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Science on Google+ has been at 18 events

HostFollowersTitleDateGuestsLinks
Science on Google+474,332Join us for a +Science on Google+  Hangout on Air as we speak to Professor +Vincent Racaniello and Dr +Tara C. Smith about the recent Ebola outbreak. We will discuss the basics of Ebola, why the epidemic has spread, how it might be curtailed, and debunk some of the myths surrounding this outbreak. Please leave your questions on the Event page.Vincent is a professor of virology at the University of Columbia and is a fantastic science communicator. Tara is an epidemiologist at Kent State University who has written numerous articles debunking some of the myths surrounding Ebola. This HOA will be hosted by Dr +Buddhini Samarasinghe  and Dr +Zuleyka Zevallos. You can tune in on Sunday August 10th at 2.30 PM Pacific, 5.30 PM Eastern. The hangout will be available for viewing on our YouTube channel (https://www.youtube.com/ScienceHangouts) after the event.Explaining Ebola2014-08-10 23:30:0083 
Science on Google+474,332Please join us for Developmental Science HOA, a new collaborative Hangout On Air series which is co-hosted by +Science on Google+ and +Developmental Psychology. In the first Developmental Science HOA we will be talking with Dr. +Gedeon Deák. +Gedeon Deák is a Professor of Cognitive Science and Human Development at +University of California, San Diego and is the director of the +Cognitive Development Laboratory at UC-San Diego. +Gedeon Deák studies the dynamics of infant social interactions and social learning, using experimental behavioral paradigms, ethnographic investigations, physiological studies, and computer simulations. He and his collaborators conducted the first study of real-time interactions between parents and toddlers with high-density EEG and motion capture of both participants. He also studies how children learn and use words, and how they flexibly shift their attention, representations, and inferences.Important LinksCurriculum Vitae: http://goo.gl/qLtUaCLab Website: http://goo.gl/AQ78h6ResearchGate: http://goo.gl/Mj8deHRelevant PapersWatch the hands: infants can learn to follow gaze by seeing adults manipulate objects: http://goo.gl/bSMzKyYoung children’s fast mapping and generalization of words, facts, and pictograms :http://goo.gl/nhykZFA Unified Account of Gaze Following: http://goo.Developmental Science HOA: Episode 12014-08-05 18:00:00101 
Science on Google+474,332The American Arachnological Society Conference is right around the corner and this year’s conference is being hosted by +Andy Roberts at +OhioStateNewark. The conference sponsors a great lineup of speakers (see details below) for their annual public event, “Casual Night with Arachnids”, and +Science on Google+ will stream these presentations on Google+ in a Hangout On Air. Each talk will be approximately 10 – 12 minutes and there will be time to ask each presenter questions. Google+ members can submit questions using the Q & A app or by posting questions on the event post (http://goo.gl/knJbyX). RSVP “yes” if you want to add this event to your Google calendar. Anyone can view this event live or watch the archived youtube video; however, individuals not using Google+ will have to submit questions to @spiderprofessor on twitter. Please use the hashtag #arachnids14 .Sharing on other social networksPlease use this link (http://goo.gl/knJbyX) if you want to share this event via email or on other social networks.Do you live in the Columbus area?The event is open to the public and will be in the Reese Center at 1209 University Dr, Newark, OH 43055. See more details about the event here: https://u.osu.edu/arachnids/List of Presentations Times below are in EST.7:00 – 7:20pm, Doug Gaffin, Mind-melding a scorpion.7:20 – 7:40pm, Cara Shillington, Male versus wild: Radio-tracking tarantulas.7:40 – 8:00pm, Bob Suter, Messing with time—see the invisible, hear the inaudible.8:00 – 8:20pm, George Uetz & Dave Clark, Avatar 2.0: Digital imaging and (virtual) spider communication.8:20 – 8:40pm, Rick Vetter, Mythconceptions of the brown recluse spider in Ohio.8:40 – 9:00pm, Joe Warfel, Getting together with family: Spiders and their Relatives.AbstractsDouglas Gaffin, PhD (Department of Biology, University of Oklahoma)Mind-melding a scorpion. Scorpions are secretive, mysterious, and patient animals. What are they thinking as they wait for hours in their burrows? Although we cCasual Night with Arachnids2014-06-23 01:00:0076 
Science on Google+474,332Join our latest +Science On Google+ HOA this Sunday the 18th of May at 2.30 pm Pacific time, as we chat with two of our Community members, scientists +Jason Osborne  and Dr +Aaron Alford. They are co-founders of Paleo Quest, a not-for-profit organisation that promotes research and educational projects in Paleontology for the public (http://paleoquest.org). Jason and Aaron also founded SharkFinder, a STEM education program that studies fossil remains of elasmobranch (shark, skates and ray) along the USA Atlantic coastal plain of Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina and South Carolina. SharkFinder provides kits and learning modules for citizens and classrooms to participate in data collection (http://www.sharkfinder.org/). Jason and Aaron will talk about their efforts to expand citizen science, with a special focus on how students can be better guided into STEM careers through these hands-on citizen science programs. We will also discuss their upcoming publications that will incorporate data collected by students and the public, as reported by Scientific American (http://goo.gl/4drR1Z). We'll then chat about how we can better support children from disadvantaged backgrounds to participate in STEM.This HOA will be hosted by two Moderators from SoG+, Dr +Buddhini Samarasinghe  and Dr +Zuleyka Zevallos. You can join in the discussion by posting your questions on our Google+ Event page or on Twitter @scienceongoogle using #scienceongoogle . The video will be available afterwards on our YouTube Channel: https://www.youtube.com/ScienceHangouts Citizen Science: Getting Students into STEM with Jason Osborne & Dr Aaron Alford2014-05-18 23:30:0097 
Science on Google+474,332Join us for a Science on Google+ HOA as we speak to +Akinola Emmanuel and Dr +shilpa keerthivasan about their recently published research on cancer signalling (http://stm.sciencemag.org/content/6/225/225ra28). We will discuss the basics of cancer signalling, explain the link between inflammation and cancer, and how their research identifies a novel role for immune cells in the development of colon cancer. This Pub Talks HOA will be part of a series in which we explain published research in a jargon-free manner that is understandable to the public.This HOA will be hosted by Dr +Buddhini Samarasinghe and you can tune in on Sunday March 23rd at 2 PM CDT/ 12PM PDT/ 7 PM GMT. The hangout will be available for viewing on our YouTube channel (https://www.youtube.com/ScienceHangouts) after the event.Pub Talks: Cancer Signalling2014-03-23 20:00:0085 
Science on Google+474,332Can you believe it! The +Science on Google+ community is approaching 200k members! We'll have reached that number by this weekend, so we're going to have a huge community celebration!Join your hosts +Scott Lewis and +Buddhini Samarasinghe as they start the celebration of being the #1 science community and the #10 community in all of Google+!! During our Hangout On Air, you'll get a chance to meet the moderators  who dedicate so much time and energy into making sure that good, high quality science content is showcased in the community. After we hear from the moderators on who they are, we'll have a discussion on what the curator team looks at for community posts to get put on the Curator's Choice. We are all extremely excited to be celebrating with all 200,000 of you! Let's stay curious and find new and better ways to understand this amazing Universe we all live in!#ScienceSunday   #STEM   #ScienceEveryday   #SoGp200k  200,000 member community celebration!2014-01-12 22:00:00183 
Science on Google+474,332Unfortunately the gap between science and society is massive and only growing larger. +SciFund Challenge exists to do something about this problem, by helping to close this gap in three distinct ways.⚛Training and encouraging researchers in their science outreach activities.⚛Helping connect the public directly to science and scientists.⚛Running science crowdfunding drives to help fund research and has just initiated SciFund 4: http://scifundchallenge.org/.Do you want to know about alternatives for raising money for research? What about Crowdfunding? This +Science on Google+ Hangout will discuss crowdfunding for research and features the SciFund Challenge coordinators +Jarrett Byrnes and +Anthony Salvagno as well as SciFund 3 participant, +Alisa Woods.SciFund 3 participant Alisa Woods raised 6K+ to buy analytical software for mass spectrometry and is Crowdfunding again, to support her research on autism protein biomarkers. She will discuss tips for successful Crowdfunding, including setting realistic goals and developing your audience.Her project is available here and as one of the incentives, she's offering consulting and coaching for Science Crowdfunding: http://www.rockethub.com/projects/36715-protein-biomarkers-for-autism-spectrum-disorder#description-tab Join host +Scott Lewis and learn about Science Crowdfunding and Science Outreach!#ScienceEveryday   #Crowdfunding   #Science   #Research   #SciFundChallenge  Crowdfunding for research and the SciFund Challenge.2014-01-02 21:00:00136 
Science on Google+474,332Isaac Newton's Birthday is on ChristmasJoin us in a Newton-inspired holiday physics hangout with rockstar physicist +Henry Reich of +MinutePhysics and +MinuteEarth  and brilliant ballerina biologist +Carin Bondar of +National Geographic, +Scientific American and host of Wild Sex, a science show about the strange reproductive habits of the animal kingdom. She knows how the world gets physical. +Veritasium  AKA +Derek Muller may pop in.  We hear there may even be more special guests so you should probably go ahead and RSVP yes to join the lively conversation. BYOB. Hosted by +Amy Robinson of +Science on Google+ .Happy Newtonmas Hangout2013-12-19 00:00:00144 
Science on Google+474,332Please join us for a collaborative Hangout On Air with Autism Brainstorm (http://goo.gl/HO5LZL). We will be discussing current research in Autism and Autism Education, as well as the protein biomarkers associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders.Topics: 1) Lead by Dr. +Stephen Shore:  Research in Comparative Approaches to Autism Education with special emphasis on the Miller Method®. Dr. Shore will be joined by Ethan Miller and Amir Naimov for discussion and Q&A.2) Lead by +John Elder Robison:  Current research topic(s) being considered by IACC (The Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee  is a Federal advisory committee charged with coordinating all activities concerning autism spectrum disorder within the U.S.3) Lead by Dr. +Alisa Woods: Protein Biomarkers and Autism Spectrum DisordersPDF LINKS:Dr. Stephen Shore Dissertation: Comparative Approaches to Autism Education: http://goo.gl/lnqpxbDr. Stephen Shore: ICDL The Miller Method: http://goo.gl/X6XQoqJohn Elder Robison: Scholar in Residence at William And Mary: http://goo.gl/QPxtLH John Elder Robison: IACC Government Strategic Plan for Autism Research: http://goo.gl/reBc9aDr. Alisa G Woods: Treating Clients with AS and ASD: http://goo.gl/175424Dr. Alisa G Woods: Proteomics and Cholesterol in Autism: http://goo.gl/SklhcLDr. Stephen Shore:Diagnosed with "Atypical Development and strong autistic tendencies" and "too sick" for outpatient treatment Dr. Shore was recommended for institutionalization. Nonverbal until four, and with much support from his parents, teachers, wife, and others, Stephen is now a professor at Adelphi University where his research focuses on matching best practice to the needs of people with autism.In addition to working with children and talking about life on the autism spectrum, Stephen presents and consults internationally on adult issues pertinent to education, relationships, employment, advocacy, and disclosure as discussed in his books Beyond the Wall: Personal Experiences with Autism and Asperger Syndrome, Ask and Tell: Self-advocacy and Disclosure for People on the Autism Spectrum, the critically acclaimed Understanding Autism for Dummies., and the newly released DVD Living along the Autism Spectrum: What it means to have Autism or Asperger Syndrome.President emeritus of the Asperger’s Association of New England and former board member of the Autism Society, Dr. ShorAutism Brainstorm and Science On Google+ Collaborative Hangout On Air2013-12-10 04:00:0088 
Science on Google+474,332Join mathematicians Dana Ernst , Sara Del Valle , Vincent Knight , Luis Guzman  and Robert Jacobson  as they talk with Amy Robinson  about their favorite math gifs and ideas and what it's like to be a mathematician. How many numbers are there? Do mathematicians see the world differently? And why is the last panel of this xkcd comic funny? http://xkcd.com/804/+Dana Ernst   is an assistant professor in the Department of Mathematics and Statistics at Northern Arizona University in Flagstaff, AZ, USA. +Sara Del Valle   is a mathematical epidemiologist at Los Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, NM, USA.+Vincent Knight   is a LANCS lecturer at the Cardiff University School of Mathematics in Operational Research in Cardiff, Wales, UK.+Luis Guzman   is a graduate student in mathematics at the University of West Florida in FL, USA.+Robert Jacobson   is Assistant Professor of Mathematics at Roger Williams University in RI, USA.Hangout hosted by Science on Google+'s +Amy Robinson Math: from GIFs to xkcd2013-11-22 02:00:0063 
Science on Google+474,332Data blitz is a new hangout (not Hangout On Air), which is hosted by the Science on Google+ Community (http://goo.gl/uhJCN). This monthly hangout will start at 10:00 PM (EDT) on the second Wednesday of each month, and the main goal is to create a platform so researchers can get feedback on their hot off the press research findings and to discuss other issues in research, funding, and publishing. RSVP “yes” if you want an invite for the next Science on Google+ Data Blitz.Science on Google+ Data Blitz2013-11-14 04:00:0020 
Science on Google+474,332Happy Hour is a new hangout (not Hangout On Air), which is hosted by the Science on Google+ Community (http://goo.gl/uhJCN). The monthly hangout will start at 10:00 PM (EDT) on the last Wednesday of each month. Grab a coffee, beer, wine, or cocktail and join us as we discuss recent science findings, our favorite science communities and pages on Google+, and ways to improve the Science on Google+ community. This hangout is open to all of the friendly people in the Science on Google+ community. RSVP “yes” if you want an invite for the next Science on Google+ Happy Hour.Science on Google+ Happy Hour2013-10-31 03:00:0068 
Science on Google+474,332Data blitz is a new hangout (not Hangout On Air), which is hosted by the Science on Google+ Community (http://goo.gl/uhJCN). This monthly hangout will start at 10:00 PM (EDT) on the second Wednesday of each month, and the main goal is to create a platform so researchers can get feedback on their hot off the press research findings and discuss other issues in research, funding, and publishing. There are only two rules. First, to keep things moving, presentations cannot exceed one slide! Second, due to the 10 person limit of hangouts, all individuals who join the hangout will be expected to contribute to the discussion by presenting research or research related issues. RSVP “yes” if you want an invite for the next Science on Google+ Data Blitz.Science on Google+ Data Blitz2013-10-10 04:00:0052 
Science on Google+474,332Happy Hour is a new hangout (not Hangout On Air), which is hosted by the Science on Google+ Community (http://goo.gl/uhJCN). The monthly hangout will start at 10:00 PM (EDT) on the last Wednesday of each month. Grab a cocktail and join us as we discuss recent science findings, our favorite science communities and pages on Google+, and ways to improve the Science on Google+ community. This hangout is open to all of the friendly people in the Science on Google+ community. Be social and stop by and say hi. RSVP “yes” if you want an invite for the next Science on Google+ Happy Hour.Science on Google+ Happy Hour2013-09-26 04:00:0056 
Science on Google+474,332Posterside Hangouts is a new Hangouts On Air, which is hosted by the Science on Google+ Community (http://goo.gl/uhJCN). The main goal of this HOA series is to recreate a poster session-like atmosphere here on G+, so researchers can present their recent findings. Presentations will be grouped by discipline and individual presentations will last approximately 10 – 15 minutes.Do you have a recent conference presentation, manuscript, or book that you would like to share with the Google+ community? Do you want to give your undergraduate or graduate students practice presenting their research? If yes, then let us know by filling out this short form: http://goo.gl/e0KPhE.================================Psychology Talks for Posterside Hangouts #1, Authors (Affiliations)When audition dominates vision: Evidence from cross-modal statistical learning+Chris Robinson (The Ohio State University at Newark)Automatic selection of eye tracking variables in visual categorization for adults and infants+Samuel Rivera (The Ohio State University at Columbus)Foreign accent does not influence cognitive judgments+Andre L. Souza (Concordia University) and +Art Markman (The University of Texas at Austin)Positive mood may enhance cognitive flexibility: Evidence from category learning+Paul Minda (The University of Western Ontario) and +Ruby Nadler(The University of Western Ontario)The effects of aging on face perception+Allison Sekuler (McMaster University)================================Abstracts and LinksWhen audition dominates vision: Evidence from cross-modal statistical learningPresenting information to multiple sensory modalities sometimes facilitates and sometimes interferes with processing of this information. Research examining interference effects shows that auditory input often interferes with processing of visual input in young children (i.e., auditory dominance effect), whereas visual input often interferes with auditory processing in adults (i.e., visual dominance effect). The current study used a cross-modal statistical learning task to examine modality dominance in adults. Participants ably learned auditory and visual statistics when auditory and visual sequences were presented unimodally and when auditory and visual sequences were correlated during training. However, increasing task demands resulted in an important asymmetry: Increased task demands attenuated visual statistical learning, while having no effect on auditory statistical learning. These findings are consistent with auditory dominance effects reported in young children and have important implications for our understanding of how sensory modalities interact while learning the structure of cross-modal informationScience on Google+ Posterside Hangouts #12013-08-13 02:30:0099 
Science on Google+474,332Be curious. Question assumptions. Explore the world from atoms to astrophysics with Veritasium.Join +Derek Muller of popular +YouTube Channel Veritasium on a journey to the beautiful, viral side of physics, hosted by Science on Google+ in honor of YouTube Geek Week (Aug 4-10). Our +Amy Robinson, +Jason Davison and +Nic Hammond will host, along with +Joe Hanson of +It's Okay To Be Smart and a few members of the community who ask Derek interesting questions on the event page.  The hangout happens on Wednesday, August 7th at 5 pm US PT / 8 ET.Derek will share why he creates Veritasium and how it has evolved into one of YouTube’s favorite sources of answers to epic science questions. He’ll also answer your questions so leave them here on the event page. You may be selected to join the hangout live and ask him in person.  Check out Veritasium on YouTube at http://veritasium.com This is the third hangout in a new series that brings science to life through conversations with the world's leading minds. Join +Science on Google+: A Public Database for the latest events.Veritasium: A Science on Google+ Conversation2013-08-08 02:00:00237 
Science on Google+474,332"There's a lot of amazing science out there. Let's go discover it together." Join Dr. +Joe Hanson  biologist and host of popular YouTube/ +PBS Digital Studios series +It's Okay To Be Smart  + +AAAS  Mass Media Fellow at +WIRED  on a journey to the awesome side of science. This hangout will be hosted by Science on Google+'s +Amy Robinson , +Jason Davison   and +Nic Hammond   .The hangout happens on Monday, July 22rd at NOON PT/ 3 PM ET. Joe will answer your questions and give insights on bringing science to the masses, the power of YouTube, why GIFs are awesome and much more. Add your thoughts and questions for Joe on this page. Joe will invite a few insightful fans to join the hangout in person!Get to know Dr Joe: check out his blog at http://www.itsokaytobesmart.com/This is the second hangout in a new series that brings science to life through conversations with the world's leading minds. Subscribe to the Science on Google+ communities for the latest.It's Okay To Be Smart: A Science on Google+ Conversation2013-07-22 21:00:00121 
Science on Google+474,332We will be updating and sharing this General Science Page Circle (see http://goo.gl/9muuE) on Tuesday (10/9) at 9:00 PM (EST).Please add your Science Page to this database (http://goo.gl/WCohT) if you would like to add your page to the circle. Here's the form: http://goo.gl/bfqHa. You do not have to fill out the form if you are already in the database.Here's the link to the updated Science Page circle, http://goo.gl/aGQPB.Science Page Circle2012-10-10 03:00:00133 

Science on Google+ has been shared in 185 public circles

You can see here the 50 latest shared circles.
If this is your profile, you can check your dashboard to see all shared circles you have been included.

