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Siromi Samarasinghe has been at 5 events

HostFollowersTitleDateGuestsLinks
STEM Women on G+111,709Join us for a STEM Women HOA as we speak to Professor +Siromi Samarasinghe from the University of Sri Jayawardenapura, Sri Lanka. Siromi lectures in organic chemistry and her research interests include the chemistry of tea compounds. She will talk to us about her research and career path, and also share her experiences of studying abroad and mentoring students. You can read more about Siromi here: http://www.stemwomen.net/science-helped-me-to-overcome-challenges-in-life/This HOA will be hosted by Dr +Zuleyka Zevallos  and Professor +Rajini Rao. You can tune in on Sunday 5th October at 1.30 PM Pacific or 9.30PM UK/ Monday 6th 7.30 AM AUS.The hangout will be available for viewing on our YouTube channel after the event: http://www.youtube.com/stemwomenIn the Spotlight with Siromi Samarasinghe, Professor of Chemistry2014-10-05 22:30:0032 
STEM Women on G+111,709Join us for a STEM Women HOA as we speak to +Jonathan Eisen on how men can help with the issues of gender inequality in STEM fields. Jonathan is a Professor at UC Davis and also the Academic Editor-in-Chief for PLOS Biology (http://www.plosbiology.org/). He is a passionate advocate of gender equality in STEM, and will talk to us about what we can do to encourage women in STEM. This is an important issue that affects both men and women.This HOA will be hosted by Dr +Buddhini Samarasinghe  and Dr +Zuleyka Zevallos, and you can tune in on Sunday February 16th at 12.30 PM Pacific/ 8.30PM GMT. The hangout will be available for viewing on our YouTube channel (http://www.youtube.com/stemwomen) after the event.Follow us on Twitter @stemwomen and on www.stemwomen.netSTEM Women: How Men Can Help, with Professor Jonathan Eisen2014-02-16 21:30:0062 
Scientific American250,767GMOs are essential to feeding the world, proponents say. Tampering with nature is perilous, critics say. Who is right? Scientific American editor Michael Moyer will host a 30-minute conversation at noon EDT to explore this question with David H. Freedman, journalist and author of "Wrong: Why Experts Keep Failing Us—And How to Know When Not to Trust Them." Join in and let us know what questions you'd like us to address. For more on this topic, see our September issue on Food, on newsstands later this week. The Truth about Genetically Modified Food2013-08-20 18:00:0076 
Scott Lewis222,421Have you ever wondered what it's like to give a TEDx talk? How about working at M.I.T.? What sort of excitement comes with working on a project that allows people from across the globe to map neurons through a video game? Come find out when +Buddhini Samarasinghe and +Scott Lewis interview +Amy Robinson!Buddhini and Scott will be together in San Diego hosting this special Google+ Hangout On Air interview with Amy from +Sebastian Seung's computational neuroscience lab at MIT. This Hangout On Air will be broadcast live and recorded to YouTube. If you have any questions or comments for Amy or the hosts, please feel free to leave them here on the event page, through the live Google+ shares, via YouTube or on Twitter using the hashtag #ktcHangout . Buddhini's Twitter:@DrHalfPintBuddyScott's Twitter:@BaldAstronomerAmy's Twitter:@AmyLeeRobinson#HangoutsOnAir   #ScienceSunday   #ScienceEveryday   #CitizenScience   #TEDx   #OpenScience   #WomenInSTEM   #ktc20130616   #Science   #STEM   #Neuroscience   #MIT  Interview with Amy Robinson | ktc2013-06-16 23:00:0056 
Astronomy Cast10,336Join +Fraser Cain and +Pamela Gay for a live recording of their long-running and popular Astronomy Cast podcast. We'll spend the first 30 minutes recording the podcast, and then stick around to answer your questions about space and astronomy.Episode 291: Shock WavesAs a meteor crashed into the atmosphere above Russia, the world discovered the importance of shock waves; how they're caused and how they propagate through the atmosphere. Today we'll discuss the topic in general and find many examples where shock waves can be created, here on Earth, and out in space.#ac291Astronomy Cast, Ep. 291: Shock Waves2013-02-18 21:00:00311 

Siromi Samarasinghe has been shared in 141 public circles

You can see here the 50 latest shared circles.
If this is your profile, you can check your dashboard to see all shared circles you have been included.

