrt

Additional link: http://www.scienceworldreport.com/articles/16654/20140817/gut-bacteria-rule-food-cravings-choices-influencing-minds.htm

From +CNET : http://www.cnet.com/news/does-our-gut-bacteria-make-us-food-zombies/

Pics courtesy : http://goo.gl/6GEdh7and http://goo.gl/WQUrhu

#scienceeveryday #microbiome #zombies  ___

posted image

2014-08-17 09:41:06 (30 comments, 19 reshares, 109 +1s) 

How trees get ready for winter : Trees often have to survive -30 F temperatures. Some can even live through colder climes. Surprisingly, if the same trees had to live through the same cold temperatures in the wrong season, they would die. Trees have evolved to meet with all kinds of challenges. And while it looks like nothing much is happening in winter, there is a lot of science happening in the background.

Dormancy : The period of dormancy, where plants are ticking over but not growing, comes with the falling temperatures and reduced day length that winter brings. Dormancy is part survival mechanism, part housekeeping exercise, all meant to help plants gear up for warmer days ahead.

Cold Hardiness : Scientists have found that short days and cold temperatures trigger the development of cold hardiness. But it isn't known whether the plant mechanism that slows... more »

How trees get ready for winter : Trees often have to survive -30 F temperatures. Some can even live through colder climes. Surprisingly, if the same trees had to live through the same cold temperatures in the wrong season, they would die. Trees have evolved to meet with all kinds of challenges. And while it looks like nothing much is happening in winter, there is a lot of science happening in the background.

Dormancy : The period of dormancy, where plants are ticking over but not growing, comes with the falling temperatures and reduced day length that winter brings. Dormancy is part survival mechanism, part housekeeping exercise, all meant to help plants gear up for warmer days ahead.

Cold Hardiness : Scientists have found that short days and cold temperatures trigger the development of cold hardiness. But it isn't known whether the plant mechanism that slows growth also starts cold hardiness development or whether they just happen to occur simultaneously.

Slowing metabolism : A drop in temperature slows down a plant's metabolism largely because the enzymes that drive these biochemical reactions don't work so well in the cold. Photosynthesis slows, respiration slows, growth stops. A classic example is your backyard lawn, Atwell says, which stops growing over winter if the temperature is low for long enough. Being exposed to less sunlight also plays a role in grass growth this time of year due to the lower angle of the winter sun and shorter winter days, he says. That means less photosynthesis, which in turn means fewer sugars to metabolise.

Falling leaves : As winter approaches, leaves lose chlorophyll and the tree salvages its constituents — mainly nitrogen, magnesium and phosphates — for recycling. The nutrients are carried back from the leaves into the branches where they're deposited in the bark. Plant hormones (first auxin, then ethylene) then trigger the leaves, which are now largely stripped of nutrients, to fall off the tree.

Seeds : While there may be a little growth in the late summer, growth virtually ceases in the fall in preparation for winter. Entering a dormant state protects the buds from freezing temperatures. Mature seeds contain a complete embryo along with a reserve food supply—and mature seeds are formed within ripened fruit. If it were not for germination inhibitors present in the fruit or seed, the seeds would begin to germinate while still in the fruit.

Sources

ABC.net.au : http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2014/06/11/4022947.htm

http://jxb.oxfordjournals.org/content/65/7/1699.short

+Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dormancy

University of Vermont: http://pss.uvm.edu/ppp/articles/prepare.html

Additional link: http://lifeofplant.blogspot.in/2011/04/dormancy.html

Related paper: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00468-012-0800-x

Pic courtesy: http://goo.gl/NlLQfX

#scienceeveryday #trees #botany  ___

posted image

2014-08-16 04:41:45 (52 comments, 40 reshares, 229 +1s) 

Not just a predator, Terminator level achieved : The red lionfish ( Pterois volitans ) was assumed to be a just another predatory fish. Since it is an invasive species, it often decimates local fish populations. However, researchers have found that unlike most other predators, they do not move if their prey species dwindle and prey are harder to find. They actually wipe out the prey species to local extinction.... a very Terminator-like behaviour.

Article Extract: The finding of behavior that was called “alarming” was presented today by Kurt Ingeman, a researcher from Oregon State University, at the annual meeting of the Ecological Society of America. The new research concludes that lionfish, by comparison, appear to stay in one area even as the numbers of prey diminish, and in some cases can eat the population to local extinction. They have unique characteristics that make thispos... more »

Not just a predator, Terminator level achieved : The red lionfish ( Pterois volitans ) was assumed to be a just another predatory fish. Since it is an invasive species, it often decimates local fish populations. However, researchers have found that unlike most other predators, they do not move if their prey species dwindle and prey are harder to find. They actually wipe out the prey species to local extinction.... a very Terminator-like behaviour.

Article Extract: The finding of behavior that was called “alarming” was presented today by Kurt Ingeman, a researcher from Oregon State University, at the annual meeting of the Ecological Society of America. The new research concludes that lionfish, by comparison, appear to stay in one area even as the numbers of prey diminish, and in some cases can eat the population to local extinction. They have unique characteristics that make this possible, and like the terminator, they simply will not stop until the last of their prey is dead.

The lionfish invasion in the Atlantic Ocean is believed to have begun in the 1980s and now covers an area larger than the entirety of the United States. Ingeman’s adviser, Mark Hixon, and fellow graduate students have shown that lionfish can wipe out more than 90 percent of the native fish in some hard-hit areas.

The arsenal : The Red Lionfish is a venomous coral reef fish. As with many species within the Scopaenidae family, it has large, venomous spines that protrude from the body, similar to a mane, giving it the common name lionfish. The venomous spines make the fish inedible or deter most potential predators.

Article Link: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/08/140814124545.htm

Additional link: http://oregonstate.edu/ua/ncs/archives/2014/aug/lionfish-characteristics-make-them-more-%E2%80%9Cterminator%E2%80%9D-predator

Source: http://www.usm.edu/gcrl/public/fish/red.lionfish.php

Wikipedia link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_lionfish

Related paper: http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/handle/1957/35949

Additional paper: http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/handle/1957/29352

#scienceeveryday #lionfish  ___

posted image

2014-08-15 09:36:16 (70 comments, 55 reshares, 115 +1s) 

Patents - is it time for a revamp? : Scientists and researchers have depended on patents from a long time ago. Science has progressed with the ability to protect an idea. But things have changed rapidly. Most recently +Elon Musk has famously gone open source. Is it time for us to work in an environment which fosters innovation? Are patent trolls and companies like Apple killing the whole concept? You decide. Maybe it is time to go back to defensive publishing, I'm not a lawyer, but its a real problem. I do understand that scientific institutions still depend on patents, and it has it's place.

Some of the issues are serious and will stop us from developing new drugs, increasing the cost of goods, get more people into legal tangles and stifle innovators and inventors. Read on....

What is a patent? : A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state... more »

Patents - is it time for a revamp? : Scientists and researchers have depended on patents from a long time ago. Science has progressed with the ability to protect an idea. But things have changed rapidly. Most recently +Elon Musk has famously gone open source. Is it time for us to work in an environment which fosters innovation? Are patent trolls and companies like Apple killing the whole concept? You decide. Maybe it is time to go back to defensive publishing, I'm not a lawyer, but its a real problem. I do understand that scientific institutions still depend on patents, and it has it's place.

Some of the issues are serious and will stop us from developing new drugs, increasing the cost of goods, get more people into legal tangles and stifle innovators and inventors. Read on....

What is a patent? : A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state to an inventor or assignee for a period of for an invention.

The Issue : Major companies are spending more on patent lawyers than research and development. Apple currently looks like the worst abuser among companies that actually make things.

Lawyers win : It is a machine created and run by lawyers, for lawyers, and which has absolutely no incentive to reform itself.

Unused patent-squatting : Of today’s 2.1 million active patents, 95 percent fail to be licensed or commercialized.  These unlicensed patents include over 50,000 high-quality patented inventions developed by universities.

Bloating the cost of research : More than $5 trillion has been spent in the U.S. alone on research and development over the past 20 years, much of which went to create the very patents that remain unlicensed.

Ignoring technologies : Rather than leveraging America’s patent database for useful ideas that could be licensed and turned to profit, U.S. businesses and their R&D teams are actually incentivized to avert their eyes to potentially helpful innovations.  Prior knowledge of a patent could result in increased penalties if companies are later deemed to be infringing that patent. So they ignore a goldmine of technologies.

Cost of frivolous lawsuits : In 2003, Apple patented the glass staircase that appears in some of their stores. In 2012, Apple successfully sued Samsung for creating a screen that can distinguish between 1 or 2 fingers touching it. They also sued Samsung for copying the iPhone shapes among other things.