AuthorFollowersDateUsers in CircleCommentsReshares+1Links
Amaresh Singh11Circle Of the DayTo be considered for this circle, please:1- Share this circle in your stream.2- Ask to be included in the comments section of the original post.3- Make sure you've added our page to your circles.4- You must post your own original work in your stream.2014-11-21 09:58:32238546
Circles Circles Circles45,721SCIENCE CircleDo you want more science in your life? Then, be sure to add these fascinating pages and people who dwell on science daily and are actively engaging.  Enrich your stream.If you are a scientist or someone who primarily posts about science and would like to be included in this circle please make a request in the comments section below.If you have someone or an organization's G+ page to recommend please add their name in the comments section below.Note: To those included in the circle, you were added by the generous recommendation of others  -- their help is deeply appreciated. Your add back and re-share would be also deeply appreciated as it would help spread the word about science.Current Circles   Published Mondays ORIGINAL CONTENT CREATORS: http://goo.gl/pOzhN7Published Wednesdays:BLOGGERS & THEIR BLOGS: http://goo.gl/mlXh9WPublished Thursdays:WOMEN ARE FROM VENUS : http://goo.gl/DgeQIAMEN ARE FROM MARS : http://goo.gl/hhJPlSPublished Fridays:A CIRCLE TO PAY IT FORWARD:  http://goo.gl/Ik2RfOOthers CirclesCREATIVES: http://goo.gl/Ahy2X9SCIENCE: http://goo.gl/pzaC4yTECHNOLOGY: http://goo.gl/a1jWG6G+ Pages: http://goo.gl/9v2o43        #sciencecircle   #circleshare   #sharingcircles  2014-11-19 18:04:35106205
Becky Collins18,570Web & SEO Resources Circle  :Circle of very #social #engagerspeople and companiesTo be included in my shares (#sharedcircle), be so kind to:1 - Do +1 t the post2 - Comment the post and specify your "category" (job or interest) Ex: Fashion, SEO, Companies, Social Media Marketing, Sailing, Photography, Bloggers/Writers, Web graphics and design, Italy, Artists, Sport, Finance/Economy ...3 - include the circle among your circles4 - share the circle (include yourself)Improve your popularity, be social be cool !Keep yourself updated, enjoy the Shared Circles Hellenic Alliance, you can share your shared circles inside the upcoming Community:https://plus.google.com/communities/112552559573595396104  #socialmedia  #media  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing  #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins ?2014-11-08 05:28:54500000
Atanas Georgiev Atanasov1,228SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY + FRIENDS of it : CIRCLE V.5; maintained by +AtanasGeorgievAtanasov ; You can learn more about my personal scientific research here: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25083916   To be added to the circle, please +1/reshare/comment/add me to your circles. I would be happy to connect on other networks too:http://about.me/Atanas_At   Below I am just pasting some keyords/topics to improve the visibility of the circle and to make it more discoverable: #Science  #Research #Technology #NASA  #Space #Innovation #Engineering #NIAC #nutrition #Entrepreneur #Commercial#ScienceSunday #Sundayscience #Science #Research #Tech#GameTech #GameTechnology #Gaming #VideoGaming +Microsoft#MicrosoftResearch  #innovation #Inflammation #Brain#mindcontrol #photography #tech #socialmedia #googleplus#naturalproduct #artists #foodies #cars #sharingiscaring  #Liver#sharingmeansthankyou #socialmedia  #sports #Smartphones#tablets 2014-11-06 08:10:34369051
Sharon Caroline1,629Hello my friends, good morning/evening for you all!Boost Your visibility On Google+!Shared and be shared. :)Thank you for sharing and promoting this.#circleshare #sharedcircles #sharingcircles #sharedcircleoftheday2014-11-05 08:31:58463000
Atanas Georgiev Atanasov1,228SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY + FRIENDS of it : Circle V.3, maintained by +AtanasGeorgievAtanasov To be added to the circle, please +1/reshare/comment/add me to your circles. I would be happy to connect on other networks too:http://about.me/Atanas_At   You can learn a bit more about my personal scientific research from these links: https://plus.google.com/115938908270684192009/posts/MGt3zvEtTgq  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25083916   Below I am just pasting some keyords/topics to improve the visibility of the circle and to make it more discoverable: #Science  #Research #Technology #NASA  #Space #Innovation  #Engineering #NIAC #nutrition #Entrepreneur #Commercial #ScienceSunday #Sundayscience #Science #Research #Tech #GameTech #GameTechnology #Gaming #VideoGaming +Microsoft #MicrosoftResearch  #innovation #Inflammation #Brain #mindcontrol #photography #tech #socialmedia #googleplus #naturalproduct #artists #foodies 2014-11-05 07:02:42362101
Atanas Georgiev Atanasov1,127Science and Technology +Friends: Circle 2014 V.2 To be added to the circle, please +1/reshare/comment. I would be happy to connect on other networks too:http://about.me/Atanas_At   You can learn a bit more about my personal scientific research from these links: https://plus.google.com/115938908270684192009/posts/MGt3zvEtTgq  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25083916   Below I am just pasting some keyords/topics to improve the visibility of the circle and to make it more discoverable: #Science  #Research #Technology #NASA  #Space #Innovation  #Engineering #NIAC #nutrition #Entrepreneur #Commercial #ScienceSunday #Sundayscience #Science #Research #Tech #GameTech #GameTechnology #Gaming #VideoGaming +Microsoft #MicrosoftResearch  #innovation #Inflammation #Brain #mindcontrol #photography #tech #socialmedia #googleplus #naturalproduct #artists #foodies #cars 2014-11-04 06:51:44407101
Atanas Georgiev Atanasov982Science and Technology Circle 2014 To be added to the circle, please +1/reshare/comment. I would be happy to connect on other networks too:http://about.me/Atanas_At   You can learn a bit more about my personal scientific research from these links: https://plus.google.com/115938908270684192009/posts/MGt3zvEtTgq  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25083916   Below I am just pasting some keyords/topics to improve the visibility of the circle and to make it more discoverable: #Science  #Research #Technology #NASA   #Space #Innovation   #Engineering #NIAC #nutrition #Entrepreneur #Commercial #ScienceSunday #Sundayscience #Science #Research #Tech #GameTech #GameTechnology #Gaming #VideoGaming #Microsoft #MicrosoftResearch   #innovation #Inflammation #Brain #mindcontrol #photography #tech #socialmedia #googleplus #naturalproduct #artists 2014-11-02 08:37:19453101
Becky Collins17,500Top Active Engager's Circle :Circle of very #social #engagerspeople and companiesTo be included in my shares (#sharedcircle), be so kind to:1 - Do +1 t the post2 - Comment the post and specify your "category" (job or interest) Ex: Fashion, SEO, Companies, Social Media Marketing, Sailing, Photography, Bloggers/Writers, Web graphics and design, Italy, Artists, Sport, Finance/Economy ...3 - include the circle among your circles4 - share the circle (include yourself)Improve your popularity, be social be cool !Keep yourself updated, enjoy the Shared Circles Hellenic Alliance, you can share your shared circles inside the upcoming Community:https://plus.google.com/communities/112552559573595396104  #socialmedia  #media  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing  #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins ?2014-10-13 05:05:40478002
Tam Tit811GOOGLE FRIENDS! -  RESHARE if you want to be included *'"*:•:••:*:•-:¦:*  *SHARE AND BE  SHARED*  *:¦:-•:*:••-:•:''''*  Follow   this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:boost   visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post 5 - Follow  your dreams and smile to life.More you share More you get! :)I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#fridaysharedcircle   #topsharedcircle   #circleoftheday  #sharedcircle #trustinme  #circlesharing        #circleshare        #circles        #circleoftheday   #sharedpubliccircles        #sharedcircles    #share  #vipsnowballcircle #sharedcircleoftheday       #sharewithyou        #circlefriday   #circlethursday  #followfriday  #follow    #followme     #followers #followback #circle#googleplus  #communities #hangouts  #events  #coolpeople #circleshare #sharedcircles #ff #ffcircle      2014-09-16 01:24:35301339
Macy Pine464GOOGLE FRIENDS! -  RESHARE if you want to be included *'"*:•:••:*:•-:¦:*  *SHARE AND BE  SHARED*  *:¦:-•:*:••-:•:''''*  Follow   this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:boost   visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post 5 - Follow  your dreams and smile to life.More you share More you get! :)I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#fridaysharedcircle   #topsharedcircle   #circleoftheday  #sharedcircle #trustinme  #circlesharing        #circleshare        #circles        #circleoftheday   #sharedpubliccircles        #sharedcircles    #share  #vipsnowballcircle #sharedcircleoftheday       #sharewithyou        #circlefriday   #circlethursday  #followfriday  #follow    #followme     #followers #followback #circle#googleplus  #communities #hangouts  #events  #coolpeople #circleshare #sharedcircles #ff #ffcircle      2014-09-15 12:23:583534810
MiDu1,013GOOGLE FRIENDS! -  RESHARE if you want to be included *'"*:•:••:*:•-:¦:*  *SHARE AND BE  SHARED*  *:¦:-•:*:••-:•:''''*  Follow   this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:boost   visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post 5 - Follow  your dreams and smile to life.More you share More you get! :)I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#fridaysharedcircle   #topsharedcircle   #circleoftheday  #sharedcircle #trustinme  #circlesharing        #circleshare        #circles        #circleoftheday   #sharedpubliccircles        #sharedcircles    #share  #vipsnowballcircle #sharedcircleoftheday       #sharewithyou        #circlefriday   #circlethursday  #followfriday  #follow    #followme     #followers #followback #circle#googleplus  #communities #hangouts  #events  #coolpeople #circleshare #sharedcircles #ff #ffcircle      2014-09-14 16:20:20351104
Joyce Chu564GOOGLE FRIENDS! -  RESHARE if you want to be included *'"*:•:••:*:•-:¦:*  *SHARE AND BE  SHARED*  *:¦:-•:*:••-:•:''''*  Follow   this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:boost   visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post 5 - Follow  your dreams and smile to life.More you share More you get! :)I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#fridaysharedcircle   #topsharedcircle   #circleoftheday  #sharedcircle #trustinme  #circlesharing        #circleshare        #circles        #circleoftheday   #sharedpubliccircles        #sharedcircles    #share  #vipsnowballcircle #sharedcircleoftheday       #sharewithyou        #circlefriday   #circlethursday  #followfriday  #follow    #followme     #followers #followback #circle#googleplus  #communities #hangouts  #events  #coolpeople #circleshare #sharedcircles #ff #ffcircle      2014-09-09 12:39:25253101548
Nana Xinh431GOOGLE FRIENDS! -  RESHARE if you want to be included *'"*:•:••:*:•-:¦:*  *SHARE AND BE  SHARED*  *:¦:-•:*:••-:•:''''*  Follow   this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:boost   visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post 5 - Follow  your dreams and smile to life.More you share More you get! :)I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#fridaysharedcircle   #topsharedcircle   #circleoftheday  #sharedcircle #trustinme  #circlesharing        #circleshare        #circles        #circleoftheday   #sharedpubliccircles        #sharedcircles    #share  #vipsnowballcircle #sharedcircleoftheday       #sharewithyou        #circlefriday   #circlethursday  #followfriday  #follow    #followme     #followers #followback #circle#googleplus  #communities #hangouts  #events  #coolpeople #circleshare #sharedcircles #ff #ffcircle      2014-09-09 12:02:42253226
Lilly Luta314GOOGLE FRIENDS! -  RESHARE if you want to be included *'"*:•:••:*:•-:¦:*  *SHARE AND BE  SHARED*  *:¦:-•:*:••-:•:''''*  Follow   this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:boost   visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post 5 - Follow  your dreams and smile to life.More you share More you get! :)I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#fridaysharedcircle   #topsharedcircle   #circleoftheday  #sharedcircle #trustinme  #circlesharing        #circleshare        #circles        #circleoftheday   #sharedpubliccircles        #sharedcircles    #share  #vipsnowballcircle #sharedcircleoftheday       #sharewithyou        #circlefriday   #circlethursday  #followfriday  #follow    #followme     #followers #followback #circle#googleplus  #communities #hangouts  #events  #coolpeople #circleshare #sharedcircles #ff #ffcircle      2014-09-09 12:01:56253212
Bảo Anh angels816GOOGLE FRIENDS! -  RESHARE if you want to be included *'"*:•:••:*:•-:¦:*  *SHARE AND BE  SHARED*  *:¦:-•:*:••-:•:''''*  Follow   this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:boost   visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post 5 - Follow  your dreams and smile to life.More you share More you get! :)I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#fridaysharedcircle   #topsharedcircle   #circleoftheday  #sharedcircle #trustinme  #circlesharing        #circleshare        #circles        #circleoftheday   #sharedpubliccircles        #sharedcircles    #share  #vipsnowballcircle #sharedcircleoftheday       #sharewithyou        #circlefriday   #circlethursday  #followfriday  #follow    #followme     #followers #followback #circle#googleplus  #communities #hangouts  #events  #coolpeople #circleshare #sharedcircles #ff #ffcircle      2014-09-09 11:58:47253569
Tam Tit489GOOGLE FRIENDS! -  RESHARE if you want to be included *'"*:•:••:*:•-:¦:*  *SHARE AND BE  SHARED*  *:¦:-•:*:••-:•:''''*  Follow   this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:boost   visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post 5 - Follow  your dreams and smile to life.More you share More you get! :)I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#fridaysharedcircle   #topsharedcircle   #circleoftheday  #sharedcircle #trustinme  #circlesharing        #circleshare        #circles        #circleoftheday   #sharedpubliccircles        #sharedcircles    #share  #vipsnowballcircle #sharedcircleoftheday       #sharewithyou        #circlefriday   #circlethursday  #followfriday  #follow    #followme     #followers #followback #circle#googleplus  #communities #hangouts  #events  #coolpeople #circleshare #sharedcircles #ff #ffcircle      2014-09-09 11:37:13253257
Macy Pine154GOOGLE FRIENDS! -  RESHARE if you want to be included *'"*:•:••:*:•-:¦:*  *SHARE AND BE  SHARED*  *:¦:-•:*:••-:•:''''*  Follow   this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:boost   visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post 5 - Follow  your dreams and smile to life.More you share More you get! :)I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#fridaysharedcircle   #topsharedcircle   #circleoftheday  #sharedcircle #trustinme  #circlesharing        #circleshare        #circles        #circleoftheday   #sharedpubliccircles        #sharedcircles    #share  #vipsnowballcircle #sharedcircleoftheday       #sharewithyou        #circlefriday   #circlethursday  #followfriday  #follow    #followme     #followers #followback #circle#googleplus  #communities #hangouts  #events  #coolpeople #circleshare #sharedcircles #ff #ffcircle      2014-09-03 04:49:21246102
Bảo Anh angels404GOOGLE FRIENDS! -  RESHARE if you want to be included *'"*:•:••:*:•-:¦:*  *SHARE AND BE  SHARED*  *:¦:-•:*:••-:•:''''*  Follow   this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:boost   visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post 5 - Follow  your dreams and smile to life.More you share More you get! :)I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#fridaysharedcircle   #topsharedcircle   #circleoftheday  #sharedcircle #trustinme  #circlesharing        #circleshare        #circles        #circleoftheday   #sharedpubliccircles        #sharedcircles    #share  #vipsnowballcircle #sharedcircleoftheday       #sharewithyou        #circlefriday   #circlethursday  #followfriday  #follow    #followme     #followers #followback #circle#googleplus  #communities #hangouts  #events  #coolpeople #circleshare #sharedcircles #ff #ffcircle      2014-08-31 15:04:16234104
DJ TIT337GOOGLE FRIENDS! -  RESHARE if you want to be included *'"*:•:••:*:•-:¦:*  *SHARE AND BE  SHARED*  *:¦:-•:*:••-:•:''''*  Follow   this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:boost   visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post 5 - Follow  your dreams and smile to life.More you share More you get! :)I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#fridaysharedcircle   #topsharedcircle   #circleoftheday  #sharedcircle #trustinme  #circlesharing        #circleshare        #circles        #circleoftheday   #sharedpubliccircles        #sharedcircles    #share  #vipsnowballcircle #sharedcircleoftheday       #sharewithyou        #circlefriday   #circlethursday  #followfriday  #follow    #followme     #followers #followback #circle#googleplus  #communities #hangouts  #events  #coolpeople #circleshare #sharedcircles #ff #ffcircle      2014-08-31 15:03:53235023
Lilly Luta192GOOGLE FRIENDS! -  RESHARE if you want to be included *'"*:•:••:*:•-:¦:*  *SHARE AND BE  SHARED*  *:¦:-•:*:••-:•:''''*  Follow   this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:boost   visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post 5 - Follow  your dreams and smile to life.More you share More you get! :)I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#fridaysharedcircle   #topsharedcircle   #circleoftheday  #sharedcircle #trustinme  #circlesharing        #circleshare        #circles        #circleoftheday   #sharedpubliccircles        #sharedcircles    #share  #vipsnowballcircle #sharedcircleoftheday       #sharewithyou        #circlefriday   #circlethursday  #followfriday  #follow    #followme     #followers #followback #circle#googleplus  #communities #hangouts  #events  #coolpeople #circleshare #sharedcircles #ff #ffcircle      2014-08-31 15:00:33235012
MiDu376GOOGLE FRIENDS! -  RESHARE if you want to be included *'"*:•:••:*:•-:¦:*  *SHARE AND BE  SHARED*  *:¦:-•:*:••-:•:''''*  Follow   this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:boost   visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post 5 - Follow  your dreams and smile to life.More you share More you get! :)I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#fridaysharedcircle   #topsharedcircle   #circleoftheday  #sharedcircle #trustinme  #circlesharing        #circleshare        #circles        #circleoftheday   #sharedpubliccircles        #sharedcircles    #share  #vipsnowballcircle #sharedcircleoftheday       #sharewithyou        #circlefriday   #circlethursday  #followfriday  #follow    #followme     #followers #followback #circle#googleplus  #communities #hangouts  #events  #coolpeople #circleshare #sharedcircles #ff #ffcircle      2014-08-31 14:47:25236010
Phoiphailin Sivilay178GOOGLE FRIENDS! -  RESHARE if you want to be included *'"*:•:••:*:•-:¦:*  *SHARE AND BE  SHARED*  *:¦:-•:*:••-:•:''''*  Follow   this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:boost   visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post 5 - Follow  your dreams and smile to life.More you share More you get! :)I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#fridaysharedcircle   #topsharedcircle   #circleoftheday  #sharedcircle #trustinme  #circlesharing        #circleshare        #circles        #circleoftheday   #sharedpubliccircles        #sharedcircles    #share  #vipsnowballcircle #sharedcircleoftheday       #sharewithyou        #circlefriday   #circlethursday  #followfriday  #follow    #followme     #followers #followback #circle#googleplus  #communities #hangouts  #events  #coolpeople #circleshare #sharedcircles #ff #ffcircle      2014-08-30 04:37:46235113
Joyce Chu173GOOGLE FRIENDS! -  RESHARE if you want to be included *'"*:•:••:*:•-:¦:*  *SHARE AND BE  SHARED*  *:¦:-•:*:••-:•:''''*  Follow   this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:boost   visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post 5 - Follow  your dreams and smile to life.More you share More you get! :)I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#fridaysharedcircle   #topsharedcircle   #circleoftheday  #sharedcircle #trustinme  #circlesharing        #circleshare        #circles        #circleoftheday   #sharedpubliccircles        #sharedcircles    #share  #vipsnowballcircle #sharedcircleoftheday       #sharewithyou        #circlefriday   #circlethursday  #followfriday  #follow    #followme     #followers #followback #circle#googleplus  #communities #hangouts  #events  #coolpeople #circleshare #sharedcircles #ff #ffcircle      2014-08-30 04:37:32235103
Nana Xinh277GOOGLE FRIENDS! -  RESHARE if you want to be included *'"*:•:••:*:•-:¦:*  *SHARE AND BE  SHARED*  *:¦:-•:*:••-:•:''''*  Follow   this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:boost   visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post 5 - Follow  your dreams and smile to life.More you share More you get! :)I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#fridaysharedcircle   #topsharedcircle   #circleoftheday  #sharedcircle #trustinme  #circlesharing        #circleshare        #circles        #circleoftheday   #sharedpubliccircles        #sharedcircles    #share  #vipsnowballcircle #sharedcircleoftheday       #sharewithyou        #circlefriday   #circlethursday  #followfriday  #follow    #followme     #followers #followback #circle#googleplus  #communities #hangouts  #events  #coolpeople #circleshare #sharedcircles #ff #ffcircle      2014-08-30 03:04:44235101
Tam Tit306GOOGLE FRIENDS! -  RESHARE if you want to be included *'"*:•:••:*:•-:¦:*  *SHARE AND BE  SHARED*  *:¦:-•:*:••-:•:''''*  Follow   this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:boost   visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post 5 - Follow  your dreams and smile to life.More you share More you get! :)I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#fridaysharedcircle   #topsharedcircle   #circleoftheday  #sharedcircle #trustinme  #circlesharing        #circleshare        #circles        #circleoftheday   #sharedpubliccircles        #sharedcircles    #share  #vipsnowballcircle #sharedcircleoftheday       #sharewithyou        #circlefriday   #circlethursday  #followfriday  #follow    #followme     #followers #followback #circle#googleplus  #communities #hangouts  #events  #coolpeople #circleshare #sharedcircles #ff #ffcircle      2014-08-30 02:51:36235104
Linh Napie340GOOGLE FRIENDS! -  RESHARE if you want to be included *'"*:•:••:*:•-:¦:*  *SHARE AND BE  SHARED*  *:¦:-•:*:••-:•:''''*  Follow   this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:boost   visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post 5 - Follow  your dreams and smile to life.More you share More you get! :)I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#fridaysharedcircle   #topsharedcircle   #circleoftheday  #sharedcircle #trustinme  #circlesharing        #circleshare        #circles        #circleoftheday   #sharedpubliccircles        #sharedcircles    #share  #vipsnowballcircle #sharedcircleoftheday       #sharewithyou        #circlefriday   #circlethursday  #followfriday  #follow    #followme     #followers #followback #circle#googleplus  #communities #hangouts  #events  #coolpeople #circleshare #sharedcircles #ff #ffcircle      2014-08-30 02:43:05235458
Lee Soobin0 GOOGLE FRIENDS! -  RESHARE if you want to be included *'"*:•:••:*:•-:¦:*  *SHARE AND BE  SHARED*  *:¦:-•:*:••-:•:''''*  Follow   this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:boost   visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post 5 - Follow  your dreams and smile to life.More you share More you get! :)I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#fridaysharedcircle   #topsharedcircle   #circleoftheday  #sharedcircle #trustinme  #circlesharing        #circleshare        #circles        #circleoftheday   #sharedpubliccircles        #sharedcircles    #share  #vipsnowballcircle #sharedcircleoftheday       #sharewithyou        #circlefriday   #circlethursday  #followfriday  #follow    #followme     #followers #followback #circle#googleplus  #communities #hangouts  #events  #coolpeople #circleshare #sharedcircles #ff #ffcircle      2014-08-29 16:55:484856610
EDZUL FREDY KRISNAWAN0Meet the People who WILL...Take This Circle To The TopLet 'er Rip! You guys and gals are SUPERSTARS!!!Want to be added to the #hyperadd?1) Add me to your circles.2) Share, +1, and Comment This Share3) Reshare anything that interests you on my stream (profile) from today or the rest of this week.#circlesharing   #sharedcircles   #circles   #circlemaster  2014-08-29 11:28:1048511413
Able Lawrence100,166100K Engagers Celebration Circle Thank you all those who have followed me and engaged with my posts and taking me to the milestone of 100,000 followers. Goolge+ has been an exhilarating journey of 3 years and I would like to thank all those who have followed me and engaged on my posts whether they were on Science or Birds or Technology. The circle has been created using  * +Circloscope * which is the work of +Ehsan Ahmadi Gharacheh All of you are free to share your favorite posts in the comments and also reshare this circle. If you are included in the circle, you will get a notification.  2014-07-17 17:22:18340491787
Circles Circles Circles37,983SCIENCE CircleDo you want more science in your life? Then, be sure to add these fascinating pages and people who dwell on science daily and are actively engaging.  Enrich your stream.If you are a scientist or someone who primarily posts about science and would like to be included in this circle please make a request in the comments section below.If you have someone or an organization's G+ page to recommend please add their name in the comments section below.Note: To those included in the circle, you were added by the generous recommendation of others  -- their help is deeply appreciated. Your add back and re-share would be also deeply appreciated as it would help spread the word about science.Current Circles  Published Mondays ORIGINAL CONTENT CREATORS : http://goo.gl/o82s0mPublished Wednesdays:BLOGGERS & THEIR BLOGS: http://goo.gl/IkCTLPPublished Thursdays:WOMEN ARE FROM VENUS : http://goo.gl/nFCsGwMEN ARE FROM MARS :  http://goo.gl/tID4ZmPublished Fridays:A CIRCLE TO PAY IT FORWARD:  http://goo.gl/E6v81LOthers CirclesSCIENCE: http://goo.gl/xXWLPtTECHNOLOGY: http://goo.gl/z3z8lh#science       #scienceeveryday       #sciencecircle       #circlesharing  2014-07-17 04:08:1710691432
Farid Shaikh2,524GOOGLE FRIENDS! - You're in this  Circle 6   -  RESHARE if you want to be included *'"*:•:••:*:•-:¦:*  *SHARE AND BE  SHARED*  *:¦:-•:*:••-:•:''''*  This is a super Circle and in it I put together a group of really interesting and active people on Google Plus to add in your circles.I'm talking about the top   Google + users that share unique and original contents.Follow   this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:boost   visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post 5 - Follow  your dreams and smile to life.More you share More you get! :)I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#circles #shared #share #add #friends #circle #share #sharecircle #circleshare2014-07-06 17:40:574928010
Farid Shaikh2,347GOOGLE FRIENDS! - You're in this  Circle 6   -  RESHARE if you want to be included *'"*:•:••:*:•-:¦:*  *SHARE AND BE  SHARED*  *:¦:-•:*:••-:•:''''*  This is a super Circle and in it I put together a group of really interesting and active people on Google Plus to add in your circles.I'm talking about the top   Google + users that share unique and original contents.Follow   this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:boost   visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post 5 - Follow  your dreams and smile to life.More you share More you get! :)I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#circles #shared #share #add #friends #circle #share #sharecircle #circleshare2014-07-03 07:46:354929115
Doug Hyatt3,234MANY NEW PEOPLE #2 THAT WILL PLUS 1 and RESHARESimply ADD yourself to this circle, copy the #HASHTAGS, and REPOST#circles   #circlemania   #circletoday   #circleplus   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #CircleSharing   #sharecircle   #sharecirclethis   #worldsharecircle   #pleasecircleaddme   #circleoftheday   #newgenerationcircle  #monstercircle   #usacircle   #bestofthecircle   #shareofthecircle   #pleasecircle   #newbestcircl  add circle add circle * best share circle * share please pleaseplease add circle * best share circle * share please please#add #circle   #addcircle   #pleasecircle   #bestcircle   #mostcircle  #bestsharecircle   #newcircle   #top100circle   #best500circle   #top500circle   #circleoftheday   #circledaily   #nicecircle   2014-06-29 10:59:0549119415
Circles Circles Circles35,732SCIENCE CircleDo you want more science in your life? Then, be sure to add these fascinating pages and people who dwell on science daily and are actively engaging.  Enrich your stream.If you are a scientist or someone who primarily posts about science and would like to be included in this circle please make a request in the comments section below.If you have someone or an organization's G+ page to recommend please add their name in the comments section below.Note: To those included in the circle, you were added by the generous recommendation of others  -- their help is deeply appreciated. Your add back and re-share would be also deeply appreciated as it would help spread the word about science.Current Circles  Published Mondays ORIGINAL CONTENT CREATORS : http://goo.gl/RPEbdlPublished Wednesdays:BLOGGERS & THEIR BLOGS: http://goo.gl/fmOadpPublished Thursdays:WOMEN ARE FROM VENUS : http://goo.gl/Oyg8RBMEN ARE FROM MARS :  http://goo.gl/9NT51gPublished Fridays:A CIRCLE TO PAY IT FORWARD:  http://goo.gl/5mT3s0Others CirclesSCIENCE: http://goo.gl/AV4WvdTECHNOLOGY: http://goo.gl/YANzuo#science     #scienceeveryday     #sciencecircle     #circlesharing  2014-06-19 02:05:331065924
Angie Rocio40To increase your chances of inclusion in future circles please leave a comment when sharing the circle.This is a public circle of Social Networking Industry Professionals that would like to be circled in order to discover other Social Networking Industry Professionals and to gain more followers, if you would like to be included so that you too can obtain new followers please follow these steps.      1. Post 1 G+     2. Add this circle.     3. Share this circle publicly.We are the most exclusive page dedicated to helping Social Networking Industry Professionals to gain new followers.2014-06-15 08:27:4549710421
nicholas s.6,095Add these people to your circles...Amazing Group. If your in this edition of the circle share please re-share the circle and plus one the circle share. Ty!#circle #circles #circleshare #circleshares #circleshared #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #follow #followme #followers #following #authicle #authiclecircleshare #authiclecircle #authiclevol66 #googleplus #coolpeople   #circleshare   #sharedcircles   #sharedcircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #fullcircleshare #social   #socialmedia   #socialmediamarketing   #socialnetworks   #socialnetworking     #marketing   #affiliate   #internet   #internetmarketing #google   2014-06-11 10:33:0950110311
Farid Shaikh903GOOGLE FRIENDS! - You're in this  Circle 6   -  *Share the circle* *'"*:•:••:*:•-:¦:*  *SHARE AND BE  SHARED*  *:¦:-•:*:••-:•:''''*  This is a super Circle and in it I put together a group of really interesting and active people on Google Plus to add in your circles.I'm talking about the top   Google + users that share unique and original contents.Follow   this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:boost   visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post 5 - Follow  your dreams and smile to life.More you share More you get! :)Thanks!#circles #shared #share #add #friends #people #sharedcircle 2014-06-10 02:38:134913116
Becky Collins10,439Super Science Circle :Circle of very #social #engagerspeople and companiesTo be included in my shares (#sharedcircle), be so kind to:1 - Do +1 t the post2 - Comment the post and specify your "category" (job or interest) Ex: Fashion, SEO, Companies, Social Media Marketing, Sailing, Photography, Bloggers/Writers, Web graphics and design, Italy, Artists, Sport, Finance/Economy ...3 - include the circle among your circles4 - share the circle (include yourself)Improve your popularity, be social be cool !Keep yourself updated, enjoy the Shared Circles Hellenic Alliance, you can share your shared circles inside the upcoming Community:https://plus.google.com/communities/112552559573595396104  #socialmedia  #media  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing  #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins ?2014-05-31 05:09:154901211
Circles Circles Circles33,758SCIENCE CircleDo you want more science in your life? Then, be sure to add these fascinating pages and people who dwell on science daily and are actively engaging.  Enrich your stream.If you are a scientist or someone who primarily posts about science and would like to be included in this circle please make a request in the comments section below.If you have someone or an organization's G+ page to recommend please add their name in the comments section below.Note: To those included in the circle, you were added by the generous recommendation of others  -- their help is deeply appreciated. Your add back and re-share would be also deeply appreciated as it would help spread the word about science.Current Circles  Published Mondays ORIGINAL CONTENT CREATORS : http://goo.gl/WbY7NSPublished Wednesdays:BLOGGERS & THEIR BLOGS: http://goo.gl/XPSnHVPublished Thursdays:WOMEN ARE FROM VENUS : http://goo.gl/itFj7ZMEN ARE FROM MARS : http://goo.gl/uBBxgdPublished Fridays:A CIRCLE TO PAY IT FORWARD: http://goo.gl/f1wz2IOthers CirclesSCIENCE: http://goo.gl/MOGsxGTECHNOLOGY: http://goo.gl/bDcYF4#science     #scienceeveryday     #sciencecircle     #circlesharing  2014-05-28 20:17:02102101219
Farid Shaikh458GOOGLE FRIENDS! - You're in this  Circle 5   -  *Share the circle* *'"*:•:••:*:•-:¦:*  *SHARE AND BE  SHARED*  *:¦:-•:*:••-:•:''''*  This is a super Circle and in it I put together a group of really interesting and active people on Google Plus to add in your circles.I'm talking about the top   Google + users that share unique and original contents.Follow   this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:boost   visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post 5 - Follow  your dreams and smile to life.More you share More you get! :)Thanks!#circles #circleshare #circlesharing #sharedcircles #addcircles #addpeople #addcircle #addfriends #friends #add  2014-05-28 19:25:264868617
Daniel Mihai Popescu49,376This is called Circle Zero and the great majority of you already know it :)There are a few "follow backs" in it, along my precious Invincible, and some other few people I respect! #danielmihaipopescusharedcircle #maximumperformance I share from Firefox this time, and if you don't receive the notification yet again, it means I'm "punished" by Google Plus :)Of course I'm joking, it means nothing, actually. Nobody is compelled to do anything, even if you receive the notification, meaning you are in the circle and you don't have to check it (this operation being made so difficult lately, by our dear G+ programmers, but I understand them: "simpler is better", so I agree). Besides, as +Adriana Popovici so accurately noticed, G+ oriented itself through communication with people not being members of your circles than outlying the members. You see now the "add" or "follow" button when checking out an account is blatantly RED, since your friends have a white one, with the "circle symbol". Nice!Oh, when you notice you're members, a simply "+1" will move me, if not, it's all the same. I keep only valuable people in my circles, so they don't have anything to change to upset me, just maybe to leave me out completely. Even that, won't be the end of the world, you know?Some of the members aren't what you call "engagers", some are not even as active as you may expect, this doesn't make them less valuable, so you can take my word, because I vouch for them!For non members: It is recommended that you add the circle, it'll give you a colorful and meaningful stream :) It's the least I can do, and if I'll make more, you'll notice in time :).Sharing the circle is not going to melt my cold heart, so please, do what you feel, and it is time to learn how to handle elegantly this delicate matter on Google Plus. When sharing the circle, please don't promise your followers things in my name, like "you will be followed back" or stuff like that, because I'm not responsible for the circle members' behavior :)Good luck! Please!2014-05-27 15:09:34480492256
All Music Italia0#cantanti   #cantantiitaliani   #singers   #italiansingers  #sharedcircles #addcircle #sharedpubliccircles #growfollowers #circleshare #publicsharedcircles #circleoftheweek #circlesharing #publiccircle #findcircles #circlemeup #influencers #influencer #influence #influencermarketing #sharedcircle #sundaycircle #circleshare #Wednesday #wednesdaycircle #wednesdaycircles #circlewednesday2014-05-25 10:34:28492315
Penny4NASA42,501Space Advocates Circle: First EditionHere's the first edition of our Space Advocates public shared circle, highlighting space agencies, private aerospace companies, space advocacy organizations, and public figures who actively promote the exploration of space and the STEM fields on Google+.We will be updating this circle regularly and sharing it every few months. We welcome your input! If there is a Page of Profile you believe should be included in this circle please let us know in the comments below. They could make an appearance in the next edition of our Space Advocates circle! #Penny4NASA #NASA #NASASocial #STEM #COSMOS #Space #SpaceExploration #SpaceX #Science #ScienceSunday #CarlSagan #NeildeGrasseTyson #PublicSharedCircles #PublicCircle #SharedCircle #SharedCircleOfTheDay #CircleOfTheDay #Circles #CircleShare #CircleSharing2014-05-22 18:28:48123359
Daniel Mihai Popescu48,496A very dear circle, The Complex!If you receive the notification, it means I'm lucky :) #danielmihaipopescusharedcircle   #maximumperformance  If you "+1" it with or without notification, you will show that you care :)Thank you very much, dear friends.2014-05-19 16:55:27497352142
Circles Circles Circles32,435SCIENCE CircleDo you want more science in your life? Then, be sure to add these fascinating pages and people who dwell on science daily and are actively engaging.  Enrich your stream.If you are a scientist or someone who primarily posts about science and would like to be included in this circle please make a request in the comments section below.If you have someone or an organization's G+ page to recommend please add their name in the comments section below.Note: To those included in the circle, you were added by the generous recommendation of others  -- their help is deeply appreciated. Your add back and re-share would be also deeply appreciated as it would help spread the word about science.Current Circles  Published Mondays ORIGINAL CONTENT CREATORS : http://goo.gl/Hev5GIPublished Wednesdays:BLOGGERS: http://goo.gl/Nqll1yPublished Thursdays:WOMEN ARE FROM VENUS : http://goo.gl/olCV0EMEN ARE FROM MARS : http://goo.gl/l58RRiPublished Fridays:A CIRCLE TO PAY IT FORWARD: http://goo.gl/oIXG1ROthers Circles:SCIENCE: http://goo.gl/voKgBxTECHNOLOGY: http://goo.gl/bDcYF4#science   #scienceeveryday   #sciencecircle   #circlesharing  2014-05-16 02:10:07103141426
Kristin Milton9,730Hi everyone, This is a starter circle for +Ben Milton.It's mostly my 'most relevant' circlers, heavily weighted for sciency content.Enjoy :)2014-05-13 12:51:4398105
Circles Circles Circles31,443S C I E N C E CircleDo you want some science in your life? Then, be sure to add these fascinating pages and people who dwell on science dainly and are actively engaging the rest of us.  Enrich your stream.This is an active circle, with more members to be added later. If you have someone to recommend please add their name in the comments section below. #science   #scienceeveryday   #sciencecircle   #circlesharing  2014-05-09 17:42:562019518
Andrea Orselli5,603Hi! Here is my circle. Please click "ADD PEOPLE" button to add the whole circle and help increase each others connection. +1 and share will be greatly appreciated.#circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #wanttobecircled #addmetoyourcircles #public #publiccircle #sharedcircles    #sharedcircle #morefollowers #sharingcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedpublicircles #sharedcircle #photography #photographer #bestphotographer #topphotographer #AddCircle #FindCircles #awesome #AwesomePeople #AwesomeCircle #addmetoyourcircles #addcircle #addpeople #circlemeup #circlesdiscovery #circleshare #circlesharing #publiccircle    #publicsharedcircles #SharedCircles #weeklyreview #sharedcircle    #topsharedcircl2014-04-30 20:05:53443426
nicholas syahputra821. Plus The Post2. Comment3. Add People To Circles4. Share The Circle!#circlesharing #circleshare #circles #circle #googleplustips #googleplus #indonesia #artists #artist #artistphotographeramateurorprofessional2014-04-30 07:03:1548531842

