Login now

Not your profile? Login and get free access to your reports and analysis.

Tags

Sign in

The following tags have been added by users of CircleCount.com.
You can login on CircleCount to add more tags here.

  • Science
  • Scientists

Are you missing a tag in the list of available tags? You can suggest new tags here.

Login now

Do you want to see a more detailed chart? Check your settings and define your favorite chart type.

Or click here to get the detailed chart only once.

John Baez has been shared in 314 public circles

You can see here the 50 latest shared circles.
If this is your profile, you can check your dashboard to see all shared circles you have been included.

AuthorFollowersDateUsers in CircleCommentsReshares+1Links
Lynda Chervil866Add this circle of excellent engagers, thinkers, innovators, and future tech leaders. My ++Solar Power++ Circle will provide you with the latest and greatest from the world of tech innovations, especially in the renewable energy sector. Simply add this circle and then share it!If you'd like to be added to this circle, please comment below, share and add the circle. Only those who qualify with content and expertise will be added. Thanks! #Tesla   #nikolatesla   #elonmusk   #solarenergy   #innovation   #technology   #solarpower   #hydroelectric   #science   #STEM   #research   #education   #futuretech   #futuretechnology  2014-07-31 14:24:32343000CC G+
Peter Edenist31,0152014 Super Sci-FI Circle : No, the Sky is not Falling!!! Also the Gravity is not sucking you in... please +1 this post to support it or you may have to take a trip in Snowpiercer, no need to thank me. Please reshare if you think this is a worthwhile circle. If you have been notified, you are in the circle!All the people in this circle are linked to our community (see link further down). As usual, please tag and recommend anyone who you think should be in this circle. Live long and prosper!Sci-FI Community here: http://goo.gl/s1NVd  Science Fiction Pics: http://goo.gl/sOSPK5Mighty Shiny Browncoats : http://goo.gl/9osg1tDoctor Who : http://goo.gl/z3uWX3Ultimate Star Wars : http://goo.gl/Wu8bv6Ultimate Star Trek : http://goo.gl/JJPql9Science on G+ community here: http://goo.gl/46uFH #sciencefiction #sf #scifi  2014-07-24 12:58:0746211656138CC G+
Becky Collins13,434Mobile Operator Circle:Circle of very #social #engagerspeople and companiesTo be included in my shares (#sharedcircle), be so kind to:1 - Do +1 t the post2 - Comment the post and specify your "category" (job or interest) Ex: Fashion, SEO, Companies, Social Media Marketing, Sailing, Photography, Bloggers/Writers, Web graphics and design, Italy, Artists, Sport, Finance/Economy ...3 - include the circle among your circles4 - share the circle (include yourself)Improve your popularity, be social be cool !Keep yourself updated, enjoy the Shared Circles Hellenic Alliance, you can share your shared circles inside the upcoming Community:https://plus.google.com/communities/112552559573595396104  #socialmedia  #media  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing  #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins ?2014-07-24 05:16:12476209CC G+
Able Lawrence100,166100K Engagers Celebration Circle Thank you all those who have followed me and engaged with my posts and taking me to the milestone of 100,000 followers. Goolge+ has been an exhilarating journey of 3 years and I would like to thank all those who have followed me and engaged on my posts whether they were on Science or Birds or Technology. The circle has been created using  * +Circloscope * which is the work of +Ehsan Ahmadi Gharacheh All of you are free to share your favorite posts in the comments and also reshare this circle. If you are included in the circle, you will get a notification.  2014-07-17 17:22:18340481786CC G+
Doug Hyatt5,196THIS IS MEGA CIRCLE 5    #DOUGHYATTCIRCLESHARING IT ADDED 1,000+ FOLLOWERS FOR ME IN A WEEK.1) ADD THE CIRCLE2) RESHARE THE CIRCLE AND BE SURE TO REMEMBER TO CHECK THE BOX WHICH INCLUDES YOURSELF.3)RESHARE TO PUBLIC EVERY DAY!BE SURE TO COPY THE HASHTAG LIST AND ADD IN YOUR COMMENTS LIKE I HAVE!  IT WILL GIVE YOU MAXIMUM RESULTS#doughyattcirclesharing#circles   #circlemania   #circletoday   #circleplus   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #CircleSharing   #sharecircle   #sharecirclethis   #worldsharecircle   #pleasecircleaddme   #circleoftheday   #newgenerationcircle  #monstercircle   #usacircle   #bestofthecircle   #shareofthecircle   #pleasecircle   #newbestcircl  add circle add circle * best share circle * share please pleaseplease add circle * best share circle * share please please#add #circle   #addcircle   #pleasecircle   #bestcircle   #mostcircle  #bestsharecircle   #newcircle   #top100circle   #best500circle   #top500circle   2014-07-16 15:49:10477151319CC G+
Richard Green74,896Engagers Showcase Circle, July 12, 2014If I sent you a notification, it means that you are included in my Engagers Showcase Circle. “Showcase” means that you are invited to leave a comment (on the original post) with a link to one of your own posts, which ideally should be one of your best recent posts.This circle consists of people who have engaged with one of my recent posts in the form of +1s, comments and reshares.Everyone mentioned below is also included in the circle.Thistlehttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/CKB7ks1VWZ3“Star Gate” by +Gary Matthews https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/ean83YFix7sBubble (reshared from +Ann-Marie Jurek)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/PkybKJfXv14Gabriel's Hornhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/MXNTuq8ZEBPHibiscus flowerhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/Xsmw62v98CHStackable 12-sided dicehttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/5mLoukdZAA5Astronomical book priceshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/S15LTNxJA9GPyritohedral symmetryhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/XQUYMrKGiAQSt Stephen's Basilica (reshared from +Laura Orange)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/ApnSMBsUWFeCircular Pascal Arrays and Fibonacci numbershttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/NVqYKoRVnHg“Fungi tree” by +Tom Beddardhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/J6S4bDc6QwQAs always, reshares of this circle are appreciated, and I look forward to seeing everyone's links. Thanks for reading my posts!2014-07-12 05:31:36476208133223CC G+
Refurio Anachro4,312June engagers circle: Say hello to almost 200 nice people who joined in to participate in math topics. If you're intelligent, curious, like well written posts and engaged discussion - these people will not dissappoint. Go on and add them now!Last month's posts:Spin story continues (part 3): Angular velocity and tilings in spin space. While i locked myself in a cycle, struggling to follow, +wendy krieger blew the bubble and lifted the party up to dimension 4! I couldn't resist but to guest post this gem. Next time i'll find a picture first, promised!:https://plus.google.com/115434895453136495635/posts/6F9sxQxiqEaClifford Algebra (part 1): Into Clifford algebra. Because with those one can easily describe spin in any dimension.https://plus.google.com/115434895453136495635/posts/1CtiDXou6RqUnicode math cheat sheet: ⁵√7+x² – ℵ₀ – ℝⁿ – x̅ ≟ x*⊕x⁎ – αβ ≺ ∇ϕhttps://plus.google.com/115434895453136495635/posts/GNoCEmBxSWSClifford Algebra (part 2): Multiplication in geometric algebra.https://plus.google.com/115434895453136495635/posts/NKqs5BwsCqqCardioid gears, a reshare of +Rob Kook's very unexpected video find:https://plus.google.com/115434895453136495635/posts/UMBXJihPgcaCan we get anything faster than light that way? While arguing below +John Baez' cool post i suddenly started hearing vikings...https://plus.google.com/115434895453136495635/posts/jjYu4KhHaCTClifford Algebra (part 3): Cayley graphs and a strange clock. My first attempt to quickly put my thoughts down for you to see. I guess i'll have to practice a bit to make it more appealing on shorter glance, so more people can benefit.https://plus.google.com/115434895453136495635/posts/bkHQAZLzpt8Last may's engagers circle:https://plus.google.com/115434895453136495635/posts/hGPebLWRcU2You're in this circle because you reshared, plussed or commented on one of my posts (possibly via +Spherical Reflections), or got into a discussion with me. Thank you!#engagers #engagerscircle #engagersshowcasecircle  #circleshare #circlesharing #circl2014-07-02 13:23:15194659CC G+
Peter Edenist30,747TESLA Super Science Circle 2014 - June Edition!!!! : A quality circle curated carefully and tended since 2011. Who is in this circle?  people who are either involved in science, love science or are active on the Science on G+ community. Community link is here http://goo.gl/46uFH and the Page is +Science on G+!Have you wondered where one can meet with like-minded people who love science and like to read about the real stuff? This is the ultimate SUL on science.... add and share to keep it alive.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Want to nominate someone? Please do so in comments. If you want to recommend something let us know. People who are notified are part of the circle.#science #tesla #scienceongplus #scienceeveryday 2014-06-19 13:39:49342755792CC G+
David Wees4,496This is a circle of 346 math educators. If you are interested in following the work of innovative mathematics educators, this circle is for you.If you are a mathematics educator, and I have not included you in this circle, let me know.2014-06-11 16:24:03346010CC G+
Dina Tika0Here is a group of Active Engagers, Circle Sharers, Awesome Plus Oners, and Cool People on Google Plus!   Circle Sharing is an awesome way to increase your followers and active engagers on your profile. Some of my favorite people that I've met here on Google + through Circle Sharing.    Want to be in the next Circle of Awesomeness? Follow the Steps Below!  ☛ Add the circle ☛ Share in the Public ☛ Plus 1 the Post. ☛ Comment. 2014-06-10 05:53:52479001CC G+
Refurio Anachro4,141May engagers circle: Meet the people who made the fabulous cheer of this week's spin party. Many curious people, all of them worth to add!Diagram 18: rotations and spinorshttps://plus.google.com/b/115434895453136495635/115434895453136495635/posts/dpPMfoH6zc5This is actually part two, but got posted earlier (see below). You just made my first +100, thank you! Stay tuned for more on spinning and spinors.https://plus.google.com/b/115434895453136495635/115434895453136495635/posts/TLkA6tCNwEeIf you want to know what an earlier stage of Diagram 18 looked like, see here. I posted 2/3rd of the final post with a question marking my progess. Also note the discussion below, thanks to everybody who helped me out!https://plus.google.com/b/115434895453136495635/115434895453136495635/posts/THePbpcPnqDYou're in this circle because you reshared, plussed or commented on one of my posts (possibly via +Spherical Reflections), or got into a discussion with me. Thank you!Last april's engagers circlehttps://plus.google.com/b/115434895453136495635/115434895453136495635/posts/RFMY2aYscJJ#engagers #engagerscircle #engagersshowcasecircle  #circleshare #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday  #addcircle #findcircles #publicsharedcircles  #addpeople #plussers #awesomepeople #sciencecircle  #commenterscircle #mathematicians #friends 2014-06-02 11:57:02158447CC G+
John Nuntiatio37,49330k+ Circle - A circle worth adding and followingThe people from this circle have more than 30,000 followers.2014-06-02 08:54:46140496CC G+
Becky Collins10,282Mobile Circle :Circle of very #social #engagerspeople and companiesTo be included in my shares (#sharedcircle), be so kind to:1 - Do +1 t the post2 - Comment the post and specify your "category" (job or interest) Ex: Fashion, SEO, Companies, Social Media Marketing, Sailing, Photography, Bloggers/Writers, Web graphics and design, Italy, Artists, Sport, Finance/Economy ...3 - include the circle among your circles4 - share the circle (include yourself)Improve your popularity, be social be cool !Keep yourself updated, enjoy the Shared Circles Hellenic Alliance, you can share your shared circles inside the upcoming Community:https://plus.google.com/communities/112552559573595396104  #socialmedia   #media   #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins ?2014-05-28 05:03:174777219CC G+
