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Lacerant Plainer has been at 11 events

HostFollowersTitleDateGuestsLinks
NovoPulp1,233*Ask @101942254766672606204 Your @107781032288819724254 Questions!* _Have your heard of NovoPulp, considered getting involved, but you had a few questions? Only just heard of us and want to know more? Then here is your chance to ask someone face to face!_  With around *2 months to go until the 2014 NovoPulp deadline passes*, we wanted to give everyone a chance to raise their hand and ask the questions that the rest of us didn't. Even if you can't attend the Hangout live, please leave your questions so you can watch the video afterwards and still get the information you need.  As the last HOA was aimed at the USA/Australian time-zones we have decided to make this Hangout more European friendly. The HOA will be on: SATURDAY 7th OF JUNE 2014 - 16:00 CET / 10:00 EDT  *Submission Status:* We are still in need of more short stories for this year but in particular *WE NEED ART*. So don't be shy, step forward :D For more information on *NovoPulp:* _The Speculative Fiction Anthology_ visit: http://www.NovoPulp.com For more frequent updates subscribe to our email list: http://eepurl.com/C_-Qf _Coming soon: FREE Bonus Content Only For Newsletter Subscribers!_ See you on air! Notifications: You have been notified of this HOA because you have circled the @107781032288819724254 page at some point. If you would prefer not to receive these limited notifications, or you want to be added to the notify list, then please let us know.NovoPulp Q&A HOA with Niamh Brown2014-06-07 16:00:0010  
NASA Goddard164,063On March 29, 2014, an X-class flare burst off the right side of the sun . . . and NASA was watching. Coordinating their observations, five NASA observatories and one ground-based telescope were able to see things in the flare they'd never seen before.  Numerous other NASA spacecraft provided additional data about what was happening on the sun during the event and what the effects were at Earth.  Join us at 2:30 p.m. EDT on Thursday, May 8, 2014, as researchers describe how multiple missions worked together to explore the sun's surface and atmosphere, layer by layer, providing unprecedented images of the onset of a solar flare.   In addition to the colorful pictures of the sun that NASA will share, participants will explain how such research can help scientists better understand what sets off these large explosions on the sun. Perhaps, someday scientists may be able to predict their onset, forewarning of the radio blackouts they can cause near Earth – blackouts that can interfere with military, airplane and ship communications. Participants include:  Adrian Daw: IRIS project scientist at NASA Goddard Albert Shih: RHESSI scientist at NASA Goddard Sabrina Savage: Hinode deputy project scientist at NASA Marshall Lucia Kleint: Bay Area Environmental Research Institute  Jeffrey Newmark: NASA HeadquartersNASA Hangout: All Eyes on the Sun2014-05-08 20:30:00653  
Space Fan News!5,129,811Hello Space Fans! Tonight there will be a total lunar eclipse tonight in the Western Hemisphere.  @109479143173251353583  will be heading to Cerritos College in Norwalk, CA to do some on-site outreach with Dr. @107316294793809570474. Internet permitting, we'll be attempting to bring in a live feed of the lunar eclipse from LA and hopefully connect with our friends from the @100902337165997768522  and bring in feeds from there too! If you're in the Los Angeles area, you are more than welcome to join us on site. The event starts at 10:30 p.m. PT and parking is free after 10 p.m. Cerritos College: 11190 Alondra Blvd. Norwalk, CA 90650 Parking Lot C-6 off of Studebaker, just south of Alondra Blvd. Not local? That's okay too! Share with us your pictures of the eclipse in the event below!  Keep Looking Up! #ScienceEveryday   #Space   #Astronomy   #Eclipse   #LunarEclipse   #BloodMoon  Lunar Eclipse Live!2014-04-15 08:00:00388  
STEM Women on G+145,957Join us for a STEM Women HOA as we speak to @114480095884024488890 on her career as a roboticist. Annika is an engineer who works on robotics and also a passionate STEM educator, teaching kids how to program and build robots through @101828427997295401901. She will talk to us about her exciting career path as a woman in STEM, what inspires her, and why supporting women in STEM is important.  This HOA will be hosted by Dr @108510686109338749229 and Dr @110756968351492254645  and you can tune in on Sunday April 13th at 4.30 PM Central/ 10.30PM UK. The hangout will be available for viewing on our YouTube channel (http://www.youtube.com/stemwomen) after the event.In The Spotlight, With Annika O'Brien2014-04-13 23:30:0055  
NovoPulp1,233Yes it is finally here! @107781032288819724254 (aka +#G+SF Anthologies), though @104121833908982880351 - Press Division, has published their first book: *_NovoPulp 2013/2014 Anthology._*  http://www.NovoPulp.com/store  To celebrate we are having a Launch Party HOA. SATURDAY 29th OF MARCH 2014 EST: 19:00 GMT: 23:00 SUNDAY 30th of MARCH 2014 CET: 00:00 AEDT: 10:00 READINGS FROM: @101942254766672606204  @108429362865809614439  OTHER GUESTS INCLUDE: @111830327627461921997  For those who don't know here is a little synopsis on the NovoPulp project: _Let’s bring back the best days of Pulp: Fiction written by and for those who love the genre. Pushing boundaries, asking the questions, demanding the answers, and even providing some._ _We collect, anthologise, and produce one volume a year of the very best Speculative Fiction that G+ can provide. All comers are welcome – we want everyone to have the chance to put their ideas before the world, to be the one who saw what the rest of us didn’t – or wouldn’t – and so change the world..._ *If you enjoy speculative fiction and great artwork you are in for a treat.* Even if you can't attend the HOA, if you can spread the word about the event or the book we would really appreciate it. You can find images and code for your website here: http://www.NovoPulp.com/spread-the-word To those that can make it please join us at the first NovoPulp Launch Party HOA this weekend (the 29th/30th of March 2014 - depending on your timezone). Notification Notice: If you were notified it is because you have circled the @107781032288819724254 (aka +#G+SF Anthology) page. We endeavour to keep these notifications to an absolute minimum, but if you would like to be removed or added to our notification circle please let us know. If you would like to be notified more frequently of NovoPulp news then please subscribe to our newsletter (http://eepurl.com/C_-Qf) or join our public Google+ community (https://plus.google.com/u/0/communities/115593955852120500953).    Thank you for all your support over the last two years :DNovoPulp 2013/2014 Anthology Launch Party HOA2014-03-30 00:00:0033  
The Huffington Post3,132,821@101423092138897438495 is talking ALL THINGS @105318954285548566943 with our own  @111048918866742956374 and @114666679887770354893! We'll be discussing the big Winners, the HUGE Snubs, and all the Moments from Sunday's broadcast.. especially the FUNNY via Host Ellen DeGeneres (and any other random bits of #lol )! Join us as we chat LIVE about the greatest speeches and take questions from all of you, the #awesomesauce audience on Monday, March 3, 2014 at 4:15 pm ET / 1:15 pm PT We want to hear from you as to who should win before the show starts (and who should've won, once it ends). You can submit your questions in both comments and using the Q&A app attached to the Hangout. More fun @115626641875816620951 here at #huffpost  on @101560853443212199687 ! #Oscars   #oscars2014   #movies   #bestpicture2014   #hangoutsonair    #academyawards2014  @109886274038066405139 @103646891144429179516 @116676026225486451226 @104518476962915543468 @104309716740433286280  #Her   #philomena   #nebraska   #dallasbuyersclub   http://huff.to/1jx2qiT : Our HuffPost #Oscars2014  coverage [Trailer Photo Credit: FREDERIC J. BROWN via Getty Images]Huffpost 2014 Oscars Recap Show w/Matt Rappaport and Nic Graham2014-03-03 22:15:0052  
Beyond Rubik's Cube4,945,807Rubik’s Fans Unite! Spend an afternoon with the world’s top Rubik’s Cube aficionados in an epic Google+ Hangout on Air. Join +Paul Hoffman CEO of the +Liberty Science Center as he hosts a discussion between some of the brightest thought leaders, math geeks, and speed cubers ever assembled; featuring an introduction by none other than +Erno Rubik himself. Hear why Oxford Mathematics Professor +Marcus du Sautoy thinks the Rubik’s Cube has a lot in common with the Large Hadron Collider. Muse over the poetry and aesthetics of science in our culture with renowned science writer, and exhibition curator +Margaret Wertheim. Marvel at the finger dexterity of world champion speed cuber +Anthony Brooks. Learn about what it takes to bring an exhibition to life with +Ann Neumann. Creative Director at the Liberty Science Center and +Michael Tyka artist and visionary who built the Groovik’s Cube at Burning Man. Seven of the most interesting people in the world will be gathered together to talk all things cube. You’re invited. Click-in July 18th at 2pm EST. Submit Hangout questions on this Events Page. Special thank you to +Michael Holden for that awesome picture we're using. Check him out www.michaelholden.com.The Beyond Rubik's Cube Hangout2013-07-18 20:00:00214  
TakePart42,917Seven years ago former Vice President Al Gore released An Inconvenient Truth, kick-starting a global conversation about climate change (available on Google Play: http://goo.gl/ElYcc). The issue is as pressing as ever and Gore and Jeff Skoll, the film's executive producer, want to hear your ideas (http://youtu.be/ih3fEHv4wqA).  Throughout the coming week add your thoughts and questions in the Science on G+ Community (http://goo.gl/39w5t). Gore and Skoll will choose the most insightful participants to join them in a live Hangout on Air on June 11th at 2PM EST - come back then to tune in to the Conversation! Google+ Conversation with Al Gore about Combating Climate Change2013-06-11 20:00:002181  
Jacob Dix33,576Post your sky images here. Comment on other's sky images. Mobile, DSLR, film are welcome. Have fun. The sky is beautiful.Sky 3!2012-09-29 00:30:0033  
Benjamin Cortis154,579*Photo Competition* September 2012 *Status: finished* *Thread:* Landscapes The images can be submitted the next *24 hours*. Then the event is closed and a voting phase starts from exactly *6 days*. The jury is the audience. During this period anyone can can vote by a +1 to his favorite picture. In one week, then the current state of the votes will be noted and the winners will be revealed to the public. *Rules:* Please note the current topic. Everyone can submit *only one* picture. Please no nudity or any other offensive pictures. *If anyone does not abide by the rules, his work will be removed from this event not be rated.* last competition: https://plus.google.com/u/0/events/c1nngcqt7dgr1qn315holkenh20 Let´s have fun.... ------------------------------------------------------------- *Fotowettbewerb* September 2012 *Status: beendet* *Thema:* Landschaften Die Bilder können in den nächsten *24 Stunden* eingereicht werden. Dann wird das Event geschlossen und eine Abstimmungsphase von genau *6 Tagen* beginnt. Die Jury ist das Publikum. In diesem Zeitraum kann jeder seine Stimme durch ein +1 unter seinem Lieblingsbild abgeben. In einer Woche wird dann der aktuelle Stand der Abstimmungen festgehalten und die Gewinner können der Öffentlichkeit preisgegeben werden. *Regeln:* Bitte beachtet das aktuelle Thema. Jeder kann *maximal ein* Bild einreichen. Bitte keine Nacktbilder oder keine anderen anstößigen Bilder. *Wenn sich jemand nicht an die Regeln hält wird aus diesem Event entfernt und nicht bewertet.* letzte Wettbewerb: https://plus.google.com/u/0/events/c1nngcqt7dgr1qn315holkenh20 Viel Spaß #foto #photo #wettbewerb #competition #event #photocompetition   #photocompetitionseptember  Photo Competition - September 20122012-09-05 10:00:00944  
Jacob Dix33,576For some time now I have been doing a project, an experiment, an exploration, a study in light. My object has been the sky, through the limited vantage point of my kitchen window and my backyard. The result, so far, is this album called *Sky*: http://goo.gl/phGuR Forget about that for right now. Show everyone your own sky! The best, the worst. I've seen people mention avoiding it because it means they have no "object" to shoot. Don't listen to those people. It is the most challenging palette of light there is. Let's see 'em! You have a full day and a half! Please spread the word too.Sky!2012-09-02 00:00:0023  