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Most comments: 132

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2014-06-10 23:13:43 (132 comments, 137 reshares, 976 +1s)Open 

Do You Have a Science Question for our Community?

One of our members +Miz Abynaah wanted to know more about the Doppler Effect (http://goo.gl/KIOa6B). +Mike Aben  wrote this terrific explanation below as well as sharing this great video by +Alt Shift X.

Mike Aben: The Doppler Effect
The Doppler effect occurs whenever an object emitting waves is moving.  The effect is observed with any waves (water, sound, light, etc).  The waves being emitted ahead of the object's motion are compressed, which means they will reach an observer at a higher frequency than if the object was stationary.  The waves emitted behind the object are stretched out and will reach an observer at a lower frequency.

With sound waves, this affects the pitch of the sound heard.  For example, the sound of a car traveling towards you will be at a higher pitch than the soundof a ... more »

Most reshares: 378

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2014-08-01 18:36:21 (60 comments, 378 reshares, 328 +1s)Open 

Ebola for Beginners: How it Works, Why There’s No Cure, and Why It’s So Hard to Control This Time

By Maren Hunsberger, reposted with permission (originally published at http://goo.gl/ZVwoBU)

The internet is awash with news that one of the world’s foremost Ebola-fighting physicians, Sheikh Umar Khan, has himself been infected with the disease (http://goo.gl/i5T6yj), along with two American aid workers (http://goo.gl/VuQJA9). History’s deadliest outbreak of Ebola is currently sweeping across Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Liberia, having claimed more than 600 lives already. With a mortality rate of anywhere between 40% and 90% (this epidemic's is around 65%), what is it that makes Ebola one of the most lethal diseases in the pantheon of pathogens? Why is there no cure or vaccine? And why is so difficult to control?

The Basics: Ebola’s full name is Ebolahaemorrha... more »

Most plusones: 976

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2014-06-10 23:13:43 (132 comments, 137 reshares, 976 +1s)Open 

Do You Have a Science Question for our Community?

One of our members +Miz Abynaah wanted to know more about the Doppler Effect (http://goo.gl/KIOa6B). +Mike Aben  wrote this terrific explanation below as well as sharing this great video by +Alt Shift X.

Mike Aben: The Doppler Effect
The Doppler effect occurs whenever an object emitting waves is moving.  The effect is observed with any waves (water, sound, light, etc).  The waves being emitted ahead of the object's motion are compressed, which means they will reach an observer at a higher frequency than if the object was stationary.  The waves emitted behind the object are stretched out and will reach an observer at a lower frequency.

With sound waves, this affects the pitch of the sound heard.  For example, the sound of a car traveling towards you will be at a higher pitch than the soundof a ... more »

Latest 50 posts

2014-11-22 19:19:51 (0 comments, 8 reshares, 8 +1s)Open 

Young people are victimized by bullies at an alarming rate and the consequences have tragic effects on teens, parents, schools and communities. We hope you can join us on 12/4 as we chat with +Dr. Pescara-Kovach's School Violence Prevention and Intervention  about the research on school violence and bullying. Dr. Pescara-Kovach teaches courses in the field of human development as well as graduate level seminars on the causes, consequences, and prevention of school violence. She is co-chair of U.T.’s Anti-Bullying Task Force and author of “School Shootings and Suicides: Why We Must Stop the Bullies.” You can learn more about Dr. Pescara-Kovach's research by clicking on the links below.

http://www.utoledo.edu/education/depts/efl/faculty/kovach/index.html 
www.preventingbullying.org
www.oregoncs.orgwww.oregoncs.org 
http://www.utoledo.edu/tlc/bully 

Young people are victimized by bullies at an alarming rate and the consequences have tragic effects on teens, parents, schools and communities. We hope you can join us on 12/4 as we chat with +Dr. Pescara-Kovach's School Violence Prevention and Intervention  about the research on school violence and bullying. Dr. Pescara-Kovach teaches courses in the field of human development as well as graduate level seminars on the causes, consequences, and prevention of school violence. She is co-chair of U.T.’s Anti-Bullying Task Force and author of “School Shootings and Suicides: Why We Must Stop the Bullies.” You can learn more about Dr. Pescara-Kovach's research by clicking on the links below.

http://www.utoledo.edu/education/depts/efl/faculty/kovach/index.html 
www.preventingbullying.org
www.oregoncs.orgwww.oregoncs.org 
http://www.utoledo.edu/tlc/bully ___

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2014-11-16 05:28:57 (7 comments, 20 reshares, 106 +1s)Open 

Breathe, Breathe in the Air

+Rich Pollett brings us extreme closeups of insects breathing. Watch the spiracles rise and fall as air is pumped through a system of breathing tubes, as seen in this infograph: http://tabletopwhale.com/2014/10/24/3-different-ways-to-breathe.html 


A Giant Texas Katydid (Neobarrettia spinosa) chirping, breathing, and grooming is way more captivating than I expected it might be. Have you ever looked so closely at an insect? I don't mean macrophotography. I'm talking about extremely close-up footage of a bug in motion. Insects respire a lot differently than us.

Like us however, they depend on oxygen to fuel their cellular processes, but instead of breathing through their mouths, they take in air through a series of tiny holes called spiracles. These spiracles are distributed along an insect's exoskeleton, and act as portals to a ramifying network of tiny, internal, fluid-filled tubes called tracheae, which the insect uses in place of lungs. Air enters through the spiracles and diffuses down the tracheae. Oxygen from the atmosphere is delivered to the insect's cells, where it is exchanged for carbon dioxide. CO2 is then emitted back into the atmosphere via the tracheael system, typically through spiracles located toward the rear of the insect.

Video by precarious333:
Neobarrettia spinosa (Giant Texas Katydid) adult male

Texas Entomology: http://texasento.net/Neobarrettia.htm

#science #scienceeveryday #entomology #grooming
#respiration #spiracles #tracheae  
.___Breathe, Breathe in the Air

+Rich Pollett brings us extreme closeups of insects breathing. Watch the spiracles rise and fall as air is pumped through a system of breathing tubes, as seen in this infograph: http://tabletopwhale.com/2014/10/24/3-different-ways-to-breathe.html 

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2014-11-15 02:37:31 (18 comments, 23 reshares, 113 +1s)Open 

Soap Science!

SoG+ community member J Bennet shares the cool chemistry behind his soap making hobby with us. Have you ever tried making soap? 

I plan to make a batch of soap this weekend, and I thought it might be interesting to bring up here. Soapmaking is a simple home craft, but there's some interesting science behind it.

For one thing, what exactly is soap? It's sort of waxy, but it's not wax. It's sort of oily, but it's not oil. It turns out that soap is a kind of salt, the thing you get when you react acid and metal. The soap we use for bathing is made with a lye solution (sodium hydroxide and water) and any number of vegetable or animal oils.

In the soap-making reaction, called saponification, the sodium in the lye is the metal. That's for bar soap. For liquid soap you use potassium hydroxide. The acid comes from the oils, which are made of triglycerides. A triglyceride is a glycerol molecule with three fatty acid molecules attached.

The characteristics of your soap depend on the fatty acids in the oils you choose, since each type of acid yields a different salt. You might even see the names on some soap packages. Sodium cocoate is the salt (really a mixture of salts) you get when making soap with cocoa oil. Sodium palmate comes from the palmitic acid in palm oil, and it's also where the "palm" in napalm comes from.

Like any chemical operation, you have to be careful about amounts. Too much lye for the oils you use, and your homemade soap will have drain cleaner as the secret ingredient. It's a harsh way to exfoliate. That's why soap recipes use extra oil, typically around 4% to 10%. Soapers call that superfatting. It makes sure that all your lye will react, and the extra oil helps moisturize your skin.

It's a fun hobby, relatively safe if you're careful with the lye, and a good example of how even non-scientists can use science to make life smell better.

A final interesting (I hope) point. You make soap with lye, water, and oil. A similar process using lye, alcohol, and oil yields biodiesel.___Soap Science!

SoG+ community member J Bennet shares the cool chemistry behind his soap making hobby with us. Have you ever tried making soap? 

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2014-11-12 00:37:12 (13 comments, 12 reshares, 64 +1s)Open 

What did you think of the science in Interstellar? The film was based on the ideas of theoretical physicist Kip Thorne and Neil deGrasse Tyson thought the science was credible. 

Science of Interstellar
Theoretical physicist Professor Kip Thorne served as a scientific advisor to director Christopher Nolan on his film, Interstellar. Professor Thorne was a academic at California Institute of Technology from 1967 to 2009 and remains an Emeritus Professor. Professor Thorne has released a book explaining the science behind the script, including discussion of wormholes, black holes and interstellar travel (http://goo.gl/KF5kQW).

Professor Thorne tells +Nature News & Comment that the initial idea for the film came from him and his producer and colleague Lynda Obst, which initially interested Steven Spielberg, but that the Nolan brothers eventually took over the script and changed most of it except the "warped space-time and splendidly fulfilled our vision of a science-fiction movie with real science woven deeply in its fabric." Thorne's equations were used to "compute what a camera would see through the wormhole": He explains:

"Black holes do not emit light, so you visualize them through gravitational lensing — how they bend light from other objects. I took equations based on Einstein's general theory of relativity and created a description of a wormhole with three parameters: diameter, interior length and the degree of flare where the wormhole joins the external Universe." (http://goo.gl/YBAorD)

You can watch Prof. Thorne speaking about his scientific input in the video below or head to the film's website to see more of the science as it appears in the film, including Prof Thorne's equations! (http://goo.gl/GoegmQ) .  

Thumbs Up for Science
Dr Neil deGrasse Tyson, who has been critical of the science in other films like Gravity, has given Interstellar the nod of approval in terms of its depiction of science. On Twitter, deGrasse Tyson says the science is solid, and except for critiquing a scene involving violence between two scientists, he also notes that the film is notable in having depicted gender diversity amongst its central STEM characters. Below are his tweets:

In  #Interstellar: The producers knew exactly how, why, & when you’d achieve zero-G in space. http://goo.gl/ogDgTF

In #Interstellar: You observe great Tidal Waves from great Tidal Forces, of magnitude that orbiting a Black Hole might create. http://goo.gl/dY2OOU

In #Interstellar: You enter a 3-Dimensional portal in space. Yes, you can fall in from any direction. Yes, it’s a Worm Hole. http://goo.gl/fgdpYQ

In #Interstellar: They reprise the matched-rotation docking maneuver from "2001: A Space Odyssey," but they spin 100x faster. http://goo.gl/Ydsk79

In #Interstellar: Of the leading characters (all of whom are scientists or engineers) half are women. Just an FYI. http://goo.gl/2N4dtk

In #Interstellar: On another planet, around another star, in another part of the galaxy, two guys get into a fist fight. http://goo.gl/uG3w67

In #Interstellar, if you didn’t understand the physics, try Kip Thorne’s highly readable Bbook “The Science of Interstellar" http://goo.gl/eCWF5C

In #Interstellar: They explore a planet near a Black Hole. Personally, I’d stay as far the hell away from BlackHoles as I can http://goo.gl/yGzY75

Hollywood Meets Science
Thorne is not the first high-profile scientist to consult on a big budget film, of course. Professor Brian Cox for example was the Science Advisor on Danny Boyle's Sunshine. While the basis of the science for the film was correct, Cox has explained that the producers asked him to tweak the science. Watch him talk about how he "scientifies the film," in director Danny Boyle's words (http://goo.gl/JkhnJy).

Astrophysicist and +Science on Google+ moderator, Professor +Brian Koberlein,  recently wrote that while films are now aiming for stronger scientific "reality," he has mixed emotions about the impact of cinematic attempts to capture astrophysics. He argues that films can either help the public make an emotional connection to science, or feed misinformation:

"If a manned mission to Mars can be made with the hum of a computer rendering farm, what’s the big deal about landing on a comet. Our real triumphs pale in comparison to cinematic dreams. Then again, these dreams might actually inspire us to continue exploring. From cinematic dreams we may find the ambition to make them real."  (http://goo.gl/x3Jkf0)

Over to You, Science Lovers!
If you've seen the film, what did you think of the science? Please keep comments focused on science rather than other aspects of the plot please. Are there other films you love that are scientifically accurate?

#SoG+CuratorsChoice #science   #stem   #physics   #astrophysics   #space  ___What did you think of the science in Interstellar? The film was based on the ideas of theoretical physicist Kip Thorne and Neil deGrasse Tyson thought the science was credible. 

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2014-10-31 22:51:35 (5 comments, 17 reshares, 201 +1s)Open 

Happy Halloween!

Halloween Sun

Did you know the sun is a jack-o-lantern? Or... at least it looks like one if you use the right false colors? This is a real photograph of the sun taken in two colors. Those colors aren't actually orange and red... they're two flavors of x-ray at 171 and 193 angstroms. To visualize it, scientists translated those into "orange" and "red."