Jasmina Brozović53,426Notification CircleThis is a circle of people I don't wanna miss any new posts from!Great Circle idea by +Zvonimir FrasRead more :https://plus.google.com/u/0/+ZvonimirFras/posts/VsZjS7H7vJf#circles #circlethis #circleyoushare #sharedcircles #addcircle #sharedpubliccircles #circleshare #publicsharedcircles #circleoftheweek #circlesharing #publiccircle #sharedcircle #circleshare   #circle     #motivateme 2014-05-20 16:26:14179271133CC G+
Daniel Zawadzki7,897This #circle is #great, #amazing, #wonderful,Boost your visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!#1 - Click add people and create your circle#2 - share the circle (include yourself)#3 - add +1 to the post#circle   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circleoftheday   #circleoftheweek   #share   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday   #engagers   #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople   2014-05-19 20:33:554709546123CC G+
Refurio Anachro4,070April engagers circle, a ball of intelligent, nice, and responsive people. Have a look!You're in this circle because you reshared, plussed or commented on one of my posts (possibly via +Spherical Reflections), or got into a discussion with me. Thank you!The following has been classic april fool's, of course. Works best on kids %-]https://plus.google.com/115434895453136495635/posts/SA2aNCZPrQkNot being a big fan of synchronous communication, i will try and challenge you in case you do want to hang out. That's a rather new ploy of my character, and it seems i still have to learn a lot on how to do this nicely...https://plus.google.com/115434895453136495635/posts/fM8DtSPKL2MI have been seen spreading rumours with +David Roberts, speculating that this year's Fields medal might go to Manjul Bhargava. Here for the fullest explanation, thanks again David:https://plus.google.com/115434895453136495635/posts/KUbagU2C7C7A raytraced landscape featuring two spherical mirrors. It's about dynamical billiards (chaos theory).https://plus.google.com/115434895453136495635/posts/BCduuGFS75LWhen i saw +Richard Green's post about Coxeter-Conway friezes i couldn't resist to divert my readers to have fun counting paths with +DrJamesTanton. Fibonacci inside:https://plus.google.com/115434895453136495635/posts/gKBcK1HNdMvEverybody should have played at least once with an interactive IFS demo! If you haven't, or want to try again - here's a nice one by +Felix Woitzel:https://plus.google.com/115434895453136495635/posts/N9HeysDgTzi #engagers   #engagerscircle   #engagersshowcasecircle   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circle   #circleoftheday   #addcircle   2014-05-16 11:46:1281867CC G+
Richard Green68,138Engagers Showcase Circle, May 12, 2014If you received a notification, it means that you are included in my Engagers Showcase Circle. “Showcase” means that you are invited to leave a comment (on the original post) with a link to one of your own posts, which ideally should be one of your best recent posts.This circle consists of people who have engaged with one of my recent posts in the form of +1s, comments and reshares.Everyone mentioned below is also included in the circle.Peruvian glacier (reshared from +Irina Tcherednichenko)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/Z6NR7zaZa5qGrape hyacinthshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/GZoHH2bnRUiSymmetries of a regular octagonhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/bFcGcsurF5HHappy Easter!https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/YkWFA9WmxVAPerfect Squared Squareshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/HDU4mWD3wptOur dog Rexhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/5JtEcnt5MpPPerrott's Follyhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/8DzXHLn6fe4The Lonely Runner Conjecturehttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/YHJkEdKg3jz“Owl” by Andrea Mininihttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/12uh9J9MjMXPenrose nanotileshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/7PZPSLaFkAx“Interlaced Stars” by Magnenauthttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/5vNjv1yjVMqBlack Forest View (reshared from +Ralph Reichert)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/YKPsvCFDyUv“Hippie Bus Apartments” by +Richie Montgomeryhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/iCMXCBVzjd2Not crazy enoughhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/d5EeDSoHe5u“Impossible Sphere” by Alexey Ermushevhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/J2yUMw6YASqBeethoven, high on 2014-05-12 05:07:06489214131229CC G+
Cindy Wilson02014-05-10 14:34:25371700CC G+
Pamela Baskett02014-05-10 13:35:433711504CC G+
DRESS3,901If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 2 - Share this post3 - Add +1 to the post 4 - Leave a comment if you have done the 3 steps above#circle   #circleshare  #circle #circleshare #circle #circleshare #circle #circleshare #circle #circleshare #circle #circleshare #circle #circleshare #circle #circleshare #circle #circleshare #circle #circleshare #circle #circleshare #circle #circleshare #circle #circleshare #circle #circleshare #circle #circleshare #circle #circleshare #circle #circleshare #circle #circleshare #circle #circleshare 2014-05-05 12:20:413723411CC G+
Graeme McRae24,994Graeme's Circle of Active GooglePlussers! . . . This is a curated circle of active people on Google+* If you add this circle, you will see hundreds of new posts per day in your stream from this circle alone. It's a circle of people I started following a few months ago, and who have consistently posted something at least once a week during all of weeks since then. If you want an interesting stream, you should add this circle. If you're interested in how I curated this circle, and why I think it makes for a really great stream, read on. . .How did these people get in the circle?. . . They must have posted something interesting, at least once, because I don't follow people unless they post something interesting. By now, you're probably not surprised by the number of people on G+ whose pages are full of repeated posts, videos without comments, "what's up" and other uninteresting things. I don't follow those people.How did they stay in the circle since they were added?. . . After I add someone, I keep them in the circle of people I added around the same time. Then, several times a week, I go through all my circles and delete people who haven't posted (something visible to me) in the last 7 days. So the people who are left in the circle are consistent posters. That says something important about them, because consistency is a proxy for quality.Wait. What? Why is consistency is a proxy for quality?. . . I'll admit it: I don't have the science to back up that wild statement, but I'll tell you why I believe it to be true. People who post crap don't get a lot of followers, and the few followers they have don't bother to engage. After a while, the crappy-posting people start to think G+ is a ghost town, and they lose interest. On the other hand, the people who share (or re-share) interesting things get followers and engagement, slowly at first, but ever increasing, and this outpouring of love is what keeps them going. That's what I think anyway, and I'm sticking to it.People who share interesting things get lots of followers. . . This is another half-baked theory of mine, but hear me out. You might think this makes sense: Google+ offers suggestions of people to follow, especially to new users. Google+'s only source of names to suggest are other G+ers like yourself. The G+ers who have the most engagement are the ones Google+ knows will be good to follow, so these people get put out as suggestions more often, and some percentage of those suggestions are taken up. So the more engagement you have, the more Google+ will suggest you as a person to follow, and so the more followers you'll get. Completing the theory: the more interesting the stuff you share (or reshare), the more engagement you'll get, and hence the more followers you'll get.How can I get in your circle?. . . Don't bother trying to "get into" this circle. This circle isn't for you to get into. Think of it the other way around. This circle is for you to add, so you can follow a bunch of interesting and consistent people. The stream from this one circle will be chock-full of fascinating content for you to reshare. People will start to notice your reshares, and they will engage with you, and then Google+ will "notice" (it's a computer, but let's anthropomorphise, shall we?) you and suggest you to others, who will then follow you.No, really. How can I get in your circle?. . . First, unfollow me, then wait, oh, about a week. Spend that week posting a shitload of interesting things. Then follow me. Since you're so interesting, Google+ will notify me that you followed me (G+ doesn't notify me about every follower). I'll look at your posts, find one interestin2014-05-04 21:03:52371111319CC G+
nicholas syahputra821. Plus The Post2. Comment3. Add People To Circles4. Share The Circle!#circlesharing #circleshare #circles #circle #googleplustips #googleplus #indonesia #artists #artist #artistphotographeramateurorprofessional2014-04-30 07:03:1548531540CC G+
Ryan Johnson3,346My new some cool, fun & interesting people CirclePlease reshare it#circles           #circlescirclescircles           #circleshare         #circleshare2014-04-25 06:14:362357820CC G+
Becky Collins8,289Engagers Showcase Circle :Circle of very #social #engagerspeople and companiesTo be included in my shares (#sharedcircle), be so kind to:1 - Do +1 t the post2 - Comment the post and specify your "category" (job or interest) Ex: Fashion, SEO, Companies, Social Media Marketing, Sailing, Photography, Bloggers/Writers, Web graphics and design, Italy, Artists, Sport, Finance/Economy ...3 - include the circle among your circles4 - share the circle (include yourself)Improve your popularity, be social be cool !Keep yourself updated, enjoy the Shared Circles Hellenic Alliance, you can share your shared circles inside the upcoming Community:https://plus.google.com/communities/112552559573595396104  #socialmedia  #media  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing  #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins ?2014-04-23 05:59:02400201525CC G+
Circlemania !!!2,173in this circle you can find people keen to publish, share, track and unr to good communities. see and discover new friends and circles that may interest you. Do not forget to follow me as: +Andres Aguilar  #circle   #circleshare   #circlemaina   #circlemeup  2014-04-19 15:48:55498262034CC G+
Richard Green64,997Engagers Showcase Circle, April 17, 2014If you received a notification, it means that you are included in my Engagers Showcase Circle. “Showcase” means that you are invited to leave a comment (on the original post) with a link to one of your own posts, which ideally should be one of your best recent posts.This circle consists of people who have engaged with one of my recent posts in the form of +1s, comments and reshares. Two of the posts below attracted too much engagement to be usable for the circle, but I am including links to them for completeness.Everyone mentioned below is also included in the circle.Adding cubeshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/WqimoVTZWL3Flower and snail shell (reshared from +Ralph Reichert)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/5st1n4VBMh5April Fools' Dayhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/Mxa1TNjYo4r“Trinity” by Jen Starkhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/gfRheBovSZUHyperbolic honeycombs (reshared from +Roice Nelson)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/59yPx8yoFbuCoxeter—Conway friezeshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/4XvYb9biaLpTriple helix staircase (reshared from +Romain Brasselet)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/SRJ7CqGNrtLWhich airport is closest to you?https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/FxxdDb6orPy“Spinning Cosmos” by Paul Friedlanderhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/RjnVfRhBPmZStrč prst skrz krkhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/h87PZWs2MSbMersenne primes and perfect numbershttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/cLWBTddiSyy“Urge to fly” by Hermin Abramovitchhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/j2K97AvLvAoKeeper of Time (reshared from +Michael Quinn)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/QnaHrgKjsUUSeven mutual2014-04-17 04:49:32487185133231CC G+