Sources

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2012/nov/30/america-dysfunctional-patent-system-innovation

http://www.forbes.com/sites/danielfisher/2014/06/18/13633/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patent#Alternatives_to_applying_for_a_patent

http://www.ipaustralia.gov.au/get-the-right-ip/patents/

http://www.uspto.gov/inventors/patents.jsp

http://www.forbes.com/sites/briansolomon/2014/06/12/tesla-goes-open-source-elon-musk-releases-patents-to-good-faith-use/

http://gigaom.com/2014/06/14/what-elon-musk-did-and-did-not-do-when-he-opened-teslas-patents/

http://www.wired.com/2013/07/patent-law-broken-abused-to-stifle-innovation/

http://www.nextgov.com/emerging-tech/2014/01/broken-immigration-system-and-patent-trolls-are-stifling-tech-innovation/76259/

ETA: Earlier post was to extended circles- sorry for the errata, reposting!

Pic courtesy: http://goo.gl/7DSzkH

#patents #scienceeveryday  ___

posted image

2014-08-13 19:52:27 (6 comments, 8 reshares, 42 +1s) 

What does it take to make music? Apparently PVC pipes and flipflops. Ultracool! :)

h/t +Gita Jaisinghani 

An Aussie street-performer : Quite brillo.
http://aplus.com/a/pipe-guy-techno
Stolen from that other place
h/t +Priyadarshi Verma ___What does it take to make music? Apparently PVC pipes and flipflops. Ultracool! :)

h/t +Gita Jaisinghani 

posted image

2014-08-13 15:40:54 (35 comments, 3 reshares, 69 +1s) 

Taste test : The sensation of taste is far more complex process than one had earlier imagined. It involves not only taste from the mouth, but involves smell, sound, texture and even memory. In the mouth, the tongue is covered with papillae which are composed of hundreds of taste buds. What role does taste play? And how is it important? Read on to know more. h/t to +Knut Torgersen for leading me down this path.

Article Extract: A bitter pill, sour grapes or sweet nothings – descriptions of taste are very often associated with strong emotions. They express in words states of intense pleasure as well as displeasure. The sense of taste influences food preferences and food choices. When people describe how food tastes, they are actually talking about food flavor which also includes aroma, texture, and mouth ‘‘feel’’—and, some would say, even the pleasantness of foods.
Where ... more »

Taste test : The sensation of taste is far more complex process than one had earlier imagined. It involves not only taste from the mouth, but involves smell, sound, texture and even memory. In the mouth, the tongue is covered with papillae which are composed of hundreds of taste buds. What role does taste play? And how is it important? Read on to know more. h/t to +Knut Torgersen for leading me down this path.

Article Extract: A bitter pill, sour grapes or sweet nothings – descriptions of taste are very often associated with strong emotions. They express in words states of intense pleasure as well as displeasure. The sense of taste influences food preferences and food choices. When people describe how food tastes, they are actually talking about food flavor which also includes aroma, texture, and mouth ‘‘feel’’—and, some would say, even the pleasantness of foods.

Where does taste come from? : Mouths also detect the texture and temperature of foods, and the chemical burn of chili peppers and other irritants. Other components of flavor (such as the aroma of vanilla or orange) are airborne particles that come directly through the nasal passages, or enter the nose from the back of the mouth. In more accurate terms, the basic tastes contribute only partially to the sensation and flavor of food in the mouth — other factors include smell, detected by the olfactory epithelium of the nose; texture, detected through a variety of mechanoreceptors, muscle nerves, etc.; temperature, detected by thermoreceptors; and "coolness" (such as of menthol) and "hotness" (pungency), through chemesthesis.

An evolutionary link : This strong link connecting taste with emotion and drive has to do with our evolution: Taste was a sense that aided us in testing the food we were consuming. It was therefore a matter of survival. A bitter or sour taste was an indication of poisonous inedible plants or of rotting protein-rich food. The tastes sweet and salty, on the other hand, are often a sign of food rich in nutrients.

Different tastes come from different chemicals : Saltiness is a taste produced primarily by the presence of sodium ions, Research has shown that TAS2Rs (taste receptors, type 2, also known as T2Rs) such as TAS2R38 coupled to the G protein gustducin are responsible for the human ability to taste bitter substances. Umami is the response to salts of glutamic acid, Sweetness is detected by a variety of G protein coupled receptors coupled to the G protein gustducin found on the taste buds. (for the sake of brevity, I have edited this from a number of sources. To know more, look at the links).

Other things you may not have known which play a part : Language, Utensils, Temperature, Color, Environment, Memory and expectations all play a part in the experience of taste. See http://www.popsci.com/article/science/7-things-affecting-your-sense-taste.

Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0033701/

Encyclopedia.com source: http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Taste_and_Smell.aspx

Wikipedia source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taste

Taste link source: http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/T/Taste.html

From UW : https://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/tasty.html

Video link (for those interested) : The Sense of Taste The Truth About Taste BBC Horizon Documentary

Reference: http://www.termedia.pl/Czasopismo/Przeglad_Gastroenterologiczny-41/Streszczenie-22079

Additional reference: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1084952112002042

Pics courtesy: right middle - http://goo.gl/a8OVFj, top right - http://goo.gl/Pjs3Z4, bottom right - http://goo.gl/j96qv4, pic on left - http://goo.gl/XwjJFl

#science #taste #scienceeveryday  ___

posted image

2014-08-12 10:28:34 (60 comments, 7 reshares, 61 +1s) 

Neuroscientists object to EU's Human Brain Project : This one was a bit of a surprise for me, but, in hindsight, it is logical that the predictive simulations and direct research into human behavior issues would come to a head at some point.

While human behaviour is extremely complex, the two large HBPs are aimed at investigating the nature of the brain via simulations and fMRI results. A lofty goal indeed. Is it a genuine issue, or is it a storm in a teacup? Only time will tell; though the funding at stake is huge. But here are the facts:

Article Extract: More than 180 neuroscientists have signed an open letter to the European Commission calling on it to reconsider the technical goals and oversight of one of the world’s largest brain-mapping projects, predicting it is likely to fail. Governments, including those of the United States and China, have all launched largen... more »

Neuroscientists object to EU's Human Brain Project : This one was a bit of a surprise for me, but, in hindsight, it is logical that the predictive simulations and direct research into human behavior issues would come to a head at some point.

While human behaviour is extremely complex, the two large HBPs are aimed at investigating the nature of the brain via simulations and fMRI results. A lofty goal indeed. Is it a genuine issue, or is it a storm in a teacup? Only time will tell; though the funding at stake is huge. But here are the facts:

Article Extract: More than 180 neuroscientists have signed an open letter to the European Commission calling on it to reconsider the technical goals and oversight of one of the world’s largest brain-mapping projects, predicting it is likely to fail. Governments, including those of the United States and China, have all launched large neuroscience projects to study the brain. But the brain is so massively complex—it has roughly 86 billion neurons and trillions of connections—that there’s little consensus on how to study it. “Why should an information technology project determine neuroscience funding?” says Zachary Mainen, a researcher at the Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown in Portugal, which gathered the signatures after a component of the project it was involved with was cancelled. “It’s not a project that was planned by the neuroscience community. They say they are going to simulate the brain, but I don’t think anyone believes that.”

The HBP : The European Union agreed last year to invest more than one billion euros in the Human Brain Project (HBP), a 10-year effort involving dozens of research institutions to create a simulation of how the human brain works, using supercomputers.

The criticism : That focus on computer simulations is what’s generating the most withering criticism. Konrad Kording, a neuroscientist at Northwestern University, calls the European project “useless and misleading” and says there is “genuine concern that the neuroscience community in Europe will be damaged by a very high-profile project that is deeply misguided.”

Response from the HBP : There is no question that cognition and behaviour are vital for the HBP. A group of cognitive neuroscientists was recently repositioned to what are called HBP Partnering Projects, where they can continue their independent investigations. The core HBP project will focus on building the ICT platforms. As they become established and evolve with detailed biological and theoretically inspired models, cognitive neuroscientists will be essential to experiment with the models and to perform biological
experiments.

Article link: http://www.technologyreview.com/news/528796/neuroscientists-object-to-europes-human-brain-project/

HBP Link: https://www.humanbrainproject.eu/

Wikipedia link on HBP : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Brain_Project

The U.S. Brain Initiative : http://www.nih.gov/science/brain/

Additional link: http://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/european-commission-defends-human-brain-project/40515334

Additional link: http://csnblog.specs-lab.com/2014/07/18/human-brain-project-under-attack/#more-5378

Link to earlier post: https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/103586346709495625226/+LacerantPlainerWrites/posts/XMgcVENCKH5

Pic courtesy: HBP

#science #brain #humanbrainproject #neuroscience  ___

posted image

2014-08-11 09:30:19 (15 comments, 15 reshares, 80 +1s) 

Bionic plants could be supercharged energy producers : The story broke in March, but I decided to wait and read the science behind this news before posting. Firstly bionic plants are ultracool, but binding chloroplasts with carbon nanotubes takes it to a whole new level. A word of caution - these are preliminary findings and long term effects need to be studied before there can be an attempt at commercialization. Still it's a cool story.... 