AuthorFollowersDateUsers in CircleCommentsReshares+1Links
Michael Ginsburg2,525Awesome bunch of #aussies  in this #sharedcircle  . Almost 1700 people in this circle already.If you want to be included, you MUST be Australian and preferably already active on Google+, or intend to become so.  Australian #expats living overseas are most welcome. To be added:1. +1 this post.2. Share this post publicly 3. Add me to your circles4. Request to be included.For those that are not aussies but would like to connect with a bunch of people from the "lucky country", just add this whole circle to your own.Based on the level of interest, new versions of this circle will be posted regularly. #australia   #aboutaustralia   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #publiccircle   #publicsharedcircles  2014-10-17 23:35:02501000
Becky Collins17,500Top Active Engager's Circle :Circle of very #social #engagerspeople and companiesTo be included in my shares (#sharedcircle), be so kind to:1 - Do +1 t the post2 - Comment the post and specify your "category" (job or interest) Ex: Fashion, SEO, Companies, Social Media Marketing, Sailing, Photography, Bloggers/Writers, Web graphics and design, Italy, Artists, Sport, Finance/Economy ...3 - include the circle among your circles4 - share the circle (include yourself)Improve your popularity, be social be cool !Keep yourself updated, enjoy the Shared Circles Hellenic Alliance, you can share your shared circles inside the upcoming Community:https://plus.google.com/communities/112552559573595396104  #socialmedia  #media  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing  #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins ?2014-10-13 05:05:40478002
Becky Collins16,609Science Circle :Circle of very #social #engagerspeople and companiesTo be included in my shares (#sharedcircle), be so kind to:1 - Do +1 t the post2 - Comment the post and specify your "category" (job or interest) Ex: Fashion, SEO, Companies, Social Media Marketing, Sailing, Photography, Bloggers/Writers, Web graphics and design, Italy, Artists, Sport, Finance/Economy ...3 - include the circle among your circles4 - share the circle (include yourself)Improve your popularity, be social be cool !Keep yourself updated, enjoy the Shared Circles Hellenic Alliance, you can share your shared circles inside the upcoming Community:https://plus.google.com/communities/112552559573595396104  #socialmedia  #media  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing  #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins ?2014-09-16 05:24:00459102
Becky Collins15,192Recipes and Cooking Circle : Circle of very #social #engagerspeople and companiesTo be included in my shares (#sharedcircle), be so kind to:1 - Do +1 t the post2 - Comment the post and specify your "category" (job or interest) Ex: Fashion, SEO, Companies, Social Media Marketing, Sailing, Photography, Bloggers/Writers, Web graphics and design, Italy, Artists, Sport, Finance/Economy ...3 - include the circle among your circles4 - share the circle (include yourself)Improve your popularity, be social be cool !Keep yourself updated, enjoy the Shared Circles Hellenic Alliance, you can share your shared circles inside the upcoming Community:https://plus.google.com/communities/112552559573595396104  #socialmedia  #media  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing  #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins ?2014-08-18 05:14:394770210
Circles Circles Circles37,983SCIENCE CircleDo you want more science in your life? Then, be sure to add these fascinating pages and people who dwell on science daily and are actively engaging.  Enrich your stream.If you are a scientist or someone who primarily posts about science and would like to be included in this circle please make a request in the comments section below.If you have someone or an organization's G+ page to recommend please add their name in the comments section below.Note: To those included in the circle, you were added by the generous recommendation of others  -- their help is deeply appreciated. Your add back and re-share would be also deeply appreciated as it would help spread the word about science.Current Circles  Published Mondays ORIGINAL CONTENT CREATORS : http://goo.gl/o82s0mPublished Wednesdays:BLOGGERS & THEIR BLOGS: http://goo.gl/IkCTLPPublished Thursdays:WOMEN ARE FROM VENUS : http://goo.gl/nFCsGwMEN ARE FROM MARS :  http://goo.gl/tID4ZmPublished Fridays:A CIRCLE TO PAY IT FORWARD:  http://goo.gl/E6v81LOthers CirclesSCIENCE: http://goo.gl/xXWLPtTECHNOLOGY: http://goo.gl/z3z8lh#science       #scienceeveryday       #sciencecircle       #circlesharing  2014-07-17 04:08:1710691432
Aman Singh2,014Circle of the dayYour re-share is appreciatedPlease re-share this circle in your stream.To be added:1- Add +Circles Circles Circles to your circles2- Write the URL of your blog in the comments section below3- Your blog must be an active blog (posts must be current)2014-07-16 12:15:324990617
Ryan Johnson9,485Hi friends! This is a great circle created with an important selection from all circles. The most important engagers are reshared because only that way can we grow our circle and have the people of google circle us.To get in, and to ensure you stay in this circle you need to do the following:1. Add me to your circles, if you haven't done so already!2. +1 this circle!3. Publicly share this circle to public, your circles and extended circles.4. If possible, leave a comment on this circle so I know you have done the three steps above!#circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #wanttobecircled #addmetoyourcircles #public #publiccircle #sharedcircles #Britain #sharedcircle #morefollowers #sharingcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedpublicircles #sharedcircle #photography #uk  #nottingham #Holland #Netherlands #Duch2014-07-16 10:40:014918812
Harry Day3,861If your looking for amazing people that might share your circle..add the ones that share this circleIN ORDER TO MAKE THIS WORK PLEASE FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS BELOW:  1. Plus the post  2. Share the post  3. Add the circle if you can, if not try again later.  4. Request to be added in comments or let me know if you should be in it and for some reason are not.#circlesharing   #circleshare #circleoftheday #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #circleshare #circlesharing #fullcircleshare #topsharedcircle   #circleoftheday   #sharedcircle   #topsharedcircle   #socialmedia #SEO #socialmediamarketing   #socialnetworking   2014-07-15 12:23:45493383957
Circles Circles Circles35,732SCIENCE CircleDo you want more science in your life? Then, be sure to add these fascinating pages and people who dwell on science daily and are actively engaging.  Enrich your stream.If you are a scientist or someone who primarily posts about science and would like to be included in this circle please make a request in the comments section below.If you have someone or an organization's G+ page to recommend please add their name in the comments section below.Note: To those included in the circle, you were added by the generous recommendation of others  -- their help is deeply appreciated. Your add back and re-share would be also deeply appreciated as it would help spread the word about science.Current Circles  Published Mondays ORIGINAL CONTENT CREATORS : http://goo.gl/RPEbdlPublished Wednesdays:BLOGGERS & THEIR BLOGS: http://goo.gl/fmOadpPublished Thursdays:WOMEN ARE FROM VENUS : http://goo.gl/Oyg8RBMEN ARE FROM MARS :  http://goo.gl/9NT51gPublished Fridays:A CIRCLE TO PAY IT FORWARD:  http://goo.gl/5mT3s0Others CirclesSCIENCE: http://goo.gl/AV4WvdTECHNOLOGY: http://goo.gl/YANzuo#science     #scienceeveryday     #sciencecircle     #circlesharing  2014-06-19 02:05:331065924
Becky Collins10,439Super Science Circle :Circle of very #social #engagerspeople and companiesTo be included in my shares (#sharedcircle), be so kind to:1 - Do +1 t the post2 - Comment the post and specify your "category" (job or interest) Ex: Fashion, SEO, Companies, Social Media Marketing, Sailing, Photography, Bloggers/Writers, Web graphics and design, Italy, Artists, Sport, Finance/Economy ...3 - include the circle among your circles4 - share the circle (include yourself)Improve your popularity, be social be cool !Keep yourself updated, enjoy the Shared Circles Hellenic Alliance, you can share your shared circles inside the upcoming Community:https://plus.google.com/communities/112552559573595396104  #socialmedia  #media  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing  #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins ?2014-05-31 05:09:154901211
Circles Circles Circles33,758SCIENCE CircleDo you want more science in your life? Then, be sure to add these fascinating pages and people who dwell on science daily and are actively engaging.  Enrich your stream.If you are a scientist or someone who primarily posts about science and would like to be included in this circle please make a request in the comments section below.If you have someone or an organization's G+ page to recommend please add their name in the comments section below.Note: To those included in the circle, you were added by the generous recommendation of others  -- their help is deeply appreciated. Your add back and re-share would be also deeply appreciated as it would help spread the word about science.Current Circles  Published Mondays ORIGINAL CONTENT CREATORS : http://goo.gl/WbY7NSPublished Wednesdays:BLOGGERS & THEIR BLOGS: http://goo.gl/XPSnHVPublished Thursdays:WOMEN ARE FROM VENUS : http://goo.gl/itFj7ZMEN ARE FROM MARS : http://goo.gl/uBBxgdPublished Fridays:A CIRCLE TO PAY IT FORWARD: http://goo.gl/f1wz2IOthers CirclesSCIENCE: http://goo.gl/MOGsxGTECHNOLOGY: http://goo.gl/bDcYF4#science     #scienceeveryday     #sciencecircle     #circlesharing  2014-05-28 20:17:02102101219
Michael Ginsburg284#sharedcircle  of #Australians  on Google+. Over 1400 people in the circle but Google+ only allows to share 500 at a time.If you want to be added to the circle, please like and comment (so I am not accused of spamming) and also I need to be able to verify you are in #australia . Pages welcome provided again they are #Australian  and I can verify that. If there is a lot of interest from pages, I might consider starting a separate circle for #Australian pages.2014-05-22 00:25:16501414
Organo Gold Review1,066I highly suggest adding each and every person in this #GoogleCircle as they will be sure to interact with you. Circle sharing pages This circle contains pages that engage through pluses, comments or shares. If you receive a notification means you are inside.#circleshare       #circlesharing       #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles       #publiccircle       #teamelitecircle   #teameliteengagercircle     #dontconfusethecircles  2014-05-20 02:06:08460113
Circles Circles Circles32,435SCIENCE CircleDo you want more science in your life? Then, be sure to add these fascinating pages and people who dwell on science daily and are actively engaging.  Enrich your stream.If you are a scientist or someone who primarily posts about science and would like to be included in this circle please make a request in the comments section below.If you have someone or an organization's G+ page to recommend please add their name in the comments section below.Note: To those included in the circle, you were added by the generous recommendation of others  -- their help is deeply appreciated. Your add back and re-share would be also deeply appreciated as it would help spread the word about science.Current Circles  Published Mondays ORIGINAL CONTENT CREATORS : http://goo.gl/Hev5GIPublished Wednesdays:BLOGGERS: http://goo.gl/Nqll1yPublished Thursdays:WOMEN ARE FROM VENUS : http://goo.gl/olCV0EMEN ARE FROM MARS : http://goo.gl/l58RRiPublished Fridays:A CIRCLE TO PAY IT FORWARD: http://goo.gl/oIXG1ROthers Circles:SCIENCE: http://goo.gl/voKgBxTECHNOLOGY: http://goo.gl/bDcYF4#science   #scienceeveryday   #sciencecircle   #circlesharing  2014-05-16 02:10:07103141426
Tim Mi0Another great circle shared with me by an amazing G+'er!!This circle will add great, amazing, wonderful, and awesome content to you feed plus your page will receive massive engagement and ppplllluuuussss OnEs!!!   Welcome to +circle your circle with circles!!!!!  :DBoost your visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!To be added to the Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - include me in your circles2 - Click add people and create your circle3 - share the circle (include yourself)4 - add +1 to the postMore you share more you get!#circle   #sharedcircles   #sharecircleoftheday   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circles   #fashion   #fashionblogger   #fashionblog   #pinterest   #pictures   #fashionstyle   #photography   #photo   #photographer   #photooftheday   #photooftheweek2014-05-10 15:25:595018211
Tourej Ansari16,540All Kinds of People Shared CircleReshare or comment or plus to be in the next circle share!  Let me know if you want to be in the circle! Circle these plussers they are cool people! #circle #circles #circlesharing #circleshare #circleoftheday #circleplus #public #publiccircles2014-05-10 11:00:124583111
Becky Collins5,164 Social Sciences Circle :Circle of very #social #engagerspeople and companiesTo be included in my shares (#sharedcircle), be so kind to:1 - Do +1 t the post2 - Comment the post and specify your "category" (job or interest) Ex: Fashion, SEO, Companies, Social Media Marketing, Sailing, Photography, Bloggers/Writers, Web graphics and design, Italy, Artists, Sport, Finance/Economy ...3 - include the circle among your circles4 - share the circle (include yourself)Improve your popularity, be social be cool !#socialmedia  #media  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing  #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins2014-03-18 12:35:31305008
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:27:36393014
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:26:50393033
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:26:17393011
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:25:52393011
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:25:16393203
John Nuntiatio28,623#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #newcircle #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport #health   #entertainment  #news  2014-03-01 15:15:34459271929
Becky Collins3,213Baseball circle #Baseball  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins 2014-02-26 10:30:413883216
Becky Collins2,634Marketing Circle : Feb 22#circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday +Becky Collins2014-02-22 06:29:4945517724
Scott Lewis119,839*The Amazing Women Circle*So as today's Hangout from +STEM Women on G+ w/ +Jonathan Eisen started, I decided to go back through my "Amazing Women's Circle" and feature the fantastic people that enrich my life, particularly in the fields of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. These brilliant women contribute regularly here on +Google+ and are a shining example of how it doesn't matter what sex or gender you are, everyone can do remarkable things.Please feel free to share this about and let me know in the comments if there are more Amazing Women I should add to this group! #STEMWomen   #GenderEquality   #Equality   #ScienceEveryday   #ScienceSunday  2014-02-16 21:06:57103251529
Circle Share0Customer Engagement Ideas!!!2014-02-04 04:39:15233513
Mikhail Petrovsky63,455Good morning / evening to all.You'll love this circle. Photographers, artists and other interesting people!Это социальный круг / This social circleВам понравится этот круг, добавьте его себе. Фотографы, художники и другие интересные люди!#EarthMyMother #ForFriends #photo2014-01-27 02:27:20435411768
Artur M.35,787A Very Social CircleКруг людей с активной жизненной позицией в Гугле+circle of people, with active life position in Google+Если вы поделились этим кругом вчера, вы находитесь в нем сегодня. Если вы разделяете его с друзьями сегодня, вы будете в нем и завтра.2014-01-22 15:20:15423382357
Mikhail Petrovsky61,618Good morning / evening to all. You'll love this circle. Photographers, artists and other interesting people!Вам понравится этот круг, добавьте его себе. Фотографы, художники и другие интересные люди!Это социальный круг / This social circle #EarthMyMother #ForFriends #photo2014-01-11 03:25:48437361163
Cyrus Khan15,832 *Active Engager's Circle*If you've received a notification, it means you are a part of the circle.Please re-share the circle to increase the exposure of all these friendly and interactive people.Thanks for interacting : )  This is the next edition of my weekly Engagers circle, where I highlight and share the people who've interacted with me this week.I will share this circle to all my followers for exposure as an personally approved group.The criteria to be added are:1)You have commented on and publicly shared one or more of my posts;2) You have re-shared this weeks circle;As this circle grows, I may have difficulty accommodating everyone, so if you add and re-share this week's circle, you'll be guaranteed a spot in next week's edition.Cheers! #circleshare   #active   #engagers   #science   #sciencecircle  2014-01-04 22:40:36476463690
Константин Вишневский39,768Circle of people, with active life position in Google+Simple To be added PLUS the post Share the post and Add the circle. Once you have done this let me know in the commentsКруг людей с активной жизненной позицией в Гугле+Просто быть добавлены PLUS сообщению Share пост и добавить круг. If you agree that this is a great circle, please re-share!#ForFriends #photo #EarthMyMother2013-12-30 08:31:23436402566
Andrew Wisniewski37,207Good morning/evening to all.You'll love this circle. Photographers, artists and other interesting people!Вам понравится этот круг, добавьте его себе. Фотографы, художники и другие интересные люди!Это социальный круг This is a Social Circle  #ForFriends #photo #EarthMyMother 2013-12-20 09:32:31426462167
Константин Вишневский37,633Circle of people, with active life position in Google+Simple To be added PLUS the post Share the post and Add the circle. Once you have done this let me know in the commentsКруг людей с активной жизненной позицией в Гугле+Просто быть добавлены PLUS сообщению Share пост и добавить круг. После того как вы сделали это, дайте мне знать в комментарияхIf you agree that this is a great circle, please re-share!#ForFriends #photo #EarthMyMother2013-12-12 14:38:43469503372
Cyrus Khan15,016Active Engager's CircleIf you've received a notification, it means you are a part of the circle.Thanks for interacting : )  This is the next edition of my weekly Engagers circle, where I highlight and share the people who've interacted with me this week.I will share this circle to all my followers for exposure as an personally approved group.The criteria to be added are:1)You have commented on and publicly shared one or more of my posts;2) You have re-shared this weeks circle;As this circle grows, I may have difficulty accommodating everyone, so if you add and re-share this week's circle, you'll be guaranteed a spot in next week's edition.Cheers! #circleshare   #active   #engagerscircle   #science   #sciencecircle  2013-12-05 18:31:07494532387
Константин Вишневский36,417Circle of people, with active life position in Google+Simple To be added PLUS the post Share the post and Add the circle. Once you have done this let me know in the commentsКруг людей с активной жизненной позицией в Гугле+Просто быть добавлены PLUS сообщению Share пост и добавить круг. После того как вы сделали это, дайте мне знать в комментарияхIf you agree that this is a great circle, please re-share!#ForFriends #photo #EarthMyMother2013-11-30 16:19:03436584180
Chill Ideaz Jay Beek Rocksuperstar0Sharing circle C10 ! Add for more circles daily !Another round of #topengagers  !(Be sure to click READ MORE, it is important if you want to be included in this circle next time)These people shareThese people +1These people create original contentThese people make G+ BetterIf you add this circle, you will, without a doubt, see your engagement soar through the roof.  Guaranteed.  If you were notified, you guessed it, you are already in.To be included in the NEXT top engagers circle this week is easier than ever.1.) Follow me2.) Share this post3.) Keep engaging#sharedcircle   #sharedcircles   #sharecircle   #publiccircle   #publiccircles   #publicsharedcircles   #topengagers   #engagers   #snowballcircle   #snowball   #circles   #circleshare   #circlemasters   #circlemaster   #circlequeen   #crazycircles   #circlehub   #morefollowers #ghosttown2013-11-26 22:46:04501001
Lo Sauer2,493This is a great circle combined of active engagers, creative folks and  some of the best and brightest people on google+. A thank you in this circle-inclusion-shoutout to: +Peter Terren +Michael Műller +Carlos Esteban +Justin Chung +Malthus John +Marta Rauch +Rajini Rao +Katherine Vucicevic +Jonathan Eisen +Mike Allton +Scott Buehler +Mario Falcetti +Zvonimir Fras +Krithika Rangarajan +sridhar krishnan +Joanna Ortynska +Seamus Smyth +Chuck Croll +Michael Schobel +2013-11-19 18:19:4843218317
Rank Kemeng0This is a group of individuals that has personally shared four of my best circle sharing circles in the last month (or so).  They also include a mix of new circle sharers and some that are just trying to learn it for the first time. :) :) :0)They are individuals, to a large degree, that are very interested in not just circle sharing (which is great), but also engaging with you in a meaningful way (which is awesome)!!!Guidelines for Core Multipliers- Share the circle to stay in the circle- Have some fun!- If you are new and want in the circle, share the circle.This is a great group.  Enjoy this circle and have an awesome Thursday!*if you were somehow missed/ not included in the circle, please let me know and it will be corrected on the next share. My apologies ahead of time! :)**For those coming from multiplying circle, we are not inviting new folks here, you can privately message them or ping them when you share the circle on your public feed. Thanks!#corecircle #multiplyingcircle #coremultipliers #sharedcircles #circleshare #bestsharedcircle   #circleshare   #sharedcircles   #circleoftheday   #CircleQueen   #CircleMaster   #GPlusList   #Circle   #Circleshare   #Circlesharing   #PublicSharedCircles2013-11-01 15:53:38426115
Coyeb Sundel02013-10-24 10:04:35425202
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:30:23414103
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:29:39414003
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:29:27414002
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:29:04414002
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:27:59414004
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:27:16414002
James Steward1,112These are my awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:25:57414103
Fraser Cain824,747Super Science Circle for October, 2013I know it's been a while, so it's time for a new Super Science Circle - the October 2013 edition.In case you weren't aware, the Super Science Circle is a list of more than 400 people who are actively engaged on Google+ and regularly post about science and education. We've got journalists, scientists, even a few astronauts. The Super Science Circle should be your best response to anyone who tells you that Google+ is just a ghost town. If you love science, this circle will deliver the goods.If you know anyone who actively posts about science, please let me know and I'll add them to the list.2013-10-04 20:14:53415304682
Bojan Jančar - Bo5,165Circle of awesome people on G+ #11. Plus this post. (Original post)2. Comment on this post.3. Reshare this circle publically to your stream.4. Don’t be a blue head.  #CircleShare   #SharedCircles   #awesome  2013-09-09 21:48:414329414
Fabian Weiland145#sharedcircles #science #health2013-09-05 07:24:12497214