In any case, here's the sun wishing us happy halloween!

Source
I found this image on the wonderful blog by Tom Yulsman, ImaGeo.
http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/imageo/2014/10/10/jack-o-lantern-sun/

#sun   #science   #halloween  ___Happy Halloween!

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2014-10-18 19:59:20 (25 comments, 20 reshares, 77 +1s)Open 

Black Doll, White Doll

A recreation of the famous 1940s experiment by the Clarks that was instrumental in the US Supreme court ruling that racial segregation was unconstitutional.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kenneth_and_Mamie_Clark 

News story on the newer version: http://www.cnn.com/2010/US/05/13/doll.study/

See what happens when kids grow up in a world of racial stereotypes 
The video shows a repeat of an old experiment where children can chose between two dolls. See these black children demonstrate a complete lack of self-esteem or even outright self-hatred by choosing a white doll (the 'nice one') over a black one while they are perfectly aware of their own skin color.

If all you hear and see are images where a black skin is linked with violence, crime and poverty, it's no wonder young kids already disassociate themselves of their own color. 

The original 1940s experiment by Kenneth and Mamie Clark led to the famous High Court decision to forbid racial school segregation. This small scale repetition of the experiment shows we still have a long way to go. 

The relevance for my own country of birth, the Netherlands, is that the national debate about 'Zwarte Piet', a blackface helper to the December celebration of 'Sinterklaas' is really important for black all children.

Black Pete is mostly played by white people, using black makeup, over the top afro wigs, golden earrings and large red lips. They act 'funny' by pretending to be stupid, while jumping around in an energetic way. 

They act as the little helpers to the wise, white, bearded Saint Nicolas who arrives on his even more white high horse...

The contrast can't be bigger and the stereotyping can hardly be more over the top. Complaints by the relatively small black community in the Netherlands are mostly put aside as 'it's all good fun and don't spoil the party for the children'. 

Maybe watching this little experiment helps realize defenders of this tradition realize that stereotyping does make children suffer.

Racism goes much deeper than skin; it really is a brain disease

#ZwartePiet   #BlackPete   #racism  ___Black Doll, White Doll

A recreation of the famous 1940s experiment by the Clarks that was instrumental in the US Supreme court ruling that racial segregation was unconstitutional.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kenneth_and_Mamie_Clark 

News story on the newer version: http://www.cnn.com/2010/US/05/13/doll.study/

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2014-10-15 23:57:10 (17 comments, 19 reshares, 88 +1s)Open 

Bats Go Viral

Are bats special? What is it about them that makes them congenial hosts to some of the most deadly viruses?

The Dark Knight Goes Viral
For some reason, many of the scariest virus on this planet - the Ebola virus, rabies, Marburg virus, and SARS coronavirus - seem to find a refuge in bats, of all things. Somehow, these little mammals seem to act as a flying reservoir for all kinds of nasties, but why?
Bats are an extremely diverse order of mammal; there are over 1200 known living species and they account for 20% of all known mammals. So is it simply because there are more bats around, then naturally there would be more viruses found in them?
Well, apart from their sheer diversity and being the only mammal capable of powered flight, there's a bit more to bat than that - it seems that bats also have a high prevalent of genes that encode for proteins which detect and repair DNA - and these genes happen to be the target for many viruses.
So with such an active DNA surveillance system in place, is that why bats are able to harbour such deadly viruses without being harmed by them? Or is that simply a coincidence, that because bats are known to be a reservoir for deadly viruses, so scientists are more likely look for such viruses in bats instead of other mammals, and thus "bats are special virus reservoirs" becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy.
Follow the link below to read the article by +nadia drake to find out more.
#scienceeveryday   #virology  ___Bats Go Viral

Are bats special? What is it about them that makes them congenial hosts to some of the most deadly viruses?

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2014-10-05 12:53:53 (22 comments, 82 reshares, 607 +1s)Open 

Iridium Flare

Iridium communication satellites can reflect sunlight from their antennas directly back to earth, resulting in a bright flash lasting a few seconds. The flares can be so bright that they sometimes damage sensitive astronomical equipment, but they are an impressive sight! Since most iridium satellites are controlled, you can predict when and where the flares appear. An Iridium flare looks like a star that moves slowly and quickly brightens, then slowly fades away. 

To spot one, check out http://www.wikihow.com/Find-an-Iridium-Flare

More: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satellite_flare

H/T to +Azlin Bloor who loves to spot iridium flares with her kids! 

Astrophotographer Mike Taylor caught this shot of a bright flash from an Iridium flare, the Milky Way, rolling cloud cover and an incredible amount of light pollution photographed from the Maine western mountains.___Iridium Flare

Iridium communication satellites can reflect sunlight from their antennas directly back to earth, resulting in a bright flash lasting a few seconds. The flares can be so bright that they sometimes damage sensitive astronomical equipment, but they are an impressive sight! Since most iridium satellites are controlled, you can predict when and where the flares appear. An Iridium flare looks like a star that moves slowly and quickly brightens, then slowly fades away. 

To spot one, check out http://www.wikihow.com/Find-an-Iridium-Flare

More: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satellite_flare

H/T to +Azlin Bloor who loves to spot iridium flares with her kids! 

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2014-09-29 09:44:47 (9 comments, 30 reshares, 95 +1s)Open 

Where's the Proof? Causation & Anecdotes
+Sam Andrews has written an excellent overview of some of the biggest issues facing science communication. In particular, getting the public to understand that correlation does not always equal causation and that scientific evidence trumps anecdotes. 

#SoG+CuratorsChoice #science   #scienceeveryday  

So what is all this science malarkey anyway?

The UK Science Council define science as ”the pursuit and application of knowledge and understanding of the natural and social world following a systematic methodology based on evidence”

As the Council explain, this methodology has some criteria…
”Scientific methodology includes the following:
Objective observation: Measurement and data (possibly although not necessarily using mathematics as a tool)
Evidence
Experiment and/or observation as benchmarks for testing hypotheses
Induction: reasoning to establish general rules or conclusions drawn from facts or examples
Repetition
Critical analysis
Verification and testing: critical exposure to scrutiny, peer review and assessment

Sounds all pretty straight forward doesn’t it?  A bit too straight forward perhaps.  We don’t all have a background in science so it’s not surprising that at times there is some confusion over what science is, how it is done, and what it can actually tell us about the natural and social world.  Fortunately for us, there have been three excellent open access articles have been published in +The Conversation this week which address some of the issues for communicating science:

Where’s the proof in science?  There is none
Astrophysist Geraint Lewis from the +The University of Sydney kicks of this fabulous trio by explaining one of the misconceptions of science: proof.  Yes that’s right, science doesn’t really prove anything.  So what does it do?  In his article, Geraint hands the last word over to Richard Feynman.  I think I will to:
”I have approximate answers and possible beliefs in different degrees of certainty about different things, but I’m not absolutely sure of anything.”
http://theconversation.com/wheres-the-proof-in-science-there-is-none-30570

Clearing up confusion between correlation and causation
Correlations are all to do with relationships between different factors.  Like chocolate and Nobel Prize winners.  Take a look at the graph below, produced by Franz Messerli of +Columbia University.  Apparently there is a correlation between chocolate consumption.  We can even put a number on this – a ‘P value’ to describe the ‘strength’ of the correlation.  In this case the value was 0.0001 – which means that “there is a less than one-in-10,000 probability of getting results like these if no correlation exists”  .  But as Mathematicians Jon Borwein and Michael Rose from the +University of Newcastle (UON), Australia explain, correlation does not imply causation, which means that increasing your chocolate consumption won’t increase your chances of winning the Nobel Prize.  http://theconversation.com/clearing-up-confusion-between-correlation-and-causation-30761

Why research beats anecdote in our search for knowledge
_”Certainty is seductive” writes Philosopher Tim Dean from the University of New South Wales, _”so we tend to cling to it.  We hunt for evidence that buttresses it, while ignoring or rejecting evidence that threatens to undermine it”.  Research, on the underhand, embraces uncertainty.  It isn’t about finding evidence to back your point of view, it’s about increasing our knowledge – and doing so with a scientifically backed evidence base.  For researchers, sometimes that means re-evaluating your point of view.  http://theconversation.com/why-research-beats-anecdote-in-our-search-for-knowledge-30654  


Image:  From Franz Messerli’s paper Chocolate Consumption, Cognitive Function, and Nobel Laureates published in the New England Journal of Medicine.  Franz added a disclaimer to his paper, that he ”regular daily chocolate consumption, mostly but not exclusively in the form of Lindt's dark varieties.” Unfortunately the paper is behind a paywall, but if you fancied a look you can find it here www.dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMon1211064

#science #sciencesunday #scicomm___Where's the Proof? Causation & Anecdotes
+Sam Andrews has written an excellent overview of some of the biggest issues facing science communication. In particular, getting the public to understand that correlation does not always equal causation and that scientific evidence trumps anecdotes. 

#SoG+CuratorsChoice #science   #scienceeveryday  

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2014-09-21 14:37:48 (31 comments, 25 reshares, 171 +1s)Open 

#ClimateMarch 2014

Happening Now: New York City hosts 100K strong people's march to call for action on #climatechange , ahead of this week's U.N. General Assembly, which brings together 120 world leaders to discuss reducing carbon emissions that threaten the environment. Watch and Listen live on http://peoplesclimate.org/

"You can't fight climate change sitting on your couch and holding your breath," said Jamie Henn, spokesman for 350.org, which is organizing the event with more than a dozen other environmental, labor and social justice groups. The march will include celebrities such as musician Sting, scientists in lab coats, labor groups, 20 marching bands and floats powered by biodiesel vehicles or pulled by hand.

News story: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/09/21/climate-march_n_5856836.html

#ScienceSunday  

#ClimateMarch 2014

Happening Now: New York City hosts 100K strong people's march to call for action on #climatechange , ahead of this week's U.N. General Assembly, which brings together 120 world leaders to discuss reducing carbon emissions that threaten the environment. Watch and Listen live on http://peoplesclimate.org/

"You can't fight climate change sitting on your couch and holding your breath," said Jamie Henn, spokesman for 350.org, which is organizing the event with more than a dozen other environmental, labor and social justice groups. The march will include celebrities such as musician Sting, scientists in lab coats, labor groups, 20 marching bands and floats powered by biodiesel vehicles or pulled by hand.

News story: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/09/21/climate-march_n_5856836.html

#ScienceSunday  ___

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2014-09-17 03:18:44 (19 comments, 24 reshares, 127 +1s)Open 

Science is Massive on Google+
Here's a fantastic article on the "massive engagement" on Google+ communities! Journalist +Simon Owens has featured our community as one example of the dedicated discussions that take place on Google+, dispelling the myth still perpetuated by mainstream media that Google+ is a "ghost town." 

Simon quotes Google product manager +Danielle Buckley who says of G+ communities "People come up with really interesting ways of talking to each other that are community defined and make them really special." 

Thank you to all our members who make our community one of the top 10 largest communities on Google+ as well as an amazing place for smart science discussion! Simon highlights some of our favourite posts by our community members. Take a look!

HT +Johnathan Chung for the ping & +AlexanderHow... more »

Science is Massive on Google+
Here's a fantastic article on the "massive engagement" on Google+ communities! Journalist +Simon Owens has featured our community as one example of the dedicated discussions that take place on Google+, dispelling the myth still perpetuated by mainstream media that Google+ is a "ghost town." 

Simon quotes Google product manager +Danielle Buckley who says of G+ communities "People come up with really interesting ways of talking to each other that are community defined and make them really special." 

Thank you to all our members who make our community one of the top 10 largest communities on Google+ as well as an amazing place for smart science discussion! Simon highlights some of our favourite posts by our community members. Take a look!

HT +Johnathan Chung for the ping & +Alexander Howard  for posting. #science   #scienceongoogleplus   #stem   #scienceongoogle+   #scienceeveryday___

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2014-09-16 03:35:01 (6 comments, 18 reshares, 107 +1s)Open 

Philosophy and Mathematics
How much do you know about the so-called "father of science"? Rather than relying on traditional myths, the Greek philosopher Thales sought to explain natural phenomena through critical observation and the development of theory.  +Stuff That Matters! shows how his work has influenced various branches of mathematics, physics and other scientific areas.

Chosen for #SoG+CuratorsChoice by +Zuleyka Zevallos  #philosophy   #science   #mathematics   #socialscience  

Thales of Miletus, the father of science and natural philosophy 

Although this can be fairly argued, Thales of Miletus is usually regarded as the father of science. Also hailed as the first ever philosopher in the western hemisphere by Bertrand Russel, Thales was indeed a notable figure, without whose achievements, the journey of science and philosophy would have taken a serious toll (it might not have begun that early, had it been not for him). 

Thales was born in Ionia, in the 7th century BC, and he founded what was known as the Ionian school of thought, that produced many other notable early thinkers, including Anaximander and Anaximenes. 

Thales's contributions to scientific thought 

The early Greeks obviously lacked the scientific method that has been the tool of trade for us modern admirers of science. Thought, especially critical thinking, was serious in its infancy back in the time of Thales. That's why, although his ideas might appear too novice to most modern humans, he was still the one who breathed life into science and philosophy. 

1. Natural cause hypothesis Before Thales, all natural phenomena were thought to be the side-effects of some supernatural phenomena going on in the realm of the unseen gods and demons. However, Thales was the first person to put forward what is known as the natural cause hypothesis, which states that whatever we see all around us, are actually results of one or more underlying natural processes or causes. This also gave rise to the deductive reasoning, which enabled Thales to build certain early hypotheses of science. 

The natural cause hypothesis gave rise to natural philosophy, aka the early form of physics. 

2. The primal element: One of the most cherished notions of modern particle physics, fairly regarded as the greatest branch of science by many (including me), is to find the primary substance, the ultimate particle which constitutes everything. Modern M Theory introduces the nation of vibrating filaments of energy or strings, to account for the sheer diversity of particles in the standard model of particle physics today. 

However, even before Democritus and Leucippus who championed the early versions of the atomic hypothesis, Thales is known to have regarded water as the primary substance. This, he concluded, by observing that all living organisms need water to live, and water seems to be more abundant than land mass.

This was wrong, though, but it started the journey of finding the primary substance, and till this day that's continuing. 

3. Naturalism: The philosophy of naturalism developed as a result of Thales's idea that everything has a natural cause. For example, he is said to have remarked that magnets have life, but most probably, by life, he refers to something that would be analogous to the modern term property (in its scientific sense). 

Everything, according to Thales, is the result of something else. This sets forth the world in motion. It was truly the beginning of scientific thought with Thales. 

4. Mathematics as a branch of science: Prior to Thales, mathematics was used in many other parts of the world, including the ancient Babylon and the Rigvedic era in India. However, in the west at least, Thales was the first to fully use mathematics to predict natural events. It is rumoured that Thales had visited Egypt in his youth, and from there he learned the knowledge of mathematics and proto-astronomy. 

The first use of mathematics to predict natural events by Thales was a solar eclipse in 585 BC. This established a crucial idea, that mathematics is the science capable of describing the nature, although it would stay rather underdeveloped and crude for a long time, at least since the Renaissance. 

He also used mathematics to measure the heights of pyramids and other structures, which further emboldened this idea. 

5. Thales's theorem of mathematics: Well, this is pretty basic, and is known to most of us. But Thales was the first to formulate it mathematically, that the angle opposite to the diameter of a circle is always a right angle. 

Legacy 

The intellectual legacy of Thales continued with his disciples, the Ionian school of thought produced other brilliant thinkers as well. Even the Italian school of thought was influenced by him, arguably. 

Although this can be debated as to whether refer to Thales as the Father of science, I believe we can (and should_ argue in his favour.

Sources and reference

http://www.iep.utm.edu/thales/
http://math.mercyhurst.edu/~wrevak/thales.html ___Philosophy and Mathematics
How much do you know about the so-called "father of science"? Rather than relying on traditional myths, the Greek philosopher Thales sought to explain natural phenomena through critical observation and the development of theory.  +Stuff That Matters! shows how his work has influenced various branches of mathematics, physics and other scientific areas.

Chosen for #SoG+CuratorsChoice by +Zuleyka Zevallos  #philosophy   #science   #mathematics   #socialscience  

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2014-09-12 12:45:41 (18 comments, 55 reshares, 164 +1s)Open 

What is a Nanosecond?

One billionth of a second. One nanosecond is to one second as one second is to 31.7 years. But Grace Hopper explains it much better, and with charm and humor. A brief 2 minute video that is well worth the watch. Enjoy!  

Grace Hopper On Length

Want to get a visceral feeling for how fast a nanosecond is? Watch this video where Rear Admiral Grace Hopper, inventor of the compiler, discusses what a nanosecond is.

Really worth watching.
#scienceeveryday   #physics   #computerscience   #history   ___What is a Nanosecond?

One billionth of a second. One nanosecond is to one second as one second is to 31.7 years. But Grace Hopper explains it much better, and with charm and humor. A brief 2 minute video that is well worth the watch. Enjoy!  

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2014-09-04 19:27:33 (11 comments, 24 reshares, 136 +1s)Open 

We must look to nurture, not nature, for change +STEM Women on G+ publish their arguments on +nature.com blogs . 

Nature vs. Nurture: Girls and STEM

Why is there a gender gap in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)? You may have heard the arguments that girls find science “boring,” that attempts to bridge the gender divide “deny human biology and nature,” and that efforts to achieve gender equality in STEM fields are doomed. Attributing the gender gap to biology misses the obvious contribution of societal and institutional biases. Our article in +nature.com blogs explains how stereotype threats, lack of role models, social conditioning, unconscious bias and institutional practices create an environment where girls feel unwelcome and insecure in STEM fields. 

Why should we care if girls remain underrepresented in STEM? Apart from basic fairness, if we want our best and brightest working on innovative ideas and creative solutions, it makes little sense to potentially abandon half the population. We already face many hurdles; lack of funding, lack of jobs, and pushback from science denialists backed by populist politics. We need all hands on deck to forge ahead.

We must look to nurture, not nature, for change.

Read more: http://blogs.nature.com/soapboxscience/2014/09/04/nature-vs-nurture-girls-and-stem___We must look to nurture, not nature, for change +STEM Women on G+ publish their arguments on +nature.com blogs . 

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2014-08-25 22:43:11 (52 comments, 36 reshares, 206 +1s)Open 

Educating the Uneducated

Scientist must come together and educate their representatives!

Unscientific Politics

American politicians have claimed an ignorant stance on science because of their lack of education, there are only 6 scientist and 5 engineers in congress. However, we have 225 lawyers and 201 businessmen leading congress. While I don't expect every member of congress to read (and understand) the most recent studies in Nature, I do expect them to call their local university faculty for scientific advice. 

The current GOP strategy against climate change is pure ignorance:
John Boehner: Listen, I’m not qualified to debate the science over climate change.
Rick Scott: I’m not a scientist.
Marco Rubio: I’m not a scientist. I’m not qualified to make that decision.

Battle of the Climate Minds
A group of ten scientist in Florida tried to educate Rick Scott with a short course on climate change. They personally sent a letter to the Governor:

In short, Florida is one of the most vulnerable places in the country with respect to climate change, with southeastern Florida of particular concern.

This is not a hypothetical. Thousands of scientists have studied the issue from a variety of angles and disciplines over many decades. Those of us signing this letter have spent hundreds of years combined studying this problem, not from any partisan political perspective, but as scientists — seekers of evidence and explanations. As a result, we feel uniquely qualified to assist you in understanding what's already happening in the climate system so you may make the most effective decisions about what must be done to protect the state, including reducing emissions from fossil fuel burning power plants.

After receiving the letter, Scott agreed to a 30 minute information session from three environmental professors. Now Scott can't claim ignorance, the unbiased experts told him the facts. Rick Scott can not disagree with the scientific consensus in future debates or policy because of his unscientific credentials. 

The scientific community must come together and educate their representative.

Sources:
http://www.salon.com/2014/08/21/meet_the_scientists_who_sat_rick_scott_down_and_explained_climate_change_to_him/

http://www.salon.com/2014/07/16/scientists_offer_to_explain_climate_change_to_not_a_scientist_rick_scott/

http://www.tampabay.com/news/politics/stateroundup/florida-scientists-press-gov-scott-on-climate-change/2188637___Educating the Uneducated

Scientist must come together and educate their representatives!

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2014-08-25 12:31:46 (12 comments, 19 reshares, 154 +1s)Open 

Herpes and Global Warming

What do they have in common? Well, they are both bad news. It turns out that some people pay to avoid hearing potentially bad news. There's a point to be made from this research and the way we counter the looming clouds of climate change. Would you go to extraordinary lengths to diminish or ignore warning signs?

The ostrich effect

Why do people think ostriches stick their heads under the sand when they're scared?  A Roman named Pliny the Elder might be to blame.  He wrote that ostriches "imagine, when they have thrust their head and neck into a bush, that the whole of their body is concealed."  

That would be silly - birds aren't that dumb.  But people will actually pay to avoid learning unpleasant facts.  It seems irrational to avoid information that can help us survive.  But people do it.  It's called information aversion.

Here's a new experiment:

In order to gauge how information aversion affects health care, one group of researchers decided to look at how college students react to being tested for a sexually transmitted disease.

That's a subject a lot of students worry about, according to Josh Tasoff, an economist at Claremont Graduate University who led the study along with Ananda Ganguly, an associate professor of accounting at Claremont McKenna College.

The students were told they could get tested for the herpes simplex virus. It's a common disease that spreads via contact. And it has two forms: HSV1 and HSV2.

The type 1 herpes virus produces cold sores. It's unpleasant, but not as unpleasant as type 2, which targets the genitals. Ganguly says the college students were given information — graphic information — that made it clear which kind of HSV was worse.

"There were pictures of male and female genitalia with HSV2, guaranteed to kind of make them really not want to have the disease," Ganguly says.

Once the students understood what herpes does, they were told a blood test could find out if they had either form of the virus.

Now, in previous studies on information aversion it wasn't always clear why people declined information. So Tasoff and Ganguly designed the experiment to eliminate every extraneous reason someone might decline to get information.

First, they wanted to make sure that students weren't declining the test because they didn't want to have their blood drawn. Ganguly came up with a way to fix that: All of the students would have to get their blood drawn. If a student chose not to get tested, "we would draw 10 cc of their blood and in front of them have them pour it down the sink," Ganguly says.

The researchers also assured the students that if they elected to get the blood tested for HSV1 and HSV2, they would receive the results confidentially.

And to make triply sure that volunteers who said they didn't want the test were declining it to avoid the information, the researchers added one final catch. Those who didn't want to know if they had a sexually transmitted disease had to pay $10 to not have their blood tested.

So what did the students choose? Quite a few declined a test.

And while only 5 percent avoided the HSV1 test, three times as many avoided testing for the nastier form of herpes.

For those who didn't want to know, the most common explanation was that they felt the results might cause them unnecessary stress or anxiety.

Let's try extrapolating from this.  Global warming is pretty scary.  What would people do to avoid learning more about it?  You can't exactly pay scientists to not tell you about it.  But you can do lots of other things: not listen to them, pay people to contradict what they're saying, and so on.  And guess what?  People do all these things.

So, don't expect that scaring people about global warming will make them take action.  If a problem seems scary and hard to solve, many people will just avoid thinking about it.

Maybe a better approach is to tell people things they can do about global warming.  Even if these things aren't big enough to solve the problem, they can keep people engaged.

There's a tricky issue here.  I don't want people to think turning off the lights when they leave the room is enough to stop global warming.  That's a dangerous form of complacency.  But it's even worse if they decide global warming is such a big problem that there's no point in doing anything about it.  

The quote is from here:

• Shankar Vedantham, Why we think ignorance Is bliss, even when It hurts our health, http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2014/07/28/333945706/why-we-think-ignorance-is-bliss-even-when-it-hurts-our-health.