Ryan Johnson2,352sharedcircle   #publiccircleshare     #circleshare     #circleoftheday  #circleshares     #circlesharing     #circlesshare    #publicsharedcircle   #publicsharedcircles   #sharedcircleoftheday   #sharedcircleoftheweek     #sharedcircles     #sharedpubliccircle   #todayspublicsharedcircle  #todayssharedcircle     #publiccircle   #circle     #circles    #awesome   #awesomeness   #awesomepeople   #shareyourcircle     #bestengagers   #followers   #followback     #awesomecircles  #topsharedcircle   #topsharedcircle     #myseoissocial     #besocial     #socializethesocial     #trust   #circles   #sharedcircle     #followers      #social     #socialnetworking     2014-04-16 05:12:352629212CC G+
Adam Black6,732Transhumans CircleBy popular Demand,  I am sharing some of my Circles. This is +Mark Bruce  Transhumans Circle  Plus Others Ive been adding.If you are tagged,  you are in it.Web Link for Mobile https://plus.google.com/u/0/+AdamBlack/posts/6iQmLpEj1Zm #sharedcircles   #GeekCulture   #ScienceSunday #Transhumans #Transhumanism #HumanPlus  2014-04-13 06:25:0424522733CC G+
John Nuntiatio33,101#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport #health #tennis #europe   #asia   #america   #africa   #australia   #football   #golf   #basketball   #news  2014-04-09 06:25:5632961312CC G+
Refurio Anachro3,603You're in this march engagers circle because you reshared, plussed or commented on one of my posts (possibly via +Spherical Reflections), or got into a discussion with me. It's been fun being with you and i'm looking forward to more of it soon! Thank you!Mar 4, 2014 - links a couple of my favorite videos featuring John Conway on the occasion of +Numberphile posting a new one:https://plus.google.com/115434895453136495635/posts/AHpMJ79biC3Mar 12, 2014 - reshared an excellent post by +Gerald Stuhrberg about Richard Couranthttps://plus.google.com/115434895453136495635/posts/CzMomxKK2HzMar 18, 2014 - Diagram 17: Bratteli diagram about C★ algebrashttps://plus.google.com/115434895453136495635/posts/6EiftoFjkxmMar 19, 2014 - reshared a four dimensional platonic covered with gears by Greg Egan, thanks +John Baezhttps://plus.google.com/115434895453136495635/posts/NeaNS4XDBXNMar 22, 2014 - linked a blog post by keegan, an animated quiascrystal with a simple recipe to get one. Don't miss the link to Roger Penroses latest public lecture video in the commentshttps://plus.google.com/115434895453136495635/posts/8RUh6oQzMdpMar 31 - a link to +Vladimir Voevodsky's latest public lecture, and to an implementation of the addictive 2048 game in Coq!https://plus.google.com/115434895453136495635/posts/9bnhXDeH1UXIf you're looking for even more, please have a look at my trusty +Spherical Reflections's page. I reshare interesting circles there, and occasionally post mandelbrot beach pictures. #engagers   #circle , #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #sharedcircles   #publiccircle   2014-04-03 11:25:3978164CC G+
John Nuntiatio32,205#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport #health2014-04-03 06:40:30128164CC G+
Jean-Marc Luna36,938My buddies (432/1)of the G+ villageI am happy to share (finally) my first big circles (432/1 and 432/2) with you. It is also a way to thank you and to inform you of my consideration.You will find in these two circles all the people I follow regularly since my first steps on Google+ and which accompany me for soon two years in this beautiful adventure, bringing every day, by their sympathy, their humor, their knowledge, their generosity and their open-mindedness, a bit extra to my everyday life.I do not know everybody, I have crossed the path with some, I communicate more with some and many people became friends, thing which I did not expect by landing here.When I began, I was lucky enough to discover new interesting people, thanks to the system of circles sharing, and I hope that these both will be for you of the same utility.If you add a “plus”, maybe it will have an impact on climate change,if you share this circle, maybe Putin is going to get married with an ukrainian women in 2014,if you include me in your circles, maybe it will solve the problem of hunger in the world,Maybe ... but in fact, nothing is sure ;)A good day to all :)With a special thought for #dirktalamasca   #sharedcircles   #circles   #circlesharing  2014-03-31 15:25:36432632958CC G+
Daniel Zawadzki6,461Very soccial Circle#specialcircle      #topengagers   #circleoftheday     #saturdaycircle #weekendcircleHi friends! This is very imoprtant circle, most of top g+ pplif you want to add this circle:1 - include all circle in your circles 3 - shared the circle (include yourself) 4 - add +1 to the post More you share more you are great.2014-03-22 09:41:38472571671CC G+
Enrico Altavilla5,522I'm sharing with you my Science circle. It's focused mainly on physics, astrophysics and math but it also contains subjects (both people and pages) who share news about other scientific fields. Enjoy! 2014-03-21 06:45:031031015CC G+
Richard Green61,119Engagers Showcase Circle, March 20, 2014If you received a notification, it means that you are included in my Engagers Showcase Circle. “Showcase” means that you are invited to leave a comment (on the original post) with a link to one of your own posts, which ideally should be one of your best recent posts.This circle consists of people who have engaged with one of my recent posts in the form of +1s, comments and reshares. I ran out of room, so my most recent posts will be included next time instead.Everyone mentioned below is also included in the circle.Michelangelo and the Jordan curve theoremhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/UN8TetdX48VThe Kelpieshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/M6aWXwu6zESAntoine's necklacehttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/4anPfBNTyjXThe Farey-Ford tessellationhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/GrZP3ajnRGUAlien Garden (reshared from +Kevin Clift)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/j55RpNfocNABetween a rock and a hard placehttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/WGNdNFneW1uAlan Turing: a universal Turing machine?https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/MUjAnVtL7hbVisual artist Aliza Razellhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/hbd3e6U1fhSBeet it (reshared from +Laura Ockel)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/U7RjV31mM7WChess played on a sphere... and other animalshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/LGXUE73Z3MoPass 'Em Onhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/iFCQcXfhNdDArizona sunset (reshared from +Debashish Samaddar)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/CR1yJ48g8CWThe inside of my fridge, through Glasshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/SQK6KoFL2rmBatmobile 1?https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/aV43AZenAd9Mary O'Malley ceramics (reshared from 2014-03-20 19:09:36469199161230CC G+
John Nuntiatio30,154#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-18 08:53:47471025CC G+
John Nuntiatio30,154#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-18 08:53:18471001CC G+
John Nuntiatio30,154#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-18 08:52:50471125CC G+
John Nuntiatio30,154#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-18 08:52:22471002CC G+
John Nuntiatio30,154#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-18 08:51:36471313CC G+
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 19:46:45475126CC G+
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 19:46:00475125CC G+
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 19:45:28475014CC G+
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 19:44:37475126CC G+
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 19:43:264755010CC G+
Prime Numbers0Science, Mathemathics, Tchnology, Engeneering CIRCLEThis circle has some really interesting people. It has scientist, engineers, researchers, mathematicians, computer scientists.If you wish to nominate yourself or someone to be included on my next circle, just follow these simple steps:1. Post about science and be active in science communities like STEM on Google+2. Make sure you have already added me into your circles3. Plus, Comment and Reshare this post publicly in your own stream. Please make sure you plus, reshare and comment on the Original Post or else I won't notice it...#Science #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #publiccircles #circlesharing #circle #circleshare #circles #circleoftheday2014-03-12 20:26:291364106CC G+
John Nuntiatio29,392#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #newcircle #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport #health  #entertainment #news2014-03-10 06:55:19356117CC G+
John Nuntiatio29,392#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #newcircle #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport #health  #entertainment #news2014-03-10 06:55:003561094CC G+
John Nuntiatio29,361#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #newcircle #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport #health  #entertainment #news2014-03-09 11:43:13251109CC G+
Richard Green59,075Engagers Showcase Circle, March 4, 2014If you received a notification, it means that you are included in my Engagers Showcase Circle. “Showcase” means that you are invited to leave a comment (on the original post) with a link to one of your own posts, which ideally should be one of your best recent posts.This circle consists of people who have engaged with one of my recent posts in the form of +1s, comments and reshares. I ran out of room, so my eight most recent posts will be included next time instead.Everyone mentioned below is also included in the circle.Robert Wadlowhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/442C6iBpXpTBlanchard Springs Park (reshared from +David D)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/ZJmBps8sgSNPascal's triangle and the number ehttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/3KfcsUy994bMy dog Luna, through Glasshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/axiVS2b4jDjMy portrait by +Bearman Cartoons https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/V34HkBjd5mDHow many ways can a tie be tied?https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/RQrjPGQ6nwmWine glass photography (reshared from +Tiffany Lykins)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/bATjvaZrcL4Valentine's Dayhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/1zHKQxAV4ynThe fractal music of Per Nørgårdhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/RLuTaqtxc9jCalvin Seibert's sandcastleshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/RuVoyCdhN4MHerkimer Diamonds (reshared from +BJ Bolender)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/9Z1KuS7sqd1Automorphic numbershttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/JUPgnCtRvhxIndra's pearlshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/eaaFWPKrNTrMolecular machinery2014-03-04 22:10:56498224160263CC G+