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Most comments: 23

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2014-04-14 03:43:58 (23 comments, 0 reshares, 29 +1s)Open 

May you have a peaceful and joyous “Aluth Avurudu”  (Sri Lankan New Year)

The Sinhala and Tamil New Year dawns today and is celebrated throughout  Sri Lanka.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sinhalese_New_Year

Some of the traditional sweetmeats:
Kavum:  Oil cake, made with rice flour, treacle and coconut milk, fried in oil. http://goo.gl/1cMT0W

Kokis: A crispy and sweet food made from rice flour and coconut milk, believed to have been introduced by the Dutch. The batter is first poured into molds and then deep fried in coconut oil. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kokis

Aluwa: (White rectangular pieces in the photo) made with treacle, sugar, rice flour and added spices.

Mung Kevum: Made with a mixture of rice flour and Mung flour, with treacle and deep fried in coconut oil.
http://goo.gl/yMTuDs

Delicious food!

Most reshares: 22

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2014-07-27 08:37:53 (15 comments, 22 reshares, 46 +1s)Open 

Chilling facts about Red Hot Chilli Powder

I read a news report titled “Fabric dye mixed chilli powder has hit the market - CAA “ which appeared in the local newspaper today,  with much concern. http://goo.gl/NjsFsf

“Instead of using food colouring dye,  illicit manufacturers use strong fabric dye to manufacture chilli powder which is extremely poisonous and hazardous to human health. To get a very bright reddish mixed orange shade the manufacturers use fabric dye which in other terms the consumers would believe that the best quality chilli powder has a dark, bright, red colour.. ..... ..

The low quality spices are sold retail without a packet, label or a brand. Most such substandard products are sent to day fairs and street markets held in remote areas where customers are willing to buy anything cheaper”.

✿  Industrial dyes are used forcolouring sp... more »

Most plusones: 58

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2014-03-08 06:08:40 (9 comments, 19 reshares, 58 +1s)Open 

Rosalind Franklin, a brilliant scientist who deserved recognition

Those of you who have heard of Rosalind Franklin probably associate her name with the woman vaguely connected to the work done on DNA by Watson and Crick. She was in fact, a brilliant crystallographer, a dedicated scientist,  who made a significant contribution to the field of molecular biology and to the discovery of the Double Helix - structure of DNA

In 1951, she undertook the study of the structure of the DNA molecule as an expert in the field of X ray diffraction.Though DNA was known as the molecule responsible for heredity there were certain facts that eluded researchers regarding its shape. Subsequently, Rosalind Franklin and her Ph.D.student, Raymond Gosling, discovered that DNA exists in two forms (A and B) and that the phosphate units of the molecule were located on the outside. Rosalind also made some... more »

Latest 50 posts

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2014-10-17 17:32:38 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 5 +1s)Open 

Amazing how the brain functions!

Stroke at 33

This is an amazing essay about what it was like to have a stroke at 33. It also gives a fascinating glimpse into how the brain functions, and can adapt as a response to injury. This is a must read.

"Each time I thought about whether I needed to make a left turn or right or stop or go, I felt lost. I had no idea. And so I pressed on without thinking, while relying on intuition. Each time I stopped, recognized landmarks — a tree or a house or a store. I knew I was getting closer to home, but I did not know how to continue. Intuition carried me when logic and memory failed"

I made it home.

And then I thought, I need to get to a hospital.

I picked up the phone and then I asked myself, What is the phone number for 911?

I looked at the numeric keypad, and I could not figure out what number each shape represented. And what is the number for 911?

Read the full article at http://www.buzzfeed.com/xtinehlee/i-had-a-stroke-at-33___Amazing how the brain functions!

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2014-10-13 10:37:53 (3 comments, 0 reshares, 19 +1s)Open 

Day Five of 5 day quest
Princess Street Gardens in Edinburgh.

Day Five of 5 day quest
Princess Street Gardens in Edinburgh.___

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2014-10-13 10:34:24 (4 comments, 0 reshares, 8 +1s)Open 

Day Four of 5 day quest
Shopping for a laptop in Glasgow city center

Day Four of 5 day quest
Shopping for a laptop in Glasgow city center___

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2014-10-13 10:29:06 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 8 +1s)Open 

Day Three of 5 day quest
Autumn in Glasgow. Leaves are falling, so is the temperature - down to 10C degrees!

Day Three of 5 day quest
Autumn in Glasgow. Leaves are falling, so is the temperature - down to 10C degrees!___

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2014-10-09 14:32:11 (4 comments, 0 reshares, 18 +1s)Open 

Day Two of 5 day quest: Lunch at the City Center Glasgow.

Another sunny day, I have been lucky so far! Spanish food was delicious!

Day Two of 5 day quest: Lunch at the City Center Glasgow.

Another sunny day, I have been lucky so far! Spanish food was delicious!___

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2014-10-09 14:24:33 (3 comments, 0 reshares, 9 +1s)Open 

Day One of 5 day quest: St. George Square, Glasgow.

I am in Glasgow right now. It was a beautiful sunny day, a good start to my 5 day quest, (tagged by +Deeksha Tare )!

Day One of 5 day quest: St. George Square, Glasgow.

I am in Glasgow right now. It was a beautiful sunny day, a good start to my 5 day quest, (tagged by +Deeksha Tare )!___

2014-10-05 18:18:14 (1 comments, 0 reshares, 7 +1s)Open 

I will be talking about my career and experience as a university academic in just over 2 hours from now with +STEM Women on G+ hosted by +Zuleyka Zevallos and +Rajini Rao .

Join us for a STEM Women HOA as we speak to Professor +Siromi Samarasinghe from the University of Sri Jayawardenapura, Sri Lanka. Siromi lectures in organic chemistry and her research interests include the chemistry of tea compounds. She will talk to us about her research and career path, and also share her experiences of studying abroad and mentoring students. 

You can read more about Siromi here: http://www.stemwomen.net/science-helped-me-to-overcome-challenges-in-life/

This HOA will be hosted by Dr +Zuleyka Zevallos  and Professor +Rajini Rao. You can tune in on Sunday 5th October at 1.30 PM Pacific or 9.30PM UK/ Monday 6th 7.30 AM AUS.

The hangout will be available for viewing on our YouTube channel after the event: http://www.youtube.com/stemwomen___I will be talking about my career and experience as a university academic in just over 2 hours from now with +STEM Women on G+ hosted by +Zuleyka Zevallos and +Rajini Rao .

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2014-09-23 11:36:27 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 8 +1s)Open 

At recently opened shopping complex - Arcade, Independence Square, Colombo, Sri Lanka. 

At recently opened shopping complex - Arcade, Independence Square, Colombo, Sri Lanka. ___

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2014-09-08 16:35:11 (0 comments, 2 reshares, 20 +1s)Open 

A tour of ancient temples in Kandy, Sri Lanka.
 Kandy is the last capital of Sri Lanka, before British rule of the country in 1815. The Art, architecture, traditions, skills and the ancient culture that prevailed during the reign of the Kings of Kandy are depicted in these temples.
Kandyan architecture is highly decorative. Stone carvings, murals and  wall paintings show its unique nature.

A tour of ancient temples in Kandy, Sri Lanka.
 Kandy is the last capital of Sri Lanka, before British rule of the country in 1815. The Art, architecture, traditions, skills and the ancient culture that prevailed during the reign of the Kings of Kandy are depicted in these temples.
Kandyan architecture is highly decorative. Stone carvings, murals and  wall paintings show its unique nature.___

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2014-09-08 15:14:15 (11 comments, 3 reshares, 44 +1s)Open 

Kandy is the last capital of Sri Lanka, before British rule of the country in 1815. The Art, architecture, traditions, skills and the ancient culture that prevailed during the reign of the Kings of Kandy are depicted in these temples.
Kandyan architecture is highly decorative. Stone carvings, murals and  wall paintings show its unique nature.

Kandy is the last capital of Sri Lanka, before British rule of the country in 1815. The Art, architecture, traditions, skills and the ancient culture that prevailed during the reign of the Kings of Kandy are depicted in these temples.
Kandyan architecture is highly decorative. Stone carvings, murals and  wall paintings show its unique nature.___

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2014-08-29 01:59:10 (5 comments, 5 reshares, 26 +1s)Open 

Insect venom at a glance...

Today's post examines some of the chemical components of bee, wasp, hornet and ant venoms. Also, in the accompanying post, why you can't really use knowledge of acids and alkalis to neutralise bee stings, how ants can create ionic liquids, and what bee attack pheromones smell like.

See a bigger version of the graphic & read the post here: http://wp.me/p4aPLT-rb___Insect venom at a glance...

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2014-08-21 01:55:37 (2 comments, 5 reshares, 25 +1s)Open 

The beauty of minerals is seldom appreciated!

I like the most .... Tree fossils with Opal growth rings...___The beauty of minerals is seldom appreciated!

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2014-07-27 08:37:53 (15 comments, 22 reshares, 46 +1s)Open 

Chilling facts about Red Hot Chilli Powder

I read a news report titled “Fabric dye mixed chilli powder has hit the market - CAA “ which appeared in the local newspaper today,  with much concern. http://goo.gl/NjsFsf

“Instead of using food colouring dye,  illicit manufacturers use strong fabric dye to manufacture chilli powder which is extremely poisonous and hazardous to human health. To get a very bright reddish mixed orange shade the manufacturers use fabric dye which in other terms the consumers would believe that the best quality chilli powder has a dark, bright, red colour.. ..... ..

The low quality spices are sold retail without a packet, label or a brand. Most such substandard products are sent to day fairs and street markets held in remote areas where customers are willing to buy anything cheaper”.

