Login now

Not your profile? Login and get free access to your reports and analysis.

Tags

Sign in

The following tags have been added by users of CircleCount.com.
You can login on CircleCount to add more tags here.

  • Scientists
  • Software Engineers
  • space
  • STEM
  • Teaching

Are you missing a tag in the list of available tags? You can suggest new tags here.

Login now

Do you want to see a more detailed chart? Check your settings and define your favorite chart type.

Or click here to get the detailed chart only once.

Denise Case has been at 1 events

HostFollowersTitleDateGuestsLinks
Science on Google+419,886Can you believe it! The +Science on Google+ community is approaching 200k members! We'll have reached that number by this weekend, so we're going to have a huge community celebration!Join your hosts +Scott Lewis and +Buddhini Samarasinghe as they start the celebration of being the #1 science community and the #10 community in all of Google+!! During our Hangout On Air, you'll get a chance to meet the moderators  who dedicate so much time and energy into making sure that good, high quality science content is showcased in the community. After we hear from the moderators on who they are, we'll have a discussion on what the curator team looks at for community posts to get put on the Curator's Choice. We are all extremely excited to be celebrating with all 200,000 of you! Let's stay curious and find new and better ways to understand this amazing Universe we all live in!#ScienceSunday   #STEM   #ScienceEveryday   #SoGp200k  200,000 member community celebration!2014-01-12 22:00:00183 

Denise Case has been shared in 256 public circles

You can see here the 50 latest shared circles.
If this is your profile, you can check your dashboard to see all shared circles you have been included.