Activity

Average numbers for the latest posts (max. 50 posts, posted within the last 4 weeks)

32
comments per post
49
reshares per post
143
+1's per post

2,686
characters per posting

Top posts in the last 50 posts

Most comments: 136

posted image

2014-06-07 17:56:21 (136 comments, 45 reshares, 282 +1s)

The downward spiral

Three days ago my wife Lisa started seeing flashes like lightning in the peripheral vision of her right eye.  Then she started seeing black specks like gnats.  Years ago she nearly had a detached retina, which doctors bolted down with laser surgery.  So she has always been on the lookout for symptoms like this. 

We went to the emergency room around 8 pm, shortly after the black specks formed a 'curtain' in the middle of her field of vision.  Standing just yards from a mirror, she said: "I can't even see the color of my eyes."

In some ways we're all waiting for something like this to happen.

We're all going to die... or at least, most of us: some 'transhumanists' optimistically freeze their brains in hopes that future generations will revive them, but even if this hope comes true, most peoplecan&... more »

Most reshares: 230

posted image

2014-07-31 00:12:17 (43 comments, 230 reshares, 273 +1s)

The one you're not looking at turns clockwise

Look at either the red dot or the yellow dot.  The circles near that dot will turn counterclockwise.  The others turn clockwise!

Or: let your eyes bounce back and forth between the two.

Or: look away from both of them.

Puzzle  1: how does it work?

Puzzle 2: who first made this gif?  I can't find the original source.

#illusions  

Most plusones: 573

posted image

2014-07-06 02:29:38 (73 comments, 203 reshares, 573 +1s)

Warp cube

The N-Light Membrane is a cube of mirrors with fluorescent lights as edges.  3 mirrors are one-way, so you can see inside.   All you can see is reflections of the inside of the cube, extending to infinity!   

The other 3 mirrors are flexible, and the cube is connected to an air tank.  By inflating or deflating the air tank, you can make the cube convex or concave.  The reflections bend in weird ways. The effect is hypnotic.

This cube was created by an art collective called Numen/For Use, and it was displayed in St. Petersburg.   It's fun to watch videos of it shot from different angles:

http://www.numen.eu/installations/n-light/membrane/

What if you did a tetrahedron or octahedron?  There's no need to imagine; you can see them here:

http://www.numen.eu/installations/n-light/objects/
Numen/F... more »

Latest 50 posts

posted image

2014-07-31 00:12:17 (43 comments, 230 reshares, 273 +1s)

The one you're not looking at turns clockwise

Look at either the red dot or the yellow dot.  The circles near that dot will turn counterclockwise.  The others turn clockwise!

Or: let your eyes bounce back and forth between the two.

Or: look away from both of them.

Puzzle  1: how does it work?

Puzzle 2: who first made this gif?  I can't find the original source.

#illusions  

posted image

2014-07-30 01:44:38 (28 comments, 11 reshares, 99 +1s)

There's a monster in the kitchen!

Not really.  This is a baby aye-aye being weighed at the the Duke Lemur Centre in North Carolina.  

Aye-ayes live in Madagascar.  It's the the world's largest nocturnal primate.  It find grubs to eat by tapping on trees.  When an aye-aye finds a good spot, it chews a hole in the wood.  Then it sticks its narrow middle finger in the hole to pull the grubs out.

Since it was founded in 1966, the Duke Lemur Center has collected data on 3600 animals from more than 40 species of prosimians - the group of primates that includes lemurs, lorises, galagos, bushbabies, and tarsiers.  Now they've released the data to the world!  It's available online, for free:

http://lemur.duke.edu/duke-lemur-center-database/

Almost all these animals only live in Madagascar, and most of them are rare,threaten... more »

posted image

2014-07-29 02:47:39 (31 comments, 9 reshares, 50 +1s)

Mansion of Wind and Waves

Last night Lisa and I ate at Feng Bo Zhuang on Temple Street in Singapore.  We went there since it had good spicy food from Hunan and Dongbei, a crowd of happy customers, and nice wood decor... but it turned out to have a jiang-hu theme: that's what Chinese call the world of wandering martial artists and swordsmen. 

See that sword on the wall there?

The name of this restaurant means 'Mansion of Wind and Waves' - but 'wind and waves' means the turbulence and fighting that that goes on in the jiang-hu.  There's a poem by the entrance that says "in the jiang-hu you have no choice, you either fight back or die".  This tough world is romanticized in wuxia fiction and movies:

Typically, the heroes in wuxia fiction do not serve a lord, wield military power or belong to theari... more »

posted image

2014-07-28 01:57:54 (26 comments, 13 reshares, 93 +1s)

Cracked moon

Jupiter's moon Europa is about as big as ours... but its crust is made of water ice, and underneath there seems to be a salty ocean!  

The surface has red cracks.  Spectrographs suggest these are rich in salts like magnesium sulfate left by evaporating water that comes from within.  But why are they red?  Nobody knows.  Maybe it's sulfur.

Why are there cracks?  That's an interesting story.

Europa orbits Jupiter every three and a half days... but it's tidally locked to Jupiter, so there's a place on Europa's surface where Jupiter always hangs directly overhead.  If you looked up, it would be about 24 times as big across as the Sun viewed from Earth.

But all is not calm!  Europa is in resonance with two other moons of Jupiter.   It goes around exactly half as often as the moon Io, and twice asoften as G... more »

posted image

2014-07-27 02:26:25 (10 comments, 13 reshares, 103 +1s)

As if millions of voices cried out in terror and were suddenly silenced

The first report of a fast radio burst appeared in 2007.  An astronomer named Duncan Lorimer found a signal buried in recordings made at the Parkes radio telescope in Australia.  It lasted for less than 5 milliseconds and it seemed to come from outside our galaxy.  It didn't match anything we'd seen in visible light, X-rays or anything else.  A complete mystery! 

Last year people found 4 more.  But all at the Parkes telescope.  Maybe there was an error of some sort?