✿  Industrial dyes are used forcolouring sp... more »

Chilling facts about Red Hot Chilli Powder

I read a news report titled “Fabric dye mixed chilli powder has hit the market - CAA “ which appeared in the local newspaper today,  with much concern. http://goo.gl/NjsFsf

“Instead of using food colouring dye,  illicit manufacturers use strong fabric dye to manufacture chilli powder which is extremely poisonous and hazardous to human health. To get a very bright reddish mixed orange shade the manufacturers use fabric dye which in other terms the consumers would believe that the best quality chilli powder has a dark, bright, red colour.. ..... ..

The low quality spices are sold retail without a packet, label or a brand. Most such substandard products are sent to day fairs and street markets held in remote areas where customers are willing to buy anything cheaper”.

✿  Industrial dyes are used for colouring spices
 Food adulteration with industrial dyes has been a common practice with deceitful vendors. However,  it has been on the rise with the rapidly increasing demand for spices and food ingredients by the fast food outlets and roadside restaurants that have come up in the city in recent times. The Consumer Affairs Authority (CAA) has detected many such establishments in the recent past. The most common spices that are adulterated with industrial dyes are chilli powder and turmeric powder.

The dyes used are mostly azo dyes, used for dying fabric and other non food items, which are freely available in the market at a cheaper price than food colouring.

Sudan IV and metanil yellow dyes are common adulterants of spices. Sudan IV is a suspected genotoxic carcinogen. Metanil yellow is also a '*non permitted food dye*' . Adverse effects of metanil yellow has been reported in rats, indicating that consumption of metanil yellow can predispose both the developing and the adult central nervous system (CNS) of the rat to neurotoxicity.

Rhodamin B, an anionic dye is also used to adulterate spices.

✿  Detecting adulteration
Adulterated spice samples could be analysed using the analytical technique of chromatography.
Paper chromatography* and thin layer chromatography as well as HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) are used to detect the presence of industrial dyes which are not intended as food colouring.

In paper chromatography, and also in thin layer chromatography, substances are distributed between a stationary phase and a mobile phase.  In paper chromatography, the stationary phase is usually chromatography paper e.g. high quality filter paper. The mobile phase is a solvent ( the developing solvent) that travels up the stationary phase by capillary action carrying the components  with it. Components of the sample will partition between the stationary and mobile phases depending on the polarity of the components and the solvent.
The ratio of the distance traveled by the substance to the distance traveled by the solvent  is used as the reference value (Rf), and compared with that of known standards.  
http://goo.gl/9FycAV

What the consumer can do
         * Obtain condiments and spices from reliable sources

         * If available, get the raw material and grind to a powder

         * Report suspicious outlets and vendors to the authorities

         * Avoid eating spicy street food and food sold by vendors at  fairs, open stalls and bazaars.

Useful links:

http://omicsonline.org/scientific-reports/srep586.php
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8095244
+ScienceSunday ___

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2014-07-26 02:41:53 (6 comments, 1 reshares, 25 +1s)Open 

The smart defense mechanism of the Monarch butterfly

The monarchs use the toxic compounds known as cardenolides present  in milkweed for their own defense from predators.

Cardenolides and Monarchs

Monarchs require milkweeds in order to thrive, and many know it is because they rely on it and use that toxin as their own. The bright colors of the monarch are an indication to predators that they are unpalatable. Predators take heed allowing monarchs to leisurely fly to their next nectar destination undisturbed, but why?

Cardiac glycosides, known as cardenolides, are steroids characterized by a glycoside bond. There are at least 400 known cardenolides, and can be found in a number of plants including milkweed, foxglove, and oleander. Cardenolides inhibit the NA+,K+-ATPase (sodium pump) in vertebrates. Cardiac function is the key disruption, but the ionic balance of other animal cell types are as well including vascular smooth muscle, neurons, and kidney tubules. In the right dose, cardenolides can help treat heart failure and irregular heart beats. In the wrong dose, it can be fatal. 

One of the key features of cardenolides are the bitter taste. The cardenolides also are known to cause vomiting (emesis). As the emetic dose is approximately 50% of the lethal dose, fatal poisoning for herbivores is rare. Instead, most animals quickly associate vomiting with a plant containing cardenolides and avoid it.

Invertebrates are not spared by the NA+,K+-ATPase inhibition. Neuronal tissue is especially sensitive to cardenolides, particular the cardenolide ouabain. As it were, some species such as the Monarch butterfly have evolved a way not only around that issue, but to use it to their advantage as well. A modification in the sodium pump proteins confers resistance to the toxic cardenolides. For the Monarch, the ouabain binding site is of particular importance in determining their insensitivity to cardenolides.

The NA+,K+-ATPase is a protein. This protein consists of one alpha subunit of 1,016 amino acids and one beta subunit of 302 amino acids. Within the alpha subunit is the ouabain binding site. For Monarch butterflies, the change of a single amino acid within that binding site seems to contribute the most to insensitivity towards cardiac glyocsides. The switch of asparagine for histidine changes the receptor properties to a high degree and prevent ouabine from binding. From there, monarchs can sequester the toxin and incorporate it.

Foremost, cardenoalides are a plant defense mechanism. Monarchs evolved a way around that defense. The latex within the plants are yet another deterrent, and Monarchs yet again are finding a way pass by bleeding out the latex first before continuing to consume the milkweed. It is an evolutionary arms race where so far, it is monarchs (and their mimics) who are benefiting.

#scienceeveryday  (but so close to #sciencesunday !)


Sources and Further Reading:
Saponins and Cardiac Glycosides
http://goo.gl/nRWOCU (website)
Cardiac glycoside overdose
http://goo.gl/Q8ee6D (website)
Milkweeds, monarch butterflies and the ecological significance of cardenolides
http://goo.gl/cOiyxq (pdf/website)
Molecular basis for the insensitivity of the Monarch (Danaus plexippus) to cardiac glycosides
http://goo.gl/ScCYl8 (pdf)
The Sodium-Potassium Pump
http://goo.gl/TSNgUk (website)
Evolutionary Assembly of the Milkweed Fauna: Cytochrome Oxidase I and the Age of Tetraopes Beetles
http://goo.gl/GEAlYm (pdf)___The smart defense mechanism of the Monarch butterfly

The monarchs use the toxic compounds known as cardenolides present  in milkweed for their own defense from predators.

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2014-07-24 02:17:16 (9 comments, 2 reshares, 18 +1s)Open 

#wordlessonwednesday  

#wordlessonwednesday  ___

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2014-07-12 05:35:24 (8 comments, 3 reshares, 44 +1s)Open 

Tour of Eastern Sri Lanka
The tour included  archaeological sites, ruins of ancient temples, palaces and ancient irrigation tanks, in the Monaragala and Ampara Districts in the Eastern part of Sri Lanka.

Tour of Eastern Sri Lanka
The tour included  archaeological sites, ruins of ancient temples, palaces and ancient irrigation tanks, in the Monaragala and Ampara Districts in the Eastern part of Sri Lanka.___

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2014-06-13 02:29:12 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

Nupe Market, Matara, Sri Lanka (former Ceylon)
 
This building is believed to have been erected in 1784 in the Southern coastal city of Matara, during the British occupation of Ceylon.  It was built to house the market  situated at the Nupe Junction in the heart of the city. Characteristics are large masonry columns, timber trusses, steep roofs with half round tiles, and a timber portico.
Due to neglect and without maintenance a part of the building collapsed. It is now being restored by the Archeological Department, to bring back the glamour of the built fabric back to its original status.

Nupe Market, Matara, Sri Lanka (former Ceylon)
 
This building is believed to have been erected in 1784 in the Southern coastal city of Matara, during the British occupation of Ceylon.  It was built to house the market  situated at the Nupe Junction in the heart of the city. Characteristics are large masonry columns, timber trusses, steep roofs with half round tiles, and a timber portico.
Due to neglect and without maintenance a part of the building collapsed. It is now being restored by the Archeological Department, to bring back the glamour of the built fabric back to its original status.___

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2014-06-12 03:38:09 (7 comments, 0 reshares, 16 +1s)Open 

A visit to the Southern coastal city of Matara, Sri Lanka

The places of interest included historical sites dating back to the Dutch occupation of Sri Lanka (from 1640 - 1765) - The Star Fort, Dutch Reformed Church, an old printing press, some old houses of the period and a market place which is now being restored preserving its old architecture.

Star Fort – the last major defensive fort built by the Dutch VOC company, during 1763- 1765.
The British took possession of the Maritime Provinces in 1796, and since then the Star Fort had undergone several changes.  
The shape of the Fort is like a star, with six points jutting outwards which were gun embrasures.
http://www.nation.lk/edition/fine/item/18794-how-the-dutch-fortified-matara-with-star-fort.html
 
Dutch Reformed Church
The original foundations of the Church are said to be muchold... more »

A visit to the Southern coastal city of Matara, Sri Lanka

The places of interest included historical sites dating back to the Dutch occupation of Sri Lanka (from 1640 - 1765) - The Star Fort, Dutch Reformed Church, an old printing press, some old houses of the period and a market place which is now being restored preserving its old architecture.

Star Fort – the last major defensive fort built by the Dutch VOC company, during 1763- 1765.
The British took possession of the Maritime Provinces in 1796, and since then the Star Fort had undergone several changes.  
The shape of the Fort is like a star, with six points jutting outwards which were gun embrasures.
http://www.nation.lk/edition/fine/item/18794-how-the-dutch-fortified-matara-with-star-fort.html
 
Dutch Reformed Church
The original foundations of the Church are said to be much older than 1767 as depicted above the entrance. The gable facade its half round tiled roof, wide verandah  and pillars reflect the Dutch architecture.

St. Mary’s Church
A Roman Catholic church which houses the Statue of Our Lady of Matara. The statue is of the Virgin Mary holding the infant Jesus, and is said to have been there from the Portugese occupation of Ceylon, in the 16th century.   During the recent Asian tsunami which struck Matara town in 2004, the statue got washed away, but it was recovered later.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shrine_of_Our_Lady_of_Matara

 
Carlton Press
This is an old printing press which has machinery used for letterpress printing and is still in use for printing handbills and notices.

Market Place
This is preserved for its architectural value, and is being restored. It is believed to have been erected and used by the British in 1784 to house the market in the city. Characteristics are large masonry columns, timber trusses, steep roofs with half round tiles, and a timber portico.

(Text reference: National trust Sri Lanka Booklet - Quarterly Tours 31st May 2014 by Jayatissa Herath)___

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2014-05-18 03:33:52 (6 comments, 8 reshares, 27 +1s)Open 

One of the most important chemical reactions, from simple molecules to complex processes, essential for life on earth.

Photosynthesis

Millions of years ago a bacterium evolved to obtain energy from the sun by means of Photosynthesis. Confusingly we call such bacteria blue-green algae or perhaps more clearly, cyanobacteria.  Later, it seems, a more complex organism with a cell having a nucleus and other internal components, somehow, engulfed a cyanobacterium within its own membrane and hijacked and used this powerful energy conversion technique for its own ends and green plants were the result.

Melvyn Bragg and his guests discuss photosynthesis, the process by which green plants and many other organisms use sunlight to synthesise organic molecules. Photosynthesis arose very early in evolutionary history and has been a crucial driver of life on Earth. In addition to providing most of the food consumed by organisms on the planet, it is also responsible for maintaining atmospheric oxygen levels, and is thus almost certainly the most important chemical process ever discovered.

The biology, chemistry, and story of Photosynthesis is told, in more detail than you probably got at school, in this episode of In Our Time.