Lacerant Plainer has been shared in 2,229 public circles

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AuthorFollowersDateUsers in CircleCommentsReshares+1Links
Technology Pools1,110#SharedCircle #Watches #Strap #Google #Engagers #Google+ #Fashion #SEO #SocialMediaMarketing #SmallBusiness #Entrepreneur #Startup #Business #Health #InfinityscarfWonderful Infinity Pool Designs#Infinitypool #LuxurypoolSee at - www.technologypools.co.uk2015-03-27 10:43:12401000
Colin Wilson22,435This circle contains people who are very active on Google+If you received a notification, please reshare to your #circlesIf you’d like to be added to the next circle share: • +1 this circle • Share this circle to PUBLIC • Include me in your circles • Comment on this post#the #Red #Sea #introduced #considerable #variation #in #opinion #Under #the #Roman #Empire #the #Don #River #emptying #into #the #Black #Sea #was #the #Dorian #of #them #developing #around #fertile #river #valleys #The #civilizations #in #Mesopotamia #the #Indus #Valley #and #the 2015-03-27 09:42:48371011
Circles Circles Circles53,635A Circle of Bloggers & Their BlogsThose included in this circle are active bloggers, and are also active on G+. Add them to your circles for added information on a variety of subjects, from health, to technology, food and gardening.Please re-share this circle in your stream.To be added:1- Add +Circles Circles Circles to your circles2- Write the URL of your blog in the comments section below3- Your blog must be an active blog (posts must be current)This Circle will be published on Wednesdays. Note: If you are in this list be sure to add your blog's URL on the About section of your G+ page. I will be featuring interesting blogs every so often, so it's important to have the blog's address. Looking forward to reading your blogs.If you know of anyone that may benefit from this circle, please ask them to join. Thank you.Current Circles  Published Mondays ORIGINAL CONTENT CREATORS: http://goo.gl/yeHswYPublished Wednesdays:BLOGGERS & THEIR BLOGS: http://goo.gl/q4THI9Published Thursdays:WOMEN ARE FROM VENUS : http://goo.gl/ClrhvXMEN ARE FROM MARS : http://goo.gl/R1d81UPublished Fridays:A CIRCLE TO PAY IT FORWARD: http://goo.gl/K7sU0uOthers CirclesCREATIVES: http://goo.gl/XBE7WNSCIENCE: http://goo.gl/4UAeINTECHNOLOGY: http://goo.gl/Y1RDCnG+ Pages: http://goo.gl/jNZdWf#circleshare                                                             2015-03-26 13:23:21126546
Hemant Atrish514 Circle brings together nice and interesting people.Join the Gathering Circle !! Full of nice and active friends#Engagers #EngagersCircle #SocialMedia #Google+ #SharedCircle #Marketing #SocialMediaMarketing #Shared #Social #GooglePlusTips #circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #bestcircle #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheweek#london2015-03-26 11:21:06469000
Galina Petrová7,371#circleshare #sharedcircles #sharedcircle#sharedpubliccircles #circlesharing#publiccircle#Circle #Circles #Public #PublicCircle#CircleShare #CircleSharing #SharePublicCircle #QSC#querosercirculado  #circleoftheday#publicsharedcircles #разные2015-03-25 16:33:00404000
Milana Vinidiktova1,525#Добавьвкруги#Добавьвдрузья#Добавь#круглим#обмен   #круги   #crazycircles   #hyperball  #circlescirclescircles   #circleoftheweek  #CircleSharing#Circle#SharedCircles#CircleOfTheDay#GooglePlusTips#SharedPublicCircles#Google+#Google#кругляши#EliteInnerCircle#PublicCircle#AddCircle#Marketing#teamelitecircle#SocialMedia#HearingAids#dontconfusethecircles#TeamElite#Engagers#SharedCircleOfTheDay#SocialMediaMarketing #CircleShare#Share#CircleSharing2015-03-23 22:08:45494010
Swimming Pools Quotes1,658#sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek2015-03-23 10:10:30436000
Camila Pedraza0Great people who love to like and have friends,this is my elite circle and i want to shared with you.2015-03-22 13:48:15110000
Viktor Yegorov14,482Обмен кругами#круги   #обмен  #кругляши #круглим   #круги #Google+   #SharedCircles   #circles   #circleshare   #sharedcircle   #circlesharing   #followers   #social  #circle #circles #public #publiccircle #circleshare #circlesharing #sharedcircles #sharedcircle #morefollowers #sharingcircles #circleshare #sharedpubliccircles #sharedpublicircles #sharedcircle #photography #photographer #bestphotographer #topphotographer #AddCircle #FindCircles #awesome #AwesomePeople #AwesomeCircle #addmetoyourcircles 2015-03-21 13:21:32468000
Swimming Pools Quotes1,620#sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek2015-03-21 09:45:59400000
James Honzik31,158Sharers Meta-circle XI:  This is a meta-circle of active  circle sharers, focusing on photography and art. This is version XI.  It's the only circle I share, and it's a good one. (and if you could, please look at my art and photography, that's why I do this - scroll down, I have lots of new and old good things)Thanks to everyone who looked, shared, and commented.Special kudos out to those who not only share, but post their own good things.Some of my best work is now up for sale on http://fineartamerica.com/profiles/james-honzik.htmlThanks, everybody.Peace. James#circlesharer  #circle     #circles   #circlefreaks      #publiccircle     #circleshare     #circlesharing       #sharedcircles       #sharedcircle     #morefollowers      #sharingcircles      #circleshare      #endlesscircle   #sharedpubliccircles      #sharedpublicircles       #sharedcircle      #AddCircle       #FindCircles    #AwesomeCircle       #addcircle       #addpeople      #circlemeup     #circlesdiscovery      #circleshare       #circlesharing       #publiccircle      #SharedCircles   #photography #landscape   #photograph   2015-03-21 00:38:4548118511
Technology Pools912May be of interest...#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #bestcircle #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles#circleoftheday #sharedcircle #topsharedcircle#sharedcircleoftheday #besocial #socializethesocial #trust#circles #circleshare #sharedcircle2015-03-20 11:45:56401000
Swimming Pools Quotes1,576#sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek#bristol #somerset #london #britain2015-03-20 11:15:01400000
Technology Pools912May be of interest...#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #bestcircle #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #circleoftheday #sharedcircle #topsharedcircle #sharedcircleoftheday #besocial #socializethesocial #trust #circles #circleshare #sharedcircle2015-03-20 11:06:18400000
Simon Weiner5,2841.13 High Quality New Active Blood Circle. Enjoy:)#circle   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circles  #sharingcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #circlesunday #share #shared #followers #addcircles #publicsharedcircles #share #addpeople #addcircle #addfriends #circle #socialmedia2015-03-19 13:42:29495001
John Wood32,081This circle will add amazing, and wonderful content to you streamBoost your visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!To be added to or stay in this Circle - Share the circleIf you received the notice you are in this circle, then well done.If you would like to be included in the next Circle Share, you only have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles2 - Share the circle (Publicly)3 - Add +1 to the post.4 - Leave a comment if you like.I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#circleshare #Sociology #their #European #identity #in #geography #Sea #to #the #Caspian #Sea #into #which #the #Ural #River #projects #In #the #maps #of #the #period #Transcaucasia #was #counted #as #Asian #The #incorporation #of #most #of #that #region #into #the 2015-03-19 12:12:584426311
Brian Mcquillan25,964Boost your visibility on Google+ - Share the #circle!To be added to or stay in this Circle - Share the circleIf you received the notice you are in this circle, then well done.If you would like to be included in the next Circle Share, you only have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles2 - Share the circle (Publicly)3 - Add +1 to the post.4 - Leave a comment if you like.I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#Asia #It #was #the #northernmost #navigable #point #of #the #European #shorecitation #needed #In #the #th #century #the #Red #resistance #by #the #tribes #of #Siberia #synthesized #a #new #Russian #Empire #extending #to #the #Ural #Mountains #and #beyond #founded 2015-03-19 10:02:003977814
Swimming Pools Quotes1,442#sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #bristol #somerset #london #britain2015-03-19 09:52:55400002
Adam SOUISY0For #Creative #FriendsThis is my #shared #public #circle No.1___________________________________#circleandline #SocialMedia #Scarf #SharedCircle #SharedCircleOfTheDay #CircleShared2015-03-17 13:28:24473000
Caraselle Direct889#sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek#bristol #somerset #london #britain2015-03-17 11:46:12478000
Technology Pools896Circle brings together nice and interesting people.Join the Gathering Circle !! Full of nice and active friends#Engagers #EngagersCircle #SocialMedia #Google+ #SharedCircle #Marketing #SocialMediaMarketing #Shared #Social #GooglePlusTips #circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #bestcircle #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheweek#london2015-03-17 11:36:19400000
Caraselle Direct889#sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek#bristol #somerset #london #britain2015-03-17 11:28:39478000
Oleg Kalachov4,704_A Circle of Bloggers & Their Blogs_ Those included in this circle are active bloggers, and are also active on G+. Add them to your circles for added information on a variety of subjects, from health, to technology, food and gardening. Please re-share this circle in your stream. To be added: 1- Add +Circles Circles Circles to your circles 2- Write the URL of your blog in the comments section below 3- Your blog must be an active blog (posts must be current) This Circle will be published on Wednesdays.  Note: If you are in this list be sure to add your blog's URL on the _About_ section of your G+ page. I will be featuring interesting blogs every so often, so it's important to have the blog's address. Looking forward to reading your blogs. If you know of anyone that may benefit from this circle, please ask them to join. Thank you. Current Circles   Published Mondays  __ORIGINAL CONTENT CREATORS__: http://goo.gl/RQDza9 Published Wednesdays: _BLOGGERS & THEIR BLOGS_: http://goo.gl/YcKVd5 Published Thursdays: _WOMEN ARE FROM VENUS_ : http://goo.gl/XO93f4 _MEN ARE FROM MARS_ : http://goo.gl/UmVYrr Published Fridays: _A CIRCLE TO PAY IT FORWARD_: http://goo.gl/NcbRct Others Circles _CREATIVES_: http://goo.gl/9c5A3X _SCIENCE_: http://goo.gl/4UAeIN _TECHNOLOGY_: http://goo.gl/whvLzN _G+ Pages_: http://goo.gl/jNZdWf #circleshare                   2015-03-15 04:49:54178000
Circles Circles Circles52,811A Circle of Bloggers & Their BlogsThose included in this circle are active bloggers, and are also active on G+. Add them to your circles for added information on a variety of subjects, from health, to technology, food and gardening.Please re-share this circle in your stream.To be added:1- Add +Circles Circles Circles to your circles2- Write the URL of your blog in the comments section below3- Your blog must be an active blog (posts must be current)This Circle will be published on Wednesdays. Note: If you are in this list be sure to add your blog's URL on the About section of your G+ page. I will be featuring interesting blogs every so often, so it's important to have the blog's address. Looking forward to reading your blogs.If you know of anyone that may benefit from this circle, please ask them to join. Thank you.Current Circles  Published Mondays ORIGINAL CONTENT CREATORS: http://goo.gl/RQDza9Published Wednesdays:BLOGGERS & THEIR BLOGS: http://goo.gl/YcKVd5Published Thursdays:WOMEN ARE FROM VENUS : http://goo.gl/XO93f4MEN ARE FROM MARS : http://goo.gl/UmVYrrPublished Fridays:A CIRCLE TO PAY IT FORWARD: http://goo.gl/NcbRctOthers CirclesCREATIVES: http://goo.gl/9c5A3XSCIENCE: http://goo.gl/4UAeINTECHNOLOGY: http://goo.gl/whvLzNG+ Pages: http://goo.gl/jNZdWf#circleshare                                                             2015-03-12 04:47:14126111
Neil Lopez4,157This circle are all engagers. Add them up!You can also be included on the next circle to share:1. Add me Up2. +1 this post3. Share this circleHappy Sharing#circle #Sharedcircles #circleshare  #sri_lanka #colombo #australia #adelaide #australia #cairns #australia #darwin #australia #hobart #new_zealand #auckland #new_zealand #wellington #papua_new_guinea #papua_new_guinea #awesome #AwesomePeople #AwesomeCircle #addmetoyourcircles #addcircle #addpeople #circlemeup #circlesdiscovery #circleshare #circlesharing #publiccircle #publicsharedcircles #SharedCircles #weeklyreview #sharedcircle #topsharedcircle #circleoftheday #sharedcircle 2015-03-10 16:59:41479000
Mamy Shimomatsu2,879#CircleShare #newperson   #newpeople   #active  #UnusualShare this circle to PUBLICNew & Unusual Share Circle 5.Please, add and reshare. #topofthepeople #influencermarketing #sharedcircle #circleshare #circlethis #socialmediamarketing #socialmediastrategy #socialnetworking #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #circleoftheday #topofthecircle #howtoenlargecircle #enlargecircle #thursdaycircle #share #weekendcircle #weekend #weekendfun #circles #circleyoushare #publiccircle #sharedcircles #addcircle #sharedpubliccircles #circleshare #publicsharedcircles #circleoftheweek #circlesharing #sharedcircle #circleshare #circ2015-03-10 07:28:11328000
Mamy Shimomatsu2,879#CircleShare #newperson   #newpeople   #active  #UnusualShare this circle to PUBLICNew & Unusual Share Circle 5.Please, add and reshare. #topofthepeople #influencermarketing #sharedcircle #circleshare #circlethis #socialmediamarketing #socialmediastrategy #socialnetworking #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #circleoftheday #topofthecircle #howtoenlargecircle #enlargecircle #thursdaycircle #share #weekendcircle #weekend #weekendfun #circles #circleyoushare #publiccircle #sharedcircles #addcircle #sharedpubliccircles #circleshare #publicsharedcircles #circleoftheweek #circlesharing #sharedcircle #circleshare #circ2015-03-10 07:27:39328000
Mamy Shimomatsu2,879#CircleShare #newperson   #newpeople   #active  #UnusualShare this circle to PUBLICNew & Unusual Share Circle 5.Please, add and reshare. #topofthepeople #influencermarketing #sharedcircle #circleshare #circlethis #socialmediamarketing #socialmediastrategy #socialnetworking #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #circleoftheday #topofthecircle #howtoenlargecircle #enlargecircle #thursdaycircle #share #weekendcircle #weekend #weekendfun #circles #circleyoushare #publiccircle #sharedcircles #addcircle #sharedpubliccircles #circleshare #publicsharedcircles #circleoftheweek #circlesharing #sharedcircle #circleshare #circ2015-03-10 07:27:02328000
Mamy Shimomatsu2,879#CircleShare #newperson   #newpeople   #active  #UnusualShare this circle to PUBLICNew & Unusual Share Circle 5.Please, add and reshare. #topofthepeople #influencermarketing #sharedcircle #circleshare #circlethis #socialmediamarketing #socialmediastrategy #socialnetworking #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #circleoftheday #topofthecircle #howtoenlargecircle #enlargecircle #thursdaycircle #share #weekendcircle #weekend #weekendfun #circles #circleyoushare #publiccircle #sharedcircles #addcircle #sharedpubliccircles #circleshare #publicsharedcircles #circleoftheweek #circlesharing #sharedcircle #circleshare #circ2015-03-10 07:26:42328000
Mamy Shimomatsu2,879#CircleShare #newperson   #newpeople   #active  #UnusualShare this circle to PUBLICNew & Unusual Share Circle 3.Please, add and reshare. #topofthepeople #influencermarketing #sharedcircle #circleshare #circlethis #socialmediamarketing #socialmediastrategy #socialnetworking #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #circleoftheday #topofthecircle #howtoenlargecircle #enlargecircle #thursdaycircle #share #weekendcircle #weekend #weekendfun #circles #circleyoushare #publiccircle #sharedcircles #addcircle #sharedpubliccircles #circleshare #publicsharedcircles #circleoftheweek #circlesharing #sharedcircle #circleshare #circ2015-03-10 07:23:25329000
Mamy Shimomatsu2,879#CircleShare #newperson   #newpeople   #active  #UnusualShare this circle to PUBLICNew & Unusual Share Circle 3.Please, add and reshare. #topofthepeople #influencermarketing #sharedcircle #circleshare #circlethis #socialmediamarketing #socialmediastrategy #socialnetworking #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #circleoftheday #topofthecircle #howtoenlargecircle #enlargecircle #thursdaycircle #share #weekendcircle #weekend #weekendfun #circles #circleyoushare #publiccircle #sharedcircles #addcircle #sharedpubliccircles #circleshare #publicsharedcircles #circleoftheweek #circlesharing #sharedcircle #circleshare #circ2015-03-10 07:23:05329000
Mamy Shimomatsu2,879#CircleShare #newperson   #newpeople   #active  #UnusualShare this circle to PUBLICNew & Unusual Share Circle 3.Please, add and reshare. #topofthepeople #influencermarketing #sharedcircle #circleshare #circlethis #socialmediamarketing #socialmediastrategy #socialnetworking #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #circleoftheday #topofthecircle #howtoenlargecircle #enlargecircle #thursdaycircle #share #weekendcircle #weekend #weekendfun #circles #circleyoushare #publiccircle #sharedcircles #addcircle #sharedpubliccircles #circleshare #publicsharedcircles #circleoftheweek #circlesharing #sharedcircle #circleshare #circ2015-03-10 07:22:47329000
Mamy Shimomatsu2,879#CircleShare #newperson   #newpeople   #active  #UnusualShare this circle to PUBLICNew & Unusual Share Circle 3.Please, add and reshare. #topofthepeople #influencermarketing #sharedcircle #circleshare #circlethis #socialmediamarketing #socialmediastrategy #socialnetworking #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #circleoftheday #topofthecircle #howtoenlargecircle #enlargecircle #thursdaycircle #share #weekendcircle #weekend #weekendfun #circles #circleyoushare #publiccircle #sharedcircles #addcircle #sharedpubliccircles #circleshare #publicsharedcircles #circleoftheweek #circlesharing #sharedcircle #circleshare #circ2015-03-10 07:22:29329000
Mamy Shimomatsu2,879#CircleShare #newperson   #newpeople   #active  #UnusualShare this circle to PUBLICNew & Unusual Share Circle 3.Please, add and reshare. #topofthepeople #influencermarketing #sharedcircle #circleshare #circlethis #socialmediamarketing #socialmediastrategy #socialnetworking #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #circleoftheday #topofthecircle #howtoenlargecircle #enlargecircle #thursdaycircle #share #weekendcircle #weekend #weekendfun #circles #circleyoushare #publiccircle #sharedcircles #addcircle #sharedpubliccircles #circleshare #publicsharedcircles #circleoftheweek #circlesharing #sharedcircle #circleshare #circ2015-03-10 07:22:12329000
Achintha chamath20,846This must be the best shared circle in the Google Plus cuz this #circle  has most awesome people who will help you to gain more followers 1 Add this Circle2 plus posts of this circle members3 just comment on the post so they will know that you have plussed their posts4 then simply wait and watch your followers will increase   2015-03-06 03:14:24998510
Circles Circles Circles51,940A Circle of Bloggers & Their BlogsThose included in this circle are active bloggers, and are also active on G+. Add them to your circles for added information on a variety of subjects, from health, to technology, food and gardening.Please re-share this circle in your stream.To be added:1- Add +Circles Circles Circles to your circles2- Write the URL of your blog in the comments section below3- Your blog must be an active blog (posts must be current)This Circle will be published on Wednesdays. Note: If you are in this list be sure to add your blog's URL on the About section of your G+ page. I will be featuring interesting blogs every so often, so it's important to have the blog's address. Looking forward to reading your blogs.If you know of anyone that may benefit from this circle, please ask them to join. Thank you.Current Circles  Published Mondays ORIGINAL CONTENT CREATORS: http://goo.gl/Ip0VB3Published Wednesdays:BLOGGERS & THEIR BLOGS: http://goo.gl/JyTmKlPublished Thursdays:WOMEN ARE FROM VENUS : http://goo.gl/dMXJoCMEN ARE FROM MARS : http://goo.gl/YUcNsFPublished Fridays:A CIRCLE TO PAY IT FORWARD: http://goo.gl/GSPiwiOthers CirclesCREATIVES: http://goo.gl/9c5A3XSCIENCE: http://goo.gl/4UAeINTECHNOLOGY: http://goo.gl/whvLzNG+ Pages: http://goo.gl/jNZdWf#circleshare                                                             2015-03-05 06:10:26124302756
Just pro185  Here is my one of my basic circles, I will share now with you. Have a look and add some of these unique profiles below probably to your +Google+ account as well. Take care, enjoy, behave, enrich & be kind. Please us all thereby easily, yourself of course included. None excluded at all & best. Thank you!  I call this one OK Basic Circle (-; 2015-03-01 00:35:42443634
CarDekhe0Hi Friends ...This is the TOP PEOPLE V8 Google Plus CircleIf you want to participate please kindly follow  the following rules::-)1. Add me to your circles if you haven´t done it already2. Share this circle to Public3. Plus or comment this post so we know you wish to participate in upcoming circles2015-02-28 06:21:41500111615
Paul Hutchinson2,176A G+ #FF post ... Here's my "Science" circle (at least 501 of the 1105 people in the circle)#tw #fb2015-02-27 21:06:56501000
Juanro JR37Hi Friends ...This is the TOP PEOPLE V8 Google Plus CircleIf you want to participate please kindly follow  the following rules::-)1. Add me to your circles if you haven´t done it already2. Share this circle to Public3. Plus or comment this post so we know you wish to participate in upcoming circlesPlease note:● You must be an active Google+ user and shares useful content.● Your posts must be family-friendly. No adult, gambling, controversial, politics, religion blogs.Have a nice day!#awesome         #awesomepeople         #chadwick         #circle     #circles     #circlesharing         #circleshare         #circleoftheday     #circleplus     #community   #followback     #followers       #gplus   #influence       #leadership     #public         #publiccircles   #publicsharedcircles         #reshare         #reshared       #reshareday     #resharetags     #ripples     #sharedcircles       #sharedpubliccircles     #sharedcircleoftheday     #sharewithyou         #sharing     #sharingcircle     #socialmedia   #theplus   #tcs    2015-02-27 19:06:32419016
Circles Circles Circles51,426A Circle of Bloggers & Their BlogsThose included in this circle are active bloggers, and are also active on G+. Add them to your circles for added information on a variety of subjects, from health, to technology, food and gardening.Please re-share this circle in your stream.To be added:1- Add +Circles Circles Circles to your circles2- Write the URL of your blog in the comments section below3- Your blog must be an active blog (posts must be current)This Circle will be published on Wednesdays. Note: If you are in this list be sure to add your blog's URL on the About section of your G+ page. I will be featuring interesting blogs every so often, so it's important to have the blog's address. Looking forward to reading your blogs.If you know of anyone that may benefit from this circle, please ask them to join. Thank you.Current Circles  Published Mondays ORIGINAL CONTENT CREATORS: http://goo.gl/2E4pO5Published Wednesdays:BLOGGERS & THEIR BLOGS: http://goo.gl/ZDr1BjPublished Thursdays:WOMEN ARE FROM VENUS : http://goo.gl/dMXJoCMEN ARE FROM MARS : http://goo.gl/YUcNsFPublished Fridays:A CIRCLE TO PAY IT FORWARD: http://goo.gl/bc78C3Others CirclesCREATIVES: http://goo.gl/9c5A3XSCIENCE: http://goo.gl/4UAeINTECHNOLOGY: http://goo.gl/whvLzNG+ Pages: http://goo.gl/jNZdWf#circleshare                                                             2015-02-26 15:01:11124272240
Hemant Atrish237Circle brings together nice and interesting people.Join the Gathering Circle !! Full of nice and active friends #Engagers #EngagersCircle #SocialMedia #Google+ #SharedCircle #Marketing #SocialMediaMarketing  #Shared  #Social #GooglePlusTips #circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle More At-http://www.poolarchitects.co.uk/2015-02-26 07:50:35351103
Hemant Atrish237"Circle brings together nice and interesting people.Join the Gathering Circle !! Full of nice and active friends #Engagers #EngagersCircle #SocialMedia #Google+ #SharedCircle #Marketing #SocialMediaMarketing  #Shared  #Social #GooglePlusTips #circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle More At-http://www.poolarchitects.co.uk/2015-02-26 07:28:05202102
Hemant Atrish181circle brings together nice and interesting people.Join the Gathering Circle !! Full of nice and active friends  #SharedCircle #Marketing #SocialMediaMarketing  #Shared  #Social #GooglePlusTips #circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #bestcircle #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #sharedcircles2015-02-25 12:26:45351438
MBC Ser657#CircleShar  of the DayBoost your visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!To be added to or stay in this Circle - Share the circleIf you received the notice you are in this circle, then well done.If you would like to be included in the next Circle Share, you only have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles2 - Share the circle (Publicly)3 - Add +1 to the post.4 - Leave a comment if you like.I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!------------------------#circles #shared #share #add #friends #circle #share #sharecircle #circleshar #news   #travel   #travelphotography   #update #IndonesiaOnly #Jalan #Aberdeen #Belfast #Birmingham #Bristol #Cardiff #Dublin #EastMidlands #Edinburgh #Glasgow #LeedsBradford #London #Manchester #Newcastle #circle #circles #public #publiccircle #circleshare #circlesharing 2015-02-25 03:41:04440191638
Jennie0"High Quality New Active Blood Circle. Enjoy#circle   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circles  #sharingcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #circlesunday #share #shared #followers #addcircles #publicsharedcircles #share #addpeople #addcircle #addfriends #circle #socialmedia#SharedCircle #Watches #Strap #Google #Engagers #Google+ #Fashion #SEO #SocialMediaMarketing #SmallBusiness #Entrepreneur #Startup #Business #Health #Infinityscarf"2015-02-23 09:14:17400000
Swimming Pools Quotes1,020"Circle brings together nice and interesting people.Join the Gathering Circle !! Full of nice and active friends #Engagers #EngagersCircle #SocialMedia #Google+ #SharedCircle #Marketing #SocialMediaMarketing  #Shared  #Social #GooglePlusTips #circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #bestcircle #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #circleshare #circlesharing  #circleoftheweek#london"2015-02-23 05:51:47400141013
Robert Renard615#sharedcircleoftheday   #sharedcircle  2015-02-22 16:18:34501817
Charles Payet6,779A VERY Rare Shared Circle: My Absolute Favorite PlussersAs many of those whom I know on Google+ are aware, it can be kind of daunting at times to keep up with a G+ Stream when you follow several thousand people.  Thanks to the wonderful education by people in the +Plus Your Business! Academy last year, I did learn a lot more on how to manage my Stream, but I still need to work more on refining my Circles.  Still, I've made some slight progress.  Obviously, +Circloscope is a very helpful tool for this.But for whatever reason, I decided to Share this Circle.  This is my ONLY Notification Circle, to avoid Notification Overload.  :-)  Some of them are quite prolific posters, some are moderate, and some only post rarely.  They generally fall into the following categories:(1) Social media(2) Deep thinkers(3) Science(4) Photography(5) Curmudgeon (had to include this category specifically for Vincent LOL  But he's my kind of curmudgeon.)There are obviously a LOT more people worth following on G+, and by no means do I intend any slight to anyone not included.  I had to be VERY picky about this list.+Chrysta Rae +Sanjiv Manifest +Vincent Messina +Lauri Novak +Craig Szymanski +Gina Fiedel +Kalebra Kelby +Alexandra Riecke-Gonzales +Mark Metternich +Don Komarechka +Athena Carey +Mark Bruce +2015-02-22 14:31:3519000
John Hannah13,656Circle share with new friendsHi friends follow this circle1 - Include me in your circles2 - Share the circle (Publicly)3 - Add +1 to the post.4 - Leave a comment if you like.I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#circles #shared #share #add #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #circleshare #circlesharing #fullcircleshare #elfopower #social #socialmedia #socialmediamarketing #socialnetworks #Mentoring #Sustainable #Music #NaturePhotography #Metabolic #Nonprofit #NonviolentProtest #Online #OnlineEducation #OpenSource #Oregon #Organic #Organization #vascular #Organizational #OrganizationalDevelopment #diabetic #Philosophy #Diabetes #Photography #Photovoltaic #pharma 2015-02-20 11:09:3048611926

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Most comments: 63

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2015-01-08 09:25:02 (63 comments, 27 reshares, 95 +1s)Open 

Coldest temperatures in the Universe - What happens at absolute zero? : If one looks at classical physics, an atom of Oxygen gas zooms around at approximately a thousand miles an hour. That is quite fast. The theory is that as we lower the temperature in a closed system, the gas would become a solid and closer to absolute zero, the atoms would stop moving altogether. The electrons orbiting the nucleus would stop dead in their tracks. Why? The energy levels would be zero. However, in reality this does not happen. Physics does not break down. And neither does chemistry. Why is this?

At absolute zero : If you were able to measure the individual molecules, you'd find something surprising: they're still vibrating and rotating, but just by a tiny, tiny amount — quantum uncertainty at work. To make things concrete, if you were to measure the rotation of a Carbon Dioxide moleculea... more »

Most reshares: 131

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2015-01-16 09:12:43 (34 comments, 131 reshares, 244 +1s)Open 

Geeking out : This is too cool to ignore. I usually stick to the science, but this one is here just for the fun of it. Seriously. See the full video here -  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0u7CWB40ezM#t=285 (it's totally worth it).

Article extract: Back in November, drone enthusiasts built a modified quadcopter they call the "Heli-Carrier" that was modeled after the giant aircraft that SHIELD flies in the Marvel movies, and showed that one small drone could take off from another. In this new video, the homebuilt helicarrier stays aloft longer and launches miniature jets. It's all a drone enthusiast's dreams. Maybe next time out they can land a helicarrier on a helicarrier.

From Hackaday : If you’re not familiar, the Helicarrier is a fictional ship, the pride of S.H.I.E.L.D’s air force, or is it their navy. It’s a massive aircraft carrier with fourhuge r... more »

Most plusones: 244

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2015-01-16 09:12:43 (34 comments, 131 reshares, 244 +1s)Open 

Geeking out : This is too cool to ignore. I usually stick to the science, but this one is here just for the fun of it. Seriously. See the full video here -  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0u7CWB40ezM#t=285 (it's totally worth it).

Article extract: Back in November, drone enthusiasts built a modified quadcopter they call the "Heli-Carrier" that was modeled after the giant aircraft that SHIELD flies in the Marvel movies, and showed that one small drone could take off from another. In this new video, the homebuilt helicarrier stays aloft longer and launches miniature jets. It's all a drone enthusiast's dreams. Maybe next time out they can land a helicarrier on a helicarrier.

From Hackaday : If you’re not familiar, the Helicarrier is a fictional ship, the pride of S.H.I.E.L.D’s air force, or is it their navy. It’s a massive aircraft carrier with fourhuge r... more »

Latest 50 posts

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2015-03-28 16:30:44 (4 comments, 6 reshares, 84 +1s)Open 

The Defense of Earth : The new fleets of darkmatter starcraft face off against the Jexx invasion in this installment of the story of Mission Impossible. Keep reading to know more!

Mission Impossible is a space opera series written in flash fiction style. This is the 31st installment. If you haven't read the series before, please start from the first episode.

Here is the chronology:
First Part: http://goo.gl/jWKDn2
Part 2 : http://goo.gl/8wRbHE
Part 3 : http://goo.gl/eIGokJ
Part 4 : http://goo.gl/gaEZS0
Part 5 : http://goo.gl/bXYxiy
Part 6 : http://goo.gl/mmVbF9
Part 7 : http://goo.gl/i3DDVi
Part 8  : http://goo.gl/IoWcF0
Part 9  : http://goo.gl/B6OQOG
Part 10: http://goo.gl/IP0ORs
Part 11: http://goo.gl/Gn8RDY
Part 12: http://goo.gl/0zEqPI
Part 13: http://goo.gl/dXTYrs
Part 14: http://goo.gl/ZybKaLmore »

The Defense of Earth : The new fleets of darkmatter starcraft face off against the Jexx invasion in this installment of the story of Mission Impossible. Keep reading to know more!