But now they've seen one at Arecibo, the famous radio telescope in Puerto Rico.  Duncan Lorimer says several more confirmations will soon be announced.

So what causes these fast radio bursts?

We don't know.  But here's one theory: a 'blitzar'.

When a supernovablasts t... more »

posted image

2014-07-26 02:38:12 (44 comments, 217 reshares, 231 +1s)

The hypersnake versus the moiré eel

This animated gif is cool, but here's something much cooler:

http://wry.me/hacking/moire-eel.html

It starts out intense... and then keeps getting more so. 

You can control the shape of the little rectangles by moving your cursor over the screen.  Try to keep your eye on just one little rectangle!  It moves up and down, not very fast... but sometimes it's impossible to keep your eye on it, because all the rectangles together produce patterns that grab your attention.  These are called moiré patterns. 

I think the 'hypersnake' here is attention-grabbing because your brain has parts that are good at detecting snakes even before you are conscious of it.  Your amygdala is one of these parts:

Information from an external stimulus reaches the amygdala in twodiffere... more »

posted image

2014-07-25 00:43:43 (35 comments, 62 reshares, 148 +1s)

Twist into the continuum

Can you see what's happening here?

Each square is rotated by some angle compared to the square directly below it.  This angle increases as time passes.

The angle starts out being zero, so the stack is straight.  As the angle increases, the stack of squares starts to twist.  When the angle becomes big, the stack twists so much that it becomes very complicated!  But when the angle reaches 90 degrees, the stack becomes straight again - because when you rotate a square by 90 degrees, it looks exactly the same! 

So, the stack seems to twist more and more... and then straighten out again.

Moral: a symmetry is a way to change something so that it doesn't change. 

This 'paradox' is why symmetry is so powerful.  We see it in action here.  We twist the squares so much they are untwisted.
This ... more »

posted image

2014-07-24 04:41:04 (17 comments, 19 reshares, 74 +1s)

Beautiful poison

Cinnabar is a mineral made of mercury - the silver balls - and sulfur - the yellow ones.  It's fascinated people for thousands of years.  When you grind it up, you get vermilion: a brilliant red pigment.

Vermillion was used in murals in Çatalhöyük, one of the world's oldest cities, in Turkey, back around 7000 BC.   It's been used in the art and lacquerware of China since the Han Dynasty!  You'll also find it in the Tomb of the Red Queen built by the Mayans around 650 AD.

It was precious in Rome, used for art and decoration.  Since mercury is poisonous, a term in working in the cinnabar mines was a virtual death sentence.  Pliny the Elder wrote:

Nothing is more carefully guarded. It is forbidden to break up or refine the cinnabar on the spot. They send it to Rome in its natural condition,under sea... more »

posted image

2014-07-23 02:58:40 (29 comments, 30 reshares, 91 +1s)

The world is getting old

In the last century the world's population doubled twice.  It probably won't double again this century.  But the number of people over 65 is set to double in just 25 years!  This will affect the world in huge ways, which we barely understand.

There are already 600 million people over 65.  That's impressive: half the humans that old who ever lived are alive now!   And in democracies, old people vote more.  So they are setting the agenda: in the US, for example, spending on the young and poor is getting cut, while spending for the elderly continues to rise. 

Wealth inequality tends to be greater among older people, since the rich keep getting richer as they age.  Also, older people tend to spend less and save more.  All this will have big economic effects.

In 2010, the world had an age dependency ratio ofabout 16.... more »

posted image

2014-07-22 09:31:17 (8 comments, 4 reshares, 51 +1s)

Nanoprofessionals

Want to teach kids organic chemistry?  Have them attach these different 'heads' to a molecule called Nanokid, and create tiny people!

Take a look at Nanokid:

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanoputian

It's sort of goofy!   James Tour and coworkers at Rice University designed and synthesized these compounds in 2003 to help teach young students.  However, the chemistry is not easy.  Here's one step of building Nanokid:

2,5-Bis(3,3-dimethylbutynyl)-4-bromobenzaldehyde (3). To a solution of 2,5-bis(3,3-dimethylbutynyl)-1,4-dibromobenzene (2.43 g, 6.135 mmol) in THF (30 mL) cooled to -78 °C under nitrogen was added dropwise n-BuLi (2.48 M, 2.72 mL). The reaction mixture was allowed to stir at -78 °C for 1 h. To this mixture was added DMF (0.48 mL, 6.135 mmol) predried over molecular sieves. Thereacti... more »

posted image

2014-07-21 02:45:33 (36 comments, 16 reshares, 104 +1s)

Boron - not boring

Boron is the 5th element in the periodic table, right next to carbon. But we don't hear much about it.  Why not?  Because stars skip boron when building up elements, so it's rather rare! 

It does, however, form interesting molecules, a bit like carbon.  This is borospherene,  a cage of 40 boron atoms.  Earlier this year, a team of Chinese chemists synthesized molecules made of 40 borons and did computer simulations to guess what they'd made.  This is their best guess!

It has a confusing shape.   Each boron atom is connected to 4 or 5 others, and they make 48 triangles, 2 big hexagons - and 4 heptagons, which are on the top, bottom, left and right.

It's a bit like the famous buckyball made of 60 carbons.  But it's much less symmetrical, and it doesn't have any hydrogens hanging off it.  Ithas 8 sym... more »

posted image

2014-07-20 04:24:35 (61 comments, 59 reshares, 133 +1s)

Ten kinds of matter

A cool discovery: substances can be divided into 10 kinds.

The basic idea is pretty simple.  Some substances have time-reversal symmetry: they would look the same, even on the atomic level, if you made a movie of them and ran it backwards.  Some don't - these are more rare, like certain superconductors made of yttrium barium copper oxide!   The substances that do have time reversal symmetry have a symmetry operator T that can square to 1 or to -1: please take my word for this, it's a quantum thing.  So, we get 3 choices, which are listed in the chart under T as 1, -1, or 0 (no time reversal symmetry).

Similarly, some substances have charge conjugation symmetry, meaning a symmetry where we switch particles and holes: places where a particle is missing.  The 'particles' here can be rather abstract things, likeph... more »

posted image

2014-07-19 00:36:02 (25 comments, 56 reshares, 170 +1s)

This double pendulum is chaotic.  But you can make a machine with pendulums that traces out beautiful orderly curves!  It's called a harmonograph.  My artist friend Anita Chowdry built one, and you can see it here:

http://johncarlosbaez.wordpress.com/2014/07/18/the-harmonograph/

It's an old-fashioned apparatus made of brass and steel - and the story of how Chowdry built it is part of the fun.  She writes:

Today, saturated as we are with the ephemeral intangibility of virtual objects and digital functions, there is a resurgence of interest in the ingenious mechanical contraptions of pre-digital eras, and in the processes of handcraftsmanship and engagement with materials. The solid corporality of analogue machines, the perceivable workings of their kinetic energy, and their direct invitation to experience their science through hands-on interaction bringsus ... more »

posted image

2014-07-18 01:07:23 (34 comments, 5 reshares, 46 +1s)

Sailing in outer space, pushed by the sun.   It's been a dream for many years.  What could be more elegant?  LightSail-1 will try it in April 2016.  Watch the movie - it will make you happy!

I want there to be living things in space, like huge moths with mirrored wings, slowly sailing from star to star, powered by light.  If they don't exist, we could make them.... someday.

But we're starting small.  LightSail-1 is a privately funded project run by the Planetary Society.  It starts as a little box, shot into space by an ordinary rocket.  Tucked inside are four ultra-thin mirrored sails.  When the box is in orbit, these unfold!  They'll expand to 32 square meters, so they should be easy to see by naked eye from Earth. 

I hope it works!  Getting into space is not easy.  In 2005, the Planetary Society attempted to send its first solar sail,Cosmos 1, in... more »

posted image

2014-07-17 00:34:34 (32 comments, 84 reshares, 382 +1s)

If you water it, it will grow

This is a mural by Natalia Rak in Białystok, Poland. It reminds me of Alice in Wonderland, and the great Jefferson Airplane song "White Rabbit" with its line

     Ask Alice... when she's ten feet tall.

And that reminds me of this magnificent version of the same song:

Mayssa Karaa - White Rabbit

If you love the original you must listen to this!!!  I can't give away what's so great about it: that would spoil the surprise.  Grace Slick's vocals are so powerful on the original I had thought no other version could be enjoyable, but I was wrong.  As with the mural, good art wants a good idea. 

Here is Natalia Rak's page:

https://www.facebook.com/ArtNataliaRak

I think this piece is more inspired than most of hers.  Having the girl stand ontip-toes ... more »

posted image

2014-07-15 02:11:26 (47 comments, 18 reshares, 142 +1s)

The Joy of Programming

With math, I use my own brain.   After 5 decades of practice, I can freely jump between visualizing, fantasizing, reasoning, computing, and talking to people.   I screw up, but I easily bounce back. 

Programming was never as much fun for me.  There I have to communicate every idea to a powerful but completely inflexible and unsympathetic genie.  If I tell it "make me a stack of pancakes", it may turn me into a stack of pancakes.  Or it may say "Error: unexpected symbol."

But when it comes to analyzing climate data, progamming is essential!  +Graham Jones has written some software that I want to use.  He wrote it in R, a language that statisticians love.  So I've been trying to learn a bit of R.