Listen here (stream): http://goo.gl/wskv3M
Streaming is simplest with a browser although an app works in some countries.
MP3: http://goo.gl/Plx8Cc


Nick Lane, Reader in Evolutionary Biochemistry at University College London: http://goo.gl/ckqgUI

Sandra Knapp, Botanist at the Natural History Museum: http://goo.gl/sBo9jA

John Allen, Professor of Biochemistry at Queen Mary, University of London: http://goo.gl/naC7jo

In Our Time Science Archive: http://goo.gl/LQRRv3
Podcast: http://goo.gl/8DVCpD

Image: Kristian Peters -- Fabelfroh http://goo.gl/eHcdEa___One of the most important chemical reactions, from simple molecules to complex processes, essential for life on earth.

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2014-05-13 13:22:55 (6 comments, 2 reshares, 29 +1s)Open 

This is about my story, of how I faced the obstacles in life to shape my career in science. I’m greatly honoured to be featured in the Role Model series of +STEM Women on G+ 
For the full article see: http://www.stemwomen.net/science-helped-me-to-overcome-challenges-in-life/

Science Helped Me to Overcome Challenges in Life
On our blog, Professor of Chemistry +Siromi Samarasinghe has written a wonderful guest post describing how she overcame cultural, social and financial hurdles to pursue a research career in tea chemistry. She did so at a time when it was highly unusual for women in Sri Lanka to obtain higher education. She writes of her research:

I loved the research I did for my PhD, which was related to the chemistry of black tea manufacture. This was a highly relevant topic to my country, the world renowned producer of Ceylon Tea... I used model oxidation systems to investigate flavour and colour development from tea polyphenols during black tea manufacture. The chemistry involved was fascinating!

Siromi has been a teacher, mentor and role model to many students over her 40 year career. Her story demonstrates the pressures of breaking away from traditional roles for women. Family demands and unforeseen life obstacles can have a dramatic impact on women in STEM careers all over the world. Siromi notes that while her professional journey was riddled with many personal hurdles, "Science has been my strength, it always will be." 

Read more on our blog and share your experience of juggling gender expectations in forging your career: http://www.stemwomen.net/science-helped-me-to-overcome-challenges-in-life/

#stemwomen   #science   #stem   #women   #chemistry  ___This is about my story, of how I faced the obstacles in life to shape my career in science. I’m greatly honoured to be featured in the Role Model series of +STEM Women on G+ 
For the full article see: http://www.stemwomen.net/science-helped-me-to-overcome-challenges-in-life/

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2014-05-10 01:50:30 (1 comments, 10 reshares, 48 +1s)Open 

Beautiful example of ancient  'nanotechnology'! Thanks for sharing +Trey Pitsenberger 

2000 year old Roman vessel that changes color
This cup take ones breath away. Carved around the 4th century this cup is known as a diatretum, or cage cup. Diatretum cups were all made around the 4th century and represent the pinnacle of Roman glass making. 

What make this cup so unusual is it's ability to change color. "In reflected light the cup appears opaque olive green, but when transmitted light is shone through the glass, it changes to a rich and vibrant red. The effect is caused by nanoparticles of gold and silver within the glass, so tiny and in such small quantities that only in the last few decades has microscopic analysis with sufficiently high resolution been developed to detect them. As light passes through the glass the gold and silver particles scatter the waves, allowing those at the red end of the spectrum to pass through more easily, causing the dramatic colour change."

Read more here,
via:
The British Museum
http://bit.ly/1oqVKo4

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cage_cup

#roman  
#ancient  
#art  ___Beautiful example of ancient  'nanotechnology'! Thanks for sharing +Trey Pitsenberger 

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2014-05-04 18:03:01 (12 comments, 10 reshares, 40 +1s)Open 

A hidden ‘gold mine’ in the heartwood of a tree

Nature’s chemical laboratories are forever producing fascinating substances, among them a valuable perfume ingredient in the resinous heartwood of a tree! What is even more fascinating is that the substance is produced not by healthy trees but by trees that become infected with a certain type of parasitic fungus!

Most species of the genus Aquilaria and some species of Gyrinops  are known to produce a resin as a reaction to a fungal infection. The resinous substance which darkens and solidifies in the heartwood of the tree is known as Agarwood. High in volatile organic compounds, the resin helps to suppress or retard the fungal growth, a process known as tylosis.

Agarwood oil  can be obtained by steam distillation of the resinous material. It is used in the modern perfume industry and is a much favored commodityin the ... more »

A hidden ‘gold mine’ in the heartwood of a tree

Nature’s chemical laboratories are forever producing fascinating substances, among them a valuable perfume ingredient in the resinous heartwood of a tree! What is even more fascinating is that the substance is produced not by healthy trees but by trees that become infected with a certain type of parasitic fungus!

Most species of the genus Aquilaria and some species of Gyrinops  are known to produce a resin as a reaction to a fungal infection. The resinous substance which darkens and solidifies in the heartwood of the tree is known as Agarwood. High in volatile organic compounds, the resin helps to suppress or retard the fungal growth, a process known as tylosis.

Agarwood oil  can be obtained by steam distillation of the resinous material. It is used in the modern perfume industry and is a much favored commodity in the Middle Eastern countries.The extracted oil is said to emanate a unique exotic fragrance which is highly prized.

The chemical constituents of agarwood that are reported include sesquiterpenes, chromone derivatives, tetradecanoic acid and pantadecanoic acids. http://goo.gl/lS0h4g

Perfumes produced using agarwood are expensive because of the resin’s scarcity. It is said that the quality of the aroma of this precious and luxurious commodity, is an indication of status and prestige.

Gyrinops walla,  a tree that grows in the wet zone of Sri Lanka, was not known as a resource of this fragrant resin until recently. Known as Walla Patta locally, it has few medicinal uses, the villagers use its fibrous rope (“patta”) for tying up limb casts.

This seemingly insignificant plant suddenly came to the lime light with a recent news report about an attempt by a foreign national to smuggle agarwood produced by this plant. The offender was nabbed by customs officials at the Bandaranaike International Airport carrying 16.8kg of the  agarwood worth Rs. 12 million concealed in his baggage. The cleaned up product was considered to be of Grade 1 quality. Thus the locals realized the high commercial value of Walla Patta resulting in a wave of illegal felling in different parts of the country.  

Since naturally formed agarwood is found in very small quantities, methods should be developed to form the resin artificially. The indiscriminate felling of trees threaten the survival of the agarwood producing trees, and therefore every effort should be made to conserve these valuable plants.
Image credit:http://www.sundayobserver.lk/2014/02/09/fea09.asp
#sciencesunday #scienceeveryday  ___

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2014-04-26 02:30:54 (0 comments, 2 reshares, 9 +1s)Open 

Nature's way of detecting radiation

The stamen hairs of the common spiderwort are highly sensitive to nuclear radiation, mutating from blue to pink.
 +Rajini Rao explains how this extraordinary phenomenon of nature occurs.

See It with Flowers: A BioSensor for Radiation

✿ The stamen hairs of the common spiderwort (Tradescantia) are made up of rows of cells in single file, like beads on a string. Fuzzy and blue, they emerge by the hundreds around the stamens that hold up the bright yellow, pollen-filled anthers in the flower center. In 1975, a scientist named Sparrow made a remarkable discovery: the stamen hairs were highly sensitive to nuclear radiation, mutating from blue to pink like the floral equivalent of the canary in the coal mine! The mutation frequency is linear down to very low doses and low exposure rates such that counting the number of pink cells as a percentage of blue ones gives an accurate reading of radiation exposure. Since the cells divide in sequence, the position of the pink cell tells when the radiation exposure occurred. The flowers have been used to monitor radiation leaks around nuclear plants in Japan or as a biosensor for chemical pollutants (http://goo.gl/GTMi9C).

✿ As if this biological oddity were not enough, the flower enjoys a romantic history dating to Captain John Smith, the legendary American settler who was plucked from the perils of death at the hands of the Powhotan tribe by the chief's daughter Pocohontas. When Smith left Virginia in 1609, he carried with him spiderwort seeds to his friend John Tradescant the Elder, a master gardener in England. The plant was named Tradescantia virginiana in the latter's honor (http://goo.gl/u9dwVM).

Image Credits: Tradescantia from the garden of +Chris Veerabadran whose question about the flower name inspired this post. Thanks, Chris! 

Staminal Hair from www.microscopy-uk.org.uk
Video: Cytoplasmic Streaming in Tradescantia Stamen Hair Cells

#ScienceEveryday  ___Nature's way of detecting radiation

The stamen hairs of the common spiderwort are highly sensitive to nuclear radiation, mutating from blue to pink.
 +Rajini Rao explains how this extraordinary phenomenon of nature occurs.

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2014-04-25 12:47:32 (5 comments, 0 reshares, 18 +1s)Open 

Chico practicing patience

"What’s for dinner I’m waiting for food
Do I sing for my supper, I wonder if I should,
But she hates my singing, so I’ll pretend to be good
Take a nap before dinner and dream of food!”

#fidofriday  

Chico practicing patience

"What’s for dinner I’m waiting for food
Do I sing for my supper, I wonder if I should,
But she hates my singing, so I’ll pretend to be good
Take a nap before dinner and dream of food!”

#fidofriday  ___

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2014-04-20 03:15:39 (6 comments, 10 reshares, 39 +1s)Open 

The chemistry of the "smell of old books"

+Rich Pollett  shares this interesting post about the chemicals that give off the 'old book' smell.

___The chemistry of the "smell of old books"

+Rich Pollett  shares this interesting post about the chemicals that give off the 'old book' smell.

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2014-04-14 03:43:58 (23 comments, 0 reshares, 29 +1s)Open 

May you have a peaceful and joyous “Aluth Avurudu”  (Sri Lankan New Year)

The Sinhala and Tamil New Year dawns today and is celebrated throughout  Sri Lanka.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sinhalese_New_Year

Some of the traditional sweetmeats:
Kavum:  Oil cake, made with rice flour, treacle and coconut milk, fried in oil. http://goo.gl/1cMT0W

Kokis: A crispy and sweet food made from rice flour and coconut milk, believed to have been introduced by the Dutch. The batter is first poured into molds and then deep fried in coconut oil. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kokis

Aluwa: (White rectangular pieces in the photo) made with treacle, sugar, rice flour and added spices.

Mung Kevum: Made with a mixture of rice flour and Mung flour, with treacle and deep fried in coconut oil.
http://goo.gl/yMTuDs

Delicious food!

May you have a peaceful and joyous “Aluth Avurudu”  (Sri Lankan New Year)

The Sinhala and Tamil New Year dawns today and is celebrated throughout  Sri Lanka.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sinhalese_New_Year

Some of the traditional sweetmeats:
Kavum:  Oil cake, made with rice flour, treacle and coconut milk, fried in oil. http://goo.gl/1cMT0W

Kokis: A crispy and sweet food made from rice flour and coconut milk, believed to have been introduced by the Dutch. The batter is first poured into molds and then deep fried in coconut oil. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kokis

Aluwa: (White rectangular pieces in the photo) made with treacle, sugar, rice flour and added spices.

Mung Kevum: Made with a mixture of rice flour and Mung flour, with treacle and deep fried in coconut oil.
http://goo.gl/yMTuDs

Delicious food!___

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2014-04-12 01:59:54 (0 comments, 7 reshares, 22 +1s)Open 

On The Shoulders of Giants

♀ A sepia print of an Indian woman, a Japanese woman and a woman from Syria, dated 1885. What do they have in common? Extraordinarily, each was the first licensed female medical doctor in their country of origin. They were trained at the Women's Medical College in Pennsylvania, the first of its kind in the country. This was a time before women had the right to vote. If they did attend college at all, it was at the risk of contracting "neuralgia, uterine disease, hysteria, and other derangements of the nervous system” (according to Harvard gynecologist Edward H. Clarke). 