Mission Impossible is a space opera series written in flash fiction style. This is the 31st installment. If you haven't read the series before, please start from the first episode.

Here is the chronology:
First Part: http://goo.gl/jWKDn2
Part 2 : http://goo.gl/8wRbHE
Part 3 : http://goo.gl/eIGokJ
Part 4 : http://goo.gl/gaEZS0
Part 5 : http://goo.gl/bXYxiy
Part 6 : http://goo.gl/mmVbF9
Part 7 : http://goo.gl/i3DDVi
Part 8  : http://goo.gl/IoWcF0
Part 9  : http://goo.gl/B6OQOG
Part 10: http://goo.gl/IP0ORs
Part 11: http://goo.gl/Gn8RDY
Part 12: http://goo.gl/0zEqPI
Part 13: http://goo.gl/dXTYrs
Part 14: http://goo.gl/ZybKaL
Part 15: http://goo.gl/FrUZqX
Part 16: http://goo.gl/no9buZ
Part 17: http://goo.gl/G6KJeo
Part 18: http://goo.gl/ml0Y1A
Part 19: http://goo.gl/DBJjHf
Part 20: http://goo.gl/PT3jCj
Part 21: http://goo.gl/DXrXgp
Part 22: http://goo.gl/e1kEuu
Part 23: http://goo.gl/1EtW6U
Part 24: http://goo.gl/rK4EqX
Part 25: http://goo.gl/b7Vl04
Part 26: http://goo.gl/FQisEJ
Part 27: http://goo.gl/0Ywy0D
Part 28: http://goo.gl/RNuKtL
Part 29: http://goo.gl/dqdIYG
Part 30: http://goo.gl/0YHzlY
Part 31: http://goo.gl/sTS4We

Notifying select people who have opted in. If you wish to be notified, let me know in the comments. If you wish to stop notifications, let me know.

#sciencefiction #saturdayscenes #scifi  ___

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2015-03-27 16:33:20 (1 comments, 8 reshares, 41 +1s)Open 

Major Financing Funneling Into Hyperloop Development Companies .@HyperloopTech .@shervin

Seems like California and Texas are beating Colorado in development of Hyperloop technologies and routes. Below is the earth shaking news as reported by Bruce Upbin: Hyperloop Is Real: Meet The Startups Selling Supersonic Travel From startup to the speed…

Major Financing Funneling Into Hyperloop Development Companies .@HyperloopTech .@shervin

Seems like California and Texas are beating Colorado in development of Hyperloop technologies and routes. Below is the earth shaking news as reported by Bruce Upbin: Hyperloop Is Real: Meet The Startups Selling Supersonic Travel From startup to the speed…___

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2015-03-27 09:40:43 (1 comments, 3 reshares, 24 +1s)Open 

Elon Musk's Hyperloop Moves Closer to Becoming Reality

The Hyperloop, just an idea in the mind of Elon Musk two years ago, is moving closer to becoming reality.
Hyperloop Transportation Technologies has signed an agreement with a developer in central California to build a five-mile Hyperloop line in an area along Interstate 5.

"This is a phased process. We've done feasibility studies and now we will be able test all aspects of the Hyperloop," said Ahlborn.

Source:- http://www.nbcnews.com/tech/innovation/elon-musks-hyperloop-moves-closer-becoming-reality-n313276

Elon Musk's Hyperloop Moves Closer to Becoming Reality

The Hyperloop, just an idea in the mind of Elon Musk two years ago, is moving closer to becoming reality.
Hyperloop Transportation Technologies has signed an agreement with a developer in central California to build a five-mile Hyperloop line in an area along Interstate 5.

"This is a phased process. We've done feasibility studies and now we will be able test all aspects of the Hyperloop," said Ahlborn.

Source:- http://www.nbcnews.com/tech/innovation/elon-musks-hyperloop-moves-closer-becoming-reality-n313276___

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2015-03-27 09:40:15 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 8 +1s)Open 

A lot has to go right for a Hyperloop to actually be built. 

A lot has to go right for a Hyperloop to actually be built. ___

posted image

2015-03-27 09:40:11 (1 comments, 2 reshares, 15 +1s)Open 

Construction begins 2016 for Hyperloop on five-mile stretch - Hyperloop construction will occur next year with the first full-scale track. Hyperloop Transportation Technologies announced it plans to start building a five-mile track in central California in 2016. Consider this an urban Hyperloop system for California, and not a dream on paper but quite real. http://ow.ly/2ViNMM

Construction begins 2016 for Hyperloop on five-mile stretch - Hyperloop construction will occur next year with the first full-scale track. Hyperloop Transportation Technologies announced it plans to start building a five-mile track in central California in 2016. Consider this an urban Hyperloop system for California, and not a dream on paper but quite real. http://ow.ly/2ViNMM___

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2015-03-27 09:37:59 (2 comments, 3 reshares, 38 +1s)Open 

Mysterious Hyperloop : +Elon Musk's Hyperloop system is a mystery indeed! (I'm imagining a train-hovercraft hybrid using maglev locomotion, but then I do tend to dream too much).

Over the past year, Elon Musk, founder of PayPal, Tesla, and SpaceX, has been floating the notion of a "Hyperloop" as a future replacement for bullet trains; one that would get commuters from San Francisco to Los Angeles in as little as 30 minutes. There has been much speculation over how the Hyperloop works, as Musk has revealed very few details.

In addition to the killer feature (downtown Los Angeles to downtown San Francisco in 30 minutes), we know that Hyperloop would double the gate-to-gate average speed of an aircraft over that distance, which is 560 km (350 miles). Musk has said Hyperloop is a non-scheduled service which leaves when you arrive, is immune to the weather and never... more »

Mysterious Hyperloop : +Elon Musk's Hyperloop system is a mystery indeed! (I'm imagining a train-hovercraft hybrid using maglev locomotion, but then I do tend to dream too much).

Over the past year, Elon Musk, founder of PayPal, Tesla, and SpaceX, has been floating the notion of a "Hyperloop" as a future replacement for bullet trains; one that would get commuters from San Francisco to Los Angeles in as little as 30 minutes. There has been much speculation over how the Hyperloop works, as Musk has revealed very few details.

In addition to the killer feature (downtown Los Angeles to downtown San Francisco in 30 minutes), we know that Hyperloop would double the gate-to-gate average speed of an aircraft over that distance, which is 560 km (350 miles). Musk has said Hyperloop is a non-scheduled service which leaves when you arrive, is immune to the weather and never crashes. The only specific technical hints Musk has provided is that it's not a vacuum tunnel, but is a cross between Concorde, a railgun and an air hockey table.

Article Link: http://www.gizmag.com/how-does-elon-musk-hyperloop-work/27757/

Additional source: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/09/25/hyperloop_n_1913683.html

Wiki link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperloop

Pic detail : SpaceX founder Elon musk with the spaceX rocket (credit honkees.wordpress.com)

#hyperloop #elonmusk #spacex #transportation #speed #sustainability  ___

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2015-03-27 09:37:53 (1 comments, 0 reshares, 32 +1s)Open 

Was +Elon Musk's Hyperloop announcement just a concept declaration? - The SpaceX founder talks back the Hyperloop : Elon Musk has promised to reveal preliminary plans for a super-fast "Hyperloop" transporter on August 12th — but don't expect him to actually build it. In a Tesla earnings call yesterday, Musk said that he was too busy with existing ventures to work on a Hyperloop in the near future. "I think I kind of shot myself in the foot by ever mentioning the Hyperloop, because I'm too strung out," he said. "Obviously I have to focus on core Tesla business and on SpaceX business, and that's more than enough. But I did commit to publishing a design, and [I will] provide quite a detailed design, I think, on Monday."

Article Link:ht... more »

Was +Elon Musk's Hyperloop announcement just a concept declaration? - The SpaceX founder talks back the Hyperloop : Elon Musk has promised to reveal preliminary plans for a super-fast "Hyperloop" transporter on August 12th — but don't expect him to actually build it. In a Tesla earnings call yesterday, Musk said that he was too busy with existing ventures to work on a Hyperloop in the near future. "I think I kind of shot myself in the foot by ever mentioning the Hyperloop, because I'm too strung out," he said. "Obviously I have to focus on core Tesla business and on SpaceX business, and that's more than enough. But I did commit to publishing a design, and [I will] provide quite a detailed design, I think, on Monday."

Article Link: http://www.theverge.com/2013/8/8/4602644/elon-musk-has-no-plans-to-actually-build-his-hyperloop-design

Earlier post on the Hyperloop: https://plus.google.com/u/0/103586346709495625226/posts/GRPm3YXFrcK

Wiki link on the Hyperloop : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperloop ( +SpaceX news)

Tesla 2nd Quarter earnings: http://www.wired.com/autopia/2013/08/tesla-2nd-quarter-2013/ (GAAP accounting headaches. My view, accounting is a concept, one has to get to the bottom of sale and lease back and future earnings discounting before one decides its ok to take into earnings).

Pictures are only artists imaginings of the concept, and are not actual pictures of the concept!

#spacex #elonmusk #hyperloop #transportation #sustainability #speed  ___

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2015-03-27 09:37:47 (3 comments, 4 reshares, 36 +1s)Open 

Hyperloop : As expected +Elon Musk did quite a stellar job with the big reveal. Yes, he's right, we should use tech in a way we can do better and more sustainable transport. Mass transit is a serious issue for all humankind.

It's actually surprisingly close to what some early predictions forecasted: an elevated, low-friction, high-speed track based on pods, which would ferry people, and even cars, long distances at more than 700 miles per hour. The pods will ride on air bearings. The pod produces air, and it’s pumped out of little holes on these skis. This is something that is used quite a bit in industry. You can move huge, heavy objects with very low friction, using air bearings.

Because the rail system would be elevated, there would be fewer land-rights issues. But that's not going to solve everything, and could considerably increase the price tag. About every7... more »

Hyperloop : As expected +Elon Musk did quite a stellar job with the big reveal. Yes, he's right, we should use tech in a way we can do better and more sustainable transport. Mass transit is a serious issue for all humankind.

It's actually surprisingly close to what some early predictions forecasted: an elevated, low-friction, high-speed track based on pods, which would ferry people, and even cars, long distances at more than 700 miles per hour. The pods will ride on air bearings. The pod produces air, and it’s pumped out of little holes on these skis. This is something that is used quite a bit in industry. You can move huge, heavy objects with very low friction, using air bearings.

Because the rail system would be elevated, there would be fewer land-rights issues. But that's not going to solve everything, and could considerably increase the price tag. About every 70 miles, an electric motor would provide a boost to the individual pods, shooting them farther along the track. The same system could slow down the pods as they approach their destination, and the energy taken from that could be rerouted to power the next batch of pods.

Article Link: http://www.popsci.com/technology/article/2013-08/elon-musks-hyperloop

Earlier post on the Hyperloop: https://plus.google.com/u/0/110884604033336753419/posts/DCyZmjcNfvL

Initial post on the Hyperloop: https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/103586346709495625226/+lacerantplainer/posts/GRPm3YXFrcK

+Gary Ray R's well written post on the reveal: https://plus.google.com/u/0/117751903650439005786/posts/bHAdS6T52Qu

#science #scienceeveryday #masstransit #hyperloop #elonmusk #spacex  ___

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2015-03-27 09:37:43 (1 comments, 3 reshares, 25 +1s)Open 

The Hyperloop opensource transportation concept : Who will be the first to create it? My bet is on China. They already have the of the only functioning Maglev system. This is natural progression for them. Recent discussions have drawn chuckles and derision from a number of sources including Conan O'Brien and in an interview of people on the street - "_I'll always remember today as the last time I heard about this incredible project," one woman said_.

It makes me really sad to see the myopic and short sighted view of the public at large and inability to take bold steps to better our condition. (sorry for the mini rant).
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+Elon Musk's commentary "_Is there truly a new mode of transport; a fifth mode after planes, trains, cars and boats; that meets (safety, speed,... more »

The Hyperloop opensource transportation concept : Who will be the first to create it? My bet is on China. They already have the of the only functioning Maglev system. This is natural progression for them. Recent discussions have drawn chuckles and derision from a number of sources including Conan O'Brien and in an interview of people on the street - "_I'll always remember today as the last time I heard about this incredible project," one woman said_.

It makes me really sad to see the myopic and short sighted view of the public at large and inability to take bold steps to better our condition. (sorry for the mini rant).
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+Elon Musk's commentary "_Is there truly a new mode of transport; a fifth mode after planes, trains, cars and boats; that meets (safety, speed, economic) criteria and is practical to implement? Many ideas for a system with most of those properties have been proposed and should be acknowledged,....but they all possess, it would seem, one or more fatal flaws that prevent them from coming to fruition._"

Constraining the problem "The Hyperloop (or something similar) is, in my opinion, the right solution for the specific case of high traffic city pairs that are less than about 1500 km or 900 miles apart. Around that inflection point, I suspect that supersonic air travel ends up being faster and cheaper."


Full opensource document: http://www.teslamotors.com/sites/default/files/blog_attachments/hyperloop_alpha3.pdf

Article link on the Tesla blog: http://www.teslamotors.com/blog/hyperloop

Earlier post on Hyperloop: https://plus.google.com/110884604033336753419/posts/4kFbVeC9VhY

The Hyperloop mystery: https://plus.google.com/110884604033336753419/posts/DCyZmjcNfvL

Initial links: https://plus.google.com/103586346709495625226/posts/GRPm3YXFrcK

Mocking the Hyperloop: http://news.investors.com/technology-click/083013-669509-elon-musk-hyperloop-puts-entrepreneur-in-comic-spotlight.htm

#hyperloop #elonmusk #engineering #technology  ___

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2015-03-27 09:37:40 (1 comments, 3 reshares, 16 +1s)Open 

Hope the Hyperloop sees the light of day : Now Southern California based Jumpstartfund is looking to support the initiative. If it does happen, it will be a paradigm-changing mass transit system which will be awesome to behold.

Article extract: Marco Villa, formerly the director of mission operations for Musk's SpaceX company, and Patricia Galloway, formerly the president of the American Society of Civil Engineers, have emerged as the leaders of an effort to actually finance and build Hyperloop, which, in Musk's vision, would be able to carry passengers from San Francisco to Los Angeles at speeds in excess of 700 miles per hour.

Villa and Galloway lead a group that has appeared on JumpStartFund, a crowdsourcing website somewhat like Kickstarter or Indiegogo, but fundamentally different in an important way: JumpStartFund allows groups to form corporations to back the... more »

Hope the Hyperloop sees the light of day : Now Southern California based Jumpstartfund is looking to support the initiative. If it does happen, it will be a paradigm-changing mass transit system which will be awesome to behold.

Article extract: Marco Villa, formerly the director of mission operations for Musk's SpaceX company, and Patricia Galloway, formerly the president of the American Society of Civil Engineers, have emerged as the leaders of an effort to actually finance and build Hyperloop, which, in Musk's vision, would be able to carry passengers from San Francisco to Los Angeles at speeds in excess of 700 miles per hour.

Villa and Galloway lead a group that has appeared on JumpStartFund, a crowdsourcing website somewhat like Kickstarter or Indiegogo, but fundamentally different in an important way: JumpStartFund allows groups to form corporations to back the ideas they love. This allows the site to trade in massive proposals that would be far too pricey for typical crowdsourcing sites. Hyperloop, for instance, would cost only $6 billion, according to Musk, and big infrastructure projects tend to get more expensive as they go, not less.

Also tagging in +Richard Branson +FundersClub and +AngelInvestors SanDiego !

Article Link: http://www.popularmechanics.com/how-to/blog/former-spacex-exec-tries-to-bring-hyperloop-to-life-15974530?click=pm_latest

Forbes article Link: http://www.forbes.com/sites/markrogowsky/2013/09/26/with-engineers-on-board-a-startup-is-driving-the-hyperloop-idea-forward/

Jumpstartfund: https://www.jumpstartfund.com/

Earlier post on +Elon Musk's Hyperloop: https://plus.google.com/110884604033336753419/posts/4kFbVeC9VhY

Based on the Hyperloop news: https://plus.google.com/110884604033336753419/posts/DCyZmjcNfvL

#hyperloop #elonmusk #jumpstart #marcovilla #masstransit  ___

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2015-03-27 09:37:34 (2 comments, 0 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

Imagine being able to meet your loved ones across the world. And not having to go through airports and long haul flights .... Imagine if we could reduce our carbon footprint by over half. Imagine if we had a safe, quick and superior way to travel. This is why I think Hyperloop should be a reality. So far the concept is only U.S. based, but a global network of hyperloop is technically possible.

People power : Speaking at the MIT-China Innovation and Entrepreneurship Forum on Saturday, JumpStartFund CEO and founder Dirk Ahlborn explained how his organization is hoping to harness the expertise of people who are willing to contribute their time to the project in exchange for nothing but equity. Denver-based JumpStartFund recently announced that former SpaceX mission director Dr. Marco Villa and former president of the American Society of Civil Engineers Dr Patricia Galloway have agreed... more »

Imagine being able to meet your loved ones across the world. And not having to go through airports and long haul flights .... Imagine if we could reduce our carbon footprint by over half. Imagine if we had a safe, quick and superior way to travel. This is why I think Hyperloop should be a reality. So far the concept is only U.S. based, but a global network of hyperloop is technically possible.

People power : Speaking at the MIT-China Innovation and Entrepreneurship Forum on Saturday, JumpStartFund CEO and founder Dirk Ahlborn explained how his organization is hoping to harness the expertise of people who are willing to contribute their time to the project in exchange for nothing but equity. Denver-based JumpStartFund recently announced that former SpaceX mission director Dr. Marco Villa and former president of the American Society of Civil Engineers Dr Patricia Galloway have agreed to provide technical advice for the project, which has been incorporated under the name Hyperloop Transportation Technologies.

Skepticism remains : According to the timeline, we should also expect to see an official kickoff soon. The team hopes to release an updated white paper by the end of March that will "conclusively answer all the tough questions, prove that the design is feasible, and collect reasonable estimates for schedule and cost."

I'll do it myself if no one else does : The technocrat +Elon Musk (of +Tesla Motors fame) knows it's no small task to build the Hyperloop. In fact, he doesn't have much time on his hands these days, so he's hoping someone else takes on the project. But if no one does, Musk says he'd at least build a Hyperloop prototype.

'People power' link : http://pandodaily.com/2013/11/20/hundreds-of-applicants-are-lining-up-to-work-on-the-hyperloop-project-says-interim-ceo/

Hyperloop Nation (infographic) from PopSci : http://www.popsci.com/article/technology/interactive-infographic-what-would-hyperloop-nation-look-0?dom=PSC&loc=slider&lnk=2&con=IMG

'Skepticism remains' article link: http://news.cnet.com/8301-17938_105-57610495-1/is-a-hyperloop-prototype-really-possible-by-2015/

Elon Musks announcement: http://www.businessinsider.in/Elon-Musk-Ill-Build-A-Hyperloop-Prototype-If-No-One-Else-Does/articleshow/25684297.cms

Earlier post on Hyperloop: https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/103586346709495625226/+LacerantPlainerWrites/posts/4kFbVeC9VhY

Who will make the Hyperloop (earlier post) : https://plus.google.com/110884604033336753419/posts/FHPW9GWGzEc

Technical details of Hyperloop from +Gary Ray R : https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/103586346709495625226/117751903650439005786/posts/bHAdS6T52Qu

Pics courtesy : +Popular Science, whiteclouds (via +CNET)

#hyperloop #science #masstransit  ___

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2015-03-27 09:37:22 (1 comments, 3 reshares, 24 +1s)Open 

A Science Fiction World : Smithsonian hosts  'The Future is here' : The invite list has some awesome names such as Brian Greene,  Adam Steltzner, Rich Devaul etc. The names are like a who's who of futurists and scientists. But can we do a guessing game? What will they talk about? Where will the conversation go? While one cannot predict what they would bring forth, here is my list of things one would like to hear about....

Transhumanism : But naturally. With people like David Brin around, it would have to include all forms of transhumanism, Cyborgs, remotely controlled beings, robots with artificial DNA etc. See an earlier post here http://goo.gl/LU23b3

Living Quarters : Quite literally living buildings. Self-sustaining and self-powered. I would definitely talk about these. See earlier posts http://goo.gl/tMRLGj and http://goo.gl/KfO5qn
more »

A Science Fiction World : Smithsonian hosts  'The Future is here' : The invite list has some awesome names such as Brian Greene,  Adam Steltzner, Rich Devaul etc. The names are like a who's who of futurists and scientists. But can we do a guessing game? What will they talk about? Where will the conversation go? While one cannot predict what they would bring forth, here is my list of things one would like to hear about....

Transhumanism : But naturally. With people like David Brin around, it would have to include all forms of transhumanism, Cyborgs, remotely controlled beings, robots with artificial DNA etc. See an earlier post here http://goo.gl/LU23b3

Living Quarters : Quite literally living buildings. Self-sustaining and self-powered. I would definitely talk about these. See earlier posts http://goo.gl/tMRLGj and http://goo.gl/KfO5qn

Economical way to go into space : With a much lower carbon footprint. There are already a lot of technologies in the works, and I posted a story on my blog based on some of the science which exists - http://goo.gl/u2ekqZ (I would also include dynamic soaring, fusion power, the railgun cum scramjet, but the laser based story is something which I think has the best potential).

Power : Reduce cost of power through fusion (http://goo.gl/1DW0bD), Space based solar power (http://goo.gl/5yi0Gr), Luna ring (http://goo.gl/a71BCC), Biomimicry (http://goo.gl/lXWSnh) and using microbes (http://goo.gl/I871zI). Alternate energy post here http://goo.gl/vBUr5a.

Redefining transportation : Virus powered cars (http://goo.gl/rpz3VE), The hyperloop perhaps (http://goo.gl/bm6Nts). ETT is still waiting for us (http://goo.gl/im2KAu) and so much more!

Nanobots and Nanotechnology : Nanobot post here (http://goo.gl/4VT0bG) and Nanomachine mimics nature's protien factory (http://goo.gl/JdzoSN). More recently a post on Material science, nanotechnology and biology meet here (http://goo.gl/XNU2ui).