Instead of mobile phone towers and street lights, imagine a world where trees light our way at night, are producers of oxygen and energy; and branches are antennae.

Boosting the signal : Chloroplasts aren't very efficient. They do not absorb green light (which is why most plants appear green) as well as the sun's heat, also known as infrared light. They generally waste a lot more sunlight than they use; photosynthesis... more »

Bionic plants could be supercharged energy producers : The story broke in March, but I decided to wait and read the science behind this news before posting. Firstly bionic plants are ultracool, but binding chloroplasts with carbon nanotubes takes it to a whole new level. A word of caution - these are preliminary findings and long term effects need to be studied before there can be an attempt at commercialization. Still it's a cool story.... 

Instead of mobile phone towers and street lights, imagine a world where trees light our way at night, are producers of oxygen and energy; and branches are antennae.

Boosting the signal : Chloroplasts aren't very efficient. They do not absorb green light (which is why most plants appear green) as well as the sun's heat, also known as infrared light. They generally waste a lot more sunlight than they use; photosynthesis maxes out at roughly 10 percent of the incoming sunshine.  What have scientists done? They have boosted plant's photosynthesis activity so that the efficiency is boosted by a factor of three.

Sensors and self-repair : In addition researchers have been able to make plants sensitive to certain substances, opening the path to their use as sensors; and enhance plant repair, allowing for the possible harnessing of plant energy as a fuel.

Nanoparticle infusion into plants : The first technique is known as "vascular infusion" and involves forcing under pressure a cerium oxide nanoparticle solution through the pores in the leaf from which water normally evaporates. In the second method, known as lipid exchange envelope penetration or LEEP, nanoparticles are coated with a highly negative or highly positive polymer coating that promotes absorption of the nanoparticle through the chloroplast membrane. Strano says as the membrane "re-heals" after absorption the nanoparticle is trapped within the chloroplast, which he calls the "engine of the plant".

Article link:  from +ABC News : http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2014/03/17/3964430.htm

Source from +Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) : http://newsoffice.mit.edu/2014/bionic-plants

Abstract from research paper: Research Paper : http://www.nature.com/nmat/journal/v13/n4/full/nmat3890.html

SA link : http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/bionic-plants-offer-superpowered-photosynthesis/

Wikipedia link on Bionics: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bionics

Pic bottom right and link to +io9 article: http://io9.com/new-bionic-plants-could-replace-street-lights-and-cel-1545572426
     
Link to main pic : http://goo.gl/3Odm0k (for illustration purposes only)

Pic top right: From main article: This Arabidopsis plant with carbon nanotubes inside its leaves could act as a photonic biochemical detector (Source: Juan Pablo Giraldo)

#science #bionics #plants #photosynthesis  ___

posted image

2014-08-10 10:50:29 (33 comments, 64 reshares, 347 +1s) 

Before the birth of the Sun : Monash University researchers have been investigating the period before the appearance of the Sun. While this is a combination of archeology and geology and astronomy. It only highlights that astronomers peer into the past - sometimes far beyond what anyone else does,  to come up with viable hypothesis on how our Sun was born. Interesting story which is part of our history.

Prehistory of the solar system : "Using heavy radioactive nuclei found in meteorites to time these final additions, we have got a clearer understanding of the prehistory of the solar system," Lugaro said. "We can now tell with confidence the final one per cent of gold, silver and platinum, were added to the solar system matter roughly 100 million years before the birth of the sun. "The final one per cent of lead and rare-earth elements, such as those that make... more »

Before the birth of the Sun : Monash University researchers have been investigating the period before the appearance of the Sun. While this is a combination of archeology and geology and astronomy. It only highlights that astronomers peer into the past - sometimes far beyond what anyone else does,  to come up with viable hypothesis on how our Sun was born. Interesting story which is part of our history.

Prehistory of the solar system : "Using heavy radioactive nuclei found in meteorites to time these final additions, we have got a clearer understanding of the prehistory of the solar system," Lugaro said. "We can now tell with confidence the final one per cent of gold, silver and platinum, were added to the solar system matter roughly 100 million years before the birth of the sun. "The final one per cent of lead and rare-earth elements, such as those that make your smart phone, was added much later - at most, 30 million years before the birth of the sun."

Stellar nursery : Some time after the last addition of heavy elements the solar system matter went into an 'incubation' period, during which time the stellar nursery formed - where the sun was born together with a number of other stars. "We now know this incubation period could not have lasted more than 30 million years. This offers us the chance to determine the lifespan of the nursery where the sun was born, how massive it was and how many stars were born there together," Dr Lugaro said. "Ultimately, we want to have a clear understanding of the circumstances of the birth of our star and the prehistory of the solar system.

Stellar nucleosynthesis : The process by which the natural abundances of the chemical elements within stars vary due to nuclear fusion reactions in the cores and overlying mantles of stars. Stars are said to evolve (age) with changes in the abundances of the elements within. Core fusion increases the atomic weight of its gaseous elements, causing pressure loss and contraction accompanied by increase of temperature. Structural changes of the star (evolution) become necessary to stabilize it. Stars lose most of their mass when it is ejected late in their stellar lifetimes, thereby increasing the abundance of elements heavier than helium in the interstellar medium.

Article link: http://www.science20.com/news_articles/solar_system_prehistory_what_caused_the_birth_of_the_sun-142206

Wikipedia link : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stellar_nucleosynthesis

Sciencedaily article source: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/08/140807145746.htm

Abstract of paper: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/345/6197/650

Reference material from Monash U : http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-08/mu-sct080414.php

Summary: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/345/6197/620.summary

Pic courtesy: http://astarmathsandphysics.com/a-level-physics-notes/cosmology/a-level-physics-notes-cosmology-the-birth-of-the-solar-system.html (for illustration only)

#scienceeveryday #sciencesunday  ___

posted image

2014-08-09 06:16:41 (169 comments, 302 reshares, 1254 +1s) 

Lego for adults: At least for building houses : While the claims of green building seems a little over the top, the whole concept of the 'Smart Bricks' does bring out the geek in me. And getting a huge robot to build something for you is even cooler ;)

Article extract: Kite Bricks is currently developing a modular construction system that is so much like Lego, I’m not sure what’s harder to believe: the fact that this is serious proposal, that it doesn’t infringe the toymaker’s patent, or that no one has done it yet. The patent (pending) for their "Smart Bricks" reads like a legally binding contract for a particularly prescriptive playdate.

In comparison to standard bricks or concrete blocks, the Smart Brick claims to offer greater thermal energy control, lower construction costs and greater versatility. The specially formulated concrete blocks  aredesigned ... more »

Lego for adults: At least for building houses : While the claims of green building seems a little over the top, the whole concept of the 'Smart Bricks' does bring out the geek in me. And getting a huge robot to build something for you is even cooler ;)

Article extract: Kite Bricks is currently developing a modular construction system that is so much like Lego, I’m not sure what’s harder to believe: the fact that this is serious proposal, that it doesn’t infringe the toymaker’s patent, or that no one has done it yet. The patent (pending) for their "Smart Bricks" reads like a legally binding contract for a particularly prescriptive playdate.

In comparison to standard bricks or concrete blocks, the Smart Brick claims to offer greater thermal energy control, lower construction costs and greater versatility. The specially formulated concrete blocks  are designed to be easily connected and include an internal space for the building’s insulation, mechanical, plumbing and electrical systems. Removable panels make it easy to install and access the building’s infrastructure. They can be easily assembled with just a little industrial double-sided tape and fit with custom finishing, so, like Lego, there’s “no additional need to paint, hang wallpaper or otherwise treat the outer and inner walls of the final structure."

Article Link: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/no-more-playing-around-smart-bricks-are-architectural-legos-180952215/

Company website: http://kitebricks.com/

Additional link : http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2014-07/01/kite-bricks

#lego #construction #smartbricks  ___

posted image

2014-08-07 07:35:16 (37 comments, 14 reshares, 70 +1s) 

Amazing Colour Changing Card Trick : The topic is not news or even new. I just found this interesting video about the card trick in question. If you have seen this before, please do not give it away in the comments.

The main post follows  after a few lines (for obvious reasons to avoid spoilers to people who are watching the trick for the first time). Again request you to not comment and give away the trick....











scroll down










Change Blindness : a surprising perceptual phenomenon that occurs when a change in a visual stimulus is introduced and the observer does not notice it. For example, observers often fail to notice major differences introduced into an image while it flickers off and on again. People's poor ability to detect changes has been... more »

Amazing Colour Changing Card Trick : The topic is not news or even new. I just found this interesting video about the card trick in question. If you have seen this before, please do not give it away in the comments.