Here's the actual study:

• Ananda Ganguly and Joshua Tasoff, Fantasy and dread: the demand for information and the consumption utility of the future, http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2370983.

The photo, probably fake, is from here:

http://www.ostrichheadinsand.com/___Herpes and Global Warming

What do they have in common? Well, they are both bad news. It turns out that some people pay to avoid hearing potentially bad news. There's a point to be made from this research and the way we counter the looming clouds of climate change. Would you go to extraordinary lengths to diminish or ignore warning signs?

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2014-08-21 08:02:34 (32 comments, 24 reshares, 150 +1s)Open 

Curator's Choice: Most Awesome Comment of the Day
Have you ever seen ice grow upward on your ice tray and wondered why?+Lyle Hardin was curious about why the bowl of ice he left out overnight turned out this curious configuration. Our Community had an interesting collective response! +Brady MacDonald noted this phenomenon is known as an Ice Spike. +Casey Webster explains:

"Water vapor gradients are strongest around edges of ice. The thinner and sharper of the edge or point, the stronger the gradient. This causes ice to preferentially grow where the gradient is stronger. With a good initial perturbation this results in a spike growing just as you pictured."

Kevin Lui from Caltech University shows that ice spikes tend to work better with distilled water. There is higher success of growing them "when the temperature is just below freezing" andwhe... more »

Can anyone explain this phenomenon?  I found this on the deck a few years ago, one very cold morning. It was just a small glass bowl of water. Somehow, when it froze overnight, this happened. I wish I would've taken more photos and recorded the temperature, etc.___Curator's Choice: Most Awesome Comment of the Day
Have you ever seen ice grow upward on your ice tray and wondered why?+Lyle Hardin was curious about why the bowl of ice he left out overnight turned out this curious configuration. Our Community had an interesting collective response! +Brady MacDonald noted this phenomenon is known as an Ice Spike. +Casey Webster explains:

"Water vapor gradients are strongest around edges of ice. The thinner and sharper of the edge or point, the stronger the gradient. This causes ice to preferentially grow where the gradient is stronger. With a good initial perturbation this results in a spike growing just as you pictured."

Kevin Lui from Caltech University shows that ice spikes tend to work better with distilled water. There is higher success of growing them "when the temperature is just below freezing" and when installing a fan to blow the air in your freezer.  Lui should know; he investigated the Physics of ice spikes (http://goo.gl/8HUNmW). 

Stephen Morris, Professor of experimental nonlinear Physics at the University of Toronto, has also devoted his research to ice spikes. He notes in +Scientific American that ice spikes are more likely to be formed in an ice tray ("a container with vertical sides"), birdbaths or pet drinking dishes left out overnight. But he also notes: "It is rather rare for them to form naturally - like on the surface of lakes or ponds — because the cooling rate of natural bodies of water is usually not rapid enough. They can, however, sometimes form on falling sleet pellets." (http://goo.gl/KqJhq4). 

Want to see an ice spike growing at rapid speed or other science resources? Check out Morris' ice spikes webpage! (http://goo.gl/YOkXVi)

Chosen for #SoG+CuratorsChoice by +Zuleyka Zevallos who loves learning cool science from our Community members. #science   #physics   #ice   #icespike  

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2014-08-16 01:08:40 (37 comments, 124 reshares, 501 +1s)Open 

The Butterfly Whisperer

Watch this lovely Monarch Butterfly emerge from its cocoon. If you missed our previous share of +Carissa Braun's post on Monarchs and Milkweeds, catch it here: http://goo.gl/h5ZpDg

Also see Carissa's autoawesome pictures of the Queen Butterfly here: http://goo.gl/EZct3p  

Another Queen Emerges

I know I shared a butterfly-cocoon emerging last week, but this one was a bit more fun. The key to a successful hatching is to have the cocoon upside down. If it's pinned wrong, or if it falls, the butterfly will die. The wings may be permanently crippled or the butterfly may not be able to emerge. After emerging, the butterfly must remain upside down to let the wings successfully dry. Thankfully for this Queen, even though the cocoon fell, it decided to try to emerge while I was there. An interesting, and rather cool, experience. Just after, I let it grip a nearby stick so it could finish drying. :)

I used the Photo app to manual add motion. It's slightly off and repeats two photos, but it works well enough.___The Butterfly Whisperer

Watch this lovely Monarch Butterfly emerge from its cocoon. If you missed our previous share of +Carissa Braun's post on Monarchs and Milkweeds, catch it here: http://goo.gl/h5ZpDg

Also see Carissa's autoawesome pictures of the Queen Butterfly here: http://goo.gl/EZct3p  

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2014-08-15 21:50:50 (25 comments, 25 reshares, 110 +1s)Open 

June 2014, the warmest June on record

+Noah Diffenbaugh  presented this great figure below illustrating the continued increase in global temperature. June 2014 was the hottest June on record since the start of records in 1880.

This past June was 0.72 degrees celsius above the 20th century average!

This curators choice was chosen by +Jason Davison  because he loves climate science. 

Just Released: June 2014 Was The Warmest June On Record

The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has announced that June 2014 had the warmest global temperature of any June since record keeping began in 1880:

"According to NOAA scientists, the globally averaged temperature over land and ocean surfaces for June 2014 was the highest for June since record keeping began in 1880. It also marked the 38th consecutive June and 352nd consecutive month with a global temperature above the 20th century average. The last below-average global temperature for June was in 1976 and the last below-average global temperature for any month was February 1985."

The image shows where the June 2014 temperature ranked relative to other Junes in the past 135 years for different areas of the globe. Reds show where June 2014 was warmer than average, and blue shows where June 2014 was cooler than average.

The full report (and image) are available here:
http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/news/ncdc-releases-june-2014-global-report

#climatechange   #globalwarming   #science   #sciencecommunication  ___June 2014, the warmest June on record

+Noah Diffenbaugh  presented this great figure below illustrating the continued increase in global temperature. June 2014 was the hottest June on record since the start of records in 1880.

This past June was 0.72 degrees celsius above the 20th century average!

This curators choice was chosen by +Jason Davison  because he loves climate science. 

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2014-08-09 15:07:27 (9 comments, 89 reshares, 275 +1s)Open 

Science   #Caturday  

A fun post on the science behind the feline allure for catnip. Thanks, +Aida Hazlan !

The Chemical Behind Catnip's Effects on Cats

CATNIP: EGRESS TO OBLIVION?

- 4aα,7α,7aα-Nepetalactone is the specific isomer responsible for the catnip effect

☠ Firstly, nepetalactone will enter the cat’s nasal tissue, and there it will bind to certain receptors.

☠ These can then trigger particular sensory neurons to signal to other neurons, and eventually the brain; in particular, the ‘olfactory bulb’, a region at the front of the brain responsible for processing smells.

☠ This region then signals other regions of the brain, including the amygdala, responsible for emotional responses to stimuli, and the hypothalamus, responsible for behavioural responses to stimuli.

☠ This results in the observed response in cats – a response that is actually similar to their response to natural sex pheromones.

☠ The effect of catnip lasts for around ten minutes, and afterwards there will be a refractory period of around an hour where the cat will remain unaffected.

☠ Interestingly, not all cats are affected by catnip; the response is genetic, and autosomal dominant, which means if one parent passes on the gene, then the offspring will inherit the response. 

Article source: http://goo.gl/lTHpY7

Video by BBC Nature: http://goo.gl/wLvZ5B

Read more :  Inheritance of the catnip response in domestic cats , J. Hered (1962) 53 (2): 54-56 http://goo.gl/cCxU5a

#caturday #chemistry   #scienceeveryday  ___Science   #Caturday  

A fun post on the science behind the feline allure for catnip. Thanks, +Aida Hazlan !

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2014-08-08 12:40:15 (44 comments, 160 reshares, 505 +1s)Open 

Bad Meme Rising
Everyone loves a clever science meme! When done well, they educate and make us laugh; they inspire us with a pithy quote by a celebrated researcher; or they give us information that encourages us to see the world in a new way.

The trouble with memes is that many of them are misinformed at best - see almost every quote about Einstein. Bad memes reproduce incorrect myths about science - for example, the idea that people only use 10% of their brains is wrong; we use 100% of our brains all the time. At worst science memes contribute to science illiteracy, by perpetuating the idea that science is just about "pretty pictures" and that the details don't matter. Memes give factoids that people love to share but don't always bother to check if they're true. They sound cool - but is it science?

Our Community is... more »

Bad Meme Rising
Everyone loves a clever science meme! When done well, they educate and make us laugh; they inspire us with a pithy quote by a celebrated researcher; or they give us information that encourages us to see the world in a new way.

The trouble with memes is that many of them are misinformed at best - see almost every quote about Einstein. Bad memes reproduce incorrect myths about science - for example, the idea that people only use 10% of their brains is wrong; we use 100% of our brains all the time. At worst science memes contribute to science illiteracy, by perpetuating the idea that science is just about "pretty pictures" and that the details don't matter. Memes give factoids that people love to share but don't always bother to check if they're true. They sound cool - but is it science?

Our Community is inundated with memes and we strive to correct them wherever possible. Have you seen the one with this "fact"?: "If an alien in a galaxy 65 million years away is looking at us through a telescope right now, then they are looking at dinosaurs."

Sounds fascinating, right? This has been shared to our Community many times, and it continues to be shared even though we keep correcting it. One of our Moderators, Astrophysics Professor +Brian Koberlein corrected the information just the other day. He notes:

While it's an interesting idea, that isn't how things work.  For one, resolving images at a distance takes timed exposures, and that would blur out any dinosaur motion. For another, the region of space between us and 65 million years isn't completely empty, so light from Earth would be distorted by interstellar media and such.  Then there is the fact that the universe is expanding, so a telescope currently 65 million years away would be observing a region of time less than that now.

Basically the post takes a basic idea (that light travels at a finite speed), and draws a conclusion that simply isn't true. It is similar to the claim that since quantum mechanics is probabilistic, "anything is possible."

In short, no, it is not a fact.

At time of writing, there were dozens of comments beneath Brian's correction that continue to marvel about the incorrect science in the meme...

Have you seen other bad science memes? Share them with us in the comments and tell us why they're wrong. Our Community is striving to improve science education, so if there are some especially interesting corrections, we'll feature your writing on our Community and Page!

Image: Vector Belly: http://vectorbelly.com/electrical264.html

#science   #stem   #stemeducation   #scienceoutreach  ___

2014-08-08 10:26:18 (62 comments, 38 reshares, 48 +1s)Open 

Join us for a +Science on Google+  Hangout on Air as we speak to Professor +Vincent Racaniello and Dr +Tara C. Smith about the recent Ebola outbreak. We will discuss the basics of Ebola, why the epidemic has spread, how it might be curtailed, and debunk some of the myths surrounding this outbreak. Please leave your questions on the Event page.

Vincent is a professor of virology at the University of Columbia and is a fantastic science communicator. Tara is an epidemiologist at Kent State University who has written numerous articles debunking some of the myths surrounding Ebola. This HOA will be hosted by Dr +Buddhini Samarasinghe  and Dr +Zuleyka Zevallos. You can tune in on Sunday August 10th at 2.30 PM Pacific, 5.30 PM Eastern. The hangout will be available for viewing on our YouTube channel (https://www.youtube.com/ScienceHangouts) after the event.

Join us for a +Science on Google+  Hangout on Air as we speak to Professor +Vincent Racaniello and Dr +Tara C. Smith about the recent Ebola outbreak. We will discuss the basics of Ebola, why the epidemic has spread, how it might be curtailed, and debunk some of the myths surrounding this outbreak. Please leave your questions on the Event page.

Vincent is a professor of virology at the University of Columbia and is a fantastic science communicator. Tara is an epidemiologist at Kent State University who has written numerous articles debunking some of the myths surrounding Ebola. This HOA will be hosted by Dr +Buddhini Samarasinghe  and Dr +Zuleyka Zevallos. You can tune in on Sunday August 10th at 2.30 PM Pacific, 5.30 PM Eastern. The hangout will be available for viewing on our YouTube channel (https://www.youtube.com/ScienceHangouts) after the event.___

2014-08-05 15:47:29 (2 comments, 2 reshares, 14 +1s)Open 

We'll be live in 15 minutes. Feel free to ask questions during the HOA. You can post your questions using the Q & A app or you can leave them on the event post.

Please join us for Developmental Science HOA, a new collaborative Hangout On Air series which is co-hosted by +Science on Google+ and +Developmental Psychology. In the first Developmental Science HOA we will be talking with Dr. +Gedeon Deák. +Gedeon Deák is a Professor of Cognitive Science and Human Development at +University of California, San Diego and is the director of the +Cognitive Development Laboratory at UC-San Diego. +Gedeon Deák studies the dynamics of infant social interactions and social learning, using experimental behavioral paradigms, ethnographic investigations, physiological studies, and computer simulations. He and his collaborators conducted the first study of real-time interactions between parents and toddlers with high-density EEG and motion capture of both participants. He also studies how children learn and use words, and how they flexibly shift their attention, representations, and inferences.

Important Links
Curriculum Vitae: http://goo.gl/qLtUaC
Lab Website: http://goo.gl/AQ78h6
ResearchGate: http://goo.gl/Mj8deH

Relevant Papers
Watch the hands: infants can learn to follow gaze by seeing adults manipulate objects: http://goo.gl/bSMzKy

Young children’s fast mapping and generalization of words, facts, and pictograms :http://goo.gl/nhykZF

A Unified Account of Gaze Following: http://goo.gl/f14c04

Micro-analysis of infant looking in a naturalistic social setting: insights from biologically based models of attention: http://goo.gl/i0S8uA

Visual Prediction in Infancy: What is the Association with Later Vocabulary? :http://goo.gl/I1xUaS

Please note that some of the papers are behind a paywall. Manuscripts can be downloaded through the lab pubs page, http://www.cogsci.ucsd.edu/~deak/cdlab/publications.html.___We'll be live in 15 minutes. Feel free to ask questions during the HOA. You can post your questions using the Q & A app or you can leave them on the event post.

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2014-08-03 20:13:48 (92 comments, 87 reshares, 291 +1s)Open 

The Politicization of Science

There is a worrisome trend toward rejecting science over ideology that we, in this community, have been up against. Distrust over climate change, vaccines, evolution, stem cells, GMO, nuclear energy and most recently viral outbreaks such as Ebola. Public attitudes on these "hot button" issues is driven by political and religious beliefs, or by self-assigned pundits in the media, and not by scientific literacy. Take the jaw-dropping assertion by a Kentucky Senator that "the temperature on Mars is exactly as it is here", hence climate change is a fraud (http://goo.gl/nD4Enu). 

But there is a lesson to be learned from history, from the story of a Communist Party loyalist named Trofim Lysenko. Read the Forbes article for the reference to Lysenkoism (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lysenkoism) and how it destroyed the... more »

The Politicization of Science

There is a worrisome trend toward rejecting science over ideology that we, in this community, have been up against. Distrust over climate change, vaccines, evolution, stem cells, GMO, nuclear energy and most recently viral outbreaks such as Ebola. Public attitudes on these "hot button" issues is driven by political and religious beliefs, or by self-assigned pundits in the media, and not by scientific literacy. Take the jaw-dropping assertion by a Kentucky Senator that "the temperature on Mars is exactly as it is here", hence climate change is a fraud (http://goo.gl/nD4Enu). 

But there is a lesson to be learned from history, from the story of a Communist Party loyalist named Trofim Lysenko. Read the Forbes article for the reference to Lysenkoism (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lysenkoism) and how it destroyed the agricultural system of the Soviet Union in the middle of the last century. 

Fortunately, since then, scientists have self-assembled to form professional societies that police themselves to keep out the corrupting influence of politics and support the scientific method. They are not perfect, but they help keep politics at bay. 

But things are changing: Vaccines are now considered more dangerous than the diseases they protect against. Fluoride in the water sparks conspiracy theories. Despite the assurances of virologists and epidemiologists, there is public hysteria over a patient with Ebola being brought back into his home country, the US, for treatment. 

We need to remember: Science isn’t a belief system. It’s proven knowledge. It either knows the answer to a problem, or admits it doesn’t and keeps looking for it. Every time we ignore the scientific community, bad things generally happen.

Are we heading towards Lysenkoism?  Was Mr. Obama warning against the manipulation or distortion of the scientific process as a way to reach a predetermined conclusion as dictated by an ideological bias, often related to social or political objectives? 

Read More:
http://www.forbes.com/sites/jamesconca/2014/08/03/science-is-not-democratic/

H/T +Pratik Mukherjee for sharing the link to #ScienceSunday  .___

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2014-08-02 13:22:23 (32 comments, 28 reshares, 103 +1s)Open 

Breakthrough or Bunk?

The breathless headlines proclaim this impossible engine could change space travel forever! Physicist +John Baez explains the bad science behind the hype. 

#DebunkingJunkScience   #ScienceMediaHype  

The incredible shrinking force

Around 2000, a guy named Robert Shawyer claimed he could bounce microwaves inside a fancy-shaped can and get them to  push the can forwards, without anything leaving the can. 

This would violate conservation of momentum.  It's like sitting inside a car and making it roll forwards by pushing on the steering wheel.  Standard physics doesn't allow this.  He didn't claim to be using anything other than standard physics. 

So: ho hum, just another guy with a really bad idea.  I get emails like this all the time.

But in 2001, his company got a £45,000 grant from the British government to study this idea.  He built his machine and claimed that with 850 watts of power he could get a force of 0.016 newtons.   That's a bit less than the force of gravity from a penny pushing down on your hand.  It could easily be an experimental error.

Why would people want a machine that uses lots of power to create a pathetically feeble force?   Because - here's the great piece of salesmanship - if it existed, you could use it to build a reactionless drive!  If you had a spaceship with huge amounts of power to spare - like, say, a nuclear reactor - you could use this gizmo to push your spaceship forwards without anything spewing out the back end. 

Again, this is about as plausible as powering a spaceship by having the crew push on it from the inside.   But if you don't know physics, it sounds very exciting. 

The story goes on.  And on.  And on.  It won't die.  In 2012, some Chinese physicists claimed they could get a force of 0.720 newtons from a power of 2,500 watts using some version of Shawyer's device. 

And now NASA is studying it!

They're claiming to see a force one thousandth as big as the Chinese - maybe because they are doing the experiment one thousand times more accurately.  And still, some people are excited about this. 

The new device comes with new improved mumbo-jumbo.  Shawyer claimed that thanks to special relativity, classical electromagnetism can violate conservation of momentum.  I took those courses in college, I know that's bullshit.  Now the NASA scientists say:

"Test results indicate that the RF resonant cavity thruster design, which is unique as an electric propulsion device, is producing a force that is not attributable to any classical electromagnetic phenomenon and therefore is potentially demonstrating an interaction with the quantum vacuum virtual plasma."

This is bullshit too - but now it's grad school bullshit.  "Quantum vacuum virtual plasma" is something you'd say if you failed a course in quantum field theory and then smoked too much weed.  There's no such thing as "virtual plasma".   If you want to report experimental results that seem to violate the known laws of physics, fine.  But it doesn't help your credibility to make up goofy pseudo-explanations.

I expect that in 10 years the device will be using quantum gravity and producing even less force. 

For an article written by a severely optimistic blogger, see:

http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2014-07/31/nasa-validates-impossible-space-drive

The NASA technical report is here:

http://arc.aiaa.org/doi/abs/10.2514/6.2014-4029

Unfortunately only the abstract is free!  I think someone with access should download the paper and make it publicly available.  If my government is spending my money on this sort of thing, I'd at least like to see it.___Breakthrough or Bunk?

The breathless headlines proclaim this impossible engine could change space travel forever! Physicist +John Baez explains the bad science behind the hype. 

#DebunkingJunkScience   #ScienceMediaHype  

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2014-08-01 18:36:21 (60 comments, 378 reshares, 328 +1s)Open 

Ebola for Beginners: How it Works, Why There’s No Cure, and Why It’s So Hard to Control This Time

By Maren Hunsberger, reposted with permission (originally published at http://goo.gl/ZVwoBU)

The internet is awash with news that one of the world’s foremost Ebola-fighting physicians, Sheikh Umar Khan, has himself been infected with the disease (http://goo.gl/i5T6yj), along with two American aid workers (http://goo.gl/VuQJA9). History’s deadliest outbreak of Ebola is currently sweeping across Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Liberia, having claimed more than 600 lives already. With a mortality rate of anywhere between 40% and 90% (this epidemic's is around 65%), what is it that makes Ebola one of the most lethal diseases in the pantheon of pathogens? Why is there no cure or vaccine? And why is so difficult to control?

The Basics: Ebola’s full name is Ebolahaemorrha... more »

Ebola for Beginners: How it Works, Why There’s No Cure, and Why It’s So Hard to Control This Time

By Maren Hunsberger, reposted with permission (originally published at http://goo.gl/ZVwoBU)

The internet is awash with news that one of the world’s foremost Ebola-fighting physicians, Sheikh Umar Khan, has himself been infected with the disease (http://goo.gl/i5T6yj), along with two American aid workers (http://goo.gl/VuQJA9). History’s deadliest outbreak of Ebola is currently sweeping across Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Liberia, having claimed more than 600 lives already. With a mortality rate of anywhere between 40% and 90% (this epidemic's is around 65%), what is it that makes Ebola one of the most lethal diseases in the pantheon of pathogens? Why is there no cure or vaccine? And why is so difficult to control?

The Basics: Ebola’s full name is Ebola haemorrhagic fever, a rather gruesome title (the details of which we’ll address shortly). It’s caused by the Ebola virus (no surprises there), which is a member of the Filoviridae family. For context, viruses can be 50-100 times smaller than bacteria, and come in a variety of shapes. Ebola virus, along with its sister, Marburg virus, is thread-like in appearance. Ebola is also a zoonotic disease (http://goo.gl/Kgo5Fu), which means it is transferrable from non-human animals to humans (and vice versa). In Ebola’s case, humans can catch it from non-human primates such as chimpanzees and gorillas, as well as from rodents, bats, and a few ungulates. Transfer of the virus occurs through close contact with infected bodily fluids such as blood, vomit, and feces, all of which abound after Ebola has done its damage.

A Little Background: The family of zoonotic diseases includes Rabies, Hanta virus, Anthrax, Lyme disease, the ever-infamous Plague (http://goo.gl/8Yeu5c), Toxoplasmosis, and many more, all of which have fascinating life cycles. They also present a unique challenge to communities that live in close contact with the animals that carry these diseases. Animals can often act as a reservoir, meaning they carry the bacteria or virus but present no symptoms themselves. Alternately, the disease can decimate populations of livestock and wildlife upon which a community might depend, contributing to a lack of resources and increased pressure on the human population. Identifying the natural reservoir of a disease is important in containing outbreaks--if you can identify the little bugger that carries the disease without showing it, you can minimize contact with the organism or take steps to control those populations. It’s widely believed that the fruit bat (http://goo.gl/C1qwqd) is the reservoir for Ebola. This is an issue because many communities in Ebola-prone areas consume the fruit that bats snack on (providing easy host-to-host transfer for the virus via bat saliva). Dwellings are also often located near fruit bat colonies. Some outbreaks may also begin when an individual consumes bush meat (http://goo.gl/15isqp), a dead animal carcass found in the vegetation surrounding the community. Consumption of bush meat is traditional in many parts of West Africa, and can sometimes be the only protein that is readily available. If the animal has been killed by Ebola or another zoonotic disease, the individual (and anyone to whom he feeds or sells the meat) can become infected. This ‘human-consumption-of-bushmeat’ infection path is the also leading theory for how the first human became infected with AIDS (http://goo.gl/Z8BZLM).