There are so many new areas I have missed out like 3D printing, self-assembling robots and nanobots, Artifical DNA, Stem cell research, work on graphene. What is your guess??

For more details look at this post shared by +Thomas Dolby  here http://goo.gl/KUFNts

Originally tagged via +Avinash Jaisinghani..... on the Smithsonian event.

Speaker list includes: +David Brin, +Sara Seager, +Richard DeVaul and Brian Greene.

More food for thought: http://arstechnica.com/science/2014/04/habitable-exoplanets-are-bad-news-for-humanity/

Pics courtesy: Smithsonianmag, giantlife.com

#futurism #prediction #sciencefiction #scifi  ___

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2015-03-27 09:37:15 (2 comments, 6 reshares, 45 +1s)Open 

While all the noise has died down : One company floated by a crowdfunding site called Jumpstartfund has taken up the challenge of bringing the Hyperloop to reality. Its a long way away as yet, but Hyperloop Transportation Technologies Inc. is real and a bunch of dedicated people are working on making this reality.

Smart people on it : The incorporated entity has a fancy name and all, but it’s less a standard company than a group of about 100 engineers all over the country who spend their free time spitballing ideas in exchange for stock options. That said, these gals and guys applied for the right to work on the project (another 100 or so were rejected) and nearly all of them have day jobs at companies like Boeing, NASA, Yahoo!, Airbus, SpaceX, and Salesforce. They’re smart. And they’re organized.

Working groups : The team is split into working groups, basedon th... more »

While all the noise has died down : One company floated by a crowdfunding site called Jumpstartfund has taken up the challenge of bringing the Hyperloop to reality. Its a long way away as yet, but Hyperloop Transportation Technologies Inc. is real and a bunch of dedicated people are working on making this reality.

Smart people on it : The incorporated entity has a fancy name and all, but it’s less a standard company than a group of about 100 engineers all over the country who spend their free time spitballing ideas in exchange for stock options. That said, these gals and guys applied for the right to work on the project (another 100 or so were rejected) and nearly all of them have day jobs at companies like Boeing, NASA, Yahoo!, Airbus, SpaceX, and Salesforce. They’re smart. And they’re organized.

Working groups : The team is split into working groups, based on their interests and skills, that cover various aspects of the massive project, including route planning, capsule design, and cost analysis. They work mostly over email, with weekly discussions of their progress. Hierarchy is minimal, but leaders have naturally emerged, says Ahlborn. And if a decision needs to be made, as CEO, he makes the call. A lot of the work is being done by 25 UCLA students. The school’s SUPRASTUDIO design and architecture program partnered with JumpStartFund, and now the students are working on all the design solutions the new transit system would require.

Route : The UCLA students working on potential routes imagine networks criss-crossing the country, as well as Europe and Asia. This is where things get fanciful: we’re at least 10 years away from a commercially viable Hyperloop, and the idea of a national network is hard to imagine. They tacked on the idea of a “Mini Hyperloop,” which would offer shorter routes into and around cities.

Progress : So JumpStartFund and the UCLA students have made good progress, but there’s a lot to figure out before anyone gets to tackle the really fun parts like testing, permitting, and construction. Ahlborn says the questions of how to build the low-pressure tube and the pylons that support it have mostly been solved, and creating the capsules shouldn’t be too tricky. The hard part is moving the capsules within the tube, and seeing how fast they can go. To eliminate friction in the tube, Musk proposed using a compressor to create a pocket of air under the capsule. That’s the cheapest approach, Ahlborn says, but it has its drawbacks. His team is looking at the possibility of using magnetic levitation and other alternatives. “We want to find the best possible way to make this work.”

Sources and References

http://www.wired.com/2014/12/jumpstartfund-hyperloop-elon-musk/#slide-id-1684287 (pic courtesy)

Earlier post "light of day" : http://goo.gl/TC25uN

Earlier post "Concept declaration" : http://goo.gl/SdYLli

Earlier post "Hyperloop" : http://goo.gl/wm4TXj

Earlier post "No long haul flights" : http://goo.gl/E4SrSY

http://www.techtimes.com/articles/22618/20141220/elon-musk-hyperloop-dream-may-soon-become-reality-thanks-to-crowdsourcing.htm

http://www.engadget.com/2014/12/19/engineers-progress-hyperloop-trains/

#hyperloop #Elonmusk +Elon Musk ___

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2015-03-27 09:36:53 (1 comments, 5 reshares, 75 +1s)Open 

SF to LA in under 30 minutes? First #Hyperloop #prototype to begin in 2015: autode.sk/1Ag68YW 

SF to LA in under 30 minutes? First #Hyperloop #prototype to begin in 2015: autode.sk/1Ag68YW ___

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2015-03-27 09:33:36 (3 comments, 7 reshares, 42 +1s)Open 

Infrared Dawn : I have been following the next big story in astronomy, and that is undoubtedly the emergence of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) which is an origami-inspired infrared telescope which will be placed most probably in the Lagrange point (L2) which means after unfolding, the telescope will keep up with the Earth's revolution around the Sun. Why is it exciting? It is like a Hubble on steroids. Astronomers don't even know how much they will learn once the JWST sees first light.

Article Extract: Ball Aerospace had delivered all 18 hexagonal segments of the observatory’s honeycomb-like, 6.5-meter primary mirror, designed to look into a past 13 billion years distant. From an observation platform, you could see one of the mirrors on display in the Spacecraft Systems Development and Integration Facility, the largest clean room in the world.

Two decades aftera... more »

Infrared Dawn : I have been following the next big story in astronomy, and that is undoubtedly the emergence of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) which is an origami-inspired infrared telescope which will be placed most probably in the Lagrange point (L2) which means after unfolding, the telescope will keep up with the Earth's revolution around the Sun. Why is it exciting? It is like a Hubble on steroids. Astronomers don't even know how much they will learn once the JWST sees first light.

Article Extract: Ball Aerospace had delivered all 18 hexagonal segments of the observatory’s honeycomb-like, 6.5-meter primary mirror, designed to look into a past 13 billion years distant. From an observation platform, you could see one of the mirrors on display in the Spacecraft Systems Development and Integration Facility, the largest clean room in the world.

Two decades after astronomers first convened to discuss what sort of space-based observatory should succeed the Hubble Space Telescope, Hubble’s three-times-as-large, 100-times-as-powerful replacement, whose fabrication was overseen by primary contractor Northrop Grumman, finally seemed to be coming together. “Going from Hubble to the James Webb Space Telescope is like going from a biplane to the jet engine,” said Mikulski.

No one disputes that the Webb will be an extraordinary machine, one that will allow astronomers to look farther back in time than they’ve ever been able to see, to the earliest galaxies that formed after the Big Bang. The gold coating on its mirror segments, totalling about a golf ball’s worth and spread in a thin layer across the surface of each segment, will absorb light on the blue end of the spectrum, allowing the observatory to see a bandwidth between 0.6 to 28 microns, firmly in the infrared and stretching just slightly into the visible spectrum.

Amazing discoveries ahead : Once [we] started seeing things with Hubble that [we'd] never seen before, [we] pushed it harder and harder to do new things. The same will happen with the James Webb Space Telescope. We will discover new things that we have no way of knowing about today, no way of guessing [because] our intuition isn't able to take us there. And those will be the great discoveries that actually show up in the coming 20 years, in the coming 30 years. It is really, in many ways, the golden age of astronomy — it's the very best time ever to be an astronomer. (Michael Shara)

Main article Link: http://www.airspacemag.com/space/infrared-dawn-next-space-telescope-will-be-hubble-x-100-180951409/?no-ist (also courtesy pic top right)

Additional Link: http://io9.com/heres-why-you-should-be-excited-about-the-james-webb-sp-1594279578

Earlier post (Amazing JWST) : https://plus.google.com/110884604033336753419/posts/Zr69vhsbyWh

Additional Earlier post: https://plus.google.com/110884604033336753419/posts/Rui2CdtJLpq

Space telescopes takes inspiration from Origami: https://plus.google.com/110884604033336753419/posts/5anQtZ6UwK6

Origami based solar array: https://plus.google.com/110884604033336753419/posts/AxWEXydnSVu

Pic link middle right and source : http://www.jwst.nasa.gov/

Pic link bottom right and source: http://www.stsci.edu/jwst/overview/gallery

Video link: (Technical version) James Webb Space Telescope Deployment In Detail

Wikipedia link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Webb_Space_Telescope

pic link on left: http://www.planetsedu.com/planet/jupiter/

NASA link to the JWST: http://webb.nasa.gov/orbit.html

#jameswebb #space #astronomy  ___

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2015-03-27 09:33:12 (1 comments, 3 reshares, 11 +1s)Open 

Airwaveguide : While lasers have been used before to send information to satellites, this relatively new discovery is quite fascinating. Fibre optic cables are usually preferred due to having a high refractive index, and with fibre optic cables being encased in material having lower refractive index, it is possible to reflect the light back to the core of the cable, preventing the beam from losing focus. Now researchers are trying to do the same thing with air. How? Read more to figure it out...

Focusing the beam : Milchberg and colleagues' made the equivalent of an optical fibre out of air by generating a laser with its light split into a ring of multiple beams forming a 'pipe'. They used very short and powerful pulses from the laser to heat the air molecules along the beam extremely quickly. Such rapid heating produced sound waves that took about a microsecond to... more »

Airwaveguide : While lasers have been used before to send information to satellites, this relatively new discovery is quite fascinating. Fibre optic cables are usually preferred due to having a high refractive index, and with fibre optic cables being encased in material having lower refractive index, it is possible to reflect the light back to the core of the cable, preventing the beam from losing focus. Now researchers are trying to do the same thing with air. How? Read more to figure it out...

Focusing the beam : Milchberg and colleagues' made the equivalent of an optical fibre out of air by generating a laser with its light split into a ring of multiple beams forming a 'pipe'. They used very short and powerful pulses from the laser to heat the air molecules along the beam extremely quickly. Such rapid heating produced sound waves that took about a microsecond to converge to the centre of the pipe, creating a high-density area surrounded by a low-density area left behind in the wake of the laser beams.

Air 'Pipe' : "A microsecond is a long time compared to how far light propagates, so the light is gone and a microsecond later those sound waves collide in the centre, enhancing the air density there," says Milchberg. The lower density region of air surrounding the centre of the air waveguide had a lower refractive index, keeping the light focused. "Any structure [even air] which has a higher density will have a higher index of refraction and thereby act like an optical fibre," says Milchberg.

The findings : The researchers found the signal was 50 per cent stronger than a signal obtained without an air waveguide. The findings show the air waveguide can be used as a "remote collection optic," says Milchberg. "This is an optical fibre cable that you can reel out at the speed of light and place next to [something] that you want to measure remotely, and have the signal come all the way back to where you are."

Article link: http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2014/07/23/4049345.htm?topic=energy

Research paper : http://www.opticsinfobase.org/optica/abstract.cfm?uri=optica-1-1-5

Additional link: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/08/140819125946.htm

Phys.org link: http://phys.org/news/2014-07-optical-cables-thin-air.html

Main pic: from abc.net.au. Additional pics http://news.discovery.com/tech/gear-and-gadgets/optical-fiber-made-out-of-thin-air-140723.htm and http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2014-07/23/optical-fibres-made-from-air

#science #technology___

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2015-03-27 09:33:00 (6 comments, 2 reshares, 12 +1s)Open 

The Prism : The prism fascinated me in school. I wondered how it would 'break' up light into it's constituent colors. That was what we were taught. But of course, there is so much more to why that happens. White light is not 'pristine'... it already has all the colors. In fact the colors are part of white light. To understand this, one has to ask 'what is color'. Color is nothing but our perception of the different wavelengths of light. Our perception of color is not the same as the perception of color which a mantis shrimp has for example (which sees much more of the EM spectrum than us) or a cat (which sees less of the spectrum than humans).

Of course the prism is just glass (or some transparent material). It sits on a triangular base and has rectangular sides. In school I imagined it was some special material !

Refraction and speed of light in... more »

The Prism : The prism fascinated me in school. I wondered how it would 'break' up light into it's constituent colors. That was what we were taught. But of course, there is so much more to why that happens. White light is not 'pristine'... it already has all the colors. In fact the colors are part of white light. To understand this, one has to ask 'what is color'. Color is nothing but our perception of the different wavelengths of light. Our perception of color is not the same as the perception of color which a mantis shrimp has for example (which sees much more of the EM spectrum than us) or a cat (which sees less of the spectrum than humans).

Of course the prism is just glass (or some transparent material). It sits on a triangular base and has rectangular sides. In school I imagined it was some special material !

Refraction and speed of light in materials : Refraction simply means that light travels at a different speed in different materials. It's fast in air, and slower in water or glass. This has the effect of changing the direction of light, or bending it, when it moves from one material to the other.

But why do different colors go in different directions?  This is because different colors of light travel at different speeds in the glass. So from the analogy above, slower speeds in the glass make the light bend more. We call this effect dispersion, since it disperses the colors in different directions. Blue light travels slightly slower in glass than red light, so it bends a sharper angle when it enters the glass from air. In physics, we say the glass has a higher refractive index for blue light than red light. There is a formula (Snell's Law) that you can use to calculate angles from refractive index, or the other way around.

How refraction actually works (Quantum Electrodynamics) : Another way to answer this is through QED which talks about how light interacts with atoms of the material it is traversing. I will not even attempt to explain this here. But Richard Feynman got a nobel prize in Physics explaining the phenomenon. See Richard Feynman Lecture on Quantum Electrodynamics: QED. 1/8 . You can even get his book and read about it.

Article Source: http://scienceline.ucsb.edu/getkey.php?key=1542

Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prism

Additional reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optics

'The strange theory of light' : http://qed.wikina.org/refraction/

Ask a scientist : http://www.newton.dep.anl.gov/askasci/phy00/phy00612.htm

Additional source: http://www.nevis.columbia.edu/~conrad/classes/QED4.html

Earlier post 'How we perceive color' : http://goo.gl/g5b7Xb

Related post 'Why do soap bubbles sometimes appear colored and sometimes appear transparent' : http://goo.gl/f0Haxx

Pic courtesy: From Wikipedia

#science #scienceeveryday #light  ___

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2015-03-27 09:32:01 (1 comments, 0 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

The Expanding Universe : what is meant by the universe "expanding faster than the speed of light." However, for the simplest interpretation of your question, the answer is that the universe does expand faster than the speed of light, and, perhaps more surprisingly, some of the galaxies we can see right now are currently moving away from us faster than the speed of light! As a consequence of their great speeds, these galaxies will likely not be visible to us forever; some of them are right now emitting their last bit of light that will ever be able to make it all the way across space and reach us (billions of years from now). After that, we will observe them to freeze and fade, never to be heard from again.

Varying Speed of Light theory: The physicist João Magueijo has proposed a heretical question: What if the speed of light; now accepted as one of the unchanging foundations of... more »

The Expanding Universe : what is meant by the universe "expanding faster than the speed of light." However, for the simplest interpretation of your question, the answer is that the universe does expand faster than the speed of light, and, perhaps more surprisingly, some of the galaxies we can see right now are currently moving away from us faster than the speed of light! As a consequence of their great speeds, these galaxies will likely not be visible to us forever; some of them are right now emitting their last bit of light that will ever be able to make it all the way across space and reach us (billions of years from now). After that, we will observe them to freeze and fade, never to be heard from again.

Varying Speed of Light theory: The physicist João Magueijo has proposed a heretical question: What if the speed of light; now accepted as one of the unchanging foundations of modern physics; were not constant?  Magueijo, a native of Portugal, puts forth the heretical idea that in the very early days of the universe light traveled faster—an idea that if proven could dethrone Einstein and forever change our understanding of the universe. He is a pioneer of the varying speed of light (VSL) theory of cosmology; an alternative to the more mainstream theory of cosmic inflation; which proposes that the speed of light in the early universe was of 60 orders of magnitude faster than its present value. Joao Magueijo's radical ideas intend to turn that Einsteinian dogma on its head. Marueijo is trying to pick apart one of Einstein’s most impenetrable tenets, the constancy of the speed of light. This idea of a constant speed (about 3×106 meters/second); is known as the universal speed limit. Nothing can, has, or ever will travel faster than light.

Magueijo ; who received his doctorate from Cambridge, has been a faculty member at Princeton and Cambridge, and is currently a professor at Imperial College, London; says: not so. His VSL theory presupposes a speed of light that can be energy or time-space dependent.


Article Link: http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/question.php?number=575

Additional source: http://www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblog/2012/08/light-traveled-faster-in-the-early-universe-todays-most-popular.html

Mike Hawkins asks similar questions: http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg15721271.900-constant-chaos--was-the-speed-of-light-different-in-the-early-universe.html

Wikipedia link on speed of light: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speed_of_light

Abc link: http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2013/03/05/3701140.htm

Pic  detail: Black Holes distort space-time preventing even light from escaping its gravitational pull once a photon passes beyond the event horizon. (Source: NASA/CXC/April Hobart)

#science #scienceeveryday #sciencesunday #speedoflight #universe #expansion  ___

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2015-03-27 09:31:19 (3 comments, 2 reshares, 20 +1s)Open 

How Plants use the quantum effect of light: Plants convert 95 to 99% of the light they receive into energy.... how? The quantum key to doing that lies in a phenomenon known to physicists as quantum coherence, according to research published in Nature. Quantum coherence describes how more than one molecule interacts with the same energy from one incoming photon at the same time.

In essence, rather than the energy from a particular photon choosing one route to pass through the photosynthetic system, it travels through multiple channels simultaneously, allowing it to pick the quickest route. "The energy of the absorbed light is finding more than one pathway to move along at any one time," explains physical chemist Greg Scholes of the University of Toronto, leader of the research group that highlighted the effect. "We can't pinpoint the energy of that light. It's... more »

How Plants use the quantum effect of light: Plants convert 95 to 99% of the light they receive into energy.... how? The quantum key to doing that lies in a phenomenon known to physicists as quantum coherence, according to research published in Nature. Quantum coherence describes how more than one molecule interacts with the same energy from one incoming photon at the same time.

In essence, rather than the energy from a particular photon choosing one route to pass through the photosynthetic system, it travels through multiple channels simultaneously, allowing it to pick the quickest route. "The energy of the absorbed light is finding more than one pathway to move along at any one time," explains physical chemist Greg Scholes of the University of Toronto, leader of the research group that highlighted the effect. "We can't pinpoint the energy of that light. It's shared in a very special way."

such insights might help inform how to efficiently transfer energy over long atomic distances quickly in human-made systems to harvest sunlight—benefiting from nature's 2.7-billion-year head start in optimizing such systems.

Article Link: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=shining-a-light-on-plants-quantum-secret

Additional link: http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/2013/jan/11/proteins-boost-quantum-coherence-in-bacteria

Research link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1074552110001675

Maximizing Photosynthesis: http://facweb.bhc.edu/eastcampus/faculty/Larsonan/courses/Ag_283/283lec/Section_3/Photosynthesis.pdf

#science #scienceeveryday   #photosynthesis   #quantum   #quanta   #enegy   #energyefficiency #plants #lpsamazingplantfacts___

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2015-03-27 09:30:51 (2 comments, 2 reshares, 8 +1s)Open 

Photonic Laser thruster : In the simplest of terms, its using light (photons) to create propulsion, as is done with the solar sail, except this is targeted. Now NASA has announced funding to the Y.K.Bae corporation. While this is a concept still, it is quite interesting :)

Article Extract: Young K. Bae wants us to travel to the moon within hours, and to Mars within days. Rocket fuel won't allow our spacecraft to reach those speeds—Bae wants to do it with lasers. Bae has been working on the concept for years, originally receiving NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) funding in 2007 before that program was discontinued. But with NIAC's recent resurrection, Bae's research is back on track.

A laser is generated in a cavity between two mirrors, and fired between them continuously. The interaction of the photons between these two plates is then fired out of thel... more »

Photonic Laser thruster : In the simplest of terms, its using light (photons) to create propulsion, as is done with the solar sail, except this is targeted. Now NASA has announced funding to the Y.K.Bae corporation. While this is a concept still, it is quite interesting :)

Article Extract: Young K. Bae wants us to travel to the moon within hours, and to Mars within days. Rocket fuel won't allow our spacecraft to reach those speeds—Bae wants to do it with lasers. Bae has been working on the concept for years, originally receiving NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) funding in 2007 before that program was discontinued. But with NIAC's recent resurrection, Bae's research is back on track.

A laser is generated in a cavity between two mirrors, and fired between them continuously. The interaction of the photons between these two plates is then fired out of the launch platform. The platform remains in orbit, controlled by conventional thrusters. However, it fires at a craft, which does the brunt of the actual space travel. By continuously firing a laser at the craft, you can push it and allow it to build up momentum without chemical or nuclear fuel. And by reducing the need for fuel consumption, you also reduce the overall weight of the mission, creating more room for payloads.

Article Link: http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/space/deep/cosmic-concept-laser-powered-space-travel-16020462

Additional link: http://www.centauri-dreams.org/?p=29341

Link to +Wikipedia on laser propulsion: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laser_propulsion

NASA NIAC website link: http://www.nasa.gov/press/2013/august/nasa-selects-2013-nasa-innovative-advanced-technology-concepts-for-continued-study/#.Uo4jhuKNA-8

Engadget link: http://www.engadget.com/2007/02/24/bae-institute-crafts-magical-photonic-laser-thruster/

Pics courtesy: Thelivingmoon, nextbigfuture, novuslight.com via Y. K. Bae Corporation.

#science #nasa #lasers  ___

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2015-03-27 09:30:36 (2 comments, 2 reshares, 32 +1s)Open 

Scientists visualize experiment to turn Light Into Matter : Yes, it may be possible, and the experiment will tell us; though headlines have been screaming about light being converted into matter already.... But other than the obvious jokes about making food from light, it has far-reaching implications in peering at events just after the big bang. If Oliver Pike can experimentally prove the Breit-Wheeler calculations, it would be an event indeed. Fascinating.