The main post follows  after a few lines (for obvious reasons to avoid spoilers to people who are watching the trick for the first time). Again request you to not comment and give away the trick....











scroll down










Change Blindness : a surprising perceptual phenomenon that occurs when a change in a visual stimulus is introduced and the observer does not notice it. For example, observers often fail to notice major differences introduced into an image while it flickers off and on again. People's poor ability to detect changes has been argued to reflect fundamental limitations of human attention. Change blindness has become a highly researched topic and some have argued that it may have important practical implications in areas such as eyewitness testimony and distractions while driving.

h/t to +Gita Jaisinghani for making we watch this while doing a course in social psychology.

From Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Change_blindness

Another example: http://www.cogsci.uci.edu/~ddhoff/cb.html

Reference : http://www.yale.edu/perception/Brian/demos/CBB.html

Can we trust our eyes? http://scienceblogs.com/cognitivedaily/2009/06/24/were-shockingly-bad-at-noticin/

#cardtrick  ___

posted image

2014-08-06 15:42:22 (53 comments, 14 reshares, 118 +1s) 

How did Dinosaurs get Supersized? : I remember this kid who was really interested in Dinosaurs asking me this question. I did some digging and came up with some guesses. We still don't know for sure. But we have better answers to possible causes. Largely the higher levels of oxygen, the types of plants which existed (lack of flowers) the development of longer necks in Sauropods; all contributed to the supersized dinosaurs.

New information: The gigantism of these vertebrates, unique in the history of the Earth, raises many questions, such as why no other land creatures have ever achieved this size and what their bauplan, physiology, and life cycle would have been like. Although the bone structure and the density of certain tissues of sauropods were similar to those of today's mammals, the results do not conclusively demonstrate that sauropods were also endothermic animals.... more »

How did Dinosaurs get Supersized? : I remember this kid who was really interested in Dinosaurs asking me this question. I did some digging and came up with some guesses. We still don't know for sure. But we have better answers to possible causes. Largely the higher levels of oxygen, the types of plants which existed (lack of flowers) the development of longer necks in Sauropods; all contributed to the supersized dinosaurs.

New information: The gigantism of these vertebrates, unique in the history of the Earth, raises many questions, such as why no other land creatures have ever achieved this size and what their bauplan, physiology, and life cycle would have been like. Although the bone structure and the density of certain tissues of sauropods were similar to those of today's mammals, the results do not conclusively demonstrate that sauropods were also endothermic animals. Werner and Griebeler discuss the hypothesis that a high rate of reproduction contributed to the gigantism of the large dinosaurs. They discovered that the reproductive pattern of most dinosaurs was similar to that of modern reptiles and birds. (http://goo.gl/OtAwuy)

Arms race : Some species of dinosaurs may have evolved to a larger stature as a way of escaping predators or gaining a competitive advantage. Studies of growth rings in dinosaur bones by Greg Erickson of Florida State University and others show that baby dinosaurs grew to maturity at dazzling speed. They practically exploded from their eggs. A bouncy little apatosaur could become a 30-ton beast in just 20 years.  Tyrannosaurs, the dominant meat-eaters of the late Cretaceous, grew steadily until they were teenagers and then went through a growth spurt, becoming five times larger in just seven years. That meant that one species came in two lethal sizes—medium and large—and could effectively dominate two ecological niches. But there's a problem with the simple bigger-is-better explanation: Most dinosaurs weren't giants. Small bones don't preserve as well, so the fossils (and museum displays) tend to overrepresent the behemoths. There were plenty of dog-size and even chicken-size dinosaurs, and one, known as Microraptor, no bigger than a pigeon. That guy was a real terror. (http://goo.gl/rdmPXt)

Long necks : In modern mammals, chewing muscles and the heads that have to support them have to grow larger relative to body size as absolute body size increases. Thus free from this constraint, sauropods were able to evolve relatively small heads that required far less energy to carry and to move around, thus allowing necks to elongate and feeding envelopes - the amount of food ("browse") that an animal can reach without having to walk - to increase. By swinging their tiny head around on a very long neck, a huge amount of browse is available at little energetic cost, allowing the evolution of faster food intake rates, larger guts and larger body mass. (http://goo.gl/x64Enm)

Flora : (Some) paleontologists suggest that some plant-eating dinosaurs might have gotten so big because the foliage in that era was extremely tough and woody: A larger body frame meant a longer digestive tract and more time for bacteria to do its work, allowing the dinosaur to extract as much nutritional value as possible from each bite. (http://goo.gl/iwWS7E)

Sources: +Phys.org, +National Geographic, +Slate, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz.

Related : Giant dragonflies: http://www.wired.com/2010/11/huge-dragonflies-oxygen/

Related articles: http://www.ploscollections.org/article/browse/issue/info:doi/10.1371/issue.pcol.v02.i22

Sauropod dinosaurs: Evolution of gigantism : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-185X.2010.00137.x/full

Sciencemag link: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/322/5899/200.short

Pic courtesy (From Jurassic Park) : http://jurassicpark3d.tumblr.com/post/45923556675/jurassic-park-3d-in

#science #dinosaurs #giants  ___

posted image

2014-08-05 10:39:05 (55 comments, 24 reshares, 160 +1s) 

The Shkadov Thruster : Moving the solar system : The Shkadov thruster is a theoretical mirror larger than the Sun. The role? To potentially move the Sun to another place if required. It has been portrayed in some Science Fiction novels including Bowl of Heaven and its sequel Shipstar by Gregory Benford and Larry Niven. Some of the cosmic megastructures are just amazing in the sheer audacity in the thinking behind them!

Article Extract: Russian physicist Leonid Shkadov presented the megastructure concept in a 1987 paper at the 38th Congress of the International Astronautical Federation. In about a billion years our aging sun will become hot enough to boil off Earth's oceans. But we needn't let our world bake to death. By devising a megastructure called a Shkadov Thruster, we could cruise our solar system—sun, planets, and all—close enough to a younger star for it togra... more »

The Shkadov Thruster : Moving the solar system : The Shkadov thruster is a theoretical mirror larger than the Sun. The role? To potentially move the Sun to another place if required. It has been portrayed in some Science Fiction novels including Bowl of Heaven and its sequel Shipstar by Gregory Benford and Larry Niven. Some of the cosmic megastructures are just amazing in the sheer audacity in the thinking behind them!

Article Extract: Russian physicist Leonid Shkadov presented the megastructure concept in a 1987 paper at the 38th Congress of the International Astronautical Federation. In about a billion years our aging sun will become hot enough to boil off Earth's oceans. But we needn't let our world bake to death. By devising a megastructure called a Shkadov Thruster, we could cruise our solar system—sun, planets, and all—close enough to a younger star for it to gravitationally capture Earth. By enabling us to swap our sun for another, the Shkadov Thruster could give the planet's biota a brand new lease on life.

The Shkadov Thruster setup is simple (in theory): It's just a colossal, arc-shaped mirror, with the concave side facing the sun. Builders would place the mirror at an arbitrary distance where gravitational attraction from the sun is balanced out by the outward pressure of its radiation. The mirror thus becomes a stable, static satellite in equilibrium between gravity's tug and sunlight's push. Solar radiation reflects off the mirror's inner, curved surface back toward the sun, effectively pushing our star with its own sunlight—the reflected energy produces a tiny net thrust. Voilà, a Shkadov Thruster, and humanity is ready to hit the galactic trail.

'Minor Problems' : If humanity were ever crazy or desperate enough to build a Shkadov, the first order of business would be deciding where to place the megastructure. Much of the space-facing side of the thruster would probably need to be lined with cooling fins. These fins would radiate away excess solar heat in order to keep the mirror from deforming or melting, depending upon its material.

The thruster, of course, could not be positioned in Earth's orbital path. A logical spot for it would be above or below the plane of Earth's orbit, with the reflective mirror beaming energy mostly perpendicularly. For a thruster with a mirror angle of 30 degrees, the usual presumed curvature, Earth would still catch some extra rays.

The other problem is simply acquiring enough material to build the behemoth structure. Badescu estimated that 1/10,000 of Earth's mass would be required—probably about a sextillion pounds. Shkadov's figure is a bit higher, more like septillion pounds. Either way, it's hefty.

Space travelling a whole new way : Lining up our speeding solar system with the target star so that Earth seamlessly transfers into a nice, circular orbit around its new host would surely make for some hairy course correcting en route. Exquisite timing would be needed so that Earth, in its regular orbit, is situated on the side of our sun as near as possible to the other star for gravitational capture during the stars' close pass. Shkadov's original paper, however, suggested it could be done.