At this point some of you will say "Oh, you should learn X - that's a much betterlanguage... more »

posted image

2014-07-13 03:17:24 (17 comments, 16 reshares, 104 +1s)

A rotaxane is a 2-part molecule where one part is a ring that can rotate around the other part... but can't slip off!  

People are starting to make molecular machines with rotaxanes.  That's really cool, but let's talk about something simpler.  How do you make  a rotaxane? 

The first one was made in 1967 by two chemists named Harrison.   They used a simple but clever trick.   Say you have a bunch of molecules that react and stick together in pairs to form a bigger dumbbell-shaped molecule.  Say you let them do this when mixed with copies of some other ring-shaped molecule.  Then a few of them will connect through the ring, forming a rotaxane!

By now there are better tricks:

1) Capping: you let a rod-shaped molecule fit through a ring, and then cap it off with balls that keep the ring from sliding off.

2)Clippi... more »

posted image

2014-07-11 16:16:52 (49 comments, 17 reshares, 145 +1s)

Dumb Romans

Caligula was just insane, I think.  Here's something really dumb.

Compared to the Egyptians and Babylonians, the Romans were traditionally never great at calendars.  The early Roman calendar had 355 days a year...so they'd put in a whole extra month now and then, making the year 377 or 378 days long. 

At first it stayed roughly in line with the seasons.  But the people who ran the calendar were politicians, so if they wanted to make their enemies' terms of office end quicker, they'd refuse to stick in the extra month! 

Eventually things got way out of whack.  The politicians would only announce these extra months at the last minute, and it got really confusing.

So, Julius Caesar called together all his wise men to invent a better calendar.  And they invented a pretty good one, with 365 days a year, and an extraleap d... more »

posted image

2014-07-11 04:23:18 (15 comments, 15 reshares, 68 +1s)

El Niño coming?

See how the eastern Pacific has gotten much hotter since May?  That could be the start of an El Niño. 

My friends and I at the Azimuth Code Project are starting to work on El Niño prediction.  Now you can get free software to study a method that uses 'climate networks'.  I'll give you hints on how to modify it and make new discoveries of your own.  If you do, please tell us what you find! 

Here's how to get started:

http://johncarlosbaez.wordpress.com/2014/07/08/el-nino-project-part-4/

This explains how to download climate data and programs to analyze it.   First you go to a website (or ftp site) and get ahold of the Earth's surface air temperatures since 1950.  Then you run a program to get just the temperatures in the Pacific.  Then you run another to see how much temperatures near theequator are ... more »

posted image

2014-07-09 00:45:24 (32 comments, 12 reshares, 109 +1s)

It seems a lot of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays are coming from a patch of the sky near the Big Dipper!  

Cosmic rays are high-energy particles, mainly protons and atomic nuclei, which come from outer space and hit the Earth's atmosphere.  When one hits, it produces a big shower of other particles.  Most cosmic rays are believed to have picked up their energy by interacting with shock waves in the interstellar medium.  But the most energetic ones remain mysterious — nobody knows how they could have acquired such high energies.

The record is a 1994 event seen by a detector in Utah called the Fly's Eye - because that's what it looks like.   It saw a shower of particles produced by a cosmic ray with an energy of about 300 times 10¹⁸ electron volts.   That's an insane amount of energy.  It's about 50 joules: the energy of a one-kilogram mass movingat 10 meters/... more »

posted image

2014-07-08 04:50:35 (5 comments, 6 reshares, 34 +1s)

Now you can apply to attend a workshop on Entropy and Information in Biological Systems.  This is going to be fun!

I'm running it with John Harte at Berkeley, who uses maximum entropy methods to study ecosystems, and +Marc Harper at UCLA, who uses information theory to study evolutionary games.  It's happening on April 8-10, 2015 at the National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis in Knoxville Tennesee.  There will be financial support for workshop attendees who need it.  We will choose among the best applicants and invite 10-15 of them. 

To apply, go here:

http://www.nimbios.org/workshops/WS_entropy

The idea

Information theory and entropy methods are becoming powerful tools in biology, from the level of individual cells, to whole ecosystems, to experimental design, model-building, and the measurement ofbiod... more »

posted image

2014-07-07 12:15:18 (48 comments, 42 reshares, 115 +1s)

What if famous paintings were photoshopped like models today?

Lauren Wade writes: Whether it’s tucking tummies, contouring jaw lines, enlarging eyes and lips, brushing out cellulite, or full-out head swapping, I’ve seen it all as a photo editor. While the conversation about the media’s portrayal and obsession with an unrealistic and unattainable beauty standard is not a new one, I think it’s crazy how much retouching people don’t notice. Over the last five years, having done many of the quick, subtle fixes that are the industry standard myself, I know that even an image considered to look “natural” is anything but.

So, she changed a bunch of famous paintings.  This is Titian's Danaë With Eros.  You can see the rest here:

http://www.takepart.com/feature/2014/05/15/famous-paintings-photoshopped-to-look-like-fashion-models

posted image

2014-07-06 02:29:38 (73 comments, 203 reshares, 573 +1s)

Warp cube

The N-Light Membrane is a cube of mirrors with fluorescent lights as edges.  3 mirrors are one-way, so you can see inside.   All you can see is reflections of the inside of the cube, extending to infinity!   

The other 3 mirrors are flexible, and the cube is connected to an air tank.  By inflating or deflating the air tank, you can make the cube convex or concave.  The reflections bend in weird ways. The effect is hypnotic.

This cube was created by an art collective called Numen/For Use, and it was displayed in St. Petersburg.   It's fun to watch videos of it shot from different angles:

http://www.numen.eu/installations/n-light/membrane/

What if you did a tetrahedron or octahedron?  There's no need to imagine; you can see them here:

http://www.numen.eu/installations/n-light/objects/
Numen/F... more »

posted image

2014-07-05 08:31:48 (21 comments, 26 reshares, 122 +1s)

Water world

Here is weather simulated on an aqua planet: a world like our Earth, but with only ocean!  With no land, the weather becomes simpler.  Here's what happens when you add land:

http://tinyurl.com/NICAM-with-land

The aqua planet simulation was done in 2004, in Japan.   The planet's surface was divided into an icosahedron!   Then each triangle was chopped into smaller triangles with sides 3.5 kilometers long.  These are just barely small enough to simulate clouds, but nobody had simulated the whole planet's atmosphere in such a fine-grained way before.  It required a supercomputer.

By the way, simulating weather is different than simulating climate. When people try to predict the climate 50 years from now, they don't do it by simulating each day's weather for the next 50 years.

This weather simulationproje... more »

posted image

2014-07-04 02:56:43 (37 comments, 32 reshares, 113 +1s)

Open-access climate science

A recent paper says there's 75% chance of a major climate event called an El Niño by the end of 2014  This would be huge news!  So my friends and I decided to replicate this paper, criticize it, and improve it.

The paper uses a climate network, shown here.  See the little circles?   Every day, scientists measure air temperatures at each of these points.  The red ones are in the El Niño basin.   The paper calculates how temperatures in the El Niño basin are correlated to temperatures at the other points.  When the average correlation gets high enough, they predict an El Niño.

That's a very  rough summary of what the paper does!  I explain exactly what it does here:

http://johncarlosbaez.wordpress.com/2014/07/01/el-nino-project-part-3/

including how they got their data.
+Graha... more »

posted image

2014-07-03 03:52:05 (48 comments, 22 reshares, 75 +1s)

Puzzle 1: Suppose you have 10 white balls and 10 black balls.  You can distribute them any way between two urns, as long as you put at least one ball in each urn.   Your friend selects an urn at random and randomly selects a ball from that urn.  How can you maximize the chance that your friend picks a white ball?  

This is from Paul Nahin's new book Will You Be Alive 10 Years From Now?   It's a great introduction to probability based on puzzles and history.   I like it because it's fun at many levels.   You need to know some probability theory to follow it.   But it should be okay for beginners - it uses some calculus near the end - and it was also fun for me.  

The use of history is key here.  Some books use 'human interest stories' as a way to placate the reader who is getting bored with the science.  For example, while talking aboutSchrödinger'... more »

posted image

2014-07-02 02:49:44 (56 comments, 85 reshares, 184 +1s)

Chain reaction

A domino can knock over a domino that's one and a half times taller.  Here you see a tiny domino 5 millimeters tall starting a chain reaction 13 dominos long... which eventually knocks over a domino about half a meter tall. 

The amount of energy released by the fall of that last domino is 2 billion times the amount of energy it took to knock over the first one!

And if we could do a chain reaction like this 29 dominos long, the final domino would be the size of the Empire State Building!

I got this from +W Younes, who has been posting some nice images recently, but only privately.  So, you should become friends with him.

He in turn got it from here:

http://xysciences.com/post/90498855068/a-domino-can-knock-over-another-domino-1-5x-larger

I don't know where they got it from.  But it's clearly acha... more »

posted image

2014-07-01 02:43:57 (16 comments, 37 reshares, 127 +1s)

Optimized Origami

This spectacular image by Greg Egan is the answer to a hard math problem.  He showed that this configuration of 4 interlocking dodecahedra is the one that makes the origami strips as wide as possible without intersecting! 

Without assuming the answer will be symmetrical, this requires studying a 9-dimensional space of different positions of the dodecahedra.   Egan did it with a computer search, and one portion of this search required checking

44 choose 10 = 2,481,256,778

possible solutions, to see which one is best!