How it Works: Ebola. The nasty, worm-looking virus that’s causing  damage in West Africa. There are five subtypes (http://goo.gl/vWDxlt) known so far, all named  after their place of origin—the one that’s in the headlines right now is  closely related to the Zaire Ebola virus, the strain with highest mortality rate.  (As of now, no one knows what makes it more deadly than the other  strains). So how does it kill you? When your body produces any kind of  fever, that’s the immune system's response to an infection—inflammation  can help kill whatever’s bothering your body. Ebola essentially sends your  body’s immune system into overdrive. The virus infects the immune cells  that are your first line of defense--monocytes and macrophages. This  means your body is incapable of killing the virus when you first become  infected. The virus then gets to replicate as much as it wants, using your  own primary immune cells as hosts until the infection has grown so large  that the rest of your immune system can’t help but notice. In a valiant effort  to kill the virus, your body produces a fever so high that you go into shock,  your tissues start to degrade and your blood pressure drops, and eventually your organs start to fail.

The virus acts quickly. Initial symptoms of Ebola are varied and often resemble the symptoms of malaria, typhoid fever, influenza or various bacterial infections, all of which are more common than Ebola. It can take too long for Ebola to be diagnosed, and by then the secondary symptoms may have set in: diarrhea, red eyes, vomiting blood, gastrointestinal bleeding from the mouth or rectum, hemorrhaging from the nose and mouth, and bleeding in the brain that may lead to seizures and delirium. After the presentation of these symptoms and a miserable week or so, patients either recover or die from systemic multi-organ failure. While the visible hemorrhaging is what gives the virus its name, it actually presents in less than half of the patients infected with Ebola. Unfortunately for the current outbreak, the Zaire strain is the form of the virus that causes the most severe symptoms.

Why There’s No Cure: Viruses are too small to reproduce on their own, so they have to inject their genome into a host cell. This means that when the host cell replicates, so does the virus. In order for the virus to be able to do its injecting, ‘do all the hard work for me’ trick, it needs to be able to attach to a molecule on the surface of the host cell—this molecule is called a receptor. If the virus doesn’t have the equipment to attach to a certain kind of cell’s receptor, it can’t invade that cell. In fighting viruses, it’s important to identify the virus’ corresponding receptor so you can prevent it from binding and thus prevent it from replicating. With Ebola, this is the missing piece of the puzzle—we don’t know what the receptor is, so we don’t have  a way to stop the virus from proliferating. In humans, Ebola is capable of invading many different kinds of host cells, so it’s possible that it is capable of binding to more than one receptor, making it a dangerously versatile aggressor. Ebola is also notoriously hazardous to study, although many research universities (http://goo.gl/sR7Lk1) and institutions (http://goo.gl/ck7iPj) are working on unravelling its mysteries.

What’s Happening This Time: The current outbreak is the first time that Ebola has rapidly spread to urban areas. With previous incidents of the virus, responders were able to contain the infection within small, rural populations by identifying modes of transmission, points of origin, and mitigating the damage. With large, closely packed populations, however, the virus spreads faster. It’s much harder to identify who has it, who’s given it to whom, and it's difficult to stop people from leaving the area. The West African nations suffering from this outbreak also lack adequate medical facilities and personnel. Without isolation wards and advanced labs, the virus is extremely hard to contain. The infection of the physicians on the ground is a result of the sheer number of patients in their charge. They wore all the proper protective gear, but somewhere in the melee they came into direct contact with infectious fluid. Additionally, some traditional rural practices have accompanied recent transplants to the cities--it is customary in some of the cultures affected by the virus to wash a dead relative’s body by hand before the burial. This is obviously an issue when it comes to preventing disease transmission. To tackle the epidemic without losing the trust and cooperation of those being treated, it's necessary to implement informed, culturally appropriate health care and education.

David Quammen (http://goo.gl/XIS14W) has written an enthralling book, Spillover, about the histories, cultural contexts, and life cycles of the world's zoonotic diseases. His research makes a convincing case that the next human pandemic could be of zoonotic origin. Will it be Ebola? Probably not. In Q&A (http://goo.gl/Vzws4Y) with National Geographic, W. Ian Lipkin, of the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University (http://goo.gl/VoTFvE) addresses the fear that Ebola will spread worldwide. He posits that with the health care systems available in high-income countries like the US and the UK, "it's unlikely that we would have widespread disease as a result. We would be on top of it, and we would be able to contain it. Our health care system affords people access to gloves and gowns and personal protective equipment. I don't think there's reason for panic that we're going to be hit with an outbreak of Ebola". All we can do is wait and see, stay updated on developments, and support WHO (http://goo.gl/nT6J0H) and Médecins Sans Frontières (http://www.msf.org/) in their efforts to combat the spread of the disease.

Further Reading:
Mechanism of Genus Ebolavirus (http://goo.gl/0B47zf)
National Geographic Ebola News (http://goo.gl/iJFqeh)___

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2014-07-26 21:13:49 (14 comments, 27 reshares, 178 +1s)Open 

Toxic Monarchs and Heart Drugs

Monarch butterflies flaunt their gaudy colors because they are actively avoided by predators. +Carissa Braun explains how these insects load themselves up with toxic milkweed compounds, the same toxins that have been used to treat failing heart for decades! 

Cardenolides and Monarchs

Monarchs require milkweeds in order to thrive, and many know it is because they rely on it and use that toxin as their own. The bright colors of the monarch are an indication to predators that they are unpalatable. Predators take heed allowing monarchs to leisurely fly to their next nectar destination undisturbed, but why?

Cardiac glycosides, known as cardenolides, are steroids characterized by a glycoside bond. There are at least 400 known cardenolides, and can be found in a number of plants including milkweed, foxglove, and oleander. Cardenolides inhibit the Na+,K+-ATPase (sodium pump) in vertebrates. Cardiac function is the key disruption, but the ionic balance of other animal cell types are as well including vascular smooth muscle, neurons, and kidney tubules. In the right dose, cardenolides can help treat heart failure and irregular heart beats. In the wrong dose, it can be fatal. 

One of the key features of cardenolides are the bitter taste. The cardenolides also are known to cause vomiting (emesis). As the emetic dose is approximately 50% of the lethal dose, fatal poisoning for herbivores is rare. Instead, most animals quickly associate vomiting with a plant containing cardenolides and avoid it.

Invertebrates are not spared by the Na+,K+-ATPase inhibition. Neuronal tissue is especially sensitive to cardenolides, particular the cardenolide ouabain. As it were, some species such as the Monarch butterfly have evolved a way not only around that issue, but to use it to their advantage as well. A modification in the sodium pump proteins confers resistance to the toxic cardenolides. For the Monarch, the ouabain binding site is of particular importance in determining their insensitivity to cardenolides.

The Na+,K+-ATPase is a protein. This protein consists of one alpha subunit of 1,016 amino acids and one beta subunit of 302 amino acids. Within the alpha subunit is the ouabain binding site. For Monarch butterflies, the change of a single amino acid within that binding site seems to contribute the most to insensitivity towards cardiac glyocsides. The switch of asparagine for histidine changes the receptor properties to a high degree and prevent ouabine from binding. From there, monarchs can sequester the toxin and incorporate it.

Foremost, cardenoalides are a plant defense mechanism. Monarchs evolved a way around that defense. The latex within the plants are yet another deterrent, and Monarchs yet again are finding a way pass by bleeding out the latex first before continuing to consume the milkweed. It is an evolutionary arms race where so far, it is monarchs (and their mimics) who are benefiting.

Additional Comments from +Rajini Rao:
"Cardiac glycosides work by inhibiting the cardiac version of the sodium pump, sodium levels inside the heart cell. This drives another transport protein, sodium calcium exchanger in reverse, bringing more calcium into the heart cell. Calcium makes heart muscles contract, so the drug makes it easier for a failing heart to keep beating."


#scienceeveryday  (but so close to #sciencesunday !)


Sources and Further Reading:
Saponins and Cardiac Glycosides
http://goo.gl/nRWOCU (website)
Cardiac glycoside overdose
http://goo.gl/Q8ee6D (website)
Milkweeds, monarch butterflies and the ecological significance of cardenolides
http://goo.gl/cOiyxq (pdf/website)
Molecular basis for the insensitivity of the Monarch (Danaus plexippus) to cardiac glycosides
http://goo.gl/ScCYl8 (pdf)
The Sodium-Potassium Pump
http://goo.gl/TSNgUk (website)
Evolutionary Assembly of the Milkweed Fauna: Cytochrome Oxidase I and the Age of Tetraopes Beetles
http://goo.gl/GEAlYm (pdf)___Toxic Monarchs and Heart Drugs

Monarch butterflies flaunt their gaudy colors because they are actively avoided by predators. +Carissa Braun explains how these insects load themselves up with toxic milkweed compounds, the same toxins that have been used to treat failing heart for decades! 

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2014-07-25 02:30:26 (11 comments, 15 reshares, 61 +1s)Open 

What is Scientific Consensus?

There is much confusion about this term, particularly as it applies to anthropogenic global warming or climate change. Many people, who do not understand how science works, assume it means agreeing with popular view. For example, someone said, "a consensus isn't always right. Science shouldn't be based on following the crowd because you are too lazy or too scared to challenge false data". Even science fiction writer Michael Crichton got it wrong. He wrote, "the work of science has nothing whatever to do with consensus. Consensus is the business of politics. Science, on the contrary, requires only one investigator who happens to be right, which means that he or she has results that are verifiable by reference to the real world." (http://goo.gl/TgFmpb). So we were delighted to find this explanation by +Filippo Salustri which is exactlyh... more »

What is a scientific consensus?

I think there's a couple of things wrong with this article in +Scientific American.

1. The "message" from certain quarters - that anyone who doesn't accept the scientific consensus on #climatechange  is stupid - is only one of many messages one can find "out there" these days.  There's an implication that this is the only message available, which just isn't so. I think this could have easily been treated with a couple of extra sentences, so I chalk that one up to a reporting error.

2. The deeper problem, for me, is the notion of "scientific consensus." It is again implied that a scientific consensus is the same as any other consensus.  But I'm completely convinced that it is substantively different.

Conventional consensus (like political consensus, or organizational consensus) is often arrived at through argument and rhetoric; evidence is useful but not necessary. Conventional consensus is also an intensely social/collaborative affair.

Scientific #consensus is different.  Rhetoric plays a small (I'd say negligible) role.  Argumentation matters more.  But nothing beats evidence; it is the primary foundation on which scientific consensus is built.  Scientific consensus is what happens when a big pile of evidence (and all the information on how that information was collected and analyzed) is put before a group of scientists, who then work in relative isolation to recheck everything.  Different scientists will use different techniques to perform these checks.  New experiments done in new ways may be run to validate existing data.  From all this work, various conclusions are drawn, but even these are, in a way, data; they're the results of rational argumentation from the evidence, and subjected to the same scrutiny as the original evidence itself.  If 100 scientists, each using their own methods, can all verify the evidence and then all reach the same conclusions by using their own analytic techniques - that's a scientific consensus.  Indeed, a scientific consensus can be reached (at least in principle) without any of the participating scientists do any more than exchange evidence. There need be no significant collaboration, no social interaction, at all.

And this, as far as I'm concerned, is why a scientific consensus is far more robust than any other type of consensus.

In a way, it's a lot like the multiple uses of the word "theory." In science, it means something different than it does outside science.  Someone arguing that, say, "evolution is just a theory" is making the mistake of assuming the lay sense of "theory" applies within the scientific scope of evolution.  Same with "consensus" - the term denotes something substantively different within #science than it does outside it.___What is Scientific Consensus?

There is much confusion about this term, particularly as it applies to anthropogenic global warming or climate change. Many people, who do not understand how science works, assume it means agreeing with popular view. For example, someone said, "a consensus isn't always right. Science shouldn't be based on following the crowd because you are too lazy or too scared to challenge false data". Even science fiction writer Michael Crichton got it wrong. He wrote, "the work of science has nothing whatever to do with consensus. Consensus is the business of politics. Science, on the contrary, requires only one investigator who happens to be right, which means that he or she has results that are verifiable by reference to the real world." (http://goo.gl/TgFmpb). So we were delighted to find this explanation by +Filippo Salustri which is exactly how scientists view scientific consensus. 

2014-07-24 21:45:59 (9 comments, 17 reshares, 47 +1s)Open 

Please join us for Developmental Science HOA, a new collaborative Hangout On Air series which is co-hosted by +Science on Google+ and +Developmental Psychology. In the first Developmental Science HOA we will be talking with Dr. +Gedeon Deák. +Gedeon Deák is a Professor of Cognitive Science and Human Development at +University of California, San Diego and is the director of the +Cognitive Development Laboratory at UC-San Diego. +Gedeon Deák studies the dynamics of infant social interactions and social learning, using experimental behavioral paradigms, ethnographic investigations, physiological studies, and computer simulations. He and his collaborators conducted the first study of real-time interactions between parents and toddlers with high-density EEG and motion capture of both participants. He also studies how children learn and use words, and how they flexibly shift their attention,repres... more »

Please join us for Developmental Science HOA, a new collaborative Hangout On Air series which is co-hosted by +Science on Google+ and +Developmental Psychology. In the first Developmental Science HOA we will be talking with Dr. +Gedeon Deák. +Gedeon Deák is a Professor of Cognitive Science and Human Development at +University of California, San Diego and is the director of the +Cognitive Development Laboratory at UC-San Diego. +Gedeon Deák studies the dynamics of infant social interactions and social learning, using experimental behavioral paradigms, ethnographic investigations, physiological studies, and computer simulations. He and his collaborators conducted the first study of real-time interactions between parents and toddlers with high-density EEG and motion capture of both participants. He also studies how children learn and use words, and how they flexibly shift their attention, representations, and inferences.

Important Links
Curriculum Vitae: http://goo.gl/qLtUaC
Lab Website: http://goo.gl/AQ78h6
ResearchGate: http://goo.gl/Mj8deH

Relevant Papers
Watch the hands: infants can learn to follow gaze by seeing adults manipulate objects: http://goo.gl/bSMzKy

Young children’s fast mapping and generalization of words, facts, and pictograms :http://goo.gl/nhykZF

A Unified Account of Gaze Following: http://goo.gl/f14c04

Micro-analysis of infant looking in a naturalistic social setting: insights from biologically based models of attention: http://goo.gl/i0S8uA

Visual Prediction in Infancy: What is the Association with Later Vocabulary? :http://goo.gl/I1xUaS

Please note that some of the papers are behind a paywall. Manuscripts can be downloaded through the lab pubs page, http://www.cogsci.ucsd.edu/~deak/cdlab/publications.html.___

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2014-07-09 04:27:01 (17 comments, 52 reshares, 190 +1s)Open 

Your Daughter is a Scientist

Please encourage all children to study Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math!

Deconstructing Gender in STEM

"Our words can have a huge impact. Isn't it time we told her she's pretty brilliant, too? Encourage her love of science and technology and inspire her to change the world."-- Reshma Saujani, Founder of Girls Who Code

The commercial ends by pointing out that 66 percent of 4th grade girls like science and math, but only 18 percent of college engineering majors are female. Society determines gender roles, not biology. But society, according to B. F. Skinner’s Social Learning Theory, plays a huge role in determining behavior. Children begin to “do gender” at a very young age; by five years old, they have a clear concept of not only masculinity and femininity, but also which category they fit into. This binary system is incredibly limiting.

Source: http://thewip.net/2014/06/09/verizons-new-commercia-deconstructs-gender-roles/

H/T +Emily Soldal ___Your Daughter is a Scientist

Please encourage all children to study Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math!

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2014-07-03 15:42:51 (14 comments, 15 reshares, 65 +1s)Open 

Viral Media Hype

Our response to the latest in bad reporting by the tabloids.

  #ScienceMediaHype  Scaremongering Over Viral Research
You may have seen the media circulating a sensationalised story about the research by Professor of Virology, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, who works at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Kawaoka studies influenza viruses, specifically the "molecular mechanism of interspecies transmission of the virus leading to influenza pandemics in humans. His previous research explores genetic compatibility between swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV), a contemporary avian flu (H5N1 virus) and human influenza viruses (http://goo.gl/SHsAk3).* He also examines why, in rare cases, viruses such as avian H5N1, H7, and H9N2 become transmitted across animals species to humans even though they do not spread efficiently from person to person (http://goo.gl/rVr00M).

Kawaoka has published various studies to determine how different types of influenza viruses work their way from species to species through various modes of transmission. This includes a comparison of duck and quail flu transmission to humans (the latter is a potential point of transmission to humans http://goo.gl/L1stUc); swine influenza in macaques (closely mimicking influenza in humans http://goo.gl/0oQEht); and the spread of H5N1 influenza viruses in mammals in a study of ferrets and hamsters (http://goo.gl/LX7aM2).

His work is also important in understanding why some influenza viruses affect some groups of people more than others, such as in a study comparing swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus in mouse models from Norway, Osaka and California (see images). The study showed the that pathogenic strains possibly develop in response to aberrant immune responses in some people, leading to lethal results in a minority of humans (http://goo.gl/HVT0JK). Vaccines are imperative but they have limited viability, and so combined therapies appear to be more effective (http://goo.gl/Du2Mah).

Sites like The Independent, The Daily Mail, Gizmodo and others have ran scaremongering headlines such as -"Scientist creates new flu virus that can kill all of humanity." These news reports emphasise that Kawaoka's ongoing research is unpublished but they claim that his work is reckless and divisive amongst the scientific community. The fact is that all research remains unpublished until it's gone through peer-review; there's nothing under-handed about this, it's simply the scientific process.  These news stories make it seem like Kawaoka is manufacturing viruses that might easily escape into the public. This fear is unfounded as there have been no reported breaches of protocol. This is nothing more than irresponsible reporting. Research labs are closely monitored. There is enough of Kawaoka's research available in the public domain to demonstrate its scientific rigour and value.

Social science research shows that media hype shapes public responses to disease (http://goo.gl/Nks07Y). Misinformation about the epidemiology of illness - the spread, causes and social dynamics of disease, can severely impact how the public responds to both epidemics and pandemics. Kawaoka's research evaluates the transmission and generation of pandemic viruses across various species and to people. This work is important because influenza viruses do not spread consistently across populations. We need to better understand these patterns in order to plan and prevent pandemics that might otherwise severely impact public health. Poor science reporting serves to spread fear, rather than educate and ultimately undermines public health efforts.

As our Moderator, +Rajini Rao points out, there is no truth to the claim that the scientific community is split over this research. The news sites do not provide credible links to substantiate this claim because it's not true. This sort of viral research is not unusual and it is the basis for making anti-viral therapy. Unfortunately, this sort of media hype  comes up at regular intervals.

Check out these past debunking posts that delve into misinformation about similar research, by Prof Rao http://goo.gl/rDJanc and Dr +Tommy Leung http://goo.gl/kc0SOz

See more of Kawaoka's research: http://goo.gl/URT8tQ

Image Credit Ryuta Uraki et. al., 2013 "Virulence Determinants of Pandemic A(H1N1)2009 Influenza Virus in a Mouse Model," _Journal of Virology, vol. 87 no. 4. Notes in images are direct quotes from the paper.

Note
*All cited research has been conducted by teams of researchers, with Prof Kawaoka being one of several authors, and not necessarily the lead investigator.

#virology   #science   #stem   #scienceongplus   #health   #publichealth   #socialscience  ___Viral Media Hype

Our response to the latest in bad reporting by the tabloids.

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2014-07-02 13:07:39 (0 comments, 11 reshares, 46 +1s)Open 

Food for Thought

It's well known that meat production generates more greenhouse gas emissions compared to vegetable farming. This #OpenAccess study attempted to quantify the difference in emissions for people with different diets. Based on their findings, the study concluded that "It is likely that reductions in meat consumption would lead to reductions in dietary GHG emissions."

Dietary greenhouse gas emissions of meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in the UK


This is one of those days when I get quirky and read stuff about the stuff we eat. I found an interesting paper (http://goo.gl/Y8WwEC; open access) whose title is mentioned above. The paper tries to put some numbers on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from different dietary practices, in UK. The following summary is mostly a copy-paste job with some paraphrasing here and there.

++++++Summary starts here++++++
Introduction
When measured by consumption food is responsible for approximately one fifth of all GHG emissions attributable to the UK. There is considerable variation in the amount of GHG emissions related to different food groups, with animal-based products generally having much greater emissions than plant-based products per unit weight. Substantial reductions in GHG emissions can only be achieved through changes in consumption patterns and reduction in food waste. We use data on actual diets of vegans, vegetarians, fish-eaters and meat-eaters to estimate the difference in dietary GHG emissions attributable to these four diet groups. Previous estimates of dietary GHG emissions for self-selected dietary groups have not compared meat consumers with those who abstain from meat.

Methods
The analysis is based on data from participants in the EPIC-Oxford cohort, which consists of 65,000 (12,666 males and 42,838 females) participants generally aged 20 and over at recruitment between 1993 and 1999.

Diet groups:
High meat-eaters, 8286 people: those who consume >=100 g/day
Medium meat-eaters, 11971: meat consumptions 50 to 99 g/day
Low meat-eaters, 9332: meat consumption <50 g/day
Fish-eaters, 8123
Vegetarians, 15751
Vegans, 2041

A food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that estimates intake (frequency of consumption) of 130 different food items over the previous 12 months was completed at recruitment by most participants. Nutritional analysis of 130 food-item FFQ were based on nutritional data for 289 food codes taken from UK food composition tables. We estimated the GHG emissions associated with these 289 food codes. Carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide emissions were incorporated. The data includes the life cycle of food commodities from the earliest stages of production to the retail distribution centre. We did not account for the cooking process (either at the industrial stage or at home) for any of the food codes.

Results
Generally, there were significant trends towards lower total fat, saturated fat and protein consumption and higher carbohydrate, total sugar, fibre and fruit and vegetables consumption as animal-based food consumption decreased.

The highest dietary GHG emissions were found in high meat-eating men and the lowest dietary GHG emissions were found in vegan women. The mean observed values of dietary GHG emissions for meat-eaters (results reported for women and then men) was 46 % and 51 % higher than for fish-eaters, 50 % and 54 % higher than for vegetarians and 99 % and 102 % higher than for vegans. The results showed highly statistically significant differences in dietary GHG emissions between the six diet groups, with progressively higher emissions for groups with greater intakes of animal-based products.

Discussion
After adjustment for sex and age, an average 2,000 kcal high meat diet had 2.5 times as many GHG emissions than an average 2,000 kcal vegan diet. Assuming that the average daily energy intake in the UK is 2,000 kcal, then moving from a high meat diet to a low meat diet would reduce an individual’s carbon footprint by 920kgCO2e every year, moving from a high meat diet to a vegetarian diet would reduce the carbon footprint by 1230 kgCO2e/year, and moving from a high meat diet to a vegan diet would reduce the carbon footprint by 1560 kgCO2e/year. For context, an individual travelling on an economy return flight from London to New York has an addition to their carbon footprint of 960kgCO2e. A family running a 10 year old small family car for 6000 miles has a carbon footprint of 2440 kgCO2e, roughly equivalent to the annual carbon saving of two high meat eating adults moving to a vegetarian diet.

Caveats
Although the nutrient intakes estimated by the FFQ have been validated against food diaries and some biomarkers, the GHG emissions have not. Throughout the analysis presented here we have assumed that GHG emission related to food wastage is reasonably similar across all food groups, but this may not be the case. Estimates of food wastage in the UK suggest that wastage of fruit and vegetables is higher than for meat products, which could reduce the difference in GHG emissions between the dietary groups.