Article link: http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/space/deep/the-shkadov-thruster-or-how-to-move-an-entire-solar-system-17000392

Abstract of original paper: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987brig.iafcR....S

Paper related to the story : http://arxiv.org/abs/1306.1672

Additional article: http://www.astronomytoday.com/exploration/solartravel.html

Wikipedia link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stellar_engine

Related : http://news.discovery.com/space/alien-life-exoplanets/planet-searches-might-stumble-across-an-alien-stellar-engine-130625.htm

Pic top right: http://www.orionsarm.com/eg-article/49f85ad889279 (Accelerating Stars Gravitationally using unpowered Stationary Satellites), Pic bottom right : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stellar_engine (Diagram of a Class C Stellar Engine—to scale—built around a sun like star. It consists of a partial Dyson swarm composed of 5 Dyson Rings of solar collectors (the Class B component), and a large statite Shkadov thruster (the Class A component). Pic left: http://www.kurzweilai.net/what-our-civilization-needs-is-a-billion-year-plan - Artist’s concept of a Kardashev Type 2 civilization (credit: Chris Cold)

#shkadovthruster #cosmicstructures #sciencefiction  ___

posted image

2014-08-04 08:59:57 (42 comments, 20 reshares, 75 +1s) 

The Em-drive: NASA dabbles in speculation : The Em-drive was earlier called the Q-Drive. The claim that the Em-drive can convert electricity into thrust has been around for some time. But this time, NASA is paying attention. Apparently a Chinese team has built it's own Em-drive though most physicists remain skeptical. I am too.

Article Extract: Nasa is a major player in space science, so when a team from the agency this week presents evidence that "impossible" microwave thrusters seem to work, something strange is definitely going on. Either the results are completely wrong, or Nasa has confirmed a major breakthrough in space propulsion.

Shawyer claims the EmDrive converts electric power into thrust, without the need for any propellant by bouncing microwaves around in a closed container. He has built a number of demonstration systems, but critics reject his... more »

The Em-drive: NASA dabbles in speculation : The Em-drive was earlier called the Q-Drive. The claim that the Em-drive can convert electricity into thrust has been around for some time. But this time, NASA is paying attention. Apparently a Chinese team has built it's own Em-drive though most physicists remain skeptical. I am too.

Article Extract: Nasa is a major player in space science, so when a team from the agency this week presents evidence that "impossible" microwave thrusters seem to work, something strange is definitely going on. Either the results are completely wrong, or Nasa has confirmed a major breakthrough in space propulsion.

Shawyer claims the EmDrive converts electric power into thrust, without the need for any propellant by bouncing microwaves around in a closed container. He has built a number of demonstration systems, but critics reject his relativity-based theory and insist that, according to the law of conservation of momentum, it cannot work.

A US scientist, Guido Fetta, has built his own propellant-less microwave thruster, and managed to persuade Nasa to test it out. The test results were presented on July 30 at the 50th Joint Propulsion Conference in Cleveland, Ohio. Astonishingly enough, they are positive.

Article link: http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2014-07/31/nasa-validates-impossible-space-drive

+Popular Science Link: http://www.popsci.com/article/technology/fuel-less-space-drive-may-actually-work-says-nasa?dom=PSC&loc=recent&lnk=7&con=fuelless-space-drive-may-actually-work-says-nasa

NASA Technical report: http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140006052

Related : http://mashable.com/2014/08/02/emdrive-mars-momentum/ (pic courtesy) Additional pic from Wired.com

SPR Emdrive website: http://emdrive.com/

Related : http://www.popsci.com/technology/article/2013-03/warp-factor

#science #emdrive #spacecraft  ___

posted image

2014-08-02 13:32:07 (21 comments, 20 reshares, 79 +1s) 

'Refrigerator magnets' : The name is misleading ... just a tad, and the technology is a little ways off, but it's an interesting line of enquiry which is being followed by researchers at MIT. What they have done is shown theoretically that the motion of magnons (quasi-particles, which are actually collective rotations of magnetic moments in ferromagnetic materials ) are capable of carrying heat. This is the basic way that all refrigerators work. Except they do not use magnets!

Article extract: “You can pump heat from one side to the other, so you can essentially use a magnet as a refrigerator,” says Bolin Liao, a graduate student in MIT’s Department of Mechanical Engineering. “You can envision wireless cooling where you apply a magnetic field to a magnet one or two meters away to, say, cool your laptop.”

In theory, Liao says, such a magnetically drivenrefrigera... more »

'Refrigerator magnets' : The name is misleading ... just a tad, and the technology is a little ways off, but it's an interesting line of enquiry which is being followed by researchers at MIT. What they have done is shown theoretically that the motion of magnons (quasi-particles, which are actually collective rotations of magnetic moments in ferromagnetic materials ) are capable of carrying heat. This is the basic way that all refrigerators work. Except they do not use magnets!

Article extract: “You can pump heat from one side to the other, so you can essentially use a magnet as a refrigerator,” says Bolin Liao, a graduate student in MIT’s Department of Mechanical Engineering. “You can envision wireless cooling where you apply a magnetic field to a magnet one or two meters away to, say, cool your laptop.”

In theory, Liao says, such a magnetically driven refrigerator would require no moving parts, unlike conventional iceboxes that pump fluid through a set of pipes to keep things cool. In many ways, magnons are similar to electrons, which can simultaneously carry electrical charge and conduct heat. Electrons move in response to either an electric field or a temperature gradient — a phenomenon known as the thermoelectric effect. In recent years, scientists have investigated this effect for applications such as thermoelectric generators, which can be used to convert heat directly into electricity, or to deliver cooling without any moving parts.

Liao and his colleagues recognized a similar “coupled” phenomenon in magnons, which move in response to two forces: a temperature gradient or a magnetic field. Because magnons behave much like electrons in this aspect, the researchers developed a theory of magnon transport based on a widely established equation for electron transport in thermoelectrics, called the Boltzmann transport equation.

“There’s still a long way to go for thermoelectrics to compete with traditional technologies,” Liao says. “Studying the magnetic degree of freedom could potentially help optimize existing systems and improve the thermoelectric efficiency.”

Article link: http://newsoffice.mit.edu/2014/theory-predicts-magnets-may-act-as-wireless-cooling-agents-0725

Research paper: http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.0279

Related story : http://newsoffice.mit.edu/2014/new-way-harness-waste-heat-0521

Link to 'What are Magnons' : https://www.uni-muenster.de/Physik.AP/Demokritov/en/Forschen/Forschungsschwerpunkte/mBECwam.html

Wikipedia link to Magnon: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnon

Link to Spin waves: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spin_wave

Pics Courtesy: MIT, dpaonthenet.net and upi.com

#scienceeveryday #cooling #magnets  ___

posted image

2014-08-01 09:40:49 (81 comments, 61 reshares, 207 +1s) 

How to Science : Recently, I have been trolled pinged by a number of people who have asked me to talk about perpetual motion machines, thunderbolt universes, how magnetism affects mood, niburu or somesuch and a lot of other such stuff. One chap even 'debunked' the second law of thermodynamics based on a youtube video.... (keep your baloney detection kit ready).

Why science is important : Science is a method. Yes, we make mistakes, make assumptions, make hypothesis, which when supported by observations are elevated to theories.... and here is the main thing, we have to have observations that are repeatable, free of bias and need to be analyzed. This is an iterative process and involves external checks and balances, data recording and rigor. The first such process recorded (from Wikipedia) In the 7th century BCE, Daniel, a Jewish captive of the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar,... more »

How to Science : Recently, I have been trolled pinged by a number of people who have asked me to talk about perpetual motion machines, thunderbolt universes, how magnetism affects mood, niburu or somesuch and a lot of other such stuff. One chap even 'debunked' the second law of thermodynamics based on a youtube video.... (keep your baloney detection kit ready).

Why science is important : Science is a method. Yes, we make mistakes, make assumptions, make hypothesis, which when supported by observations are elevated to theories.... and here is the main thing, we have to have observations that are repeatable, free of bias and need to be analyzed. This is an iterative process and involves external checks and balances, data recording and rigor. The first such process recorded (from Wikipedia) In the 7th century BCE, Daniel, a Jewish captive of the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar, conducted a scientific experiment complete with a hypothesis, a control group, a treatment group, and a conclusion.

Is there a way to find verifiable information : Sure, but it still needs to have rigor. A youtube reference is not a good benchmark. Most news sites are also not good indicators. Reputed science sites, reference papers and peer reviewed publications are good places to look. Even then not all of them are the best quality.

Why shouldn't I believe in flying chariots? The Nazca lines prove that chariots can fly : You are free to believe whatever you want. But remember, it is not something anyone will take seriously since your claim is based on belief, not proof or a method which involves rigor, repeatability and removal of bias.

Who should I ask? : Ask people who are experts in their field. There are quality scientists, chemists, biologists, physicists here on G+.... reach out and ask them. There are also sources like askamathematician where you can post your queries. They really do respond.