However, the answer turned out to be highly symmetrical.  Start with a regular dodecahedron. It has 20 vertices, and we can partition these into 5 sets of 4, each 4 being the vertices of a tetrahedron. Choose one of these tetrahedra, and rescale it by a factor of 1/√5 while keeping its center fixed.  Takeyour do... more »

posted image

2014-06-30 06:40:46 (46 comments, 7 reshares, 53 +1s)

Singapore G+ Dinner

On Friday July 4th, +Elias Mårtenson and I would like to meet any other friendly G+'ers who happen to be in Singapore.  If you want to join us, let me know!

I suggest that we meet at 6:30 pm.  Where should we meet?

Food is very important in Singapore, so let's go someplace good.  Where should we go?  I like a good hawker center better than a fancy restaurant, so I'd like to explore a new one.  A good place should at least have the four dishes shown here:

Fruit rojak - typically made of chopped-up cucumber, pineapple, benkoang (jicama), bean sprouts, taupok (puffy, deep-fried tofu) and youtiao (cut-up Chinese-style fritters), with a delicious sauce of belacan (shrimp paste), sugar, chili, and lime juice.

Grilled stingray - just what it sound like, grilled on a banana leaf and topped withsambal (c... more »

posted image

2014-06-29 04:24:19 (56 comments, 11 reshares, 65 +1s)

Help!

This gif shows four stages of how you build a Sierpinksi carpet.  By tomorrow I'd really like a better version of this.  If you can make it for me, and sign a form giving me permission to put it on my Visual Insight blog, I'll do that and credit you!

If you create one, please put a link to it in your comment, so I can choose the first really good one and let people know I've chosen it.

[EDIT: +Noon Silk has done the job - see the comments.]

What counts as a good one?

1) I'd like an animated gif with a white background - not light blue like this.

2) I'd like the color to be a dark but saturated purple: something like this would be great:

http://www.color-hex.com/color/420082

3)  I'd like the Sierpinski carpet itself to be 729 × 729 pixels. That... more »

posted image

2014-06-28 03:05:02 (19 comments, 98 reshares, 169 +1s)

A network of networks

We have a lot to learn from nature.  Biology has its own ways of processing information, and we're just starting to figure them out.   They work differently than the digital computers built by humans.  I recently heard a great talk about this by Luca Cardelli, an expert on biological computation who works at Microsoft Research in Cambridge and Oxford.

The little gizmos in his picture here are called influence networks. They're chemical reactions built from ‘gates’ where one chemical process activates or deactivates another. 

All these influence networks actually show up in living organisms! 

The simplest one is AM, in the blue circle.  This  stands for Approximate Majority.  It's a chemical reaction where starting with molecules of two kinds, those in the majority completely takeover: we ge... more »

posted image

2014-06-27 04:26:57 (16 comments, 8 reshares, 60 +1s)

Neutrino Flux - 1987A

That's the title of this painting by David Fricks.  1987A is the name of a supernova in the Tarantula Nebula of the Large Magellanic Cloud whose light - and neutrinos! - reached us in 1987.  

Though it was over 150,000 light-years away, it was visible to the naked eye.  Two to three hours before the visible light reached us, a burst of neutrinos was observed at three separate neutrino observatories.  They only saw a total of 24 neutrinos... but this is what you'd expect from a supernova that far!   It probably put out 10^46 joules of energy, 99% in the form of neutrinos... for a whopping total of 10^58 neutrinos. 

Some went through you, and some went through this monkey.

Here's a little mystery about supernova 1987A.  It acted like a type II supernova, where a massive star runs out of fuel and its coresuddenl... more »

posted image

2014-06-26 01:38:54 (56 comments, 69 reshares, 172 +1s)

Are these waves going to the left or the right?  

The big pulses are moving to the right.  The group velocity is the velocity of the big pulses, so this is positive.

The little wiggles are moving to the left.   The phase velocity is the velocity of these little wiggles, so this is negative.

So, the group velocity and phase velocity can be completely different!   You have to be careful when you talk about the speed of waves.  Indeed, if this wave was a rope wiggling up and down, the rope itself wouldn't be going left or right!   The speed of the wave is an abstraction... and we can define it in different ways.

There's also the signal velocity.  Say you start with no wave at all to the right of some point.  How far to the right of that point can the wave get in one second?  That's the signal velocity.

As far aswe know, t... more »

posted image

2014-06-25 01:26:04 (13 comments, 87 reshares, 348 +1s)

Too cute!  Here's a mommy pangolin carrying its baby, photographed by Firdia Lisnawati at a zoo in Bali.  The baby was born at the zoo on May 31, and this photo was snapped last Thursday when it was less than 3 weeks old. 

A pangolin is a kind of scaly anteater found in tropical regions throughout Africa and Asia.  A friend of mine even saw one in a park in Singapore!  There are eight different species, from the giant pangolin to the tree pangolin.  Some are endangered because people eat them or - even worse - kill them for the completely imaginary medical properties of their scales!  In one incident in 2013, 10,000 kilograms of pangolin meat was seized from a Chinese vessel that ran aground in the Philippines.  ☹

When a pangolin is born, its scales are soft and white; then they gradually get harder and darker.  At first the mother stays with the baby in a burrow,nursing it... more »

posted image

2014-06-24 01:46:46 (11 comments, 7 reshares, 78 +1s)

Wind blows west across the tropical Pacific, from the Americas to Asia. During La Niña years, water at the ocean’s surface moves along with the wind, warming up in the sun as it goes. So, warm water collects at the ocean’s surface off the coast of Asia. This makes more clouds and rainstorms there.

But sometimes the westward winds weaken enough for the warm water in the western Pacific sloshes back east!  Then we get an El Niño. This makes for more clouds and rain in the eastern Pacific—that’s when we get floods in Southern California.

You can actually see the warm surface water moving back and forth in this animation!  The height is greatly exaggerated, of course.  This was made by the TAO/TRITON array, about 70 devices anchored to the floor of the Pacific Ocean.  These measure winds, sea surface temperature, relative humidity, air temperature, andsubsurface te... more »

posted image

2014-06-23 00:58:59 (9 comments, 10 reshares, 127 +1s)

Triple Helix

This is a picture taken by +Romain Brasselet, who wrote:

The only triple helix staircase in the world.

It is located in the Museo do pobo Galego (Museum of the Galician People) in Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, northwestern Spain.

It spans more than 3 floors and distribute them with a total of 14 doors. But on each floor, the doors are at unequal heights: the floors of the rooms happen to be at different levels. So there are additional stairs linking the rooms of the same "floor".

This is a masterpiece of architecture. I stayed at least 30 minutes looking at it and  trying to make pictures that would convey its exquisite beauty.

You can see other beautiful views of this staircase here:

https://plus.google.com/u/0/s/triple%20helix

Romain works on neurobiology... more »

posted image

2014-06-22 05:19:18 (28 comments, 4 reshares, 91 +1s)

I now live on the 14th story of an apartment for faculty at the National University of Singapore.  In the lobby of each floor there's a door labelled electrical riser, where wires go up.  There's a door labelled TAS riser, where telecommunications cables go up.  And there's a door labelled ELV riser, where elves go up.

Well, that's what I imagined.  But then I looked it up.  Much to my surprise, I found that ELV actually stands for electrostatically levitating vampire.

I pondered this for days.  Finally, unable to resist, I opened up the ELV riser last evening.  I saw black shrouded figures, light as feathers, floating up a large shaft, lifted by the tiny voltage gradient.  They congregate in the rooftop garden, drinking cocktails and chatting... and then, when the moon comes up, they launch themselves into the night sky.  You cansee them... more »

posted image

2014-06-22 01:43:40 (14 comments, 31 reshares, 93 +1s)

A Thorne–Żytkow object is a giant star that has swallowed a neutron star.  The idea of such a thing was invented by Kip Thorne and Anna Żytkow in 1976.  Now we may have found one! 

A Thorne–Żytkow object can be formed when a neutron star collides with a red giant or supergiant star. They might simply collide by accident... but there's a lot of room in space, so this is very unlikely.

More likely, the neutron star and the giant could be part of a binary star system!  A neutron star forms when a giant star runs out of fuel, collapses, and explodes as a supernova, blowing off its outer layers... while the core crushes down to a ball of neutronium.  So, you have to image one giant star in a binary system doing this, while its partner survives.

Then, they might slowly spiral down due to friction.  A red giant is usually surrounded by a lot of very thin hotgas.  Once t... more »

posted image

2014-06-21 00:53:58 (36 comments, 28 reshares, 117 +1s)

The source of cow farts

This molecule looks like chlorophyll or heme - but where those have magnesium or iron, this has an atom of nickel at its heart!  And this molecule, called cofactor F430, is part of why cows fart.

Like all vertebrates, cows can't break down cellulose, the main ingredient in grass.  So they have 4 stomachs, and in the rumen there are trillions of tiny organisms that can break down cellulose. These organisms make sugars, which the cows can digest - but also other chemicals, including methane.  The cows fart and burp... and since methane is a powerful greenhouse gas, about 40% of all global warming due to agricultural activity comes from this process!  Not just from cows, but also sheep and goats.