An all-woman medical school was first proposed in 1846, supported by the Quakers and the feminist movement. Dr. Ellwood Harvey, one of the early teaching faculty, daringly smuggled out a slave, Ann Maria Weems, dressed as a male buggy driver, from rightoutsid... more »

On The Shoulders of Giants

♀ A sepia print of an Indian woman, a Japanese woman and a woman from Syria, dated 1885. What do they have in common? Extraordinarily, each was the first licensed female medical doctor in their country of origin. They were trained at the Women's Medical College in Pennsylvania, the first of its kind in the country. This was a time before women had the right to vote. If they did attend college at all, it was at the risk of contracting "neuralgia, uterine disease, hysteria, and other derangements of the nervous system” (according to Harvard gynecologist Edward H. Clarke). 

An all-woman medical school was first proposed in 1846, supported by the Quakers and the feminist movement. Dr. Ellwood Harvey, one of the early teaching faculty, daringly smuggled out a slave, Ann Maria Weems, dressed as a male buggy driver, from right outside the White House. With his reward money, he bought his students a  papier maché dissection mannequin. Eventually, poverty forced him to quit teaching, but he still helped out with odd jobs. What a magnificent man!  

Fate and fortune were to buffet Ms. Joshi's life. Married at age 9 to a man 11 years older, her husband turned out to be surprisingly progressive. After she lost her first child at age 14, she vowed to render to her "poor suffering country women the true medical aid they so sadly stand in need of and which they would rather die than accept at the hands of a male physician". She was first offered a scholarship by a missionary on condition that she converted to Christianity. When she demurred, a wealthy socialite from New Jersey stepped in and financed her education. She is believed to be the first Hindu woman to set foot on American soil. I didn't arrive until 1983 ;)

Times were tough then. The fate of these three intrepid pioneers was a sad one. Joshi died of tuberculosis in India at the age of 21, without ever practicing. Fittingly, her husband sent her ashes back to America. Islambouli was not heard of again, likely because she was never allowed to practice in her home country. Although Okami rose to the position of head of gynecology at a Tokyo hospital, she resigned two years later when the Emperor of Japan refused to meet her because she was a woman. 

Times have changed. My own mother was married at the age of 13 to a man also 11 years her senior. My father recalls helping my mother with her geography homework in high school. She never did attend college, despite being a charismatic woman with quicksilver wit and efficiency. Little wonder then, when I was accepted into graduate school in the US, unmarried and 21 years young, my parents staunchly stood behind me against the dire predictions of friends and relatives ("She'll come back with a yellow haired American!" "Haven't you read Cosmopolitan magazine? They are all perverts there!"). Happily, I escaped perversion, earned my doctoral degree and even gained a supportive spouse of my own. In 2004, I became only the 103rd woman to be promoted to Professor in the 111-year history of the Johns Hopkins medical school, and the first in my department, the oldest Physiology department in the country. If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants. 

#STEMwomen   #ScienceEveryday  

More reading: http://www.pri.org/stories/2013-07-15/historical-photos-circulating-depict-women-medical-pioneers___

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2014-04-09 01:32:44 (4 comments, 0 reshares, 22 +1s)Open 

#wordlessonwednesday  

#wordlessonwednesday  ___

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2014-04-06 02:35:19 (5 comments, 1 reshares, 23 +1s)Open 

The Beauty of Frangipani

Nestled in white clusters in a canopy of green
They greet me every morning with a fragrance so sweet
Known as Frangipani, ‘Araliya’ or Plumeria
Beautiful maidens wear them in their hair
Golden yellow centers blending into white
Nature’s gift, what an inspiring sight!

The Beauty of Frangipani

Nestled in white clusters in a canopy of green
They greet me every morning with a fragrance so sweet
Known as Frangipani, ‘Araliya’ or Plumeria
Beautiful maidens wear them in their hair
Golden yellow centers blending into white
Nature’s gift, what an inspiring sight!___

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2014-03-30 16:10:14 (4 comments, 3 reshares, 28 +1s)Open 

Chemistry of Coconut

✿ The coconut tree is considered as a great gift of Nature to mankind, especially in the tropical Asian Pacific countries where people have been reaping its benefits throughout the ages.

What is so special about the Coconut tree is that almost all parts of the tree are utilized by humans for their basic needs – food, shelter and medicine.

✿ In Sri Lanka, it is traditionally used in religious ceremonies, in cultural events and festivals. Coconut oil is used as a fuel to light lamps by dipping a wick in the oil. The young leaves or fronds are used as decoration for festivals, and the inflorescence ('flower') is used in cultural ceremonies, at traditional weddings to bring good luck to the couple.

✿ Many health benefits are attributed to the unique composition of the oil obtained from the coconut kernel.
more »

Chemistry of Coconut

✿ The coconut tree is considered as a great gift of Nature to mankind, especially in the tropical Asian Pacific countries where people have been reaping its benefits throughout the ages.

What is so special about the Coconut tree is that almost all parts of the tree are utilized by humans for their basic needs – food, shelter and medicine.

✿ In Sri Lanka, it is traditionally used in religious ceremonies, in cultural events and festivals. Coconut oil is used as a fuel to light lamps by dipping a wick in the oil. The young leaves or fronds are used as decoration for festivals, and the inflorescence ('flower') is used in cultural ceremonies, at traditional weddings to bring good luck to the couple.

✿ Many health benefits are attributed to the unique composition of the oil obtained from the coconut kernel.

✿ Coconut oil is a liquid at temperatures around 25C and above.  Refined coconut oil is almost colourless whereas crude unrefined oil is a golden yellow.  It has a long shelf life, stable to atmospheric oxidation, due to its low degree of unsaturation.

✿ More than 90% of fat in coconut is saturated fat. Therefore it has earned a bad image as being an oil which is harmful to health, since saturated fats are known to contribute to cardiovascular disease. However, this same property of  high saturation is responsible for its health benefits, because the saturated fats that are present in coconut are made up of mostly Medium Chain Fatty Acids (MCFA) rather than Long Chain Fatty Acids.

✿ What are saturated medium chain fatty acids?
Carboxylic acids having 8 to 10 carbon atoms,  without any double bonds between carbon atoms are known as saturated medium chain fatty acids. The MCFA in coconut oil are  Caprylic acid, Capric acid and Lauric acid.
Coconut oil has more MCFA than other vegetable oils such as olive oil, soyabean oil, palm oil, groundnut oil  and sunflower oil.

✿ Of the MCFA,  Lauric acid is the major component, (48.9%) in coconut oil. Monolaurin, a derivative of lauric acid has antibacterial properties and is used in food and cosmetics.

✿Coconut oil is extracted from the kernel of the coconut. Commercial method is  by mechanical extraction from copra (dried kernel) . Domestic extraction is mostly by boiling coconut milk (water extract of kernel) and separating the oil.
We come across two main types of coconut oil in the market, based on its processing. RBD coconut oil is “Refined, Bleached and Deodorized” The other type is Virgin Coconut oil which is made by wet processing, without any drastic heat treatment as with the other types of extraction.

✿ Coconut oil is used in margarine manufacture by blending with other vegetable oils and by the  chemical modification of its components. The melting point of vegetable oils is raised by a process called hydrogenation, or 'hardening' resulting in a semisolid product. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margarine

✿ Hydrogenation converts unsaturated fatty acids in the oil to saturated fatty acids thereby elevating the melting point of the oil. Partial hydrogenation results in the formation of trans fatty acids by altering the natural configuration of some of the unsaturated fatty acids in the oil. The negative aspect of the process of hardening oils to semisolid fats is the formation of trans fats. Trans fats are known to  increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, coconut oil has a very low chance of producing trans fatty acids than some other vegetable oils, e.g. sunflower oil and canola oil,  which contain poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). This is because coconut oil has a lower amount of unsaturated fatty acids (the components that produce trans fats when partially hydrogenated).

✿ Another important industrial application of coconut oil is in the production of biodiesel. The process involves a method known as transesterification which converts the oil (esters of glycerol) into methyl or ethyl esters of the fatty acids (‘biodiesel’).  http://ljs.academicdirect.org/A16/095_104.htm

Coconut water too has many uses. It is consumed as a beverage, the water of the King Coconut being a refreshing drink in the hot weather of the tropics. It is used as a re hydrating drink due to its  unique balance of electrolytes.

✿The inflorescence of the coconut tree contains a sap which is rich in sugars. The sap is collected and allowed to ferment resulting in an alcoholic beverage  - Toddy. The fermented sap is distilled to produce Arrack, a spirit with a taste usually described as "somewhere between whisky and rum". It is generally distilled to between 33% and 50% alcohol by volume (ABV) or 66 to 100 proof). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arrack

✿The fermented  sap from the inflorescence is used to produce coconut vinegar. Under aerobic conditions the ethanol  in Toddy is converted to acetic acid by Acetobactor spp (acetic acid bacteria).

Coconut shells are used to produce charcoal which is used in industry as an adsorbant. In this process shells are burned in a limited supply of air and are carbonized. (Destructive distillation)
Shells contain lignin (29.4%), Cellulose (26.6%) Pentosans (27.7%), which break down at high temperatures, yielding charcoal, pyroligneous acid, tar and gas. Compared to hardwoods, coconut shells are lower in cellulose, higher in lignin.

✿ A great gift of Nature to mankind, the coconut tree is unique in its composition.

Knowing the chemistry of its component parts and the application of chemistry in its utilization makes us appreciate the coconut tree more and more as the Tree of Life

Useful link for chemistry of coconut oil: http://coconutboard.nic.in/English-Article-Gopalakrishna-CFTRI.pdf___

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2014-03-30 09:30:10 (11 comments, 13 reshares, 50 +1s)Open 

Chemistry of Coconut

✿ The coconut tree is considered as a great gift of Nature to mankind, especially in the tropical Asian Pacific countries where people have been reaping its benefits throughout the ages.

What is so special about the Coconut tree is that almost all parts of the tree are utilized by humans for their basic needs – food, shelter and medicine.

✿ In Sri Lanka, it is traditionally used in religious ceremonies, in cultural events and festivals. Coconut oil is used as a fuel to light lamps by dipping a wick in the oil. The young leaves or fronds are used as decoration for festivals, and the inflorescence ('flower') is used in cultural ceremonies, at traditional weddings to bring good luck to the couple.

✿ Many health benefits are attributed to the unique composition of the oil obtained from the coconut kernel.
more »

Chemistry of Coconut

✿ The coconut tree is considered as a great gift of Nature to mankind, especially in the tropical Asian Pacific countries where people have been reaping its benefits throughout the ages.

What is so special about the Coconut tree is that almost all parts of the tree are utilized by humans for their basic needs – food, shelter and medicine.

✿ In Sri Lanka, it is traditionally used in religious ceremonies, in cultural events and festivals. Coconut oil is used as a fuel to light lamps by dipping a wick in the oil. The young leaves or fronds are used as decoration for festivals, and the inflorescence ('flower') is used in cultural ceremonies, at traditional weddings to bring good luck to the couple.

✿ Many health benefits are attributed to the unique composition of the oil obtained from the coconut kernel.

✿ Coconut oil is a liquid at temperatures around 25C and above.  Refined coconut oil is almost colourless whereas crude unrefined oil is a golden yellow.  It has a long shelf life, stable to atmospheric oxidation, due to its low degree of unsaturation.

✿ More than 90% of fat in coconut is saturated fat. Therefore it has earned a bad image as being an oil which is harmful to health, since saturated fats are known to contribute to cardiovascular disease. However, this same property of  high saturation is responsible for its health benefits, because the saturated fats that are present in coconut are made up of mostly Medium Chain Fatty Acids (MCFA) rather than Long Chain Fatty Acids.