Article Extract: The proposed experiment, reported in the journal Nature photonics, would recreate events that occurred in the first 100 seconds of the big bang, as well as in cosmic rays and gamma ray bursts. In 1934, scientists Gregory Breit and John Wheeler suggested light can be converted into matter by smashing two photons together to create an electron and its antimatter counterpart, a positron.

"The Breit-Wheeler... more »

Scientists visualize experiment to turn Light Into Matter : Yes, it may be possible, and the experiment will tell us; though headlines have been screaming about light being converted into matter already.... But other than the obvious jokes about making food from light, it has far-reaching implications in peering at events just after the big bang. If Oliver Pike can experimentally prove the Breit-Wheeler calculations, it would be an event indeed. Fascinating.

Article Extract: The proposed experiment, reported in the journal Nature photonics, would recreate events that occurred in the first 100 seconds of the big bang, as well as in cosmic rays and gamma ray bursts. In 1934, scientists Gregory Breit and John Wheeler suggested light can be converted into matter by smashing two photons together to create an electron and its antimatter counterpart, a positron.

"The Breit-Wheeler process is one of the simplest interactions of light and matter and one of the purest demonstrations of E=mc2," said the study's lead author Oliver Pike of Imperial College London. "However, Breit-Wheeler pair production has never been observed. The experimental design we propose can be carried out with relative ease and with existing technology."

Article Link: http://news.discovery.com/space/galaxies/experiment-to-turn-light-into-matter-140519.htm

Additional link: http://www.theverge.com/2014/5/18/5724658/photon-collider-could-turn-light-into-matter

Source article: http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2014/05/19/4006271.htm

Abstract in Photonics : http://www.nature.com/nphoton/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nphoton.2014.95.html

Pic courtesy : www.veooz.com

#light #matter #Emc2 #physics #science  ___

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2015-03-27 09:29:47 (1 comments, 3 reshares, 12 +1s)Open 

The Sun's emissions : Inspired by a post from +Steven Spence I was asking myself... what exactly is 'Sunlight'... we know that it's more than just light. But how much more? Which part of the Electromagnetic spectrum is emitted by the Sun? The answer is not new, it's just very interesting :) From Carnegie Mellon Univ: The sun radiates energy equally in all directions, and the Earth intercepts and receives part of this energy. The power flux reaching the top of the Earth's atmosphere is about 1400 Watts/m2. This measure simply means that on the average, one square meter on the side of the Earth facing the sun receives energy from the sun equal to that from fourteen 100 Watt light bulbs every second!

Article Extract: Radiation from the Sun, which is more popularly known as sunlight, is a mixture of electromagnetic waves ranging from infrared (IR) to ultraviolet rays... more »

The Sun's emissions : Inspired by a post from +Steven Spence I was asking myself... what exactly is 'Sunlight'... we know that it's more than just light. But how much more? Which part of the Electromagnetic spectrum is emitted by the Sun? The answer is not new, it's just very interesting :) From Carnegie Mellon Univ: The sun radiates energy equally in all directions, and the Earth intercepts and receives part of this energy. The power flux reaching the top of the Earth's atmosphere is about 1400 Watts/m2. This measure simply means that on the average, one square meter on the side of the Earth facing the sun receives energy from the sun equal to that from fourteen 100 Watt light bulbs every second!

Article Extract: Radiation from the Sun, which is more popularly known as sunlight, is a mixture of electromagnetic waves ranging from infrared (IR) to ultraviolet rays (UV). It of course includes visible light, which is in between IR and UV in the electromagnetic spectrum. (http://goo.gl/60lf83)

The spectrum of the Sun's solar radiation is close to that of a black body with a temperature of about 5,800 K. The Sun emits EM radiation across most of the electromagnetic spectrum. Although the Sun produces Gamma rays as a result of the nuclear fusion process, these super-high-energy photons are converted to lower-energy photons before they reach the Sun's surface and are emitted out into space. As a result, the Sun does not emit gamma rays. The Sun does, however, emit X-rays, ultraviolet, visible light, infrared, and even radio waves, not to mention neutrinos. (http://goo.gl/6UmlWI)

X-rays : The X-rays we detect from the Sun do not come from the Sun's surface, but from the solar corona, which is the upper layer of the Sun's atmosphere. Only very hot gases can emit X-rays, and the corona, at millions of degrees, is hot enough to emit X-rays, while the much cooler surface of the Sun is not. Thus, the Sun's atmosphere is an excellent source of X-rays. (http://goo.gl/p5aRr6)

Sound from the Sun : Our Sun lies 93,000,000 miles away, surrounded by the vacuum of space. Sound won't travel through space, of course. But with the right instrument, scientists can "hear" pulsations from the Sun. The entire Sun vibrates from a complex pattern of acoustical waves, much like a bell. If your eyes were sharp enough, you could see a bell's surface jiggle in complex patterns as the waves bounced around within it. The Sun's sound waves are normally at frequencies too low for the human ear to hear. To be able to hear them, the scientists sped up the waves 42,000 times -- and compressed 40 days of vibrations into a few seconds. What you'll be hearing are just a few dozen of the 10 million resonances echoing inside the Sun. (http://goo.gl/oJHeVw)

Other references
Askascientist: http://www.newton.dep.anl.gov/askasci/phy00/phy00413.htm

From HAO: http://www.hao.ucar.edu/education/morebasic.php#light

Earthguide: http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/eoc/teachers/t_universe/p_spectra.html

Further reading Gamma rays from the Sun: http://today.slac.stanford.edu/feature/gammaraysfromthesun.asp

Carnegie Mellon U: http://telstar.ote.cmu.edu/environ/m3/s2/02sun.shtml

References: +NASA +SDO | Solar Dynamics Observatory +Wikipedia +Stanford University +Universe Today +Carnegie Mellon University 

Pic on right: This picture compares the spectra of different classifications of star, in the visual range from 400 to 700 nanometers (4000 to 7000 Angstroms). Thirteen regular types are shown, and at the bottom are three special cases, all selected from the spectrophotometric atlas by Jacoby, Hunter and Christian, 1984, which used data from the Kitt Peak National Observatory's 0.9-meter telescope." - National Optical Astronomy Observatory (http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/eoc/teachers/t_universe/p_spectra.html) Pic on left: from SDO via Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sunlight)

#Sunlight #spectra #electromagneticspectra #science  ___

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2015-03-27 09:29:38 (1 comments, 2 reshares, 12 +1s)Open 

Split ring resonators (SRR) : Refractive index of a material is vital in understanding how light propagates through the material. Refractive index 'n' is n=  sqare root of εμ. Where ε is the permittivity and μ is the permeability. for transparent materials, both these values are greater than zero. For metals, ε < 0 which is why metals are opaque to visible light.

Negative refractive Index : A material which has ε < 0 and μ < 0, is one in which the refractive index would be 'real' i.e. not imaginary. But a negative μ implies a negative refractive index ! This never happens in natural materials. But a metamaterial could be engineered in which we have sub-wavelength elements with just such properties.

Nanostructures : Since light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum, a split-ring resonator can act just like a LC circuit and displayproperti... more »

Split ring resonators (SRR) : Refractive index of a material is vital in understanding how light propagates through the material. Refractive index 'n' is n=  sqare root of εμ. Where ε is the permittivity and μ is the permeability. for transparent materials, both these values are greater than zero. For metals, ε < 0 which is why metals are opaque to visible light.

Negative refractive Index : A material which has ε < 0 and μ < 0, is one in which the refractive index would be 'real' i.e. not imaginary. But a negative μ implies a negative refractive index ! This never happens in natural materials. But a metamaterial could be engineered in which we have sub-wavelength elements with just such properties.

Nanostructures : Since light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum, a split-ring resonator can act just like a LC circuit and display properties of a resonator. Another aspect of unnatural electromagnetic wave propagation can be observed at the contact surface between two different materials, where one of them is electromagnetic metamaterial. Negative refraction breaks light waves reverse to what the standard physics postulates. Effects such as the one seen in the figure showing refraction (the wrong way!) this can be achieved with appropriately designed metamaterials.

Invisibility Cloaks : What SRR do is refract light at an angle which is analogous to chiral. The basic idea is to create an artificial crystal with significantly sub-wavelength periods. However, it has only been done for microwaves, since the wavelengths of visible light are small. Theoretically, it should be possible.

Source: http://www.mat.ucsb.edu/~g.legrady/academic/courses/10f200a/md/metamaterials.htm

Source (Karlsruhe Inst of Technology) : http://www.aph.kit.edu/wegener/english/264.php

Duke Univ: http://www.pratt.duke.edu/news/david-smith-creating-new-materials-go-beyond-nature

Courtesy Rice Univ Nanotechnology.

Wikipedia reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Split-ring_resonator , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Negative_refraction

Related: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v497/n7450/full/nature12158.html

Pics from Wikipedia, KIT, Nature and Rice Univ.

#scienceeveryday #science #nanotechnology #invisiblitycloak  ___

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2015-03-27 09:27:56 (2 comments, 1 reshares, 13 +1s)Open 

Why do soap bubbles sometimes appear colored and sometimes appear transparent? : This is an interesting question and leads down many paths. To start to answer this question, we need to understand the nature of a thin film and how light acts on it.

Glass window thought experiment : Imagine for instance you are looking through a window at night. If you shine a torch through the window, you can see a bit of light reflected back. This is because not only does the light pass through the window, it was two reflections - one from the front of the glass sheet, and another through the back of the glass sheet. If the glass sheet is made very very thin, we notice that lesser and lesser reflections are seen. Why is this? The very thin transparent surfaces often display 'destructive interference.' Out of phase wavelengths cancel out. And you get either a colored image or none at all.... more »

Why do soap bubbles sometimes appear colored and sometimes appear transparent? : This is an interesting question and leads down many paths. To start to answer this question, we need to understand the nature of a thin film and how light acts on it.

Glass window thought experiment : Imagine for instance you are looking through a window at night. If you shine a torch through the window, you can see a bit of light reflected back. This is because not only does the light pass through the window, it was two reflections - one from the front of the glass sheet, and another through the back of the glass sheet. If the glass sheet is made very very thin, we notice that lesser and lesser reflections are seen. Why is this? The very thin transparent surfaces often display 'destructive interference.' Out of phase wavelengths cancel out. And you get either a colored image or none at all. Depending on a number of factors such as refractive index, we can actually model destructive interference of light incident on surfaces.

Bubble and light : You end up with the two different rays being either in phase with each other (constructive interference), completely out of phase (destructive interference), or somewhere in between. The path length difference at a certain point on a soap bubble might cause destructive interference for blue light, but constructive interference for red light. You’ll end up seeing red at that spot.

Anti-glare glasses : The same fundamental principle is used in this everyday application. Many coatings consist of transparent thin film structures with alternating layers of contrasting refractive index. Layer thicknesses are chosen to produce destructive interference in the beams reflected from the interfaces, and constructive interference in the corresponding transmitted beams. This makes the structure's performance change with wavelength and incident angle, so that color effects often appear at oblique angles. A wavelength range must be specified when designing or ordering such coatings, but good performance can often be achieved for a relatively wide range of frequencies: usually a choice of IR, visible, or UV is offered.

Earlier post on Bubble physics: https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/103586346709495625226/+LacerantPlainerWrites/posts/h355mkifmtH

Main pic and source article : http://twilit.wordpress.com/2008/03/15/bubbles-and-interference/

+Wikipedia source article and pic on right : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-reflective_coating and http://goo.gl/Hr3D9w

Additional link: http://curiosity.discovery.com/question/ati-reflective-coating

More about types of interference : http://www.phys.uconn.edu/~gibson/Notes/Section5_2/Sec5_2.htm

Pic courtesy bottom right and article : http://www.webexhibits.org/causesofcolor/15E.html

Interference phenomena source article: http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/interference/soapbubbles/

Reference : http://farside.ph.utexas.edu/teaching/302l/lectures/node155.html

#science #scienceeveryday #bubble___

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2015-03-27 09:21:32 (4 comments, 15 reshares, 53 +1s)Open 

What is fire, electricity and magnetism - and how are they related? : At the atomic level these are very different from what we would assume at the macro level. In some ways they are all related, since it has to do with the movement of electrons and creation of charge. When you see a match light, what happens is energy is released. While most of it is in the Infrared spectrum (What we call heat), there is also some of it released in the visible spectrum (light). The release is due to the Oxygen bonding with the material you are burning. While the effect may be too small to be seen in a matchstick, there is electricity and magnetism at work here too. You can see the effect on the Sun. Our Sun (or any star) is a miasma of incandescent plasma.  One way to see this is to notice that the solar flares that leap from its surface are directed along the Sun’s (generally twisted up and spotty) magneticfi... more »

What is fire, electricity and magnetism - and how are they related? : At the atomic level these are very different from what we would assume at the macro level. In some ways they are all related, since it has to do with the movement of electrons and creation of charge. When you see a match light, what happens is energy is released. While most of it is in the Infrared spectrum (What we call heat), there is also some of it released in the visible spectrum (light). The release is due to the Oxygen bonding with the material you are burning. While the effect may be too small to be seen in a matchstick, there is electricity and magnetism at work here too. You can see the effect on the Sun. Our Sun (or any star) is a miasma of incandescent plasma.  One way to see this is to notice that the solar flares that leap from its surface are directed along the Sun’s (generally twisted up and spotty) magnetic fields. So what is this all about?

Electricity : The nucleus of an atom is surrounded by negatively charged particles called electrons. The negative charge of an electron is equal to the positive charge of a proton, and the number of electrons in an atom is usually equal to the number of protons. When the balancing force between protons and electrons is upset by an outside force, an atom may gain or lose an electron. When electrons are "lost" from an atom, the free movement of these electrons constitutes an electric current.

Different colors in flames : Electrons on atoms have different amounts of energy proportional to the distance of their orbital from the nucleus. Electrons (which are negative) close to the positive nucleus have lower potential energy; those in "higher" energy levels farther away have more energy. In order for an e- to "jump" from a lower level to a higher one it must absorb energy, often in the form of light. Conversely when an e- "falls" from a higher level to a lower one, it gives off energy, again in the form of a photon of light.

Magnetism : All materials experience magnetism, some more strongly than others. Both electric and magnetic interactions are elements of a single phenomenon called electromagnetism. There are four fundamental forces: the strong force, the weak force, gravitation and the electromagnetic force. The field of electromagnetism deals with how electrically charged particles interact with each other and with magnetic fields.

Electrons : The picture you often see of electrons as small objects circling a nucleus in well defined "orbits" is actually quite wrong. As we now understand it, the electrons aren't really at any one place at any time at all. Instead they exist as a sort of cloud. The cloud can compress to a very small space briefly if you probe it in the right way, but before that it really acts like a spread-out cloud. For example, the electron in a hydrogen atom likes to occupy a spherical volume surrounding the proton. If you think of the proton as the size of a grain of salt, then the electron cloud would have about a ten foot radius. If you probe, you'll probably find the electron somewhere in that region.

What is plasma : The big difference between regular gas and plasma is that in a plasma a fair fraction of the atoms are ionized.  That is, the gas is so hot, and the atoms are slamming around so hard, that some of the electrons are given enough energy to (temporarily) escape their host atoms.  The most important effect of this is that a plasma gains some electrical properties that a non-ionized gas doesn’t have; it becomes conductive and it responds to electrical and magnetic fields.  In fact, this is a great test for whether or not something is a plasma.

References and links:

http://helios.gsfc.nasa.gov/qa_sp_ev.html

https://van.physics.illinois.edu/qa/listing.php?id=2348

http://physics.info/energy/

http://www.askamathematician.com/2011/01/q-if-atoms-are-made-up-of-electrons-protons-and-neutrons-and-the-majority-of-the-volume-of-an-atom-is-space-why-do-things-appear-solid/

http://www.physlink.com/Education/AskExperts/ae569.cfm

http://van.physics.illinois.edu/qa/listing.php?id=1195

https://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/Petrology/WhatAtomsLookLike.HTM

http://www.askamathematician.com/2013/05/q-is-fire-a-plasma-what-is-plasma/

https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/a-description-of-fire-at-an-atomic-level.421438/

Pic courtesy : www.flavorage.com

#science #scienceeveryday___

posted image

2015-03-27 09:19:33 (1 comments, 4 reshares, 23 +1s)Open 

Searching for answers in the bottom of a Whisky glass : The answer is related to fluid dynamics. This was discovered by Howard Stone, an engineer at Princeton University. Read on more to know about the Marangoni effect and how it is related to this pic...

Why : Stone initially suspected that something called the coffee ring effect might be at play: When coffee dries, particles are pulled to the edge of where the liquid makes contact with the cup, creating ring-like patterns as the water evaporates. Similarly, the differing evaporation tendencies of alcohol and water can create interesting patterns.

The Marangoni effect : First described by 19th-century physicist Carlo Marangoni; alcohol and water have different surface tensions—that’s the degree of attraction liquid molecules have to other surfaces (in this case a cup or a glass). Alcohol has a lower surfaceten... more »

Searching for answers in the bottom of a Whisky glass : The answer is related to fluid dynamics. This was discovered by Howard Stone, an engineer at Princeton University. Read on more to know about the Marangoni effect and how it is related to this pic...

Why : Stone initially suspected that something called the coffee ring effect might be at play: When coffee dries, particles are pulled to the edge of where the liquid makes contact with the cup, creating ring-like patterns as the water evaporates. Similarly, the differing evaporation tendencies of alcohol and water can create interesting patterns.

The Marangoni effect : First described by 19th-century physicist Carlo Marangoni; alcohol and water have different surface tensions—that’s the degree of attraction liquid molecules have to other surfaces (in this case a cup or a glass). Alcohol has a lower surface tension than water, and alcohol evaporation drives the surface tension up and pushes more liquid away from areas of high alcohol concentration. The Marangoni number, a dimensionless value, can be used to characterize the relative effects of surface tension and viscous forces.

Practical Applications : Based on this work, the lab team has a hypothesis: “Very small amounts of the additives that come from how whisky is made contribute to the kinds of patterns you actually see,” says Stone. Different additives or variations in the manufacturing process might possibly produce different patterns. The research has some practical implications. Better understanding of these types of fluid flows could prove useful in a lot of industrial situations that involve liquids, particularly liquids that contain particles of sediment or other material, such as printing inks. In the meantime, Button hopes his images raise questions in the minds of viewers that may give them some interesting conversation starters at cocktail parties. “The science behind the imagery provides that extra added layer of thought and complexity,” he says.

Article Link: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/physics-whiskys-aesthetically-pleasing-residue-180953451/

Research Paper: http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/DFD14/Session/H2.3

Additional link: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/25/science/art-in-a-whisky-glass-neatly-explained.html?partner=rss&emc=rss&_r=2

Wikipedia link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marangoni_effect

PM link: http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/heres-why-whisky-evaporations-make-gorgeous-patterns#slide-1


All pics courtesy NYTimes: Ernie Button (photographer), Howard Stone et al.

#science #scienceeveryday  ___

posted image

2015-03-27 09:17:55 (2 comments, 5 reshares, 45 +1s)Open 

Articles on photograph of light as a wave and a particle : Well it's not really a photograph. It is a visualization. It is quite something, but it's not what the media would have you believe. Photons have this ability to knock electrons around in some materials. I actually posted about Plasmons here http://goo.gl/9nnQEd . Knowing how plasmons work, scientists have used a nanowire (5.7 μm length, ≃67 nm radius) to act as a light source by using an incident laser beam and then used electrons to visualize a standing wave. This kind of explains the wave nature of light. On the other hand, as the electrons pass close to the standing wave of light, they "hit" the light's particles, the photons. As mentioned above, this affects their speed, making them move faster or slower. This change in speed appears as an exchange of energy "packets" (quanta) between electrons andphoton... more »

Articles on photograph of light as a wave and a particle : Well it's not really a photograph. It is a visualization. It is quite something, but it's not what the media would have you believe. Photons have this ability to knock electrons around in some materials. I actually posted about Plasmons here http://goo.gl/9nnQEd . Knowing how plasmons work, scientists have used a nanowire (5.7 μm length, ≃67 nm radius) to act as a light source by using an incident laser beam and then used electrons to visualize a standing wave. This kind of explains the wave nature of light. On the other hand, as the electrons pass close to the standing wave of light, they "hit" the light's particles, the photons. As mentioned above, this affects their speed, making them move faster or slower. This change in speed appears as an exchange of energy "packets" (quanta) between electrons and photons. The very occurrence of these energy packets shows that the light on the nanowire behaves as a particle.

The twist : When UV light hits a metal surface, it causes an emission of electrons. Albert Einstein explained this "photoelectric" effect by proposing that light – thought to only be a wave – is also a stream of particles. Even though a variety of experiments have successfully observed both the particle- and wave-like behaviors of light, they have never been able to observe both at the same time. A research team led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL has now carried out an experiment with a clever twist: using electrons to image light. The researchers have captured, for the first time ever, a single snapshot of light behaving simultaneously as both a wave and a stream of particles.

Plasmons? : A plasmon is a collective excitation of the electronic "fluid" in a piece of conducting material, like ripples on the surface of a pond are a collective mode of the water molecules of the liquid.

Is this new? : Not really. There have been other experiments in 2012 which have confirmed the duality of light.

Sources and References

http://phys.org/news/2015-03-particle.html

Link to original research paper: http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2015/150302/ncomms7407/full/ncomms7407.html

http://www.gizmag.com/first-photograph-light-particle-wave/36361/

Earlier duality experiment: http://www.livescience.com/24509-light-wave-particle-duality-experiment.html

Earlier post on plasmons: https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/103586346709495625226/+LacerantPlainerWrites/posts/MCxkMzautA7

http://www.popsci.com/light-photographed-wave-and-particle-first-time

Pic courtesy: Popsci and original research papers.

#science  ___

posted image

2015-03-18 07:53:02 (32 comments, 9 reshares, 63 +1s)Open 

Toothpick model : Apparently this took over 100,000 toothpicks and 35 years to make. It's a tunnel to honor San Fransisco, and it's kinda awesome. Well, if you like making things. And toothpicks.