More about the Scientific method: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_method

The scientific process: http://www2.nau.edu/~gaud/bio372/class/behavior/sciproc.htm

The real process: http://undsci.berkeley.edu/article/0_0_0/howscienceworks_02

Comic from http://homepages.wmich.edu/~korista/sci-pseudo-rel.html

#science #rant #commenting  ___

posted image

2014-07-31 12:30:10 (2 comments, 1 reshares, 22 +1s) 

+Charles Strebor does magic with his orbs. Do see if you want any of the prints and share if you can :)

Prints for Sale
We are now selling a selection of +Charles Strebor Orb photos. These images are printed on canvas, stretched ready to hang on the wall. 

http://www.dotstospots.com.au/product/rested/

http://www.dotstospots.com.au/product-category/prints-for-sale/charles-strebor/___+Charles Strebor does magic with his orbs. Do see if you want any of the prints and share if you can :)

posted image

2014-07-31 09:40:08 (47 comments, 34 reshares, 156 +1s) 

Black Holes: I had the distinct feeling of being trolled : But I read this article some time back, about how black holes may not have an event horizon. While it is a radical proposal, Stephen Hawking suggests that there may be an 'apparent horizon' which does release matter and energy, albeit in an garbled form. While others have reported this earlier, I wanted to digest some of the implications before I posted, so this is not news. Just interesting to know :)

Article Extract : “There is no escape from a black hole in classical theory,” Hawking told Nature. Quantum theory, however, “enables energy and information to escape from a black hole”. A full explanation of the process, the physicist admits, would require a theory that successfully merges gravity with the other fundamental forces of nature. But that is a goal that has eluded physicists for nearly a century. “Thecorrect t... more »

Black Holes: I had the distinct feeling of being trolled : But I read this article some time back, about how black holes may not have an event horizon. While it is a radical proposal, Stephen Hawking suggests that there may be an 'apparent horizon' which does release matter and energy, albeit in an garbled form. While others have reported this earlier, I wanted to digest some of the implications before I posted, so this is not news. Just interesting to know :)

Article Extract : “There is no escape from a black hole in classical theory,” Hawking told Nature. Quantum theory, however, “enables energy and information to escape from a black hole”. A full explanation of the process, the physicist admits, would require a theory that successfully merges gravity with the other fundamental forces of nature. But that is a goal that has eluded physicists for nearly a century. “The correct treatment,” Hawking says, “remains a mystery.”

The issue : Hawking's new work is an attempt to solve what is known as the black-hole firewall paradox, which has been vexing physicists for almost two years. In a thought experiment, researchers asked what would happen to an astronaut falling into a black hole. Physicists had long assumed, the astronaut would happily pass through the event horizon, unaware of his or her impending doom, before gradually being pulled inwards — stretched out along the way, like spaghetti — and eventually crushed at the 'singularity'. Polchinski’s team came to the startling realization that the laws of quantum mechanics, change the situation completely. Quantum theory dictates that the event horizon must actually be transformed into a highly energetic region, or 'firewall', that would burn the astronaut to a crisp. This was alarming because, although the firewall obeyed quantum rules, it flouted Einstein’s general theory of relativity. According to that theory, someone in free fall should perceive the laws of physics as being identical everywhere in the Universe — whether they are falling into a black hole or floating in empty intergalactic space. As far as Einstein is concerned, the event horizon should be an unremarkable place.

'Apparent Horizon' : Now Hawking proposes a third, tantalizingly simple, option. Quantum mechanics and general relativity remain intact, but black holes simply do not have an event horizon to catch fire. The key to his claim is that quantum effects around the black hole cause space-time to fluctuate too wildly for a sharp boundary surface to exist.

+Brian Koberlein an expert on the matter discusses the paper: http://briankoberlein.com/2014/02/03/edge/

Article link: http://www.nature.com/news/stephen-hawking-there-are-no-black-holes-1.14583

ArXiv paper: http://arxiv.org/abs/1401.5761 (PDF is full-access for download)

+Wikipedia link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_hole

Pics courtesy: _On left: jila.colorado.edu (Journey into a Schwarzschild black hole) on right: http://goo.gl/RnT0CY. Pics for illustration purposes only.

#blackhole #astrophysics  ___

posted image

2014-07-29 11:06:58 (42 comments, 27 reshares, 110 +1s) 

How carbon nanostructures can make better batteries : Lithium in today's batteries are in the electrolyte, not the anode. The reason for this is the issue with anode expansion when using Lithium as an anode. At the nano level, it expands leading to cracks in the structure, which in turn degrades performance.

Thanks to +Sophie Wrobel and +Dirk Reul for reminding me to do the background check on this one.

Nanospheres to protect the Li anode : To solve these problems the Stanford researchers built a protective layer of interconnected carbon domes on top of their lithium anode. This layer is what the team has called nanospheres. The nanosphere layer resembles a honeycomb: it creates a flexible, uniform and non-reactive film that protects the unstable lithium from the drawbacks that have made it such a challenge. The carbon nanosphere wall is just 20 nanometers thick. The... more »

How carbon nanostructures can make better batteries : Lithium in today's batteries are in the electrolyte, not the anode. The reason for this is the issue with anode expansion when using Lithium as an anode. At the nano level, it expands leading to cracks in the structure, which in turn degrades performance.

Thanks to +Sophie Wrobel and +Dirk Reul for reminding me to do the background check on this one.

Nanospheres to protect the Li anode : To solve these problems the Stanford researchers built a protective layer of interconnected carbon domes on top of their lithium anode. This layer is what the team has called nanospheres. The nanosphere layer resembles a honeycomb: it creates a flexible, uniform and non-reactive film that protects the unstable lithium from the drawbacks that have made it such a challenge. The carbon nanosphere wall is just 20 nanometers thick. The nanosphere layer is made of amorphous carbon, which is chemically stable, yet strong and flexible so as to move freely up and down with the lithium as it expands and contracts during the battery’s normal charge-discharge cycle.

Protection against expansion leads to efficiency : In technical terms, the nanospheres improve the coulombic efficiency of the battery—a ratio of the amount of lithium that can be extracted from the anode when the battery is in use compared to the amount put in during charging. A single round of this give-and-take process is called a cycle. Generally, to be commercially viable, a battery must have a coulombic efficiency of 99.9 percent or more, ideally over as many cycles as possible. Previous anodes of unprotected lithium metal achieved approximately 96 percent efficiency, which dropped to less than 50 percent in just 100 cycles—not nearly good enough. The Stanford team’s new lithium metal anode achieves 99 percent efficiency even at 150 cycles.

Inspiration from pomegranates : The story of this breakthrough spanned 8 years at the Stanford labs. Over the past eight years, Cui’s team has tackled the breakage problem by using silicon nanowires or nanoparticles that are too small to break into even smaller bits and encasing the nanoparticles in carbon “yolk shells” that give them room to swell and shrink during charging. The study builds on that work. Graduate student Nian Liu and postdoctoral researcher Zhenda Lu used a microemulsion technique common in the oil, paint and cosmetic industries to gather silicon yolk shells into clusters, and coated each cluster with a second, thicker layer of carbon. These carbon rinds hold the pomegranate clusters together and provide a sturdy highway for electrical currents.

+ScienceBlog.com source: http://goo.gl/0dqqnW

+SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and +Stanford University source: http://goo.gl/NimIi1

+ExtremeTech link : http://goo.gl/U7208E

Nature Nanotech paper: http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2014.152.html

Related dive into why Lithium ion batteries are preferred: http://goo.gl/ul7CJT

+Smithsonian Magazine parallel research article: http://goo.gl/SgXOR1

Related 3D Printed batteries : http://goo.gl/2sZk2i

Pic detail : A novel battery electrode features silicon nanoparticles clustered like pomegranate seeds in a tough carbon rind. (Illustration by Greg Stewart/SLAC) (for illustration purposes only)

#battery #technology #lithium  ___

posted image

2014-07-27 10:27:36 (25 comments, 23 reshares, 97 +1s) 

Google X embarks on 'Baseline Study': An endeavor to pin down biomarkers : Reports suggest that Google X has launched a new 'moonshot' which is intended to better understand the human body. If successful in finding patterns in human health or 'biomarkers' , the attempt will be to proactively address problems which could crop up based on analysis of huge amounts of data. Is it something which has worked in the past? Not really, but with the kind of computing Google has at hand, it is very likely they can attempt such a project. Will it be successful? Your guess is as good as mine.

Proactive medicine : The plan is to collect a massive amount of information on healthy people and to use that data to proactively identify and address health problems. Most medicine today is reactive rather than focusing on the prevention of illness—something goes wrongand th... more »

Google X embarks on 'Baseline Study': An endeavor to pin down biomarkers : Reports suggest that Google X has launched a new 'moonshot' which is intended to better understand the human body. If successful in finding patterns in human health or 'biomarkers' , the attempt will be to proactively address problems which could crop up based on analysis of huge amounts of data. Is it something which has worked in the past? Not really, but with the kind of computing Google has at hand, it is very likely they can attempt such a project. Will it be successful? Your guess is as good as mine.

Proactive medicine : The plan is to collect a massive amount of information on healthy people and to use that data to proactively identify and address health problems. Most medicine today is reactive rather than focusing on the prevention of illness—something goes wrong and then you get treatment. Once Google has a good baseline of what a healthy human looks like, that data can be compared to data from other individuals to discover potential problems before symptoms become obvious. +Larry Page has frequently spoken about the possibility of using big data techniques to improve healthcare while lamenting that privacy laws limit searches through medical data.