✿ What are saturated medium chain fatty acids?
Carboxylic acids having 8 to 10 carbon atoms,  without any double bonds between carbon atoms are known as saturated medium chain fatty acids. The MCFA in coconut oil are  Caprylic acid, Capric acid and Lauric acid.
Coconut oil has more MCFA than other vegetable oils such as olive oil, soyabean oil, palm oil, groundnut oil  and sunflower oil.

✿ Of the MCFA,  Lauric acid is the major component, (48.9%) in coconut oil. Monolaurin, a derivative of lauric acid has antibacterial properties and is used in food and cosmetics.

✿Coconut oil is extracted from the kernel of the coconut. Commercial method is  by mechanical extraction from copra (dried kernel) . Domestic extraction is mostly by boiling coconut milk (water extract of kernel) and separating the oil.
We come across two main types of coconut oil in the market, based on its processing. RBD coconut oil is “Refined, Bleached and Deodorized” The other type is Virgin Coconut oil which is made by wet processing, without any drastic heat treatment as with the other types of extraction.

✿ Coconut oil is used in margarine manufacture by blending with other vegetable oils and by the  chemical modification of its components. The melting point of vegetable oils is raised by a process called hydrogenation, or 'hardening' resulting in a semisolid product. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margarine

✿ Hydrogenation converts unsaturated fatty acids in the oil to saturated fatty acids thereby elevating the melting point of the oil. Partial hydrogenation results in the formation of trans fatty acids by altering the natural configuration of some of the unsaturated fatty acids in the oil. The negative aspect of the process of hardening oils to semisolid fats is the formation of trans fats. Trans fats are known to  increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, coconut oil has a very low chance of producing trans fatty acids than some other vegetable oils, e.g. sunflower oil and canola oil,  which contain poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). This is because coconut oil has a lower amount of unsaturated fatty acids (the components that produce trans fats when partially hydrogenated).

✿ Another important industrial application of coconut oil is in the production of biodiesel. The process involves a method known as transesterification which converts the oil (esters of glycerol) into methyl or ethyl esters of the fatty acids (‘biodiesel’).  http://ljs.academicdirect.org/A16/095_104.htm

Coconut water too has many uses. It is consumed as a beverage, the water of the King Coconut being a refreshing drink in the hot weather of the tropics. It is used as a re hydrating drink due to its  unique balance of electrolytes.

✿The inflorescence of the coconut tree contains a sap which is rich in sugars. The sap is collected and allowed to ferment resulting in an alcoholic beverage  - Toddy. The fermented sap is distilled to produce Arrack, a spirit with a taste usually described as "somewhere between whisky and rum". It is generally distilled to between 33% and 50% alcohol by volume (ABV) or 66 to 100 proof). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arrack

✿The fermented  sap from the inflorescence is used to produce coconut vinegar. Under aerobic conditions the ethanol  in Toddy is converted to acetic acid by Acetobactor spp (acetic acid bacteria).

Coconut shells are used to produce charcoal which is used in industry as an adsorbant. In this process shells are burned in a limited supply of air and are carbonized. (Destructive distillation)
Shells contain lignin (29.4%), Cellulose (26.6%) Pentosans (27.7%), which break down at high temperatures, yielding charcoal, pyroligneous acid, tar and gas. Compared to hardwoods, coconut shells are lower in cellulose, higher in lignin.

✿ A great gift of Nature to mankind, the coconut tree is unique in its composition.

Knowing the chemistry of its component parts and the application of chemistry in its utilization makes us appreciate the coconut tree more and more as the Tree of Life

Useful link for chemistry of coconut oil: http://coconutboard.nic.in/English-Article-Gopalakrishna-CFTRI.pdf
#sciencesunday #scienceeveryday___

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2014-03-26 13:55:42 (8 comments, 1 reshares, 27 +1s)Open 

#wordlessonwednesday #wordlesswednesday  

#wordlessonwednesday #wordlesswednesday  ___

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2014-03-21 02:40:50 (4 comments, 1 reshares, 23 +1s)Open 

Mesua ferrea (Ceylon ironwood)

The young leaves of the Ironwood ("Na tree" in Sinhalese), which is the National tree of Sri Lanka.
#naturephotography

Mesua ferrea (Ceylon ironwood)

The young leaves of the Ironwood ("Na tree" in Sinhalese), which is the National tree of Sri Lanka.
#naturephotography___

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2014-03-19 13:57:10 (3 comments, 0 reshares, 15 +1s)Open 

#wordlesswednesday #wordlessonwednesday #flowerphotography  

#wordlesswednesday #wordlessonwednesday #flowerphotography  ___

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2014-03-18 03:07:22 (0 comments, 3 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

Keep smiling...

Keep smiling...___

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2014-03-16 01:49:00 (0 comments, 5 reshares, 7 +1s)Open 

Don't give up...
https://plus.google.com/108535584317102432580/posts/66kThk8egvT

Don't give up...
https://plus.google.com/108535584317102432580/posts/66kThk8egvT___

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2014-03-15 17:12:00 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 6 +1s)Open 

___

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2014-03-14 03:12:26 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 11 +1s)Open 

Mathematical Qualifications for women

In 1849 Queen's College London started formal lectures leading to some of the world's first official academic qualifications for women.

ON MATHEMATICS
by the REV. T. G. HALL, M.A.
Professor of Mathematics in King's College, London
Presented Jan. 24, 1849

Had the Lecture which I am about to deliver been introductory to the Course of scientific instruction given in these walls, I might have thought it needful, and due to my hearers, to attempt some elaborate proof than I now find necessary, in order to shew that the study of Mathematics is not uninviting ; and may in fact be rendered attractive to a class of pupils so different from that which now for 25 years I have been occupied in teaching.  But the continued attendance of a considerable number of Ladies has shown that there is nothing wanting... more »

Mathematical Qualifications for women

In 1849 Queen's College London started formal lectures leading to some of the world's first official academic qualifications for women.

ON MATHEMATICS
by the REV. T. G. HALL, M.A.
Professor of Mathematics in King's College, London
Presented Jan. 24, 1849

Had the Lecture which I am about to deliver been introductory to the Course of scientific instruction given in these walls, I might have thought it needful, and due to my hearers, to attempt some elaborate proof than I now find necessary, in order to shew that the study of Mathematics is not uninviting ; and may in fact be rendered attractive to a class of pupils so different from that which now for 25 years I have been occupied in teaching.  But the continued attendance of a considerable number of Ladies has shown that there is nothing wanting on their part.

More here: http://goo.gl/f8PPBV

also...

Natural Philosophy (the precursor of Natural Science) Lecture: http://goo.gl/oyXp2S
(Due to the way that the book's pages are managed I found when composing this post that I needed to open this in a fresh tab)

also...

These lectures are from the book Introductory Lectures Queen's College, London published in 1849.
The college has been claimed to be the very first institution in the world to offer educational qualifications for women. This book has a series of lectures on a variety of topics which were given when the college was first opened.

This book in turn was found at the online Women's Library at the London School of Economics where you can browse many more interesting records.

Take a journey through the personal, political and economic struggles that have symbolised women's battle for equality over the past 500 years, through a representative selection of the broad range of materials in LSE Library and The Women's Library @ LSE. A chronological presentation of more than 300 items from the 16th Century to the present day can be found in the timeline and in the additional items below.: http://goo.gl/cweLaS
(Note the big plus sign at the bottom right of the timeline and the filters below)

also...

The online library is part of the outreach of the newly opened physical library at the London School of Economics.  There is an intention to make as much as possible at the library available to the public.

The Women's Library includes more than 60,000 books and 5,000 objects such as photographs, posters, badges, banners, textiles and ceramics. http://goo.gl/URTkKn

This post may be of interest to +Buddhini Samarasinghe and her +STEM Women on G+ page.


Image: http://goo.gl/a534I5___

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2014-03-12 18:28:18 (2 comments, 0 reshares, 21 +1s)Open 

#wordlessonwednesday  

#wordlessonwednesday  ___

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2014-03-11 06:53:08 (0 comments, 4 reshares, 9 +1s)Open 

There is always hope in tomorrow
From http://goo.gl/c2uQ64

There is always hope in tomorrow
From http://goo.gl/c2uQ64___

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2014-03-11 06:38:25 (3 comments, 20 reshares, 13 +1s)Open 

Thank you for inviting me to the community!

Thank you for inviting me to the community!___

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2014-03-08 06:08:40 (9 comments, 19 reshares, 58 +1s)Open 

Rosalind Franklin, a brilliant scientist who deserved recognition

Those of you who have heard of Rosalind Franklin probably associate her name with the woman vaguely connected to the work done on DNA by Watson and Crick. She was in fact, a brilliant crystallographer, a dedicated scientist,  who made a significant contribution to the field of molecular biology and to the discovery of the Double Helix - structure of DNA

In 1951, she undertook the study of the structure of the DNA molecule as an expert in the field of X ray diffraction.Though DNA was known as the molecule responsible for heredity there were certain facts that eluded researchers regarding its shape. Subsequently, Rosalind Franklin and her Ph.D.student, Raymond Gosling, discovered that DNA exists in two forms (A and B) and that the phosphate units of the molecule were located on the outside. Rosalind also made some... more »

Rosalind Franklin, a brilliant scientist who deserved recognition

Those of you who have heard of Rosalind Franklin probably associate her name with the woman vaguely connected to the work done on DNA by Watson and Crick. She was in fact, a brilliant crystallographer, a dedicated scientist,  who made a significant contribution to the field of molecular biology and to the discovery of the Double Helix - structure of DNA

In 1951, she undertook the study of the structure of the DNA molecule as an expert in the field of X ray diffraction.Though DNA was known as the molecule responsible for heredity there were certain facts that eluded researchers regarding its shape. Subsequently, Rosalind Franklin and her Ph.D.student, Raymond Gosling, discovered that DNA exists in two forms (A and B) and that the phosphate units of the molecule were located on the outside. Rosalind also made some significant calculations with respect to the amount of water found in the B form of DNA.

An important finding was “Photo 51” an X-ray diffraction image depicting the B form of DNA. The image was obtained after over 100 hours of X-ray exposure using a machine that Franklin individually calibrated and refined. Her contribution to the discovery of DNA though significant, was not acknowledged sufficiently by the scientists James Watson and Francis Crick who published probably the most famous academic article in the history of science which appeared in Nature  titled "Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid". The work secured them (along with Maurice Wilkins), the 1962 Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine.
A few years before , in 1958, Rosalind had died in obscurity at the age of 37, of ovarian cancer.

Would Dr. Rosalind Franklin be remembered differently if she was not a woman in a male dominated profession at the time? I admire her because she is known to have maintained her integrity at all times and continued to produce quality science even after her work on the structure of DNA, leading  pioneering work on the tobacco mosaic virus and the polio virus.

Despite her anonymity in scientific circles where in the 1950’s her peers did not recognize her as being equal she remained a true scientist seeking neither fame nor recognition.