From PM: This man built a 100,000-toothpick sculpture to honor the history of San Francisco. And this isn't just some static sculpture. Like a game of Marble Works or Mouse Trap, it's designed as one long tunnel, sloping ever down—perhaps not unlike San Francisco itself.

Scott Weaver presented the project at the Exploratorium Maker Faire in 2011. He spent 35 years building it and included trolleys, bridges, famous intersections, World Series trophies and more. He also offers a tribute to the city's LGBT heritage, including rainbow colored toothpicks in his representation of the Castro neighborhood. This is Weaver's testament to a city he obviously loves.more »

Toothpick model : Apparently this took over 100,000 toothpicks and 35 years to make. It's a tunnel to honor San Fransisco, and it's kinda awesome. Well, if you like making things. And toothpicks.

From PM: This man built a 100,000-toothpick sculpture to honor the history of San Francisco. And this isn't just some static sculpture. Like a game of Marble Works or Mouse Trap, it's designed as one long tunnel, sloping ever down—perhaps not unlike San Francisco itself.

Scott Weaver presented the project at the Exploratorium Maker Faire in 2011. He spent 35 years building it and included trolleys, bridges, famous intersections, World Series trophies and more. He also offers a tribute to the city's LGBT heritage, including rainbow colored toothpicks in his representation of the Castro neighborhood. This is Weaver's testament to a city he obviously loves.

Link: http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/a14602/toothpick-san-francisco-scott-weaver/___

posted image

2015-03-03 09:12:14 (11 comments, 15 reshares, 81 +1s)Open 

Articles on photograph of light as a wave and a particle : Well it's not really a photograph. It is a visualization. It is quite something, but it's not what the media would have you believe. Photons have this ability to knock electrons around in some materials. I actually posted about Plasmons here http://goo.gl/9nnQEd . Knowing how plasmons work, scientists have used a nanowire (5.7 μm length, ≃67 nm radius) to act as a light source by using an incident laser beam and then used electrons to visualize a standing wave. This kind of explains the wave nature of light. On the other hand, as the electrons pass close to the standing wave of light, they "hit" the light's particles, the photons. As mentioned above, this affects their speed, making them move faster or slower. This change in speed appears as an exchange of energy "packets" (quanta) between electrons andphoton... more »

Articles on photograph of light as a wave and a particle : Well it's not really a photograph. It is a visualization. It is quite something, but it's not what the media would have you believe. Photons have this ability to knock electrons around in some materials. I actually posted about Plasmons here http://goo.gl/9nnQEd . Knowing how plasmons work, scientists have used a nanowire (5.7 μm length, ≃67 nm radius) to act as a light source by using an incident laser beam and then used electrons to visualize a standing wave. This kind of explains the wave nature of light. On the other hand, as the electrons pass close to the standing wave of light, they "hit" the light's particles, the photons. As mentioned above, this affects their speed, making them move faster or slower. This change in speed appears as an exchange of energy "packets" (quanta) between electrons and photons. The very occurrence of these energy packets shows that the light on the nanowire behaves as a particle.

The twist : When UV light hits a metal surface, it causes an emission of electrons. Albert Einstein explained this "photoelectric" effect by proposing that light – thought to only be a wave – is also a stream of particles. Even though a variety of experiments have successfully observed both the particle- and wave-like behaviors of light, they have never been able to observe both at the same time. A research team led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL has now carried out an experiment with a clever twist: using electrons to image light. The researchers have captured, for the first time ever, a single snapshot of light behaving simultaneously as both a wave and a stream of particles.

Plasmons? : A plasmon is a collective excitation of the electronic "fluid" in a piece of conducting material, like ripples on the surface of a pond are a collective mode of the water molecules of the liquid.

Is this new? : Not really. There have been other experiments in 2012 which have confirmed the duality of light.

Sources and References

http://phys.org/news/2015-03-particle.html

Link to original research paper: http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2015/150302/ncomms7407/full/ncomms7407.html

http://www.gizmag.com/first-photograph-light-particle-wave/36361/

Earlier duality experiment: http://www.livescience.com/24509-light-wave-particle-duality-experiment.html

Earlier post on plasmons: https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/103586346709495625226/+LacerantPlainerWrites/posts/MCxkMzautA7

http://www.popsci.com/light-photographed-wave-and-particle-first-time

Pic courtesy: Popsci and original research papers.

#science  ___

posted image

2015-03-02 09:03:36 (13 comments, 6 reshares, 47 +1s)Open 

Hyperloop: The third rail : While all the excitement has died down in the news cycles, few technologists, engineers and firms are still interested in the idea. +Elon Musk himself has been involved in a test track, and this ultracool design video. Do take a look....

Hyperloop construction to start next year : OK, it will only run five miles around central California, and it won’t come anywhere close to the 800 mph Musk promised, but it’s a start. The Hyperloop, detailed by the SpaceX and Tesla Motors CEO in a 57-page alpha white paper in August 2013, is a transportation network of above-ground tubes that would span hundreds of miles. Thanks to extremely low air pressure inside those tubes, capsules filled with people zip through them at near supersonic speeds.

The idea is to build a five-mile track in Quay Valley, a planned community (itself a grandiose idea) that willbe ... more »

Hyperloop: The third rail : While all the excitement has died down in the news cycles, few technologists, engineers and firms are still interested in the idea. +Elon Musk himself has been involved in a test track, and this ultracool design video. Do take a look....

Hyperloop construction to start next year : OK, it will only run five miles around central California, and it won’t come anywhere close to the 800 mph Musk promised, but it’s a start. The Hyperloop, detailed by the SpaceX and Tesla Motors CEO in a 57-page alpha white paper in August 2013, is a transportation network of above-ground tubes that would span hundreds of miles. Thanks to extremely low air pressure inside those tubes, capsules filled with people zip through them at near supersonic speeds.

The idea is to build a five-mile track in Quay Valley, a planned community (itself a grandiose idea) that will be built from scratch on 7,500 acres of land around Interstate 5, midway between San Francisco and Los Angeles. Construction of the hyperloop will be paid for with $100 million Hyperloop Transportation Technologies expects to raise through a direct public offering in the third quarter of this year.

What is Quay valley? : Quay Valley is a solar-powered city that doesn't exist yet, between San Francisco and Los Angeles. Estimates for an actual Hyperloop between those two existing metropolises starts at six billion dollars and skeptics estimate the price could be much higher. So $100 million for a test track that's technically between San Fransisco and Los Angeles? Well, it's a step in the right direction.

The designs are put together by a group of nearly 200 engineers all over the country who spend their free time spitballing ideas in exchange for stock options, and have day jobs at places like Boeing, NASA, and Airbus. They and a group of 25 students at UCLA’s graduate architecture program are working on a wide array of issues, including route planning, capsule design, and cost analysis.

The partnership with Quay Valley makes sense for both parties. It’s a chunk of private land where Ahlborn doesn’t have to grapple with the right-of-way issues that have plagued California’s high-speed rail project. Quay Hays has been trying to build his housing and commercial development project for nearly a decade (the 2008 recession put the plan on hold). The Hyperloop fits with his vision of a place where cars take a back seat to non-polluting public transit systems (Ahlborn says the track and station will run as least partly on solar power).

Pod racer competitions The announcement comes less than a month after Musk announced that he would also build a Hyperloop Test Track, probably in Texas, where student engineers could have a pod racer competition to test out designs for Hyperloop pods. Quartz notes that while the Texas track will focus on fine-tuning the technology, the California track will be more designed to see how the technology functions in society. We can't wait to see what happens if they both get off the ground.

Links and references

Earlier post on Jumpstartfund: http://goo.gl/lGZN6i

Earlier post on the Hyperloop: http://goo.gl/sxTptX

Earlier post on the Hyperloop reveal: http://goo.gl/EirLKn

http://www.popsci.com/new-5-mile-around-hyperloop-test-track-will-cost-100-million

http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/quay-valley-solar-powered-self-sustaining-hyperloop-connected-city-future-1489641

http://www.wired.com/2015/02/construction-hyperloop-track-starts/___

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2015-02-21 10:49:22 (17 comments, 16 reshares, 55 +1s)Open 

The Defense of Earth : The new fleets of darkmatter starcraft face off against the Jexx invasion in this installment of the story of Mission Impossible. Keep reading to know more!

Mission Impossible is a space opera series written in flash fiction style. This is the 31st installment. If you haven't read the series before, please start from the first episode.

Here is the chronology:
First Part: http://goo.gl/jWKDn2
Part 2 : http://goo.gl/8wRbHE
Part 3 : http://goo.gl/eIGokJ
Part 4 : http://goo.gl/gaEZS0
Part 5 : http://goo.gl/bXYxiy
Part 6 : http://goo.gl/mmVbF9
Part 7 : http://goo.gl/i3DDVi
Part 8  : http://goo.gl/IoWcF0
Part 9  : http://goo.gl/B6OQOG
Part 10: http://goo.gl/IP0ORs
Part 11: http://goo.gl/Gn8RDY
Part 12: http://goo.gl/0zEqPI
Part 13: http://goo.gl/dXTYrs
Part 14: http://goo.gl/ZybKaLmore »

The Defense of Earth : The new fleets of darkmatter starcraft face off against the Jexx invasion in this installment of the story of Mission Impossible. Keep reading to know more!

Mission Impossible is a space opera series written in flash fiction style. This is the 31st installment. If you haven't read the series before, please start from the first episode.

Here is the chronology:
First Part: http://goo.gl/jWKDn2
Part 2 : http://goo.gl/8wRbHE
Part 3 : http://goo.gl/eIGokJ
Part 4 : http://goo.gl/gaEZS0
Part 5 : http://goo.gl/bXYxiy
Part 6 : http://goo.gl/mmVbF9
Part 7 : http://goo.gl/i3DDVi
Part 8  : http://goo.gl/IoWcF0
Part 9  : http://goo.gl/B6OQOG
Part 10: http://goo.gl/IP0ORs
Part 11: http://goo.gl/Gn8RDY
Part 12: http://goo.gl/0zEqPI
Part 13: http://goo.gl/dXTYrs
Part 14: http://goo.gl/ZybKaL
Part 15: http://goo.gl/FrUZqX
Part 16: http://goo.gl/no9buZ
Part 17: http://goo.gl/G6KJeo
Part 18: http://goo.gl/ml0Y1A
Part 19: http://goo.gl/DBJjHf
Part 20: http://goo.gl/PT3jCj
Part 21: http://goo.gl/DXrXgp
Part 22: http://goo.gl/e1kEuu
Part 23: http://goo.gl/1EtW6U
Part 24: http://goo.gl/rK4EqX
Part 25: http://goo.gl/b7Vl04
Part 26: http://goo.gl/FQisEJ
Part 27: http://goo.gl/0Ywy0D
Part 28: http://goo.gl/RNuKtL
Part 29: http://goo.gl/dqdIYG
Part 30: http://goo.gl/0YHzlY
Part 31: http://goo.gl/sTS4We

Notifying select people who have opted in. If you wish to be notified, let me know in the comments. If you wish to stop notifications, let me know.

#sciencefiction #saturdayscenes #scifi  ___

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2015-02-18 17:02:29 (27 comments, 16 reshares, 91 +1s)Open 

The story of the battery :  Luigi Galvani first noticed a frog leg twitching when he touched it with a scalpel. He called it 'animal electricity.' For a long time, researchers dissected the electric eel, hoping to see what made it possible for the animal to hold charge.

Alessandro Volta hypothesized that the frog's leg twitched due to two metals being joined by a via-media. He then came up with the voltaic pile (pictured) which was Zinc and Copper plates separated by cloth or cardboard soaked in brine.

Even today, this basic design is still the same in batteries. While materials have changed, the plates and the electrolytes is what is needed to create a battery. Volta’s discoveries so impressed the world that in November 1800 the French National Institute invited him to lectures at events in which Napoleon Bonaparte participated. Napoleon helped with theex... more »

The story of the battery :  Luigi Galvani first noticed a frog leg twitching when he touched it with a scalpel. He called it 'animal electricity.' For a long time, researchers dissected the electric eel, hoping to see what made it possible for the animal to hold charge.

Alessandro Volta hypothesized that the frog's leg twitched due to two metals being joined by a via-media. He then came up with the voltaic pile (pictured) which was Zinc and Copper plates separated by cloth or cardboard soaked in brine.

Even today, this basic design is still the same in batteries. While materials have changed, the plates and the electrolytes is what is needed to create a battery. Volta’s discoveries so impressed the world that in November 1800 the French National Institute invited him to lectures at events in which Napoleon Bonaparte participated. Napoleon helped with the experiments, drawing sparks from the battery, melting a steel wire, discharging an electric pistol and decomposing water into its elements.

How do Eels generate electricity? : The cells of all living things generate electrical charges. In an electric eel (Electrophorus electricus), thousands of modified muscle cells in the thick tail are lined up like batteries in a flashlight. Though each cell generates only about 0.15 volts, in a large electric eel, six thousand cells may be stacked to make one giant battery that can generate as much as 600 volts for a short pulse. A standard car battery generates 12 volts, so an electric eel has 50 times the shocking power of a car battery.

Can an eel power your car? : The dream of the electric eel car is not all that crazy. The fish generates a current by pumping charged potassium and sodium ions out of its special muscle cells. The negatively charged ions inside the cells increase until it opens just the right channels to cause electrons to flood out of the cell. Quite a shock ensues. Researchers from Yale University and the National Institute of Standards and Technology envision synthetic eel cells with improved energy efficiency bundled together in a bio-battery.  We’re not quite to the point where we can build artificial versions of complex cells, but the researchers  have created a simplified battery based on the principles of the electric eel: two artificial cells, each containing a salt solution within a lipid wall. If the salt concentrations are different, then poking the cells produces a slight charge. One day this technology may power implanted medical devices or even wearable, near-organic electronics — maybe even your car. But for now, however, you’ll have to make due with a boring, everyday electric car.

How Frankenstien was imagined : Mary Shelley knew all about Galvani, Volta and Aldini. Humphry Davy and William Nicholson -- the era's leading electrical researchers -- were friends of her father. In 1816, at age 19, she spent the summer in Geneva, Switzerland with Lord Byron and her future husband, Percy Shelley. The season was cold and rainy, and they spent many evenings around the fire, reading German ghost stories and discussing electricity's potential to reanimate corpses.

Links and Sources

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_battery

http://www.stufftoblowyourmind.com/blog/electric-eels-power-car/

http://askanaturalist.com/how-do-electric-eels-generate-electricity/

http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2008/10/22/2398277.htm

http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/when_was_the_battery_invented

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alessandro_Volta#See_also

http://www.insidescience.org/content/science-made-frankenstein/1116

Pics courtesy: w1tp.com and bioexpedition.com

Since Volta's birthday popped up on my Google page.

#science #battery #eel  ___

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2015-02-15 07:46:34 (3 comments, 1 reshares, 39 +1s)Open 

Beautiful work by +Charles Strebor. Love the gold leaf effect!

Fractal with Frax: Wigglelicious
Get it spinning

If you have Frax installed on your device(s) and would like to load this image, you can do so on the link below.

#Frax #Fractals #Maths #Shapes ___Beautiful work by +Charles Strebor. Love the gold leaf effect!

posted image

2015-02-14 12:11:40 (11 comments, 10 reshares, 56 +1s)Open 

War Games : The new Captains show better discipline in managing their formations as Dranke gets a handle on his new responsibilities in this installment of the story of Mission Impossible. Keep reading to know more!

Mission Impossible is a space opera series written in flash fiction style. This is the 30th installment. If you haven't read the series before, please start from the first episode.

Here is the chronology:
First Part: http://goo.gl/jWKDn2
Part 2 : http://goo.gl/8wRbHE
Part 3 : http://goo.gl/eIGokJ
Part 4 : http://goo.gl/gaEZS0
Part 5 : http://goo.gl/bXYxiy
Part 6 : http://goo.gl/mmVbF9
Part 7 : http://goo.gl/i3DDVi
Part 8  : http://goo.gl/IoWcF0
Part 9  : http://goo.gl/B6OQOG
Part 10: http://goo.gl/IP0ORs
Part 11: http://goo.gl/Gn8RDY
Part 12: http://goo.gl/0zEqPI
Part 13: http://goo.gl/dXTYrsmore »

War Games : The new Captains show better discipline in managing their formations as Dranke gets a handle on his new responsibilities in this installment of the story of Mission Impossible. Keep reading to know more!

Mission Impossible is a space opera series written in flash fiction style. This is the 30th installment. If you haven't read the series before, please start from the first episode.

Here is the chronology:
First Part: http://goo.gl/jWKDn2
Part 2 : http://goo.gl/8wRbHE
Part 3 : http://goo.gl/eIGokJ
Part 4 : http://goo.gl/gaEZS0
Part 5 : http://goo.gl/bXYxiy
Part 6 : http://goo.gl/mmVbF9
Part 7 : http://goo.gl/i3DDVi
Part 8  : http://goo.gl/IoWcF0
Part 9  : http://goo.gl/B6OQOG
Part 10: http://goo.gl/IP0ORs
Part 11: http://goo.gl/Gn8RDY
Part 12: http://goo.gl/0zEqPI
Part 13: http://goo.gl/dXTYrs
Part 14: http://goo.gl/ZybKaL
Part 15: http://goo.gl/FrUZqX
Part 16: http://goo.gl/no9buZ
Part 17: http://goo.gl/G6KJeo
Part 18: http://goo.gl/ml0Y1A
Part 19: http://goo.gl/DBJjHf
Part 20: http://goo.gl/PT3jCj
Part 21: http://goo.gl/DXrXgp
Part 22: http://goo.gl/e1kEuu
Part 23: http://goo.gl/1EtW6U
Part 24: http://goo.gl/rK4EqX
Part 25: http://goo.gl/b7Vl04
Part 26: http://goo.gl/FQisEJ
Part 27: http://goo.gl/0Ywy0D
Part 28: http://goo.gl/RNuKtL
Part 29: http://goo.gl/dqdIYG
Part 30: http://goo.gl/0YHzlY

Notifying select people who have opted in. If you wish to be notified, let me know in the comments. If you wish to stop notifications, let me know.

#sciencefiction #saturdayscenes #scifi  ___

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2015-02-08 05:58:06 (42 comments, 30 reshares, 103 +1s)Open 

Shocking discovery : Well not really. I just couldn't resist the headline. Scientists have found bacteria which can live off poisonous heavy metals. The net effect is that some bacteria deposit electrons on the heavy metal, in some other cases, bacteria do the reverse. The result is that the bacteria are actually eating and breathing electricity. While this is not breaking news of any sort, its fascinating by itself.

Bacteria grow wire-like probes : The bacterium grows special wires out of its membrane that transport electrons from inside the cell and deposit them on the heavy metal. Maganese oxide works, but so do other heavy metals like lead. Other discoveries revealed bacteria that are doing the reverse—they scavenge electrons from metal and minerals. The electron exchange completes that circuit. The result is life that eats and breathes electricity. Still, it gets weirder.O... more »

Shocking discovery : Well not really. I just couldn't resist the headline. Scientists have found bacteria which can live off poisonous heavy metals. The net effect is that some bacteria deposit electrons on the heavy metal, in some other cases, bacteria do the reverse. The result is that the bacteria are actually eating and breathing electricity. While this is not breaking news of any sort, its fascinating by itself.

Bacteria grow wire-like probes : The bacterium grows special wires out of its membrane that transport electrons from inside the cell and deposit them on the heavy metal. Maganese oxide works, but so do other heavy metals like lead. Other discoveries revealed bacteria that are doing the reverse—they scavenge electrons from metal and minerals. The electron exchange completes that circuit. The result is life that eats and breathes electricity. Still, it gets weirder. One of Nealson’s graduate students, Annette Rowe, has found six new bacterial strains dredged from the ocean floor that don’t need a source of carbon at all, reports Powell. They can live off of electricity alone.

Mechanism : Unlike any other living thing on Earth, electric bacteria use energy in its purest form. Experiments growing bacteria on battery electrodes demonstrate that these novel, mind-boggling forms of life are essentially eating and excreting electricity. That should not come as a complete surprise, says Kenneth Nealson at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles. We know that life, when you boil it right down, is a flow of electrons: "You eat sugars that have excess electrons, and you breathe in oxygen that willingly takes them." Our cells break down the sugars, and the electrons flow through them in a complex set of chemical reactions until they are passed on to electron-hungry oxygen.

'Eating' Electricity : Nealson's team is one of a handful that is now growing these bacteria directly on electrodes, keeping them alive with electricity and nothing else – neither sugars nor any other kind of nutrient. The highly dangerous equivalent in humans, he says, would be for us to power up by shoving our fingers in a DC electrical socket.

One step closer to a fuel cell? : Researchers would later use the bacteria to construct a microbial "fuel cell" in which bacteria handed off electrons not to rust, but to an electrode that could harvest this current. If some microbes could generate the energy they needed by moving electrons outside their cells, Girguis and colleagues wondered, could others do the same by taking electrons in? "That question brought us back to iron," he said. "The microbes that are the focus of this paper are the mirror image of the ones that eat rust. Instead of using iron oxide to breathe, they actually make iron oxides from free iron."

References, sources and links

http://www.popsci.com/have-we-found-alien-life

http://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/microbes-breathe-and-eat-electricity-make-us-re-think-what-life-180953883/?no-ist

http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn25894-meet-the-electric-life-forms-that-live-on-pure-energy.html#.VNb5KS4wBIz

Related paper : http://mbio.asm.org/content/4/1/e00420-12

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140310144000.htm

Additional paper: http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2014/140226/ncomms4391/full/ncomms4391.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microbial_fuel_cell

#science #fuelcell #bacteria  ___

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2015-02-06 16:49:09 (20 comments, 6 reshares, 53 +1s)Open 

Formation : Both captains and the Admiral have to learn together as preparations and training maneuvers are afoot  in this installment of the story of Mission Impossible. Keep reading to know more!

Mission Impossible is a space opera series written in flash fiction style. This is the 29th installment. If you haven't read the series before, please start from the first episode.