Long Shot : The report describes the project as being in the "early stage." The human body is influenced by very complex interactions among diet, DNA, and proteins, so the leaders of the project admit that it's a jump into the unknown. Like Calico and self-driving cars, this is a long-term effort that will take many years before we see if anything comes of it.

Privacy concerns : Information that is collected will include participants' full genomes and entire genetic history. Google has promised that all data collected as part of the research will remain private and will not be handed over to insurance companies. The medical school boards at Duke and Stanford Universities, which are involved in the project will oversee the research, recruiting the volunteers and ensuring that their data is anonymised before it is handed over to Google.

+WIRED Article source: http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2014-07/25/google-x-baseline

Additional source +Phys.org : http://phys.org/news/2014-07-google-baseline-aims-healthy-human.html

+Ars Technica source: http://arstechnica.com/business/2014/07/google-xs-baseline-study-applies-big-data-techniques-to-healthcare/

WSJ Source: http://online.wsj.com/articles/google-to-collect-data-to-define-healthy-human-1406246214

+Google +Google Science Fair +Solve for X 

Pic sources: Main pic on left - http://goo.gl/3Glb06, Pic on right top - http://goo.gl/z6d4eJ, Pic on right bottom - http://goo.gl/Y7jw8Y

#googlexlabs #scienceeveryday  ___

posted image

2014-07-26 11:30:02 (37 comments, 22 reshares, 94 +1s) 

Far from Blind : We already know that despite the tiny size of the bat's eye and its nocturnal behavior, none of the species of bats is blind. I have been fascinated by bats (Order Chiroptera) from the time I was in school... it's outlier superpowers (I use the word loosely) for a mammal has been a source of interest to me. Recent studies show that bats have more in their arsenal than one imagined. Read on to know more.

Bats use polarized light: Biologists in Germany and the UK moved some female greater mouse-eared bats around at sunset to demonstrate that they use polarized light to calibrate their internal compasses. The nocturnal animals calibrate themselves when they’re gearing up to be active, and this enables them to fly in the right direction when in search of food. If you could see these patterns, they would look like bands of light stretching 90 degrees away fromt... more »

Far from Blind : We already know that despite the tiny size of the bat's eye and its nocturnal behavior, none of the species of bats is blind. I have been fascinated by bats (Order Chiroptera) from the time I was in school... it's outlier superpowers (I use the word loosely) for a mammal has been a source of interest to me. Recent studies show that bats have more in their arsenal than one imagined. Read on to know more.

Bats use polarized light: Biologists in Germany and the UK moved some female greater mouse-eared bats around at sunset to demonstrate that they use polarized light to calibrate their internal compasses. The nocturnal animals calibrate themselves when they’re gearing up to be active, and this enables them to fly in the right direction when in search of food. If you could see these patterns, they would look like bands of light stretching 90 degrees away from the sun, across the zenith (top of the sky) and heading 90 degrees west. As you get very close and very far from the sun, the patterns are a little weaker. Like birds, bats apparently look at these patterns and use them to calibrate their magnetic compass.

What is Polarized light?: Polarized light is a characteristic of light bouncing around in Earth’s atmosphere. Water droplets, dust, airborne particles, and the air itself scatter light from the sun (literally why the sky is blue), but this scattering follows a defined pattern. The patterns depend on where the sun is in the sky. Polarization patterns are harder to distinguish during the day when the sun is high in the sky, and are much stronger at sunset and sunrise, when the sun is closer to the horizon.

How do they do it? : It’s not clear how the bats discern the polarized light, but it may be related to the type or alignment of light-detecting pigments in their retinas, the team suggests. The bats may have evolved to reset their navigation system using polarized light because that cue persists long after sunset and is available even when skies are cloudy.

Researchers have found that certain insects, birds, reptiles, and amphibians can also navigate using polarized light.

Other superpowers: Echolocation : To track down prey, avoid predators and find their way home in the dark, most bats depend on echolocation. They broadcast high-pitched sonar signals and listen for the echoes of sound waves bouncing off objects they’re looking for or obstacles in their path. Bats’ brains then process the auditory information within those echoes as visual maps. Scientists know a lot about the finer points of how echolocation works, but they differ on whether that sense evolved before or after bat’s ability to fly.

Source Article: http://www.popsci.com/blog-network/eek-squad/far-blind-bats-use-polarized-light-find-their-way?dom=PSC&loc=recent&lnk=7&con=far-from-blind-bats-use-polarized-light-to-find-their-way

Sciencemag link: http://news.sciencemag.org/plants-animals/2014/07/bats-can-navigate-using-polarized-light

Wired reference: http://www.wired.com/2014/07/bats-use-polarized-light-to-set-their-internal-compasses/  
What is polarization of light (ref) : http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/light/Lesson-1/Polarization

Polarization waves: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polarization_%28waves%29

Related link (How to detect polarized light) : http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/sciencenotfiction/2010/08/09/developing-useless-superpowers-101-how-to-detect-polarized-light/#.U9OG-rGiIol

Discovery link: http://news.discovery.com/earth/are-bats-blind.htm

Batfacts from Smithsonian: http://www.si.edu/Encyclopedia_SI/nmnh/batfacts.htm

Pics links and attribution: Animated gif link: http://goo.gl/VvTCQm, Pic on polarized light (Wikipedia) - The effects of a polarizing filter (right image) on the sky in a photograph, Main pic courtesy : http://goo.gl/B0vh3l

#scienceeveryday #sciencesunday #bats___

posted image

2014-07-24 09:31:29 (30 comments, 40 reshares, 102 +1s) 

How to store energy using steel, air and water : One of the big challenges of our times is to have an energy storage system which stores energy in the Megawatt range. Plus chemical batteries have a relatively short life for industrial size storage. Now +University of Minnesota researchers have come up with a novel situation. And they have licensed SustainX to commercially develop the product.

Earlier approaches : People have known for hundreds of years that it's possible to store energy using simple methods—pumping water up a hill and then allowing the force of gravity to turn cogs on its way down later to recoup energy, for example, or on a bigger scale, pumping air into a cavern then using its force at a later time to drive a turbine, is another. Until recently, however, such methods of energy storage have not been able to compete with batteries—at least on a large scale.Tha... more »

How to store energy using steel, air and water : One of the big challenges of our times is to have an energy storage system which stores energy in the Megawatt range. Plus chemical batteries have a relatively short life for industrial size storage. Now +University of Minnesota researchers have come up with a novel situation. And they have licensed SustainX to commercially develop the product.

Earlier approaches : People have known for hundreds of years that it's possible to store energy using simple methods—pumping water up a hill and then allowing the force of gravity to turn cogs on its way down later to recoup energy, for example, or on a bigger scale, pumping air into a cavern then using its force at a later time to drive a turbine, is another. Until recently, however, such methods of energy storage have not been able to compete with batteries—at least on a large scale. That might be about to change, however, as the new ICAES system in New Hampshire demonstrates.

High Stakes : The stakes are high. If a company such as SustainX can deliver a system that can cheaply store energy for even a few hours at a time, it would turn wind and solar into dependable power providers, more like fossil fuel plants. Fluctuations in wind and solar output could be smoothed out and excess power from nighttime winds, for instance, could be dispatched later when demand is higher.

How it works : Researchers have looked into using compressed air as a battery before, what's new this time is the proprietary design created by the team at SustainX—its more efficient and is done at a much larger scale (it's capable of producing 1.6 MW of power when releasing the compressed air) than ever before. Also, they have developed a technique of spraying water into air filled cylinder chambers which allows for capture of heat generated by the compression process. SustainX says its ICAES systems are better than other methods of energy storage because they can be sited virtually anywhere (no need for a cavern), because they are flexible (easily scaled), because of the low installation and ongoing costs, and because installations will last for 20 years. It's also far cleaner than batteries or other systems that store compressed air.

The key is to contain the temperatures : Water’s properties make it a highly suitable heatexchange liquid: it is nontoxic and low-cost, has extraordinarily high heat capacity (joules of heat needed to heat or cool a kilogram by one kelvin), and is almost incompressible, i.e., can coexist with a gas that is undergoing pressure changes without itself changing in volume. SustainX has therefore opted for aqueous foam-based heat exchange in its isothermal compressed-air system (ICAES) technology.

+Phys.org link: http://phys.org/news/2013-09-sustainx-mw-isotherm-compressed-air.html

+Smithsonian Magazine source: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/innovation/big-bet-how-store-energy-cheaply-180951829/

SustainX website: http://www.sustainx.com/

Additional link: http://www.nanalyze.com/2014/07/sustainx-delivers-compressed-air-energy-storage-system/

University of Minnesota link: http://discover.umn.edu/news/environment/university-minnesota-invention-helps-advance-reliability-alternative-energy

Additional source: SustainX working paper on the technology.

Pics courtesy: Smithsonianmag, foam rheology group (foaming of aq solutions) and Wikipedia (animation of an axial compressor).