Conclusions
Analysis of observed diets shows a positive relationship between dietary GHG emissions and the amount of animal-based products in a standard 2,000 kcal diet. This work demonstrates that reducing the intake of meat and other animal based products can make a valuable contribution to climate change mitigation. Other work has demonstrated other environmental and health benefits of a reduced meat diet. National governments that are considering an update of dietary recommendations in order to define a ‘healthy, sustainable diet’ must incorporate the recommendation to lower the consumption of animal-based products.

++++++Summary ends here++++++

I hope this motivates people to read further about what they eat.

+ScienceSunday  #sciencesunday
+Rajini Rao  +Robby Bowles  +Buddhini Samarasinghe  +Allison Sekuler

Image taken from the cover of "Changing
what we eat" by the Food Climate Research Network.___Food for Thought

It's well known that meat production generates more greenhouse gas emissions compared to vegetable farming. This #OpenAccess study attempted to quantify the difference in emissions for people with different diets. Based on their findings, the study concluded that "It is likely that reductions in meat consumption would lead to reductions in dietary GHG emissions."

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2014-07-01 18:59:54 (22 comments, 28 reshares, 121 +1s)Open 

Snakes in a Pit

We hope you don't have ophidiophobia. +Allison Sekuler assures us that only about 5.5% of the population has a serious fear of snakes, and it seems to start in infancy - with girls being about 4x more likely than boys to develop the fear. One study here: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2770172/

The large one in the center is a female and the others are males, vying for her attention! 

Writhing in the Snake Pit

Manitoba may not be the first place you'd think of when you think of snakes, but it is home to the Narcisse Snake Dens, which plays host to 75,000 writhing red-sided garter snakes during mating season.

Although the temperature in Manitoba can go down to -40 deg (F and C, since they are equal at that temperature ;)), the snakes winter over underground, below the frostline, wriggling through cracks in the limestone in what's effectively a massive snake housing complex.

If you don't suffer from ophidiophobia - fear of snakes, check out the video in +National Geographic's wonderful story, by +Christine Dell'Amore, on the snake dens, and the photographer who braved them to get some great views of the snakes during mating season (the gif here is a clip from that video). The story also contains some great additional information about snakes and the Narcisse Snake Dens; check it out here:
http://goo.gl/2hXvY4

If you do suffer from ophidiophobia, never fear ;). You're not alone, and recent work suggests that fear of snakes may serve an evolutionary function, and, although controversial, there may even be neurons that respond particularly well to snakes. For more on that, check out stories by:

+Clara Moskowitz via +Li +LiveScience Why We Fear Snakes http://goo.gl/f0YnRH

and

+Ca +Carl Zimmer a +Th +The New York Times Afraid of Snakes? Your Pulvinar May Be to Blame http://goo.gl/cr66BF

#ScienceSunday #scisunABS

h/t +Guy Kawasaki via HASO (http://goo.gl/oaOQOS)
___Snakes in a Pit

We hope you don't have ophidiophobia. +Allison Sekuler assures us that only about 5.5% of the population has a serious fear of snakes, and it seems to start in infancy - with girls being about 4x more likely than boys to develop the fear. One study here: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2770172/

The large one in the center is a female and the others are males, vying for her attention! 

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2014-06-28 14:20:35 (9 comments, 34 reshares, 109 +1s)Open 

Drug Discovery 101: The Story of Aspirin and Morphine

A long but highly readable post that begins to explain how pharmaceutical companies bring drugs to the market. 

Traditional Drug Discovery and the Story of Painkillers:

Pharmaceutical companies spend billions of pounds sterling here in the United Kingdom on developing drugs for sale. In 2012, £4.206 billion ($7.144 billion, conversation rate as of June 2014) was spent on this extremely important process known only to masses as research and development (R&D). The R&D expenditure here contributes to about one tenth of the global expenditure, while the US alone is responsible for half of the global expenditure.(1)

R&D is a critical component to any pharmaceutical company, being responsible for about a third of the company’s sales income. But what exactly is done with the huge sums of money that are pumped into ‘R&D’? The cost of research is deservedly high to ensure the safety and effectiveness of a product over a long period of time. Even now, showing that a drug is safe and effective may not be enough not recover the high cost of R&D. Companies may have to demonstrate the economic value of a drug in order to be reimbursed for treatment costs.

R&D is a very long process, with the average drug spending about 7 years between the start of trials and being approved for sale.(2) The entire process takes between 10 and 15 years, starting with a large number of potential products and ending with very few, usually only a single, viable drug.(3) 

Researchers use many different methods to find a potential drug targets. One method used is known as traditional drug discovery. It is not used very much in the modern industry but is a useful starting point for our journey through the R&D process, and is historically important as a lot of drugs that are now generic and well known to the public were discovered this way.

Traditional drug discovery turns to nature to find molecules that could potentially be used as treatments for various ailments. A striking example of this is the story of aspirin and also of morphine. Both ground willow tree bark and opium poppies have been used to alleviate pain in western countries since antiquity and in eastern cultures since prehistoric times respectively.

In traditional drug discovery, information like this is used and attempts to isolate specific molecules, the “active ingredients”, from a particular sample are made. In the case of bark willow, an extract that was found to be effective was salicin, a sugar derivative of salicylic alcohol. 

It was found that the body breaks down salicin into two compounds, glucose and salicylic alcohol, the latter of which is then oxidised to salicylic acid. It was found that salicylic acid alone caused pain relief. However, this compound was found to cause severe digestive issues such as bleeding, irritation and diarrhea. 

Aspirin is the compound that results from treating salicylic acid with an acylating agent such as acetic anhydride or acetyl chloride. It was first synthesised by the French chemist Charles Gerhardt in 1853. While there was no chemical theory of molecular structure in the 1850’s, treating the sodium salt of salicylic acid with acetyl chloride was later repeated by Schroder, Prinzhorn and Kraut, who correctly identified the chemical structure of aspirin.

Using the fact that salicylic acid could be used to alleviate pain, the German pharmaceutical company Bayer tested aspirin as a painkiller hoping it would demonstrate fewer side effects than salicylic acid. It was shown to be effective and showed less severe side effects, and we now have it on the market as a result.

The process of going from a natural product, such as salicin from willow bark, to a new chemical which is related to the original compound describes the process of traditional drug discovery perfectly. Scientists work without knowledge of specific biological pathways that cause symptoms such as pain to produce a drug. This stands in stark contrast to more modern techniques of drug discovery and design.

The mechanism of action of aspirin is still not fully understood, it is believed to suppress the production of an enzyme known as cyclooxygenase (COX) which is responsible for causing inflammation via the production of prostaglandins. It is believed to do this instead of directly inhibiting COX, but how it does that is currently unknown. The reason that salicylic acid and aspirin give the same relief of symptoms is that aspirin is broken down into salicylic acid by the body. (This means that aspirin is essentially a pro-drug for salicylic acid, a concept I shall introduce in another article)(4).

Morphine is an example of a compound that is taken directly from nature and sold on the market. It is one of the many components in Opium poppy extract that cause pain relief. These pain relieving compounds are known as the opioids and include naturally occurring molecules such as codeine and morphine as well as synthetic molecules such as heroin. They work by binding to the μ-opioid receptor in the central nervous system to release dopamine into the brain.

In some cases, like that of aspirin, it is much easier to produce the drug synthetically. This is why the study of natural and unnatural products is so fundamental to chemistry, particularly synthetic organic chemistry. Salicylic acid for the production of aspirin is made from the reaction with phenol with carbon dioxide under alkaline conditions (Kolbe-Schmitt reaction) followed by acidic workup conditions. This is then reacted with acyl chloride to give aspirin. These two reactions allow aspirin to be produced on an industrial scale with ease. Morphine is a much more complex molecule and so it is easier to extract it from poppies.

References:

(1) Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry, http://goo.gl/ThIlUp
(2) Kaitin, Deconstructing the Drug Development process, http://goo.gl/JYtHhf
(3) Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, http://goo.gl/MtYRgY
(4) Chemical Abstracts Service, http://goo.gl/DbnNRe
Various Wikipedia articles:
- http://goo.gl/g5M9Gh, Aspirin
- http://goo.gl/pVg7kP, History of Aspirin___Drug Discovery 101: The Story of Aspirin and Morphine

A long but highly readable post that begins to explain how pharmaceutical companies bring drugs to the market. 

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2014-06-22 22:57:29 (18 comments, 40 reshares, 167 +1s)Open 

Casual Night with Arachnids
We are setting up right now and will be live in about 10 minutes.

Doug Gaffin, Mind-melding a scorpion.

Cara Shillington, Male versus wild: Radio-tracking tarantulas.

Bob Suter, Messing with time—see the invisible, hear the inaudible.

George Uetz & Dave Clark, Avatar 2.0: Digital imaging and (virtual) spider communication.

Rick Vetter, Mythconceptions of the brown recluse spider in Ohio.

Joe Warfel, Getting together with family: Spiders and their Relatives.

http://youtu.be/rsNM83co9p0

Casual Night with Arachnids
We are setting up right now and will be live in about 10 minutes.

Doug Gaffin, Mind-melding a scorpion.

Cara Shillington, Male versus wild: Radio-tracking tarantulas.

Bob Suter, Messing with time—see the invisible, hear the inaudible.

George Uetz & Dave Clark, Avatar 2.0: Digital imaging and (virtual) spider communication.

Rick Vetter, Mythconceptions of the brown recluse spider in Ohio.

Joe Warfel, Getting together with family: Spiders and their Relatives.

http://youtu.be/rsNM83co9p0___

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2014-06-20 17:36:09 (31 comments, 299 reshares, 509 +1s)Open 

Casual Night with Arachnids
In two days +Science on Google+ will be streaming “Casual Night with Arachnids”. The Hangout On Air will consist of a series of short presentations from spider experts (see http://goo.gl/knJbyX for event post), and we are inviting all of you to watch the live event.There will be several minutes after each talk to answer questions. Please feel free to use the Q & A app or event post to ask questions. Questions can also be submitted to @spiderprofessor on twitter. Please use the hashtag  #arachnids14 . You can also watch the archived event on our youtube channel (http://goo.gl/zjmEfu). Subscribe to the page if you want to keep up on our HOAs.

In preparation for the event, we are sharing this GIF of an Ogre-faced spider (Deinopis subrufa), which is casting a net on a cricket. You can learn more about these net-casting spiders here(http:/... more »

Casual Night with Arachnids
In two days +Science on Google+ will be streaming “Casual Night with Arachnids”. The Hangout On Air will consist of a series of short presentations from spider experts (see http://goo.gl/knJbyX for event post), and we are inviting all of you to watch the live event.There will be several minutes after each talk to answer questions. Please feel free to use the Q & A app or event post to ask questions. Questions can also be submitted to @spiderprofessor on twitter. Please use the hashtag  #arachnids14 . You can also watch the archived event on our youtube channel (http://goo.gl/zjmEfu). Subscribe to the page if you want to keep up on our HOAs.

In preparation for the event, we are sharing this GIF of an Ogre-faced spider (Deinopis subrufa), which is casting a net on a cricket. You can learn more about these net-casting spiders here (http://goo.gl/bWPW3s) and here's a short video showing an Ogre-faced spider weaving a net and using the net to catch prey (http://goo.gl/QaHU31). 

Link to Casual Night with Arachnids: http://goo.gl/knJbyX 
GIF source: http://goo.gl/xzFF4p
Wikipedia: http://goo.gl/bWPW3s 
Net weaving video: http://goo.gl/QaHU31 ___

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2014-06-19 11:24:53 (12 comments, 27 reshares, 64 +1s)Open 

Vitamin K Injections for Newborns

Vitamin K is an essential clotting factor that stops bleeding. Babies are born with very little Vitamin K because it fails to cross the placental barrier efficiently, even if the mother supplements her diet. Breast milk is also low in Vitamin K. Another source is the bacterial flora in our intestine, but this takes months to develop in the infant. This makes the infant susceptible to a rare condition known as Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding. It can happen quickly, with few external signs,  It can result in brain damage or death, as narrated by the heartbreaking stories in the link. 

This is why Vitamin K injection at birth has been routine for more than five decades — since it was first recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 1961. One megadose of the vitamin goes into the infant’s bloodstream; part of that is stored inthe l... more »

Vitamin K Injections for Newborns

Vitamin K is an essential clotting factor that stops bleeding. Babies are born with very little Vitamin K because it fails to cross the placental barrier efficiently, even if the mother supplements her diet. Breast milk is also low in Vitamin K. Another source is the bacterial flora in our intestine, but this takes months to develop in the infant. This makes the infant susceptible to a rare condition known as Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding. It can happen quickly, with few external signs,  It can result in brain damage or death, as narrated by the heartbreaking stories in the link. 

This is why Vitamin K injection at birth has been routine for more than five decades — since it was first recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 1961. One megadose of the vitamin goes into the infant’s bloodstream; part of that is stored in the liver, where it is released slowly over the ensuing few months.

Investigators from Centers for Disease Control learned of a troubling trend with ~3% parents of newborns refusing the injection, and up to 28% refusals at natural birth centers. Parents are susceptible to misinformation about "toxins" and and buying unreliable oral drops from unlicensed sites on the internet. Now, mothers of children who developed life threatening hemorrhages are speaking out. 

Learn More: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/vitamink/___

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2014-06-18 21:35:11 (10 comments, 44 reshares, 215 +1s)Open 

Counting Cards with a Harmonic Series

+Richard Green demonstrates the use of a harmonic series (H(n) = 1 + 1/2 + 1/3 + ... + 1/n) to count how far a deck of cards will overhang from the base card. Richard discusses the card's center of mass, and found that the maximum displacement is 2.26 card widths for 52 cards. Furthermore, he found that if a deck had a million cards, the total stable overhang  would only be 14.39.

Please post in the comments your favorite use of a harmonic series!

#Science   #Math  

Massive Hangovers and the Harmonic Series

This picture shows a stable deck of 52 cards in which the top card overhangs the bottom card by about 1.5 card widths. In theory, it is possible to do even better so that the overhang is almost 2.26 card widths. The reason for this has to do with centres of mass and the harmonic series.

In order to understand where the number 2.26 comes from, it is helpful to keep track of the horizontal displacement of each card. We will measure horizontal distances from an origin at the rightmost edge of the top card, in such a way that each card is 2 units wide. The centre of mass of the top card is then 1 unit to the left of the origin. 

The overhang of a stack of cards is the horizontal distance between the rightmost edge of the top card and the rightmost edge of the bottom card. In a stack of two cards, the way to create the largest overhang is to put the centre of mass of the top card above the rightmost edge of the lower card. The combined centre of mass of these two cards will then be half way between their individual centres of mass; in other words, 1.5 units to the left of the origin.

Now consider creating an overhanging stack with n+1 cards by placing an overhanging stack with n cards on top of a single card. (This is probably not a good way to create a stack in practice, but it is mathematically helpful.) In order to maximize the overhang, the cards should be positioned so that the centre of mass of the top n cards is directly above the rightmost edge of the bottom card. If we define C(n) to be the horizontal distance between the centre of mass of the n-card stack and the origin, this shows that the size of the overhang for n+1 cards is equal to C(n).

The centre of the bottom card of the new n+1 card stack is at a distance of C(n)+1 from the origin. The centre of mass of the new n+1 card stack is thus given by the weighted formula
C(n+1) = (nC(n) + C(n)+1)/n+1,
which simplifies to C(n+1) = C(n) + 1/(n+1). 

Since C(1) = 1, we can solve this to show that C(n) is given by the sum of the first n terms of the harmonic series, H(n) = 1 + 1/2 + 1/3 + ... + 1/n. A famous property of this series is that it diverges to infinity. For example, if you were prepared to make n large enough, you could add up enough terms to make H(n) larger than 1000, or any other large number you care to specify. However, the divergence is very slow, and adding up the first million terms of the series only gives a total sum of about 14.39.

Going back to the skewed stack of 52 playing cards, we now know that the size of the overhang for 52 cards is equal to H(51), which works out at around 4.5188. However, the width of a card is two units, so in terms of card widths, the maximum overhang is about 2.2594, which is where the figure of 2.26 comes from. 

Since the series H(n) diverges to infinity, it is possible in theory to stack objects in this way so that the overhang is arbitrarily large. However, the thicker and heavier the objects become, the harder it is to achieve large overhangs.

This post is based on a post in the blog ThatsMaths by Peter Lynch, who is a Professor of Meteorology at University College Dublin. The blog post also shows a photograph of a stack of ten biscuits (cookies) and a stack of ten volumes of the Encyclopædia Britannica. 

Relevant links
Peter Lynch's original blog post, Biscuits, Books, Coins and Cards: Massive Hangovers, can be found here: http://thatsmaths.com/2014/06/12/biscuits-books-coins-and-cards-massive-hangovers/

Here's an online harmonic series calculator by Jim Carlson which you can use to calculate values of H(n) for various n: http://www.math.utah.edu/~carlson/teaching/calculus/harmonic.html

#mathematics #scienceeveryday___Counting Cards with a Harmonic Series

+Richard Green demonstrates the use of a harmonic series (H(n) = 1 + 1/2 + 1/3 + ... + 1/n) to count how far a deck of cards will overhang from the base card. Richard discusses the card's center of mass, and found that the maximum displacement is 2.26 card widths for 52 cards. Furthermore, he found that if a deck had a million cards, the total stable overhang  would only be 14.39.

Please post in the comments your favorite use of a harmonic series!

#Science   #Math  

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2014-06-11 21:48:36 (8 comments, 40 reshares, 103 +1s)Open 

Fast Facts

This post does some good work in dispelling  #ScienceMediaHype ! Since the news story on the benefits of fasting on stem cell regeneration appeared, people in our community have been overly quick to claim that fasting rituals in <insert your favorite religion here> were right all along. Although many societies and religions practice fasting rituals, the fasting protocol used by scientists is quite different and does not involve "feasting" on high caloric delights when "breaking one's fast". That would undo all the benefits of stress-induced signaling described in the study ;)

Pulling a Fast One on Cancer

There is a report making the rounds on social media that really needs to be explained, because as usual the media hype is distorting the findings. The article in question was published in the Cell Stem Cell journal, and is #OpenAccess (http://goo.gl/pnoiwa). I will explain the background, what these results mean, and more importantly, what they don’t mean.

✤ Traditional chemotherapy is toxic to cells. The only reason traditional chemotherapy works is because it kills cancer cells faster than it kills normal cells. The side effects from chemo often happen because normal cells are also affected. One such side effect is the suppression of the immune system. This happens because chemo damages adult stem cells too, which impairs tissue repair and regeneration. 

✤ Blood stem cells (known as hematopoietic stem cells) are responsible for replacing our blood cells; these reside in the bone marrow. In this study, scientists investigated the effect of prolonged fasting on hematopoietic stem cells.

✤ Mice used in this study were fasted for 48 hours, which the scientists defined as prolonged fasting. These mice received no food, only water. They then treated the mice with cyclophosphamide, a common chemotherapy drug. They found that cycles of prolonged fasting reduced the damage caused to hematopoietic stem cells when the mice were treated with cyclophosphamide. They also found that prolonged fasting cycles promoted the regeneration of blood cells through the protection of hematopoietic stem cells. 

✤ Next, the scientists tested whether the effects of prolonged fasting were independent of the toxic side effects of chemotherapy. Could prolonged fasting alone stimulate hematopoietic stem cells to self-renew? Indeed, it could. 

✤ What is the molecular mechanism for this process? A growth factor known as Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) seemed to be involved. Growth factors are proteins that control the multiplication of cells. To examine this mechanism, the scientists used mice that were deficient in IGF-1.  If you’re curious about how these ‘knockout mice’ are generated, read http://goo.gl/jdbqbk. When these IGF-1 deficient mice were treated with cyclophosphamide, they showed similar results to the prolonged fasting mice; reduced levels of hematopoietic stem cell damage. So getting rid of IGF-1 induced the same protective effects on hematopoietic stem cells.  

✤ How does IGF-1 signalling protect hematopoietic stem cells? They found that the activity of an enzyme known as PKA was also reduced in these prolonged fasting/IGF-1 deficient mice. PKA controls the pathway involved in stem cell regeneration. So inhibiting IGF-1 or PKA signalling mimics the effect of prolonged fasting; it promotes the regeneration of hematopoietic stem cells, thereby reducing the immuno-suppressive side effect of chemotherapy. 

✤ This is really interesting data - this research has identified one of the signalling pathways in the intricate network of reactions controlling the behaviour of hematopoietic stem cells. The mechanism involves PKA and IGF-1 signalling.  

WHAT THE DATA DOESN'T SHOW

What this doesn't show is that fasting is magically a cure-all for cancer. There isn't a single study that shows lowered incidence of cancer in human populations that fast regularly. The fasting that these mice underwent also did not include the feasting that goes on every night as seen with human populations either. The scientists also conducted a small Phase I clinical trial in which patients undergoing chemotherapy fasted for 72h - the results are promising; their hematopoietic stem cells were protected when compared with the non-fasting control group. But obviously more data is needed, and it is highly inadvisable to fast before undergoing chemo, without the explicit guidance of a physician.

To summarise, fasting is not a cure for cancer. If anything, fasting does "cure" everything, eventually; this pathway involves a mechanism known as ‘death’. 

Image: fasting causes a major reduction in white blood cells followed by their replenishment after refeeding. These effects of prolonged fasting can result in the reversal of chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression. 

Image source: http://goo.gl/pnoiwa

#ScienceMediaHype   #ScienceEveryday  ___Fast Facts

This post does some good work in dispelling  #ScienceMediaHype ! Since the news story on the benefits of fasting on stem cell regeneration appeared, people in our community have been overly quick to claim that fasting rituals in <insert your favorite religion here> were right all along. Although many societies and religions practice fasting rituals, the fasting protocol used by scientists is quite different and does not involve "feasting" on high caloric delights when "breaking one's fast". That would undo all the benefits of stress-induced signaling described in the study ;)

2014-06-11 14:47:18 (0 comments, 5 reshares, 33 +1s)Open 

Added photos to Casual Night with Arachnids.

Added photos to Casual Night with Arachnids.___

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2014-06-10 23:13:43 (132 comments, 137 reshares, 976 +1s)Open 

Do You Have a Science Question for our Community?

One of our members +Miz Abynaah wanted to know more about the Doppler Effect (http://goo.gl/KIOa6B). +Mike Aben  wrote this terrific explanation below as well as sharing this great video by +Alt Shift X.

Mike Aben: The Doppler Effect
The Doppler effect occurs whenever an object emitting waves is moving.  The effect is observed with any waves (water, sound, light, etc).  The waves being emitted ahead of the object's motion are compressed, which means they will reach an observer at a higher frequency than if the object was stationary.  The waves emitted behind the object are stretched out and will reach an observer at a lower frequency.

With sound waves, this affects the pitch of the sound heard.  For example, the sound of a car traveling towards you will be at a higher pitch than the soundof a ... more »

Do You Have a Science Question for our Community?

One of our members +Miz Abynaah wanted to know more about the Doppler Effect (http://goo.gl/KIOa6B). +Mike Aben  wrote this terrific explanation below as well as sharing this great video by +Alt Shift X.

Mike Aben: The Doppler Effect
The Doppler effect occurs whenever an object emitting waves is moving.  The effect is observed with any waves (water, sound, light, etc).  The waves being emitted ahead of the object's motion are compressed, which means they will reach an observer at a higher frequency than if the object was stationary.  The waves emitted behind the object are stretched out and will reach an observer at a lower frequency.

With sound waves, this affects the pitch of the sound heard.  For example, the sound of a car traveling towards you will be at a higher pitch than the sound of a car moving away from you.  With visible light, it is the colour of the light that is affected.  Lower frequency light is redder, while higher frequency light is bluer.  For the effect to be noticeable with light, the relative velocity of the object to the observer has to be very high.