If you haven't read the earlier stories, here is the chronology:
First Part: http://goo.gl/jWKDn2
Part 2 : http://goo.gl/8wRbHE
Part 3 : http://goo.gl/eIGokJ
Part 4 : http://goo.gl/gaEZS0
Part 5 : http://goo.gl/bXYxiy
Part 6 : http://goo.gl/mmVbF9
Part 7 : http://goo.gl/i3DDVi
Part 8  : http://goo.gl/IoWcF0
Part 9  : http://goo.gl/B6OQOG
Part 10: http://goo.gl/IP0ORs
Part 11: http://goo.gl/Gn8RDY
Part 12: http://goo.gl/0zEqPI
Part13... more »

Formation : Both captains and the Admiral have to learn together as preparations and training maneuvers are afoot  in this installment of the story of Mission Impossible. Keep reading to know more!

Mission Impossible is a space opera series written in flash fiction style. This is the 29th installment. If you haven't read the series before, please start from the first episode.

If you haven't read the earlier stories, here is the chronology:
First Part: http://goo.gl/jWKDn2
Part 2 : http://goo.gl/8wRbHE
Part 3 : http://goo.gl/eIGokJ
Part 4 : http://goo.gl/gaEZS0
Part 5 : http://goo.gl/bXYxiy
Part 6 : http://goo.gl/mmVbF9
Part 7 : http://goo.gl/i3DDVi
Part 8  : http://goo.gl/IoWcF0
Part 9  : http://goo.gl/B6OQOG
Part 10: http://goo.gl/IP0ORs
Part 11: http://goo.gl/Gn8RDY
Part 12: http://goo.gl/0zEqPI
Part 13: http://goo.gl/dXTYrs
Part 14: http://goo.gl/ZybKaL
Part 15: http://goo.gl/FrUZqX
Part 16: http://goo.gl/no9buZ
Part 17: http://goo.gl/G6KJeo
Part 18: http://goo.gl/ml0Y1A
Part 19: http://goo.gl/DBJjHf
Part 20: http://goo.gl/PT3jCj
Part 21: http://goo.gl/DXrXgp
Part 22: http://goo.gl/e1kEuu
Part 23: http://goo.gl/1EtW6U
Part 24: http://goo.gl/rK4EqX
Part 25: http://goo.gl/b7Vl04
Part 26: http://goo.gl/FQisEJ
Part 27: http://goo.gl/0Ywy0D
Part 28: http://goo.gl/RNuKtL
Part 29: http://goo.gl/dqdIYG

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#sciencefiction #saturdayscenes #scifi  ___

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2015-02-02 07:30:34 (60 comments, 39 reshares, 131 +1s)Open 

Coldest city on Earth : If you thought you had it bad, Oymyakon (which literally means 'unfrozen water') in Siberia, is a bone-chilling minus 71.2  C (minus 96.16 F) at its lowest temperature. The high of -40F in January is quite seasonable for this place. The closest city of Yakutsk is surprisingly wealthy with an abundance of natural resources (diamonds, oil and gas). Amos Chapelle gives us a view into life in this frigid environment - “I remember feeling like the cold was physically gripping my legs, the other surprise was that occasionally my saliva would freeze into needles that would prick my lips."

The coldest place on Earth? Russian Vostok Research Station in East Antarctica. Read on....

Cool facts : Yakutsk is an economically vibrant place but it's extremely remote. There is a small airport but no railway, and the town boasts but one majorroa... more »

Coldest city on Earth : If you thought you had it bad, Oymyakon (which literally means 'unfrozen water') in Siberia, is a bone-chilling minus 71.2  C (minus 96.16 F) at its lowest temperature. The high of -40F in January is quite seasonable for this place. The closest city of Yakutsk is surprisingly wealthy with an abundance of natural resources (diamonds, oil and gas). Amos Chapelle gives us a view into life in this frigid environment - “I remember feeling like the cold was physically gripping my legs, the other surprise was that occasionally my saliva would freeze into needles that would prick my lips."

The coldest place on Earth? Russian Vostok Research Station in East Antarctica. Read on....

Cool facts : Yakutsk is an economically vibrant place but it's extremely remote. There is a small airport but no railway, and the town boasts but one major road leading in and out of it. Known as the "Road of Bones," it was built by gulag inmates under Stalin's regime.

Schools don't close unless the temperatures fall below minus 58 degrees Fahrenheit. Farmers bring their cows to the village's watering hole—a "thermal" spring that stays a few degrees above freezing—then lead them back to their insulated stables.

Wearing glasses outdoors can cause them to stick to the wearer’s face. This is just one of the more menial problems of the extremely cold weather.

Bathrooms are mostly outdoors, because indoor plumbing presents a challenge due to frozen pipes. Residents have cars, but must leave them running outside, sometimes overnight, so the mechanics don't freeze up. Even so, sometimes more extreme measures are necessary. "A guy I was staying with left his car running all night, but even so, in the morning, the drive shaft was completely frozen. Without any ceremony, he pulled out a little flamethrower, went under the truck and started fanning the bottom of his truck with a flamethrower."

Expensive city : Emergency fuel shipments to Siberian cities cost Russia an estimated $500 million per year. According to Clifford Gaddy, it would be less expensive for the country to simply fly laborers into Siberia to extract the natural resources and then fly them out again instead of paying to keep Siberian cities functioning.

References and sources

http://www.smithsonianmag.com/travel/photos-coldest-city-earth-180953888/?no-ist

http://www.wired.com/2015/01/amos-chapple-the-coldest-place-on-earth/#slide-id-1700585

http://www.weather.com/travel/news/breathtaking-photos-coldest-city-world-20140128

http://www.slate.com/blogs/atlas_obscura/2014/01/31/yakutsk_siberia_surviving_winter_in_the_world_s_coldest_city.html

http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2013/09dec_coldspot/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lowest_temperature_recorded_on_Earth

Pic courtesy: Smithsonianmag

#cold #facts  ___

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2015-01-31 17:01:48 (18 comments, 9 reshares, 60 +1s)Open 

A Star is born : The simplest of questions often takes us down some fabulous paths. How is a star created? It seemed so basic - well dust gets together in a supernova, they coalesce and gravity pulls it all together. If there is enough matter, it gets superdense and fusion is sparked off. Well that is the basic understanding. Fascinating how simple concepts make it possible for us to live. Or is it as simple as we are making it out to be?

Protostars : The core of the cloud collapses faster than the outer parts, and the cloud begins to rotate faster and faster to conserve angular momentum. When the core reaches a temperature of about 2,000 degrees Kelvin, the molecules of hydrogen gas break apart into hydrogen atoms. Eventually the core reaches a temperature of 10,000 degrees Kelvin, and it begins to look like a star when fusion reactions begin. When it has collapsed to about 30... more »

A Star is born : The simplest of questions often takes us down some fabulous paths. How is a star created? It seemed so basic - well dust gets together in a supernova, they coalesce and gravity pulls it all together. If there is enough matter, it gets superdense and fusion is sparked off. Well that is the basic understanding. Fascinating how simple concepts make it possible for us to live. Or is it as simple as we are making it out to be?

Protostars : The core of the cloud collapses faster than the outer parts, and the cloud begins to rotate faster and faster to conserve angular momentum. When the core reaches a temperature of about 2,000 degrees Kelvin, the molecules of hydrogen gas break apart into hydrogen atoms. Eventually the core reaches a temperature of 10,000 degrees Kelvin, and it begins to look like a star when fusion reactions begin. When it has collapsed to about 30 times the size of our sun, it becomes a protostar.

Equiblirum : When the pressure and temperature in the core become great enough to sustain nuclear fusion, the outward pressure acts against the gravitational force. At this stage the core is about the size of our sun. The remaining dust envelope surrounding the star heats up and glows brightly in the infrared part of the spectrum. At this point the visible light from the new star cannot penetrate the envelope. Eventually, radiation pressure from the star blows away the envelope and the new star begins its evolution. The properties and lifetime of the new star depend on the amount of gas that remains trapped. A star like our sun has a lifetime of about 10 billion years and is just middle-aged, with another five billion years or so left.

Webb science : Groups of stars make up galaxies, while planets and ultimately life arise around stars.  Although stars have been the main topic of astronomy for thousands of years, we have begun to understand them in detail only in recent times through the advent of powerful telescopes and computers. A hundred years ago, scientists did not know that stars are powered by nuclear fusion, and 50 years ago they did not know that stars are continually forming in the Universe.  Researchers still do not know the details of how clouds of gas and dust collapse to form stars, or why most stars form in groups, or exactly how planetary systems form.

Powerhouse : At present, the only way we have of initiating hydrogen fusion is to use nuclear fission: the so-called "hydrogen" bomb uses the explosion of a plutonium bomb to (very briefly) ignite uncontrolled fusion of the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium.  We cannot control fusion, although much research on the subject has been conducted over the past 40 years.  The Sun dodges these problems and fuses hydrogen via its sheer, overwhelming bulk.  The pressure at its center squeezes the gas there to fourteen times the density of lead.  The temperature is 15 million K°.

H/t to +Cyndi S. Jameson for pointing me in this direction.

Sources and references:

Northwestern : http://faculty.wcas.northwestern.edu/~infocom/The%20Website/birth.html

BBC: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/ocr_gateway_pre_2011/living_future/8_big_bang1.shtml

Scientific American: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-is-a-star-born/

ESA: http://www.esa.int/esaKIDSen/SEMY06WJD1E_OurUniverse_0.html

NASA (James Webb) : http://jwst.nasa.gov/birth.html

#science #scienceeveryday #stars  ___

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2015-01-31 09:28:54 (15 comments, 16 reshares, 58 +1s)Open 

Pandemonium : Admiral Dranke takes on his new responsibilities in this installment of the story of Mission Impossible. Keep reading to know more!

Mission Impossible is a space opera series written in flash fiction style. This is the 28th installment. If you haven't read the series before, please start from the first episode.

If you haven't read the earlier stories, here is the chronology:
First Part: http://goo.gl/jWKDn2
Part 2 : http://goo.gl/8wRbHE
Part 3 : http://goo.gl/eIGokJ
Part 4 : http://goo.gl/gaEZS0
Part 5 : http://goo.gl/bXYxiy
Part 6 : http://goo.gl/mmVbF9
Part 7 : http://goo.gl/i3DDVi
Part 8  : http://goo.gl/IoWcF0
Part 9  : http://goo.gl/B6OQOG
Part 10: http://goo.gl/IP0ORs
Part 11: http://goo.gl/Gn8RDY
Part 12: http://goo.gl/0zEqPI
Part 13: http://goo.gl/dXTYrs
Part 14:h... more »

Pandemonium : Admiral Dranke takes on his new responsibilities in this installment of the story of Mission Impossible. Keep reading to know more!

Mission Impossible is a space opera series written in flash fiction style. This is the 28th installment. If you haven't read the series before, please start from the first episode.

If you haven't read the earlier stories, here is the chronology:
First Part: http://goo.gl/jWKDn2
Part 2 : http://goo.gl/8wRbHE
Part 3 : http://goo.gl/eIGokJ
Part 4 : http://goo.gl/gaEZS0
Part 5 : http://goo.gl/bXYxiy
Part 6 : http://goo.gl/mmVbF9
Part 7 : http://goo.gl/i3DDVi
Part 8  : http://goo.gl/IoWcF0
Part 9  : http://goo.gl/B6OQOG
Part 10: http://goo.gl/IP0ORs
Part 11: http://goo.gl/Gn8RDY
Part 12: http://goo.gl/0zEqPI
Part 13: http://goo.gl/dXTYrs
Part 14: http://goo.gl/ZybKaL
Part 15: http://goo.gl/FrUZqX
Part 16: http://goo.gl/no9buZ
Part 17: http://goo.gl/G6KJeo
Part 18: http://goo.gl/ml0Y1A
Part 19: http://goo.gl/DBJjHf
Part 20: http://goo.gl/PT3jCj
Part 21: http://goo.gl/DXrXgp
Part 22: http://goo.gl/e1kEuu
Part 23: http://goo.gl/1EtW6U
Part 24: http://goo.gl/rK4EqX
Part 25: http://goo.gl/b7Vl04
Part 26: http://goo.gl/FQisEJ
Part 27: http://goo.gl/0Ywy0D
Part 28: http://goo.gl/RNuKtL

Notifying select people who have opted in. If you wish to be notified, let me know in the comments. If you wish to stop notifications, let me know.

#sciencefiction #saturdayscenes #scifi  ___

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2015-01-24 05:48:19 (22 comments, 16 reshares, 65 +1s)Open 

Moving On :  Events move apace as Dranke meets his old command officer and everything seems to be changing. Mission Impossible is a space opera series written in flash fiction style. This is the 27th installment. If you haven't read the series before, please start from the first episode.

If you haven't read the earlier stories, here is the chronology:
First Part: http://goo.gl/jWKDn2
Part 2 : http://goo.gl/8wRbHE
Part 3 : http://goo.gl/eIGokJ
Part 4 : http://goo.gl/gaEZS0
Part 5 : http://goo.gl/bXYxiy
Part 6 : http://goo.gl/mmVbF9
Part 7 : http://goo.gl/i3DDVi
Part 8  : http://goo.gl/IoWcF0
Part 9  : http://goo.gl/B6OQOG
Part 10: http://goo.gl/IP0ORs
Part 11: http://goo.gl/Gn8RDY
Part 12: http://goo.gl/0zEqPI
Part 13: http://goo.gl/dXTYrs
Part 14: http://goo.gl/ZybKaL
Part 15: http://goo.gl/FrUZqX... more »

Moving On :  Events move apace as Dranke meets his old command officer and everything seems to be changing. Mission Impossible is a space opera series written in flash fiction style. This is the 27th installment. If you haven't read the series before, please start from the first episode.

If you haven't read the earlier stories, here is the chronology:
First Part: http://goo.gl/jWKDn2
Part 2 : http://goo.gl/8wRbHE
Part 3 : http://goo.gl/eIGokJ
Part 4 : http://goo.gl/gaEZS0
Part 5 : http://goo.gl/bXYxiy
Part 6 : http://goo.gl/mmVbF9
Part 7 : http://goo.gl/i3DDVi
Part 8  : http://goo.gl/IoWcF0
Part 9  : http://goo.gl/B6OQOG
Part 10: http://goo.gl/IP0ORs
Part 11: http://goo.gl/Gn8RDY
Part 12: http://goo.gl/0zEqPI
Part 13: http://goo.gl/dXTYrs
Part 14: http://goo.gl/ZybKaL
Part 15: http://goo.gl/FrUZqX
Part 16: http://goo.gl/no9buZ
Part 17: http://goo.gl/G6KJeo
Part 18: http://goo.gl/ml0Y1A
Part 19: http://goo.gl/DBJjHf
Part 20: http://goo.gl/PT3jCj
Part 21: http://goo.gl/DXrXgp
Part 22: http://goo.gl/e1kEuu
Part 23: http://goo.gl/1EtW6U
Part 24: http://goo.gl/rK4EqX
Part 25: http://goo.gl/b7Vl04
Part 26: http://goo.gl/FQisEJ
Part 27: http://goo.gl/0Ywy0D

Mission impossible is a science fiction series set in the distant future. Notifying select people who have opted in.

#saturdayscenes #scifi___

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2015-01-19 09:49:02 (35 comments, 51 reshares, 147 +1s)Open 

Animal doctors : No really. This is not a post about vets. This is about how animals self-medicate.... including parrots, dogs, cats, chimps, elephants and a host of other creatures. There is even a word for it. Zoopharmacognosy is derived from zoo which means animal, pharma  which stands for drug and gnosy, which means knowing. Next time you see your dog or cat eating grass, you know it's a part of their self-medication regime.

Neighbourhood pharmacy : Bears, deer, elk, and various carnivores, as well as great apes, are known to consume medicinal plants apparently to self-medicate. Some lizards are believed to respond to a bite by a venomous snake by eating a certain root to counter the venom. Baboons in Ethiopia eat the leaves of a plant to combat the flatworms that cause schistosomiasis.

More widespread than one would assume : Birds, bees, lizards,... more »

Animal doctors : No really. This is not a post about vets. This is about how animals self-medicate.... including parrots, dogs, cats, chimps, elephants and a host of other creatures. There is even a word for it. Zoopharmacognosy is derived from zoo which means animal, pharma  which stands for drug and gnosy, which means knowing. Next time you see your dog or cat eating grass, you know it's a part of their self-medication regime.

Neighbourhood pharmacy : Bears, deer, elk, and various carnivores, as well as great apes, are known to consume medicinal plants apparently to self-medicate. Some lizards are believed to respond to a bite by a venomous snake by eating a certain root to counter the venom. Baboons in Ethiopia eat the leaves of a plant to combat the flatworms that cause schistosomiasis.

More widespread than one would assume : Birds, bees, lizards, elephants, and chimpanzees all share a survival trait: They self-medicate. These animals eat things that make them feel better, or prevent disease, or kill parasites like flatworms, bacteria, and viruses, or just to aid in digestion. Even creatures with brains the size of pinheads somehow know to ingest certain plants or use them in unusual ways when they need them. Anyone who has seen a dog eat grass during a walk has witnessed self-medication. The dog probably has an upset stomach or a parasite.

Cats may be eating grass for nutrients : In particular, a nutrient that grass provides for cats is folic acid. This is a vital precursor for your cat's ability to synthesize hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is what supplies your cat's organs with oxygen. We all know oxygen is pretty important.

Other examples : Red and green macaws, along with many animals, eat clay to aid digestion and kill bacteria. Pregnant lemurs in Madagascar nibble on tamarind and fig leaves and bark to aid in milk production, kill parasites, and increase the chances of a successful birth. Pregnant elephants in Kenya eat the leaves of some trees to induce delivery.

How does one determine if an animal is self-medicating? : Huffman established widely used criteria for judging when an animal is self-medicating. First, the plant eaten cannot be a regular part of the animal’s diet; it is used as medicine not food. Second, the plant must provide little or no nutritional value to the animal. Third, the plant must be consumed during those times of year—for example, the rainy season—when parasites are most likely to cause infections. Fourth, other animals in the group don’t participate. If the activity meets these standards, it is safe to assume the animal is self-medicating, Huffman says. Researchers have observed the practice in 25 regions involving 40 different plants.

Learned behavior? : The obvious question is how do the animals—some of them not noted for intelligence—learn to do this? How did sparrows and finches learn to collect nicotine-heavy cigarette butts to reduce mite infections in their nests? How do honey bees and wood ants know to line their nests with resin to combat bacteria? We don't know for sure, but there is a strong hypothesis.

Article Link: http://www.pnas.org/content/111/49/17339.full

News article: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2868348/Do-animals-SELF-MEDICATE-Dogs-elephants-chimps-parrots-use-natural-remedies-treat-digestive-problems-induce-birth.html

Wikipedia link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zoopharmacognosy#Mammals_2

Pic courtesy: http://www.baxterboo.com/fun/a.cfm/why-does-my-pet-eat-grass

Related TED event: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WNn7b5VHowM

Research paper: Huffman M. (1997) Current evidence for self-medication in primates: A multidisciplinary perspective. Yearb Phys Anthropol 104(suppl 25):171–200.

#science #scienceeveryday  ___

posted image

2015-01-18 09:32:37 (8 comments, 6 reshares, 54 +1s)Open 

Underwater drones : While there are still many challenges in having an autonomous Underwater Drone (UUV), the one in the video is opensource and is not much bigger than a small toaster. Why is it importation to have UUVs? We have not really explored the sea bed, in fact, the seabed is the most unexplored area on our planet. H/t to +Gary Ray R for reminding me of UUVs.

OpenROV : OpenROV is a submarine-like robot that you control with your laptop. It gives scientists, explorers and other users a glimpse of what lies below the surface, without them getting wet. "ROV stands for remotely operated vehicle" Stackpole said. "It's got a video camera on it, so you can see what it sees live. So I can put this in the water, fly it around and see what it sees."

We have all heard of the Bluefin-21 : The Bluefin was used to search for the blackbox of... more »

Underwater drones : While there are still many challenges in having an autonomous Underwater Drone (UUV), the one in the video is opensource and is not much bigger than a small toaster. Why is it importation to have UUVs? We have not really explored the sea bed, in fact, the seabed is the most unexplored area on our planet. H/t to +Gary Ray R for reminding me of UUVs.

OpenROV : OpenROV is a submarine-like robot that you control with your laptop. It gives scientists, explorers and other users a glimpse of what lies below the surface, without them getting wet. "ROV stands for remotely operated vehicle" Stackpole said. "It's got a video camera on it, so you can see what it sees live. So I can put this in the water, fly it around and see what it sees."

We have all heard of the Bluefin-21 : The Bluefin was used to search for the blackbox of flight MH370. But the cost of prohibitive. The OpenROV sells for $849. It's not what everyone would call cheap, but you don't need a grant to get your hands on one. This affordability is how Stackpole and Lang hope to bring OpenROV to the masses, turning average people into Cousteau-like undersea adventurers. There are over 500 OpenROVs in use now around the globe. Even though the project is growing, Stackpole and Lang are sticking with their do-it-yourself ethos. The OpenROVs are an open-source project, meaning that anyone can hack them to create new features or uses for the devices. Lang and Stackpole sell the ROVs as kits, and customers put them together themselves.

The Hydroview : Controlled wirelessly (well, almost) via an iOS device or laptop, the HydroView submersible can dive 150 feet underwater at speeds of up to five knots while transmitting live feedback in full 1080p HD video, according to the Aquabotix press release. Although the company touts the bot as a "wireless iPad-controlled underwater vehicle," fact enthusiasts might be quick to point out the "wireless" connection is actually capable only between the iPad and the HydroView's "top-side box," which is then connected to the craft by a cable tether.

Autonomous UUVs : Truly autonomous UAVS and UUVs aren't quite ready for duty, but they are a big part of the Navy's plan for the future. "While admittedly futuristic in vision, one can conceive of scenarios where UUVs sense, track, identify, target and destroy an enemy--all autonomously--and tie in with the full net-centric battlespace."