#batteries #engineering  ___

posted image

2014-07-23 16:37:27 (10 comments, 8 reshares, 78 +1s) 

Happy creatures : Well not really! :) While watching a TV show, I came upon these two creatures. The markings on the 'Happy-faced spider' makes it look like a cartoon version of a spider. The spider is actually a tiny little fellow (around 5 mm) from the Island of Maui. The fish is actually a Ray, called the thornback ray or it's scientific name Raja clavata. It is also called the Thornback Skate and is actually quite a common species. The so-called smiling face is a misnomer, as its 'eyes' which you see in the picture are actually gills.

Article link: The Happy-Faced Spider is a charismatic arachnid endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. T. grallator belongs to the comb-footed spiders (Theridiidae), a family which also includes the famous Black Widow. Happy-Faced Spiders are highly derived members of this group but do not share the venom toxicity of their more feared... more »

Happy creatures : Well not really! :) While watching a TV show, I came upon these two creatures. The markings on the 'Happy-faced spider' makes it look like a cartoon version of a spider. The spider is actually a tiny little fellow (around 5 mm) from the Island of Maui. The fish is actually a Ray, called the thornback ray or it's scientific name Raja clavata. It is also called the Thornback Skate and is actually quite a common species. The so-called smiling face is a misnomer, as its 'eyes' which you see in the picture are actually gills.

Article link: The Happy-Faced Spider is a charismatic arachnid endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. T. grallator belongs to the comb-footed spiders (Theridiidae), a family which also includes the famous Black Widow. Happy-Faced Spiders are highly derived members of this group but do not share the venom toxicity of their more feared relatives. These are small spiders, about a quarter of an inch long, who prefer to live on the underside of leaves at elevations from 1,000 to 6,000 feet. Theridion grallator's common name comes from the interesting pattern on its abdomen, which closely resembles a 'smiley face'.

The thornback skate is probably one of the commonest skates encountered by divers, being among the most abundant rajids in the north-eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean. As with all skates, the body is flattened and disc-shaped, with the pectoral fins broadly expanded and joined to the head and body. The tail is distinctly demarcated from the disc-like body, relatively narrow, and about as long as body length. The upper surface of the disc and tail are covered with numerous thorns, which become thickened with button-like bases (known as bucklers) once the skate is sexually mature, hence the species' common name.

Cornell source : https://courses.cit.cornell.edu/icb344/abstracts/Happyspider.htm

Encyclopedia of life source: http://eol.org/pages/209174/details

Wikipedia sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theridion_grallator and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thornback_ray

Additional source : http://www.sharktrust.org/en/factsheets/69/thornback-ray.html

Video links: Happy Faced Spiders and Thornback Ray

#science #biology___

posted image

2014-07-22 11:49:15 (50 comments, 22 reshares, 127 +1s) 

Water from thin air : A huge number of people on our planet do not have access to clean drinking water. I remember posting about this quite some time back, where two Italian designers carried forward a MIT concept of using bamboo and nylon to create a 'water condensation tower'. Christened "Warkawater" the structure was touted to collect as much as 25 gallons of water a day. Somehow it seems to have got buried. I was wondering if the proof of concept failed or they just did not have the connections to get funded.

Article Extract: The invention from Arturo Vittori, an industrial designer, and his colleague Andreas Vogler doesn't involve complicated gadgetry or feats of engineering, but instead relies on basic elements like shape and material and the ways in which they work together. At first glance, the 30-foot-tall, vase-shaped towers, named after a figtree native... more »

Water from thin air : A huge number of people on our planet do not have access to clean drinking water. I remember posting about this quite some time back, where two Italian designers carried forward a MIT concept of using bamboo and nylon to create a 'water condensation tower'. Christened "Warkawater" the structure was touted to collect as much as 25 gallons of water a day. Somehow it seems to have got buried. I was wondering if the proof of concept failed or they just did not have the connections to get funded.

Article Extract: The invention from Arturo Vittori, an industrial designer, and his colleague Andreas Vogler doesn't involve complicated gadgetry or feats of engineering, but instead relies on basic elements like shape and material and the ways in which they work together. At first glance, the 30-foot-tall, vase-shaped towers, named after a fig tree native to Ethiopia, have the look and feel of a showy art installation. But every detail, from carefully-placed curves to unique materials, has a functional purpose.

Process : The rigid outer housing of each tower is comprised of lightweight and elastic juncus stalks, woven in a pattern that offers stability in the face of strong wind gusts while still allowing air to flow through. A mesh net made of nylon or  polypropylene, which calls to mind a large Chinese lantern, hangs inside, collecting droplets of dew that form along the surface. As cold air condenses, the droplets roll down into a container at the bottom of the tower. The water in the container then passes through a tube that functions as a faucet, carrying the water to those waiting on the ground.

Funding constraints : In all, it costs about $500 to set up a tower—less than a quarter of the cost of something like the Gates toilet, which costs about $2,200 to install and more to maintain. If the tower is mass produced, the price would be even lower, Vittori says. His team hopes to install two Warka Towers in Ethiopia by next year and is currently searching for investors who may be interested in scaling the water harvesting technology across the region.

Article Link: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/innovation/this-tower-pulls-drinking-water-out-of-thin-air-180950399/

Warkawater on Architecture and Vision: http://www.architectureandvision.com/projects/chronological/84-projects/art/492-073-warkawater-2012?showall=&start=4

Penn state link : http://sites.psu.edu/lirclblog/tag/warka-water/

Wired link: http://www.wired.com/2014/03/warka-water-africa/#slide-id-640309

Atmospheric water : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_well_%28condenser%29

Pics courtesy: Smithsonianmag, Wired.

#science #water #warka  ___

posted image

2014-07-21 09:45:33 (43 comments, 29 reshares, 127 +1s) 

Dinosaurs and Dragons : This is not a new discovery, but the similarity to mythical dragons is striking. And no, humans and dinosaurs did not walk the Earth at the same time. Though dinosaur fossils may well have been unearthed or found by some of our ancestors. Just found this very interesting, and it had the geek in me giggling ;)

Article extract: "Dragons Unearthed," features a 66-million-year-old,  dinosaur called Dracorex Hogwartsia. There’s no denying that Dracorex’s long muzzle and spiky horns conjure up visions of a magical beast, but the museum needed an expert to confirm that it wasn’t a coincidence that Dracorex looked more like a dragon than a dinosaur. Dracorex is named Dracorex hogwartsia in honor of children’s author J.K. Rowling. “The shape of the dinosaur’s skull, with its long muzzle, bizarre knobs and horns, surprised the scientists,” she said.“But the skull... more »

Dinosaurs and Dragons : This is not a new discovery, but the similarity to mythical dragons is striking. And no, humans and dinosaurs did not walk the Earth at the same time. Though dinosaur fossils may well have been unearthed or found by some of our ancestors. Just found this very interesting, and it had the geek in me giggling ;)

Article extract: "Dragons Unearthed," features a 66-million-year-old,  dinosaur called Dracorex Hogwartsia. There’s no denying that Dracorex’s long muzzle and spiky horns conjure up visions of a magical beast, but the museum needed an expert to confirm that it wasn’t a coincidence that Dracorex looked more like a dragon than a dinosaur. Dracorex is named Dracorex hogwartsia in honor of children’s author J.K. Rowling. “The shape of the dinosaur’s skull, with its long muzzle, bizarre knobs and horns, surprised the scientists,” she said. “But the skull looks strangely familiar to anyone who has studied dragons! Dracorex has a remarkable resemblance to the dragons of ancient China and medieval Europe.”

Dracorex may be a juvenile : Dracorex may actually be an individual of the closely related Stygimoloch and/or Pachycephalosaurus in which the dome and horns are not well-developed, either because the animal was a juvenile or a female. This consideration was supported at the 2007 annual meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology.

The find : The Dracorex Hogwartsia is known from one nearly complete skull and other fragments. It was discovered in the Hell Creek Formation in South Dakota by three inexperienced paleontologists and donated to the Children's Museum of Indianapolis in 2004 for study.

Article Link: http://shc.stanford.edu/news/research/dinosaurs-and-dragons-oh-my%E2%80%A8

+Smithsonian Magazine source: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/bone-headed-dinosaurs-reshaped-their-skulls-56078928/

+Wikipedia link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dracorex

Related paper: http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0036227

Additional source: http://www.scienceviews.com/dinosaurs/dracorex.html

Who would win Dragons or Dinosaurs? : http://io9.com/5942988/who-would-win-in-a-fight-dragons-or-dinosaurs

Pics courtesy: http://goo.gl/Hnj0dM and Wikipedia.

#science #geek  ___

Buttons

A special service of CircleCount.com is the following button.

The button shows the number of followers you have directly in a small button. You can add this button to your website, like the +1-Button of Google or the Like-Button of Facebook.






You can add this button directly in your website. For more information about the CircleCount Buttons and the description how to add them to another page click here.

Lacerant PlainerTwitterCircloscope