The tiny organisms that make methane are called methanobacteria... but now we know they aren't really bacteria. We&#... more »

posted image

2014-06-20 01:09:38 (15 comments, 48 reshares, 108 +1s)

El Niño Project

El Niño is the biggest unpredictable aspect of the Earth's weather system.  It causes floods here, droughts there, it happens roughly every 3 to 7 years, but it's very hard to predict more than 6 months before it happens.  The last really big one, in 1997, unleashed a blast of global warming as heat stored in the Pacific Ocean entered the atmosphere!   Now we're waiting for the next.

This February, a paper caused a stir by predicting that an El Niño will start in late 2014 with 75% probability.  It used ideas from 'network theory' - the math of systems made of many interacting parts.  It claims that before an El Niño, sea temperatures in a large patch of the Pacific become highly correlated, going up and down in synch.

It could be right, it could be wrong - but the cool part is, the ideas in this paper are prettysimple.  ... more »

posted image

2014-06-19 00:51:07 (35 comments, 19 reshares, 68 +1s)

Espresso in Space

If manned space exploration is our destiny, then this is what the world needs: an espresso machine that works in zero gravity!

Jointly designed by the Italian coffee company Lavazza, the engineering firm Argotec, and the Italian Space Agency, the ISSpresso machine will be in the International Space Station by the time the next Italian astronaut goes up there.

To operate it, you put a capsule of coffee in the machine and plug in a plastic pouch of water. The ISSpresso pressurizes the water, heats it and pushes it through the capsule into a drinking pouch.  You then suck the stuff out of the pouch with a straw. 

It's designed to handle a pressure of 400 atmospheres - this requires replacing the usual plastic tube with a steel one.

If you've ever been to Italy, the image of businessmen in suits sucking espressof... more »

posted image

2014-06-18 01:15:23 (23 comments, 6 reshares, 68 +1s)

Monk fruit

I'm back in Singapore!  I'll spend the summer doing research at the Centre for Quantum Technologies. When I showed up, the temperature was 32°C - that's 90°F - and the humidity was 75%.  And I thought: yes, I like this!   I was afraid a winter in Germany might make it hard to adapt to the tropics again... but no.  They're steamy,  sweaty, but full of life.

In Singapore, people love fruit juice.  One of my favorite kinds is made from the luo han guo (罗汉果/ 羅漢果), or monk fruit.  It has a hard thin skin, brown in color, covered with small hairs.  Inside there is an edible sweet pulp. 

I got some luo han guo juice in Chinatown yesterday.  It's slightly bitter, but also slightly sweet... really refreshing!  I can see why it's called 'monk fruit': when you drink this juice you feel a lot morevirtuous and enlightened ... more »

posted image

2014-06-17 03:50:20 (55 comments, 52 reshares, 97 +1s)

Get smart

Electric power companies complain about wind power because it's intermittent: if suddenly the wind stops, they have to bring in other sources of power.  

This is no big deal if we only use a little wind.  Across the US, wind now supplies 4% of electric power; even in Germany it's just 8%.  The problem starts if we use a lot of wind.  If we're not careful, we'll need big fossil fuel powered electric plants when the wind stops.  And these need to be turned on, ready to pick up the slack at a moment's notice! 

So, a few years ago Xcel Energy, which supplies much of Colorado’s power, ran ads opposing a proposal that it use renewable sources for 10% of its power.   

But now things have changed.  Now Xcel gets about 15% of their power from wind, on average.  And sometimes this spikes to much more!

Whatmade the di... more »

posted image

2014-06-15 23:19:47 (50 comments, 62 reshares, 185 +1s)

The black widow's bite

There are lots of black widows where I live in California.  I'll sometimes see one hanging in its web in a flower pot, sprinkling can or trash bin when I'm gardening.  If I think someone might accidentally put their hand there, I'll kill it.

They are sluggish and unaggressive, so this is easy to do, and I pity them.  But their bite — while rarely lethal - is very, very painful. So, I harden my heart and crush them with a broom.

In fact their bite seems fine-tuned to be as bad as possible without being lethal.  Maybe this, and the bright red hourglass, is how the spider teaches other animals to stay away!  A dead student can't learn.

Here's a story passed on by +Michael Nielsen, about a med school professor named Allan Blair who decided to get a black widow to bite him.  As Wikipedia calmly states,"t... more »

posted image

2014-06-12 15:12:02 (8 comments, 6 reshares, 67 +1s)

Zinc blood

This beautiful molecule looks a lot like heme, but with zinc instead of iron at its heart!  If you get lead poisoning, your blood will start getting this instead of heme in it.

There are 2-4 grams of zinc in your body - most of it in your brain, muscle, bones, kidney, and liver.  It shows up in lots of important enzymes, not only in animals but also plants and bacteria.  In biology, it's the second most important 'transition metal' after iron.  (The transition metals are the ones in the long middle part of the periodic table.)

This molecule is called zinc protoporphyrin.  It can show up in your blood for several reasons, including

lead poisoning
iron deficiency
sickle cell anemia
vanadium poisoning

Puzzle 1: why?

I don't know!  I guess it makes sense that if you havean iro... more »

posted image

2014-06-11 22:15:30 (50 comments, 21 reshares, 77 +1s)

I'm in Banff, enjoying spectacular views but thinking about chemistry, since I'm at at a workshop called Programming with Chemical Reaction Networks: Mathematical Foundations.

Suppose you have two numbers m and n, and you want to use chemical reactions to see if m ≥ n.  Here's one way.

Make m molecules of type A and n of type B.  Also include one molecule of type Y.   It doesn't matter what these molecules are, as long as these chemical reactions occur:

A + N → Y
B + Y → N

where N is some other sort of molecule.  

Y and N stand for "yes" and "no".   Let the reactions run, and at the end you'll be left with either a "yes" or a "no".  This is the answer to your question!

How does it work?  If there are no B's around, nothing will happen and you'll beleft with a &qu... more »

posted image

2014-06-09 14:38:30 (49 comments, 12 reshares, 80 +1s)

Trends are tricky

The blue bars here show the average surface temperature of the Earth, year by year, with the 1950-1980 average subtracted out.  The difference is called the temperature anomaly.  You can see the anomaly is about 0.5 Celsius now, or 0.9 Fahrenheit.  

The green curve is an attempt to smooth out the data and extract meaningful trends.  This is where it gets tricky!   This particular curve was obtained using a cubic spline, built piece by piece from a bunch of cubic polynomials.  But doing this requires some choices: adjusting a smoothing parameter lets us build a curve that fits the data very closely and wiggles a lot, or a curve that's very smooth but doesn't stay so close to the data.

How do we pick the 'right' smoothing parameter?  What does 'right' even mean?  The answers depend on what you wantto know.<... more »

posted image

2014-06-07 17:56:21 (136 comments, 45 reshares, 282 +1s)

The downward spiral

Three days ago my wife Lisa started seeing flashes like lightning in the peripheral vision of her right eye.  Then she started seeing black specks like gnats.  Years ago she nearly had a detached retina, which doctors bolted down with laser surgery.  So she has always been on the lookout for symptoms like this. 

We went to the emergency room around 8 pm, shortly after the black specks formed a 'curtain' in the middle of her field of vision.  Standing just yards from a mirror, she said: "I can't even see the color of my eyes."

In some ways we're all waiting for something like this to happen.

We're all going to die... or at least, most of us: some 'transhumanists' optimistically freeze their brains in hopes that future generations will revive them, but even if this hope comes true, most peoplecan&... more »

posted image

2014-06-06 15:44:51 (26 comments, 32 reshares, 106 +1s)

Did you eat your cobalt today?

Look at this amazing molecule!  It looks a bit like chlorophyll or heme, but it's got an atom of cobalt  in the middle where those others have magnesium or iron. 

What's amazing is not that this molecule exists.  What's amazing is that you need to eat it - or something very like it.  It's called vitamin B12, and you need about 2 micrograms a day.  

In the middle ages, German miners called some rocks kobold ore - German for goblin ore - because they were poor in known metals and gave poisonous fumes when you heated them.  In 1739 a Swedish chemist named Georg Brandt discovered that these rocks contained a new metal.  So this metal, cobalt, is named after goblins!

It took a lot longer to realize that cobalt is essential for human life.  In 1934, three chemists won the Nobel prizefor disco... more »

posted image

2014-06-05 16:38:56 (35 comments, 14 reshares, 78 +1s)

Orange as a carrot

Why are carrots orange?  Because they contain carotene.  

Carotene comes in different forms, but here I've shown one of the most common: beta-carotene.   I like it because it's perfectly symmetrical.   It has a long chain of carbons with alternating single and double bonds.  Electrons vibrating along this chain absorb blue light.  So the carrots have the opposite color: orange!

Humans need a chemical called retinal in order to see.  It looks roughly like half a carotene molecule - and like carotene, it's good at absorbing light.  Attached to a larger protein molecule called an opsin, retinal acts like a kind of antenna, catching particles of light. 

Humans can't produce retinal without help from the foods we eat. Any chemical we can use to produce retinal is called vitaminA.  So ... more »

Buttons

A special service of CircleCount.com is the following button.

The button shows the number of followers you have directly in a small button. You can add this button to your website, like the +1-Button of Google or the Like-Button of Facebook.






You can add this button directly in your website. For more information about the CircleCount Buttons and the description how to add them to another page click here.

John Baez