Article Link: http://edition.cnn.com/2013/11/06/tech/innovation/underwater-drones/

Aquabotix Hydroview: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/06/04/aquabotix-hydroview-ipad-controlled-submarine-hd-video_n_1568859.html?ir=India

Autonomous UUVs: http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/military/navy-ships/4294104

Wikipedia link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomous_underwater_vehicle

http://www.openrov.com/

#science #scienceeveryday #applied  ___

posted image

2015-01-16 09:12:43 (34 comments, 131 reshares, 244 +1s)Open 

Geeking out : This is too cool to ignore. I usually stick to the science, but this one is here just for the fun of it. Seriously. See the full video here -  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0u7CWB40ezM#t=285 (it's totally worth it).

Article extract: Back in November, drone enthusiasts built a modified quadcopter they call the "Heli-Carrier" that was modeled after the giant aircraft that SHIELD flies in the Marvel movies, and showed that one small drone could take off from another. In this new video, the homebuilt helicarrier stays aloft longer and launches miniature jets. It's all a drone enthusiast's dreams. Maybe next time out they can land a helicarrier on a helicarrier.

From Hackaday : If you’re not familiar, the Helicarrier is a fictional ship, the pride of S.H.I.E.L.D’s air force, or is it their navy. It’s a massive aircraft carrier with fourhuge r... more »

Geeking out : This is too cool to ignore. I usually stick to the science, but this one is here just for the fun of it. Seriously. See the full video here -  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0u7CWB40ezM#t=285 (it's totally worth it).

Article extract: Back in November, drone enthusiasts built a modified quadcopter they call the "Heli-Carrier" that was modeled after the giant aircraft that SHIELD flies in the Marvel movies, and showed that one small drone could take off from another. In this new video, the homebuilt helicarrier stays aloft longer and launches miniature jets. It's all a drone enthusiast's dreams. Maybe next time out they can land a helicarrier on a helicarrier.

From Hackaday : If you’re not familiar, the Helicarrier is a fictional ship, the pride of S.H.I.E.L.D’s air force, or is it their navy. It’s a massive aircraft carrier with four huge repulsor engines built into it, borrowing tech from Stark Industries. The shear size of it is what makes it completely ridiculous, but at the same time, it’s also unbelievably awesome. Unfortunately, repulsor technology doesn’t seem to exist yet, so the FliteTest crew had to settle with a set of 8 brushless outrunner motors, with two per “engine”. The whole thing is almost 6′ long. It doesn’t handle that well (not surprising!) but they were able to launch another RC  plane off of it, mid-flight! Landing however… well you’ll have to watch the video.

Sources

http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/gadgets/tech-news/video-flitetest-helicarrier-marvel-shield-17635604?click=pm_latest

http://hackaday.com/2015/01/13/lego-avengers-assemble-to-the-helicarrier/

http://www.gizmodo.com.au/2015/01/taking-off-and-landing-on-the-avengers-helicarrier-drone-looks-so-fun/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helicarrier

#Helicarrier #geek #lego  ___

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2015-01-14 20:07:24 (13 comments, 0 reshares, 41 +1s)Open 

Happy 23+++ to the degree which the log takes you +Charles Strebor ! Have a great one.

 I make crazy pics. Usually really blurry and its hard to think what it could have been. But then I've not used any filters or manipulated it. Other than my alien brain. 

#happybirthday  

Happy 23+++ to the degree which the log takes you +Charles Strebor ! Have a great one.

 I make crazy pics. Usually really blurry and its hard to think what it could have been. But then I've not used any filters or manipulated it. Other than my alien brain. 

#happybirthday  ___

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2015-01-10 07:52:08 (21 comments, 8 reshares, 58 +1s)Open 

Remember the 'Happy People Vertical Transporters in The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy ? : This is not really the same, but ThyssenKrupp is working on bringing ropeless elevators (Called 'Multi') which uses Maglev and can use multiple elevators in the same shaft, saves space and can go both up-down and sideways. It actually solves a lot of problems architects and designers are faced with. Read on to know more....

Why is this amazing? : The system has been compared to how modern underground train networks operate, with multiple elevator cabins running in a loop. As there are no cables the elevators can go forwards, backwards, up and down. The new elevator system could allow architects to create more innovative buildings. "If you did a cross-section cut of a high-rise building, 40 to 60 percent is going to be consumed by elevator space."... more »

Remember the 'Happy People Vertical Transporters in The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy ? : This is not really the same, but ThyssenKrupp is working on bringing ropeless elevators (Called 'Multi') which uses Maglev and can use multiple elevators in the same shaft, saves space and can go both up-down and sideways. It actually solves a lot of problems architects and designers are faced with. Read on to know more....

Why is this amazing? : The system has been compared to how modern underground train networks operate, with multiple elevator cabins running in a loop. As there are no cables the elevators can go forwards, backwards, up and down. The new elevator system could allow architects to create more innovative buildings. "If you did a cross-section cut of a high-rise building, 40 to 60 percent is going to be consumed by elevator space." “This opens up vast possibilities in building design,” Patrick Bass, CEO of ThyssenKrupp North America, Inc., tells Popular Science. “We now can enable buildings as tall or as high as they can go, and we also now enable different shapes and configurations of the space within buildings.”

The issue with building height and rope weight : In addition, current elevators can only go so far in terms distance. Once an elevator gets longer than about 2,000 feet, the steel ropes are too heavy to lift the car. In the world’s tallest building, the 2,722-foot tall Burj Khalifa in Dubai, the ground elevators only go as high as 1,654 feet. To gain access to the top floor, people must transfer to a second set of elevators located at the top of the building.  (See earlier post on Ultrarope by Kone here - http://goo.gl/3xmxcZ )

Sideways for large buildings : Julian Olley, director at Ove Arup & Partners Ltd., is intrigued by the possibility. “It could be advantageous for people to go sideways, like in the new Apple building, where it’s not high, but it’s half a kilometer round — a huge donut building. Whether that would ever be commercially viable is up for interpretation.”

Article link: http://www.popsci.com/ground-breaking-elevator-design-allows-both-horizontal-and-vertical-cars

Wired link: http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2014-12/02/thyssenkrupp-wonkavator

ThyssenKrupp website: http://www.thyssenkrupp.com/en/presse/art_detail.html&eid=TKBase_1417074157421_1378444349___

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2015-01-08 09:25:02 (63 comments, 27 reshares, 95 +1s)Open 

Coldest temperatures in the Universe - What happens at absolute zero? : If one looks at classical physics, an atom of Oxygen gas zooms around at approximately a thousand miles an hour. That is quite fast. The theory is that as we lower the temperature in a closed system, the gas would become a solid and closer to absolute zero, the atoms would stop moving altogether. The electrons orbiting the nucleus would stop dead in their tracks. Why? The energy levels would be zero. However, in reality this does not happen. Physics does not break down. And neither does chemistry. Why is this?

At absolute zero : If you were able to measure the individual molecules, you'd find something surprising: they're still vibrating and rotating, but just by a tiny, tiny amount — quantum uncertainty at work. To make things concrete, if you were to measure the rotation of a Carbon Dioxide moleculea... more »

Coldest temperatures in the Universe - What happens at absolute zero? : If one looks at classical physics, an atom of Oxygen gas zooms around at approximately a thousand miles an hour. That is quite fast. The theory is that as we lower the temperature in a closed system, the gas would become a solid and closer to absolute zero, the atoms would stop moving altogether. The electrons orbiting the nucleus would stop dead in their tracks. Why? The energy levels would be zero. However, in reality this does not happen. Physics does not break down. And neither does chemistry. Why is this?

At absolute zero : If you were able to measure the individual molecules, you'd find something surprising: they're still vibrating and rotating, but just by a tiny, tiny amount — quantum uncertainty at work. To make things concrete, if you were to measure the rotation of a Carbon Dioxide molecule at absolute zero, for instance, you'd still find that the oxygen atoms are flying around the carbon at a few miles per hour — probably faster than you would have guessed.

How low can you go? : Getting down to absolute zero has essentially the identical problem with getting up to the speed of light. Getting to the speed of light requires an infinite amount of work, while getting down to absolute zero requires extracting an infinite amount of heat. Just to make it clear, both of these are impossible. Practically, the work needed to remove heat from a gas increases the colder you get, and an infinite amount of work would be needed to cool something to absolute zero. In quantum terms, you can blame Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, which says the more precisely we know a particle's speed, the less we know about its position, and vice versa. If you know your atoms are inside your experiment, there must be some uncertainty in their momentum keeping them above absolute zero – unless your experiment is the size of the whole universe.

Negative temperatures below absolute zero? : Familiar ideas of temperature work pretty well for most solids, liquids, and gases, and conform to the general expectation that it should always be greater than absolute zero. What are we to make of a recent claim by a group of German researchers that they have created an experimental system where negative (as in below absolute zero) temperatures can actually be observed and measured? Unfortunately 'negative temperature needs to be defined in terms of entropy... Entropy is a convenient mathematical construct which indicates that if heat is added to a system, the atoms become less ordered. In other words, they have more states, or shall we say, options, available to them. All a negative absolute temperature really means is that with the addition of heat, instead of becoming more random, atoms become more ordered. This can occur, for example, if the number of high energy spots available is limited, and therefore likely to be quickly filled.

References and Source materials

Colder than absolute zero: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/01/130104143516.htm

Further reading: http://www.nature.com/news/quantum-gas-goes-below-absolute-zero-1.12146

What happens below absolute zero?: http://www.extremetech.com/extreme/144767-negative-temperature-understanding-what-happens-below-absolute-zero

Research paper: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/327/5967/853

http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn18541-what-happens-at-absolute-zero.html#.VK5DtXswBNE

http://io9.com/5889074/why-cant-we-get-down-to-absolute-zero

Ask an expert: http://www.physlink.com/Education/AskExperts/ae380.cfm

Coolest spot in the Universe: http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/releases/97/coldspot.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Absolute_zero

http://www.science20.com/the_conversation/the_journey_to_the_other_side_of_absolute_zero-151864

Pics courtesy: i09, BBC Science, Science20.com

#science #scienceeveryday #absolutezero  ___

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2015-01-07 07:54:45 (17 comments, 17 reshares, 63 +1s)Open 

Surprise attack :  Dranke and his crew have to take a detour to search for the missing darkmatter starcraft and it's crew and Captain Niket. ( Part 25 of the Mission impossible Science fiction series of flashfiction written in space opera style ).

If you haven't read the earlier stories, here is the chronology:
First Part: http://goo.gl/jWKDn2
Part 2 : http://goo.gl/8wRbHE
Part 3 : http://goo.gl/eIGokJ
Part 4 : http://goo.gl/gaEZS0
Part 5 : http://goo.gl/bXYxiy
Part 6 : http://goo.gl/mmVbF9
Part 7 : http://goo.gl/i3DDVi
Part 8  : http://goo.gl/IoWcF0
Part 9  : http://goo.gl/B6OQOG
Part 10: http://goo.gl/IP0ORs
Part 11: http://goo.gl/Gn8RDY
Part 12: http://goo.gl/0zEqPI
Part 13: http://goo.gl/dXTYrs
Part 14: http://goo.gl/ZybKaL
Part 15: http://goo.gl/FrUZqX
Part 16: http://goo.gl/no9buZ
Part 17:ht... more »

Surprise attack :  Dranke and his crew have to take a detour to search for the missing darkmatter starcraft and it's crew and Captain Niket. ( Part 25 of the Mission impossible Science fiction series of flashfiction written in space opera style ).

If you haven't read the earlier stories, here is the chronology:
First Part: http://goo.gl/jWKDn2
Part 2 : http://goo.gl/8wRbHE
Part 3 : http://goo.gl/eIGokJ
Part 4 : http://goo.gl/gaEZS0
Part 5 : http://goo.gl/bXYxiy
Part 6 : http://goo.gl/mmVbF9
Part 7 : http://goo.gl/i3DDVi
Part 8  : http://goo.gl/IoWcF0
Part 9  : http://goo.gl/B6OQOG
Part 10: http://goo.gl/IP0ORs
Part 11: http://goo.gl/Gn8RDY
Part 12: http://goo.gl/0zEqPI
Part 13: http://goo.gl/dXTYrs
Part 14: http://goo.gl/ZybKaL
Part 15: http://goo.gl/FrUZqX
Part 16: http://goo.gl/no9buZ
Part 17: http://goo.gl/G6KJeo
Part 18: http://goo.gl/ml0Y1A
Part 19: http://goo.gl/DBJjHf
Part 20: http://goo.gl/PT3jCj
Part 21: http://goo.gl/DXrXgp
Part 22: http://goo.gl/e1kEuu
Part 23: http://goo.gl/1EtW6U
Part 24: http://goo.gl/rK4EqX
Part 25: http://goo.gl/b7Vl04
Part 26: http://goo.gl/FQisEJ

Mission impossible is a series set in the distant future. Notifying select people who have evinced interest in receiving notifications. Want to receive notifications? Let me know. If you wish to stop receiving notifications, let me know too!

#sciencefiction #scifi #flashfiction #spaceopera  ___

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2015-01-05 15:49:22 (48 comments, 26 reshares, 119 +1s)Open 

Pink was for boys and blue was for girls : At least before the modern obsession of going the other way. It kind of proves that the color palette we expect for boys and girls is based on societal pressures. At least now we know better!

Roosevelt : Little Franklin Delano Roosevelt sits primly on a stool, his white skirt spread smoothly over his lap, his hands clasping a hat trimmed with a marabou feather. Shoulder-length hair and patent leather party shoes complete the ensemble. Social convention of 1884, when FDR was photographed at 30 months, dictated that boys wore dresses until age 6 or 7, also the time of their first haircut. Franklin’s outfit was considered gender-neutral.

How conventions came to be : Why have young children’s clothing styles changed so dramatically? How did we end up with two “teams”—boys in blue and girls in pink? "It’sreally a st... more »

Pink was for boys and blue was for girls : At least before the modern obsession of going the other way. It kind of proves that the color palette we expect for boys and girls is based on societal pressures. At least now we know better!

Roosevelt : Little Franklin Delano Roosevelt sits primly on a stool, his white skirt spread smoothly over his lap, his hands clasping a hat trimmed with a marabou feather. Shoulder-length hair and patent leather party shoes complete the ensemble. Social convention of 1884, when FDR was photographed at 30 months, dictated that boys wore dresses until age 6 or 7, also the time of their first haircut. Franklin’s outfit was considered gender-neutral.

How conventions came to be : Why have young children’s clothing styles changed so dramatically? How did we end up with two “teams”—boys in blue and girls in pink? "It’s really a story of what happened to neutral clothing,” says Paoletti, who has explored the meaning of children’s clothing for 30 years. For centuries, she says, children wore dainty white dresses up to age 6. “What was once a matter of practicality—you dress your baby in white dresses and diapers; white cotton can be bleached—became a matter of ‘Oh my God, if I dress my baby in the wrong thing, they’ll grow up perverted,’ ” Paoletti says.

Pink for boys - since it is a stronger color : a June 1918 article from the trade publication Earnshaw's Infants' Department said, “The generally accepted rule is pink for the boys, and blue for the girls. The reason is that pink, being a more decided and stronger color, is more suitable for the boy, while blue, which is more delicate and dainty, is prettier for the girl.”

It all changed in 1985 : Prenatal testing was a big reason for the change. Expectant parents learned the sex of their unborn baby and then went shopping for “girl” or “boy” merchandise. (“The more you individualize clothing, the more you can sell,” Paoletti says.) The pink fad spread from sleepers and crib sheets to big-ticket items such as strollers, car seats and riding toys. Affluent parents could conceivably decorate for baby No. 1, a girl, and start all over when the next child was a boy.

Gendered roles : “One of the ways women thought that girls were kind of lured into subservient roles as women is through clothing,” says Paoletti. “ ‘If we dress our girls more like boys and less like frilly little girls . . . they are going to have more options and feel freer to be active.’ ”

Article link: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/when-did-girls-start-wearing-pink-1370097/?no-ist=&preview=&page=1

Pink v/s Blue gender myth: http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20141117-the-pink-vs-blue-gender-myth

Related paper: http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/1128775?sid=21105563133553&uid=3738256&uid=4&uid=2

Reversing the trend: http://www.nydailynews.com/life-style/campaign-encourages-boys-feel-free-wear-pink-article-1.1878916

Gender stereotypes: http://www.babble.com/mom/is-it-okay-for-boys-to-wear-pink-kids-dads-discuss-the-color-gender-stereotypes-video/

Pic courtesy: http://klaw.com/pink-is-for-boys-and-blue-is-for-girls-new-study-shows-video/

#science #society #gender  ___

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2015-01-02 16:19:32 (20 comments, 38 reshares, 114 +1s)Open 

Virus and bacteria : This is something humans have been grappling for years. Since the beginning of life, cells of all living creatures have been in a pitched battle against bacteria and viruses. But not all bacteria and viruses are the same. Read on to know more...

Antibiotics are limited : Antibiotics have been used for three quarters of a century to treat bacterial infections. Evolution is real. And so bacteria have evolved resistance to the antibiotics we use to kill them. We then invented new antibiotics, in response the bacteria evolved again — and the cycle repeats. The problem is that we are already running out of new antibiotics, but bacteria won't run out of evolution.

Enter bacteriophages : It turns out that there is a living creature that kills bacteria — a virus called a bacteriophage. The name literally means 'bacteria eater'. In the192... more »

Virus and bacteria : This is something humans have been grappling for years. Since the beginning of life, cells of all living creatures have been in a pitched battle against bacteria and viruses. But not all bacteria and viruses are the same. Read on to know more...

Antibiotics are limited : Antibiotics have been used for three quarters of a century to treat bacterial infections. Evolution is real. And so bacteria have evolved resistance to the antibiotics we use to kill them. We then invented new antibiotics, in response the bacteria evolved again — and the cycle repeats. The problem is that we are already running out of new antibiotics, but bacteria won't run out of evolution.

Enter bacteriophages : It turns out that there is a living creature that kills bacteria — a virus called a bacteriophage. The name literally means 'bacteria eater'. In the 1920s, bacteriophages were used to treat bacterial infections in both the United States, and in Georgia in the Soviet Union. Nothing else worked - antibiotics had not yet been invented. Bacteriophages were developed and used in Georgia until the present day. But in the West they were abandoned  after the introduction of antibiotics. Antibiotics were cheap, easy to make, store and prescribe. On the other hand, bacteriophages had to be individually blended, on demand. Furthermore, antibiotics could attack a whole range of different bacteria, while bacteriophages would work only against very specific bacteria. If you wanted to kill a different bacterium, you needed to use a different bacteriophage.

Bacteria eaters : Your typical bacteriophage virus looks a bit like a moon lander - a tall skinny body on top of a bunch of spindly legs. The bacteriophage lands on a bacterium, legs down. The legs then bend and the body of the bacteriophage makes contact with the much larger body of the bacterium. The tail of the bacteriophage then penetrates into the bacterium and injects some of its genetic DNA. The bacteriophage DNA then forces the host bacterium to start making more bacteriophages — sometimes within 15 minutes. Bacteriophage viruses are so potent that they kill about half the bacteria on Earth every two days.

Guided missiles : Each type of bacteriophage has evolved to attack only a very limited range of bacteria. But this turns out to have advantages.

If you take an antibiotic to treat an ear infection, it will also accidentally kill many of the essential and friendly bacteria that live in your gut. Bacteriophage therapy will leave these friendly bacteria alone. Bacteriophages are more like a guided missile than a nuclear bomb.

References and Sources

Main article: http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2014/11/18/4130318.htm#artComments

More about viruses: http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/0/21143412

Beware of  Pseudoscience (scienceblogs) : http://scienceblogs.com/insolence/2014/08/07/beware-genetically-engineered-t4-bacteriophage-nanobots/

Wikipedia link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteriophage

Related Nanoparticle article: http://www.azonano.com/news.aspx?newsID=14121


Pic courtesy: abc science.

#science #scienceeveryday  ___

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2014-12-31 15:24:10 (38 comments, 22 reshares, 65 +1s)Open 

Freaky looking robotic arm / snake : Wish you all a happy New Year, may 2015 be better than the 2014 we have had. In the meantime, take a look at this slithering robotic snake-arm. Called the Series II - X125 system, it has a camera, flashlight, lasers and water jets have also been used as attachments. Don't miss the video.

Earlier generation JetSnake : A previous version of the system, named “JetSnake,” was used on a tunnel boring machine in the port of Miami. Snakebots offer a lot of flexibility, fitting through spaces awkward for larger, more rigid bodies. Previous versions have found work as rescue tools, handlike alternatives, surgery tools, and even as part of a mini-drone-Voltron.

Applications : Childhood fears aside, the technology being demonstrated here is fantastic, and lends itself to some very practical uses. The swappable head can be outfittedwit... more »

Freaky looking robotic arm / snake : Wish you all a happy New Year, may 2015 be better than the 2014 we have had. In the meantime, take a look at this slithering robotic snake-arm. Called the Series II - X125 system, it has a camera, flashlight, lasers and water jets have also been used as attachments. Don't miss the video.

Earlier generation JetSnake : A previous version of the system, named “JetSnake,” was used on a tunnel boring machine in the port of Miami. Snakebots offer a lot of flexibility, fitting through spaces awkward for larger, more rigid bodies. Previous versions have found work as rescue tools, handlike alternatives, surgery tools, and even as part of a mini-drone-Voltron.

Applications : Childhood fears aside, the technology being demonstrated here is fantastic, and lends itself to some very practical uses. The swappable head can be outfitted with a camera for performing visual inspections in dangerous areas, because the robot snake can maneuver around debris or obstacles without touching a single thing. Or you can toss a high-pressure water jet on the end, making this the ultimate remote control auger for dealing with clogs or dirt.

the Specs : The Series II - X125 system delivers a 6kg payload, arm bend of over 225 degrees and a highly flexible tip. The 2.2m arm has passed a series of extended operational tests and been designed for increased reliability and easy maintenance to reduce through life costs.


Sources and References

From OC Robotics: http://www.ocrobotics.com/news/introducing-the-series-2--x125-system/

http://gizmodo.com/watch-this-freaky-robot-arm-move-like-a-snake-hanging-i-1673175770

http://www.popsci.com/eeek-robot-snake

#science #scienceeveryday #robotics  ___

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