**
This post was chosen by +Zuleyka Zevallos  for #SoG+CuratorsChoice  #physics   #science  ___

2014-06-07 13:49:27 (21 comments, 15 reshares, 38 +1s)Open 

The American Arachnological Society Conference is right around the corner and this year’s conference is being hosted by +Andy Roberts at +OhioStateNewark. The conference sponsors a great lineup of speakers (see details below) for their annual public event, “Casual Night with Arachnids”, and +Science on Google+ will stream these presentations on Google+ in a Hangout On Air. Each talk will be approximately 10 – 12 minutes and there will be time to ask each presenter questions. Google+ members can submit questions using the Q & A app or by posting questions on the event post (http://goo.gl/knJbyX). RSVP “yes” if you want to add this event to your Google calendar. Anyone can view this event live or watch the archived youtube video; however, individuals not using Google+ will have to submit questions to @spiderprofessor on twitter. Please use the hashtag #arachnids14 .

Sharing onother social... more »

The American Arachnological Society Conference is right around the corner and this year’s conference is being hosted by +Andy Roberts at +OhioStateNewark. The conference sponsors a great lineup of speakers (see details below) for their annual public event, “Casual Night with Arachnids”, and +Science on Google+ will stream these presentations on Google+ in a Hangout On Air. Each talk will be approximately 10 – 12 minutes and there will be time to ask each presenter questions. Google+ members can submit questions using the Q & A app or by posting questions on the event post (http://goo.gl/knJbyX). RSVP “yes” if you want to add this event to your Google calendar. Anyone can view this event live or watch the archived youtube video; however, individuals not using Google+ will have to submit questions to @spiderprofessor on twitter. Please use the hashtag #arachnids14 .

Sharing on other social networks
Please use this link (http://goo.gl/knJbyX) if you want to share this event via email or on other social networks.

Do you live in the Columbus area?
The event is open to the public and will be in the Reese Center at 1209 University Dr, Newark, OH 43055. See more details about the event here: https://u.osu.edu/arachnids/

List of Presentations 
Times below are in EST.

7:00 – 7:20pm, Doug Gaffin, Mind-melding a scorpion.

7:20 – 7:40pm, Cara Shillington, Male versus wild: Radio-tracking tarantulas.

7:40 – 8:00pm, Bob Suter, Messing with time—see the invisible, hear the inaudible.

8:00 – 8:20pm, George Uetz & Dave Clark, Avatar 2.0: Digital imaging and (virtual) spider communication.

8:20 – 8:40pm, Rick Vetter, Mythconceptions of the brown recluse spider in Ohio.

8:40 – 9:00pm, Joe Warfel, Getting together with family: Spiders and their Relatives.

Abstracts

Douglas Gaffin, PhD (Department of Biology, University of Oklahoma)
Mind-melding a scorpion. Scorpions are secretive, mysterious, and patient animals. What are they thinking as they wait for hours in their burrows? Although we can’t answer that yet, we can use a trick called electrophysiology to listen in to their nerve cells and to get a sense of what they perceive. It looks like mad science, but I will lead you through the maze of equipment we use, demystifying the process and explaining how easy and useful it actually is.

Cara Shillington, PhD (Department of Biology, Eastern Michigan University)
Male versus wild: Radio-tracking tarantulas. Despite their notoriety and popularity in the pet trade, surprisingly little is known about tarantulas in their natural environment.  Where do they go and what do they do when they’re free of the glassy confines of your home aquarium? I will discuss many aspects of their life history and behavior both in captivity and in the wild.  Compared to most other arthropods, these animals are exceedingly long-lived (surviving 15 years or more in some cases).  Females remain in burrows for much of their lives, but mature males leave their permanent burrows in search of females. To track them, my students and I radio-tagged males to gather data on activities and distances travelled in their search of receptive females.  These studies have also allowed me to document some of the perils faced by males; extreme environments (hot and dry) as well as many types of predators.

Robert Suter, PhD (Department of Biology, Vassar College)
Messing with time—see the invisible, hear the inaudible. The natural world is full of sights and sounds that we can’t perceive because they happen too quickly or too slowly for our eyes and ears to capture and for our brains to interpret. By recording these sights and sounds at high speed and then playing them back more slowly, we reveal important details of the processes we are studying. Paradoxically, we also have trouble with events that happen very slowly. For these, we record at very slow rates and play back more rapidly. Examples will include spitting by spitting spiders, capsule construction by Clubiona riparia, and ballooning by wolf spiderlings (weather permitting).

George Uetz, PhD (Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cincinnati) & David Clark, PhD (Department of Biology, Alma College)
Avatar 2.0:  Digital imaging and (virtual) spider communication. Although spiders would appear to have little in common with humans, we do share a characteristic of our visual senses that enable us to see moving images on TV screens.  We are using digital imaging and playback of virtual spider avatars in our research, revealing surprising insights about animal communication behavior.

Rick Vetter, MS (Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside)
Mythconceptions of the brown recluse spider in Ohio. Although the brown recluse spider is of potential medical importance, it is not a common spider in Ohio.  However, that does not stop people from elevating it to larger-than-life status where its reputation is overblown throughout the state.  Many myths and exaggerations occur in reference to the brown recluse which can be countered with solid information.  Science rocks!!

Joe Warfel, Photographer (Eighth Eye Photography)
Getting together with family: Spiders and their Relatives. An astounding variety of spiders and their arachnid relatives can be found in common, ordinary places like backyards, neighborhood parks, and even national parks.  From your yard to the world’s most exotic locations, more than 40,000 species of spiders exist.  Spider relatives such as harvestmen, scorpions, mites, ticks and others add many thousand more species making up the arachnids.  This presentation will highlight many colorful and amazing arachnids from around the world, representing the great diversity I have photographed in various habitats of North, South and Central America, Africa and Australia.  Every one of the arachnid orders have fascinating life stories to tell and help make up the great web of life on earth.  My goal is for everyone to “see with different eyes” the next time a spider or arachnid is viewed at home or anywhere else one might find them lurking.___

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2014-06-07 11:21:00 (14 comments, 22 reshares, 112 +1s)Open 

Phosphate Problem
Phosphate is an essential resource in our human food supply, but we are running out of this vital mineral. +Kevin Clift explains the current supply problem and the science projects seeking alternatives.

Peak Phosphate?

Phosphorous is one of those chemical elements that's essential to life on Earth.  In its phosphate forms it is needed for DNA, RNA, ATP and cell membranes. As we grow plants for our food or animal fodder they take up the phosphorous they need from the soil and then we transport these plants all over the world where they are consumed by people and animals. When plants are eaten, the small proportion of phosphate needed for animal life is absorbed, and the rest is excreted.  Currently, this excreted essential element then flows into the local rivers from animals. From human animals, it flows through sewage systems into the local rivers and oceans.  Consequently the soil where the food is grown, which these days may be far away from where it is excreted, is being continuously stripped of phosphorous.  For us to grow food in the same field again and again, we have to industrially replace it in the form of phosphate based fertiliser.  

As our population keeps doubling so frequently we need more and more food and therefore more phosphates but there are limits to their availability.  Also, many countries, like those in Africa, have yet to adopt the industrial approach to food production. The world competition for phosphates is expected to increase as they do.  Only one county, Morocco, controls 80% of known phosphate bearing rock.  We have already consumed most of the phosphate from guano and before that much of the known phosphate bearing coprolites or fossilised dinosaur dung.

If you are interested in learning more about the potential phosphate problem, a problem that is leading to some of the deep sea extraction efforts, you might enjoy this radio programme from the BBC.

Tom Heap looks at whether we're running out of phosphorus. It's an essential element in fertiliser and all life on earth depends on it. Nowadays we get it from mining phosphate rock, which is a finite resource. Some scientists have predicted that we could run out within decades.

More here: http://goo.gl/Rp9HKP
(There is a stream, download (look for Tue, 18 Mar 14), and podcast available)

To learn more about our efforts to mine phosphorous (and more) from the deep sea continue here.

My name is Linwood Pendleton, I'm an economist. I have three things I want you to know about what's happening in the deep sea. First of all we have already industrialised many parts of the deep sea. We have deep sea trawling for fish, we have oil and gas extraction, but we have cables and we have barrels of waste.

What's happening now though is we are about to move into a different era, a new era of deep sea industrialisation. Keep in mind that all industrial activity in the deep sea has some environmental impact. Even oil and gas which seems to have a relatively small footprint has a relatively large at times impact on environmental conditions. For instance, the oil and gas platforms in British and Norwegian waters alone have produced 2 million cubic feet of drilling wastes. That's enough to fill the Hyatt Regency up to the 20th floor. That waste sits on the floor of the deep sea, smothering the organisms there. It has toxins of course. Accidents in the deep sea will happen.


More here: http://goo.gl/AMYKRQ
(You can choose the transcript tab to continue reading, or you can listen to this segment or subscribe to the podcast.)

Image: http://goo.gl/433yuV___Phosphate Problem
Phosphate is an essential resource in our human food supply, but we are running out of this vital mineral. +Kevin Clift explains the current supply problem and the science projects seeking alternatives.

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2014-06-06 23:27:41 (9 comments, 6 reshares, 46 +1s)Open 

Raw Milk Myths

Microbiologist +Peter Olsen shares some unpalatable truths about raw milk. 

I've spent a lot time attempting to inform and educate consumers about the hazards of raw milk consumption, particularly those who advocate drinking it. The vast majority of advocates I've talked to dismiss my vast mountains of scientific evidence, but still, I feel it is my responsibility as a public health microbiologist to continue to attempt to educate people. It's not just about your safety, or your children's safety; raw milk consumption is a problem for everyone you may contact because of the natures of the diseases associated with raw milk, and the relative ease with which these organisms can be spread.

Here is a great article summarizing and debunking a number of myths around raw milk consumption.

Really, it's not a conspiracy. Public health scientists aren't shills for factory-produced milk. Nobody buys us off - we don't have enough voice to matter.

You can be a small, independent farmer and still pasteurize. I like that. I don't like brucellosis or tuberculosis; those are diseases which can be transmitted to humans through raw milk, and which can also be spread person-to-person.

http://www.foodsafetynews.com/2011/11/raw-milk-myths----busted/___Raw Milk Myths

Microbiologist +Peter Olsen shares some unpalatable truths about raw milk. 

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2014-06-04 14:32:28 (2 comments, 3 reshares, 36 +1s)Open 

Fill and Spill Hydrology

+Jason Davison describes prairie pothole hydrology using an integrated surface/subsurface model. The attached video illustrates water filling up the first pothole and spilling into the second hole. 

Check out the video simulation and comment on what you see!

Prairie Pothole Hydrology

The prairie pothole region, located in the North American Great Plains, was formed by glacial activity 10,000 years ago. The potholes play an extremely important role governing surface water flow, infiltration, and transient groundwater flow. 

The video below models two prairie potholes using HydroGeoSphere (HGS), a fully implicit integrated variably saturated surface and subsurface model. From my knowledge, this is the only numerical simulation modeling the prairie pothole system (please correct me if you know better!). These types of simulations are numerically difficult to solve because of their highly nonlinear nature 

Physics
The simulation was run for a total of 10 days, the first day precipitation fills up the upstream pothole. Once the pothole reaches a maximum capacity it spills the additional water downstream. The precipitation stops after the first day, and for the next nine days the water continues to infiltrate into the subsurface. 

In the middle of the subsurface there is a horizontal clay layer preventing the water from recharging the lower aquifer. A perched water table forms directly above the clay layer and will eventually percolate through the aquitard, evaporate as surface water, or transpire via plants.

More Information
For more information about HydroGeoSphere you can go to Aquanty.com. I am one of the developers working on this model as part of PhD work, feel free to ask me anything about this simulation or HGS.

This work was done by my colleague +Steven Berg. 

Relative Papers:
1-> Philip Brunner and Craig T. Simmons, 2012, HydroGeoSphere: A Fully Integrated, Physically Based Hydrological Model http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-6584.2011.00882.x/abstract

2-> R. Therrien and E.A. Sudicky, 1996, Three-dimensional analysis of variably-saturated flow and transport in discretely-fractured porous media: Model development and illustrative examples http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0169772295000887

#Science  
#Groundwater  
#Water  ___Fill and Spill Hydrology

+Jason Davison describes prairie pothole hydrology using an integrated surface/subsurface model. The attached video illustrates water filling up the first pothole and spilling into the second hole. 

Check out the video simulation and comment on what you see!

posted image

2014-05-29 07:31:33 (14 comments, 23 reshares, 155 +1s)Open 

Climate Change and Trout

This study found an increase in hybridization between native and invasive trout species because of the decrease in local spring precipitation and an increase in summer stream temperatures.

From the paper:
rapid climate warming can exacerbate interactions between native and non-native species through invasive hybridization, which could spell genomic extinction for many species.

#Climatechange

Climate Change Accelerates Hybridization between Native and Invasive Species of Trout
Yep, it's a mouthful, but it's a potential "big deal" of climate change

Scientists have discovered that the rapid spread of hybridization between a native species and an invasive species of trout in the wild is strongly linked to changes in climate.

In the study, stream temperature warming over the past several decades and decreases in spring flow over the same time period contributed to the spread of hybridization between native westslope cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout – the world’s most widely introduced invasive fish species –across the Flathead River system in Montana and British Columbia, Canada.

Experts have long predicted that climate change could decrease worldwide biodiversity through cross-breeding between invasive and native species, but this study is the first to directly and scientifically support this assumption. The study, published today in Nature Climate Change, was based on 30 years of research by scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey, University of Montana, and Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks. (http://on.doi.gov/1w3JEq9)

Here's the article, “Invasive hybridization in a threatened species is accelerated by climate change”: http://bit.ly/1kEUTQR

#science   #climatechange   #climatescience   #hybrid   #fish   #invasivespecies  ___Climate Change and Trout

This study found an increase in hybridization between native and invasive trout species because of the decrease in local spring precipitation and an increase in summer stream temperatures.

From the paper:
rapid climate warming can exacerbate interactions between native and non-native species through invasive hybridization, which could spell genomic extinction for many species.

#Climatechange

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2014-05-26 12:06:03 (29 comments, 67 reshares, 254 +1s)Open 


The Science Behind #ScienceMediaHype , or “This it how it works in the real world."

The cartoon linked here sums up pretty neatly a lot of things that are hard about being a scientist. If only science were as neat and pretty as what the press release sites and the newspapers described. In the world of newspapers, a line of research always yields fascinating and unequivocal results and the researchers’ cleverness and insight overcomes long odds to reveal amazing truths. Then, we pull the actual papers and the first thing we say to ourselves is, “Hmm. I wish they’d done this too. The paper would have been stronger.” And we recall ourselves the times we’ve published things that weren’t as done as we wanted them to be because it was time to move on, or because the funding was running out, or because it was time for the student to graduate. 

Often, we’ve run outof time because ... more »


The Science Behind #ScienceMediaHype , or “This it how it works in the real world."

The cartoon linked here sums up pretty neatly a lot of things that are hard about being a scientist. If only science were as neat and pretty as what the press release sites and the newspapers described. In the world of newspapers, a line of research always yields fascinating and unequivocal results and the researchers’ cleverness and insight overcomes long odds to reveal amazing truths. Then, we pull the actual papers and the first thing we say to ourselves is, “Hmm. I wish they’d done this too. The paper would have been stronger.” And we recall ourselves the times we’ve published things that weren’t as done as we wanted them to be because it was time to move on, or because the funding was running out, or because it was time for the student to graduate. 

Often, we’ve run out of time because we’ve run the same analysis 39 times and gotten 39 disparate answers, with no rhyme or reason as to why the variation. Maybe we’ll find out later that the undergrad intern reset the optics on the diffractometer, or that the rotavap was contaminated by that guy in the next lab who is a total slob.

All of us live for the “that’s funny” moments. Those moments when we see something unexpected that we suspect might hide something new and exciting. That’s not what usually happens, though. Usually, its a case of “I have no freaking clue why its doing that.” And often that means we’ve failed to control some variable or missed some confounding factor or interference. We have no idea what it is, but we do know that more likely than not, we’re going to spend the next month re-running that same experiment. Sigh.

And then. Then, inevitably we get data we believe, data that show that we’ve made the molecule we meant to make or something like that. We think about all these things and we say to ourselves, “These data look too good. I’m missing something. I’m going to run the experiment again.”  Sigh, again.

It’s pretty in fashion right now in some circles to discount science as abstract and disconnected with the real world or to claim science has no advantage over various other sources of knowledge. I sometimes wonder why I don’t see more scientists speaking up about that, pushing back a little. Then, I see this cartoon and I’m reminded why they aren’t. They’re busy running that experiment for the 40th time, because this time (for reals!) they’ll figure out why its catching on fire in step 11.

This is a followup to a recent post in Curator's Choice by +Chad Haney (https://plus.google.com/105917944266111687812/posts/3r8ghecybAW) 

Cartoon from Twisted Doodles: http://www.twisteddoodles.com/post/86414780702/working-in-science___

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2014-05-25 18:34:04 (4 comments, 12 reshares, 83 +1s)Open 

Do You F***ing Love Science?

+Chad Haney says, So if you really F@^king Love Science, try doing some science. Try engaging with some scientists here. Better yet, tell your legislative representative to support science with more research funding. Do you agree? Tell us!

You don't really F@^king Love Science
You don't love science, you're looking at its butt when it walks by. That sums up my feelings on a lot of the IFLS type shares. I have a passion for science and science outreach. +Nic Hammond jokingly asked on his share of the Cyanide and Happiness cartoon, Do you even science, Bro?

Don't get me wrong, I'm pleased that people are interested in science. What I'm annoyed with is the flashy, hyped, hipster style science related posts. In this Twitter/SMS-speak world, where people's attention span is about 1 minute, not many people take the time to fully read any science posts. They plus the flashy image or hyped up title and that's it. A while ago I found an image that looked photoshopped so I started thinking about the physics of it and wrote a post about it. How many of the IFLS people shared the original image/post versus my version that discussed why it was probably photoshopped? If you really F@^king love science, did you try the experiment yourself? You only need a glass and water. I'm sorry if this comes across as jealousy or sour grapes. That's not my intention.

Photoshopped or Real: my vote is photoshopped
https://plus.google.com/u/0/+ChadHaney/posts/hzX8dQSC49o

+Buddhini Samarasinghe has a great discussion going on, on her share of the Cyanide & Happiness cartoon with her own thoughts on the topic.
https://plus.google.com/u/0/+BuddhiniSamarasinghe/posts/Ua9gmTsQA8g

It takes a lot of work to do science and take the time to share it in layman's terms. It's also very rewarding when we get positive discussions. A lot of us, like Buddhini, +Rajini Rao +Allison Sekuler , +Carissa Braun , +Brian Koberlein etc work hard doing science and work equally hard sharing it on social media (that's not meant to be an exhaustive list by any stretch).

We are working on breaking out of the stereotype that scientist are boring, white lab coat wearing, nerds. There is nothing wrong with nerds. I'm just not a fan of the trying to be nerdy to be ironic and hip. Nerd Nite (http://nerdnite.com/) is actually a really cool idea. I'd love to expand Nerd Nite to Google Hangouts. If you are passionate about something, share it with all the gory details but let's skip some of the jargon.

Here's an old post about the scientist stereotype. 
Hey scientist, smile!
http://goo.gl/2E8Cu

There is still work to do to get people really excited and involved with science. As a scientist, I have to look at my own evidence, and my science posts are dwarfed by my posts of drivel.
Science vs. drivel v2
http://goo.gl/FjBsj7

So if you really F@^king Love Science, try doing some science. Try engaging with some scientists here. Better yet, tell your legislative representative to support science with more research funding.

Image sources:
TwistedDoodles
http://goo.gl/JDeF88
via +Amine Benaichouche

Cyanide & Happiness Explosm
http://explosm.net/comics/3557/

#ScienceSunday  

edit  h/t to +Brent Neal  for the second cartoon.___Do You F***ing Love Science?

+Chad Haney says, So if you really F@^king Love Science, try doing some science. Try engaging with some scientists here. Better yet, tell your legislative representative to support science with more research funding. Do you agree? Tell us!

2014-05-18 21:14:44 (1 comments, 0 reshares, 18 +1s)Open 

We're getting ready to go live with our Citizen Science HOA! Join us in 15 minutes as we speak to +Jason Osborne & Dr +Aaron Alford. Hosted by two of our Science on Google+ Moderators, Dr +Buddhini Samarasinghe and Dr +Zuleyka Zevallos  

Join our latest +Science On Google+ HOA this Sunday the 18th of May at 2.30 pm Pacific time, as we chat with two of our Community members, scientists +Jason Osborne  and Dr +Aaron Alford. They are co-founders of Paleo Quest, a not-for-profit organisation that promotes research and educational projects in Paleontology for the public (http://paleoquest.org). Jason and Aaron also founded SharkFinder, a STEM education program that studies fossil remains of elasmobranch (shark, skates and ray) along the USA Atlantic coastal plain of Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina and South Carolina. SharkFinder provides kits and learning modules for citizens and classrooms to participate in data collection (http://www.sharkfinder.org/). 

Jason and Aaron will talk about their efforts to expand citizen science, with a special focus on how students can be better guided into STEM careers through these hands-on citizen science programs. We will also discuss their upcoming publications that will incorporate data collected by students and the public, as reported by Scientific American (http://goo.gl/4drR1Z). We'll then chat about how we can better support children from disadvantaged backgrounds to participate in STEM.

This HOA will be hosted by two Moderators from SoG+, Dr +Buddhini Samarasinghe  and Dr +Zuleyka Zevallos. You can join in the discussion by posting your questions on our Google+ Event page or on Twitter @scienceongoogle using #scienceongoogle . The video will be available afterwards on our YouTube Channel: https://www.youtube.com/ScienceHangouts ___We're getting ready to go live with our Citizen Science HOA! Join us in 15 minutes as we speak to +Jason Osborne & Dr +Aaron Alford. Hosted by two of our Science on Google+ Moderators, Dr +Buddhini Samarasinghe and Dr +Zuleyka Zevallos  

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2014-05-18 19:36:59 (13 comments, 69 reshares, 259 +1s)Open 

Star Power!

Although our sun does not generate particularly large sunspots, +Rakesh Yadav describes new (and artistic!) simulations showing giant "starspots" that spew out X-rays. 

Scientifically correct "Art"

People usually complain that scientists often use rather boring way of showing their results, you know, lines and graphs and sort. But sometimes we also become a little artistic and play around with colours and other stuff to satisfy both our colleagues and general public (hopefully!).

Below is an artistic "star" which is a result of several months of number crunching on a pretty bad-ass supercomputer. The colours on this handsome star represent the velocity, blueish means plasma is coming towards you and orangish means it is going away from you. The curved lines coming out are magnetic field lines. 

We ran this simulation in order to explain a rather intriguing mystery. Our sun, even when it is most active, produces rather tiny sunspots (tiny as compared to the sun!). These sunspots produce certain amount of x-rays which we can measure. When scientists looked at other stars they found that other stars have much higher level of x-rays production. The consensus right now is that these stars have much larger spots, called "starspots", and much more as compared to the sun (imagine living in that star-system where your host star is spewing out x-rays like crazy). Well, there is not a solid simulation which actually produced bid spots. If you look carefully at the simulation below, then you will see a dark patch in the upper half of the animation, which comes and goes. This is suppose to be a starspot which is rather huge as compared to what we see on sun. This is the first simulation which has produced such spots and I am genuinely excited about the results!

As always the simulation below have generated more questions than it answered. It will surely keep be busy for the coming months. Lets see what comes next...

#sciencesunday   +ScienceSunday
+Robby Bowles +Allison Sekuler    +Rajini Rao  +Buddhini Samarasinghe ___Star Power!

Although our sun does not generate particularly large sunspots, +Rakesh Yadav describes new (and artistic!) simulations showing giant "starspots" that spew out X-rays. 

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