This article is  my tribute to a brilliant scientist, Rosalind Franklin,  on International Women’s day. 
I share an earlier post I wrote about Rosalind Franklin – The Dark Lady of DNA
https://plus.google.com/108612046527316778941/posts/7pbR4fZHxF9

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosalind_Franklin

#stemwomen___

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2014-03-01 12:55:00 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 6 +1s)Open 

100 leading UK practising scientists

“Science is like an orchestra. It takes many instruments working together to produce a fine performance. At the moment, almost exclusively, it is the virtuosity of the soloists being addressed and praised. Of course, they are essential to science and should be valued accordingly. However, we must, at the same time, recognise and encourage the many other types of contributory scientific talent and experience.” Chief executive of the Science Council, Diana Garnham

+STEM Women on G+ 

100 leading UK practising scientists

“Science is like an orchestra. It takes many instruments working together to produce a fine performance. At the moment, almost exclusively, it is the virtuosity of the soloists being addressed and praised. Of course, they are essential to science and should be valued accordingly. However, we must, at the same time, recognise and encourage the many other types of contributory scientific talent and experience.” Chief executive of the Science Council, Diana Garnham

+STEM Women on G+ ___

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2014-02-23 18:23:24 (8 comments, 2 reshares, 25 +1s)Open 

A visit to the Peradeniya Botanical Gardens and Kandy City, Sri Lanka

These are photos from a recent visit to the Peradeniya Botanical Gardens near Kandy, Sri Lanka.

The Botanical Gardens includes more than 4000 species of plants and is renowned for its variety of orchids.  The Botanical Gardens at Peradeniya has a long history dating back to the time of the monarchs, but was formally established in 1843 with plants brought from other parts of Sri Lanka and also from the Kew Gardens. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Botanical_Gardens,_Peradeniya

The city of Kandy is about 5 km away from the Gardens. It was the last capital of the country until Ceylon became a British Colony in 1815.

The Kandy Lake is said to have been built in 1807 by King Sri Vikrama Rajasinha, the last King of Ceylon,  A decorative wall runs for 2060 feet along the banks of the KandyL... more »

A visit to the Peradeniya Botanical Gardens and Kandy City, Sri Lanka

These are photos from a recent visit to the Peradeniya Botanical Gardens near Kandy, Sri Lanka.

The Botanical Gardens includes more than 4000 species of plants and is renowned for its variety of orchids.  The Botanical Gardens at Peradeniya has a long history dating back to the time of the monarchs, but was formally established in 1843 with plants brought from other parts of Sri Lanka and also from the Kew Gardens. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Botanical_Gardens,_Peradeniya

The city of Kandy is about 5 km away from the Gardens. It was the last capital of the country until Ceylon became a British Colony in 1815.

The Kandy Lake is said to have been built in 1807 by King Sri Vikrama Rajasinha, the last King of Ceylon,  A decorative wall runs for 2060 feet along the banks of the Kandy Lake. In the middle of the lake is an island housing the Royal Summer House. The  Dalada Maligawa, (Temple of the Tooth Relic) is located beside the lake across the road. The sacred Temple of the Tooth is a place of worship for Buddhists. It was declared a world heritage site by UNESCO in 1988.___

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2014-02-22 02:43:21 (1 comments, 1 reshares, 13 +1s)Open 

A call for conference boycott by women scientists

Almost a thousand scientists have signed a petition protesting against gender discrimination at a flagship chemistry conference, calling for a boycott of the event. The conference in question is the 15th International Congress of Quantum Chemistry (ICQC) to be held in Beijing in June next year.

One of the three scientists who organized the protest says that the  problem is not confined to theoretical chemistry, and that under representation is rampant in all the fields she works in. She had the same experience at a condensed matter physics symposium last autumn.
"It happens over and over again. I know it happens in many fields, because I work at the interface between physics, chemistry, math and engineering, and speak at conferences in each of those fields" she said.

A call for conference boycott by women scientists

Almost a thousand scientists have signed a petition protesting against gender discrimination at a flagship chemistry conference, calling for a boycott of the event. The conference in question is the 15th International Congress of Quantum Chemistry (ICQC) to be held in Beijing in June next year.

One of the three scientists who organized the protest says that the  problem is not confined to theoretical chemistry, and that under representation is rampant in all the fields she works in. She had the same experience at a condensed matter physics symposium last autumn.
"It happens over and over again. I know it happens in many fields, because I work at the interface between physics, chemistry, math and engineering, and speak at conferences in each of those fields" she said.___

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2014-02-03 13:46:40 (4 comments, 1 reshares, 20 +1s)Open 

Happy and smiling - Sunbathing Doggy!

Happy and smiling - Sunbathing Doggy!___

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2014-01-22 06:27:01 (5 comments, 0 reshares, 16 +1s)Open 

"Salutation to the Dawn"

This glorious sunrise I saw this morning while walking along the Racecourse grounds was awesome. A wonderful start to a new day, a new beginning.

Here I share the beautiful verses of Indian poet  Kalidasa, titled 'Salutation to the Dawn' which are truly inspiring.

"Look to this day!
For it is life
The very life of life
In its brief course
Lie all the verities and realities
of your existence.

The bliss of growth
The glory of action
The splendour of beauty
For yesterday is but a dream
And tomorrow is only a vision,
But today well lived,
Makes every yesterday a dream of happiness
And every tomorrow a vision of hope.

Look well,therefore,to this day
Such is the Salutation to the Dawn"
Kalidasa

"Salutation to the Dawn"

This glorious sunrise I saw this morning while walking along the Racecourse grounds was awesome. A wonderful start to a new day, a new beginning.

Here I share the beautiful verses of Indian poet  Kalidasa, titled 'Salutation to the Dawn' which are truly inspiring.

"Look to this day!
For it is life
The very life of life
In its brief course
Lie all the verities and realities
of your existence.

The bliss of growth
The glory of action
The splendour of beauty
For yesterday is but a dream
And tomorrow is only a vision,
But today well lived,
Makes every yesterday a dream of happiness
And every tomorrow a vision of hope.

Look well,therefore,to this day
Such is the Salutation to the Dawn"
Kalidasa___

2014-01-10 02:36:29 (9 comments, 1 reshares, 8 +1s)Open 

The 'Mpemba effect' - why hot water freezes faster than cold water

Interesting science and an inspiring read, shared by +David Ratnasabapathy 

Hot water (sometimes!) freezes faster than cold
Yes, it's completely counterintuitive. It's also true. Science Says So. It's called the Mpemba effect in honor of the Tanzanian teenager who brought it to Science's attention.
http://www.rsc.org/images/Cool-Mpemba-Osborne1969_tcm18-222099.pdf

One day after buying milk... I started boiling it... Knowing that if I waited for the boiled milk to cool before placing it in the refrigerator I would lose the last available ice-tray, I decided to risk ruin to the refrigerator on that day by putting hot milk into it. The other boy and I went back an hour and a half later and found that my tray of milk had frozen into ice-cream while his was still only a thick liquid, not yet frozen.

So how does it happen? Monwhea Jeng writes a detailed and fascinating explanation.
http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/physics/General/hot_water.html

Given two identical containers filled with the same volume of water and set out to freeze after heating one container --

1. The hot water will have lost mass due to evaporation, hence has less heat to lose than originally.

2. Heating the water expels dissolved gases. This changes its composition; it may end up with a higher freezing point.

3. The hotter water rises to the top, dispersing its heat faster. Provided this stratification persists, the initially hotter container may be able to overtake its cold twin.

4. The hot container may change its surroundings to facilitate greater heat loss. For example, placed on snowy ground, the hot container will melt its way down to freezing rock and dump its heat via conduction; the cold container, nestling on insulating snow, will have to make do with feeble convection and even feebler radiation.

Jeng covers the history of the effect too. Aristotle knew of it. Rene Descartes and Francis Bacon described it. Folklore and ice cream manufacturers knew of it in modern times.

Mpemba's paper is an inspiring read because it describes beautifully the open-minded process of modern science. Mpemba's ice cream experience proved nothing of course; he verified his observation with a careful lab experiment. And the first scientist who saw his data promptly collaborated with him in publishing it.
___The 'Mpemba effect' - why hot water freezes faster than cold water

Interesting science and an inspiring read, shared by +David Ratnasabapathy 

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2014-01-02 02:06:10 (6 comments, 2 reshares, 21 +1s)Open 

Testing the effects of cocaine - a fatal experiment!

Cocaine  is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant.The name comes from "coca" and the alkaloid suffix "-ine.

It is a stimulant, an appetite suppressant, and a nonspecific voltage gated sodium channel blocker, which in turn causes it to produce anaesthetic effects at low doses.

It is markedly more dangerous than other CNS stimulants, including the entire amphetamine drug class, and  at high doses due to its effect on sodium channels,  can cause sudden cardiac death".
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cocaine

Although cocaine was used as a local anesthetic, as far back as 1936  doctors noticed that it had dangerous side effects.

Exactly what the side effects were, and what they were at different levels of dosage, was still a fuzzyare... more »

Testing the effects of cocaine - a fatal experiment!

Cocaine  is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant.The name comes from "coca" and the alkaloid suffix "-ine.

It is a stimulant, an appetite suppressant, and a nonspecific voltage gated sodium channel blocker, which in turn causes it to produce anaesthetic effects at low doses.

It is markedly more dangerous than other CNS stimulants, including the entire amphetamine drug class, and  at high doses due to its effect on sodium channels,  can cause sudden cardiac death".
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cocaine

Although cocaine was used as a local anesthetic, as far back as 1936  doctors noticed that it had dangerous side effects.

Exactly what the side effects were, and what they were at different levels of dosage, was still a fuzzy area.  Dr.Edwin Katskee decided to change that. He gave himself a large injection of cocaine, intending to document the symptoms of the drug. The injection turned out to be a fatal overdose. During the course of that overdose, Katskee wrote his symptoms and thoughts on the walls of his office. He was found dead, surrounded by his notes, the next morning.

Esther Inglis-Arkell explains in this interesting article on io9 .
http://goo.gl/Cjwm7w___

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2013-12-21 04:03:41 (21 comments, 3 reshares, 24 +1s)Open 

Fermented drinks from around the world

Many fermented drinks from around the world are made from ingredients other than grapes .

Toddy or ‘palm wine’ is a popular fermented drink in Sri Lanka, made from the sap of the coconut palm inflorescence (flower).
Toddy is also made from the Palmyrah palm (Borassus flabellifer ) and Kitul palm (Caryota urens). The sugary sap of the palm inflorescence is tapped and allowed to ferment naturally. If left for too long the alcohol turns to vinegar (ethanol oxidises to acetic acid.)

Here are some traditional fermented drinks from around the world:
In the beverages listed, the alcohol percentage varies depending on the source and fermentation process.  Dark Tea does not contain any alcohol but others such as Basi and Chinese rice wine go up to 16% !
Source: http://goo.gl/MTfZIv

Dark tea originallyfrom... more »

Fermented drinks from around the world

Many fermented drinks from around the world are made from ingredients other than grapes .

Toddy or ‘palm wine’ is a popular fermented drink in Sri Lanka, made from the sap of the coconut palm inflorescence (flower).
Toddy is also made from the Palmyrah palm (Borassus flabellifer ) and Kitul palm (Caryota urens). The sugary sap of the palm inflorescence is tapped and allowed to ferment naturally. If left for too long the alcohol turns to vinegar (ethanol oxidises to acetic acid.)

Here are some traditional fermented drinks from around the world:
In the beverages listed, the alcohol percentage varies depending on the source and fermentation process.  Dark Tea does not contain any alcohol but others such as Basi and Chinese rice wine go up to 16% !
Source: http://goo.gl/MTfZIv

Dark tea originally from China is a fermented tea e.g. Pu-erh)

Basi originally from the Philippines is fermented sugarcane

Kvass from Russia and Lithuania originally, is made from fermenting rye

Kefir , originally from North Caucasus (Russia) is made from fermented milk

Makkoli is originally from Korea and is made from fermenting rice wine

Shaoxing wine is a Chinese rice wine

Merry Christmas, everyone!

Image: Typical way of serving toddy, from clay pot into glasses
Image source:
http://www.flickr.com/photos/jackol/2627101667/sizes/l/in/photostream/
(via http://winefolly.com/update/7-fermented-drinks-from-around-the-world/)___

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