AuthorFollowersDateUsers in CircleCommentsReshares+1Links
Becky Collins16,609Science Circle :Circle of very #social #engagerspeople and companiesTo be included in my shares (#sharedcircle), be so kind to:1 - Do +1 t the post2 - Comment the post and specify your "category" (job or interest) Ex: Fashion, SEO, Companies, Social Media Marketing, Sailing, Photography, Bloggers/Writers, Web graphics and design, Italy, Artists, Sport, Finance/Economy ...3 - include the circle among your circles4 - share the circle (include yourself)Improve your popularity, be social be cool !Keep yourself updated, enjoy the Shared Circles Hellenic Alliance, you can share your shared circles inside the upcoming Community:https://plus.google.com/communities/112552559573595396104  #socialmedia  #media  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing  #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins ?2014-09-16 05:24:00459102
Richard Green81,215Engagers Showcase Circle, September 14, 2014If I sent you a notification, it means that you are included in my Engagers Showcase Circle. “Showcase” means that you are invited to leave a comment (on the original post) with a link to one of your own posts, which ideally should be one of your best recent posts.This circle consists of people who have engaged with one of my recent posts in the form of +1s, comments and reshares. I skipped over one post because it received too much engagement, but I'm including a link to it for completeness.Everyone mentioned below is also included in the circle.Do nuclear physicists have half life crises?https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/ayw6WPGGaFESt Peter's Church, Heyshamhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/9DEtmbdz15zSmiling cow?https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/9NuqPpsgtBkThe look-and-say sequence and Conway's Cosmological Theoremhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/jEQ7zxFpJt4Cordyline australis, the “cabbage tree”https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/hktDAgyo6mA“Maurits, stop picking at it. You'll only make it worse.” by David Swarthttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/gj327Ywh33T“Phyllotactic Portrait of Fibonacci” by Robert Boschhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/8LykdvHpRvPFountain in Williamson Parkhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/HzZTLQaQ9RT“Youth” by Silvia Cordeddahttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/T2Lo3c2zLxvThe arithmetic derivative, the Goldbach conjecture, and the twin prime conjecturehttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/9nY35Ma1pbUGlobe Thistlehttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/i8mtiyVikWhTallinn (reshared from +Paul Harper)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/U4DAQxK5fkxCubes passing in the night (reshared from +Sean Walker)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/32JKvAFqP9SThe graph of arctanhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/FLvyDupud1z“Hopf Knott” by Peter Sittner2014-09-14 15:25:57463212113212
AyJay Schibig71,918NEW HORIZONS CIRCLE   9.9.14  by  +AyJay Schibig RESHARE  if you wish to be included.Take your Circles to New Horizons  by adding this mix of interesting and active G Plussers! #circleshare #circlesharing #sharedcircles #sharingcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #circlesunday #share #shared #followers #addcircles #publicsharedcircles #share #addpeople #addcircle #addfriends #circle #socialmedia #circlesbyayjay  2014-09-09 07:12:03479575166
Becky Collins15,192Recipes and Cooking Circle : Circle of very #social #engagerspeople and companiesTo be included in my shares (#sharedcircle), be so kind to:1 - Do +1 t the post2 - Comment the post and specify your "category" (job or interest) Ex: Fashion, SEO, Companies, Social Media Marketing, Sailing, Photography, Bloggers/Writers, Web graphics and design, Italy, Artists, Sport, Finance/Economy ...3 - include the circle among your circles4 - share the circle (include yourself)Improve your popularity, be social be cool !Keep yourself updated, enjoy the Shared Circles Hellenic Alliance, you can share your shared circles inside the upcoming Community:https://plus.google.com/communities/112552559573595396104  #socialmedia  #media  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing  #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins ?2014-08-18 05:14:394770210
Richard Green77,832Engagers Showcase Circle, August 7, 2014If I sent you a notification, it means that you are included in my Engagers Showcase Circle. “Showcase” means that you are invited to leave a comment (on the original post) with a link to one of your own posts, which ideally should be one of your best recent posts.This circle consists of people who have engaged with one of my recent posts in the form of +1s, comments and reshares.Everyone mentioned below is also included in the circle.Our cat, Chesterhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/ToxRHsMHytsFibonacci numbers and corridors of width 4https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/gCTyaSV4ugzWalk in the rainhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/gVPzuv7aKHALenticular cloud (reshared from +Sean R. Heavey)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/giTgt4PUd1GGlass Paperweight by Paul Stankardhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/fLfKWxFj3f2“Mathematistan” by Martin Kuppehttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/AcUBb8Y9uBjCat's back on the menu, boys!https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/aP3cZEnaqquWaterfall (reshared from +Keith Boone)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/S2pmsTTyiZzOak tree at “The Pig”https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/cv8pi2ffX1NThe Bargate, Southamptonhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/LsYSEpUS1bLCosmos flowerhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/KqvLW32KyXfThe Ashton Memorialhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/aK1E3XqWWSSThrough the castle windowhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/MT7uBM2SUt7Friedman numbershttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/32tzjfB8NnMThe Norfolk Knifehttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/DHf4jfSkUKKThe lake at Wyresdale Parkhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/3xFACaympiNCastle of the Clouds2014-08-07 21:46:51451213122238
Nick Warner645Follow these awesome friends!2014-08-07 16:03:15500307
Doug Hyatt5,196THIS IS MEGA CIRCLE 5    #DOUGHYATTCIRCLESHARING IT ADDED 1,000+ FOLLOWERS FOR ME IN A WEEK.1) ADD THE CIRCLE2) RESHARE THE CIRCLE AND BE SURE TO REMEMBER TO CHECK THE BOX WHICH INCLUDES YOURSELF.3)RESHARE TO PUBLIC EVERY DAY!BE SURE TO COPY THE HASHTAG LIST AND ADD IN YOUR COMMENTS LIKE I HAVE!  IT WILL GIVE YOU MAXIMUM RESULTS#doughyattcirclesharing#circles   #circlemania   #circletoday   #circleplus   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #CircleSharing   #sharecircle   #sharecirclethis   #worldsharecircle   #pleasecircleaddme   #circleoftheday   #newgenerationcircle  #monstercircle   #usacircle   #bestofthecircle   #shareofthecircle   #pleasecircle   #newbestcircl  add circle add circle * best share circle * share please pleaseplease add circle * best share circle * share please please#add #circle   #addcircle   #pleasecircle   #bestcircle   #mostcircle  #bestsharecircle   #newcircle   #top100circle   #best500circle   #top500circle   2014-07-16 15:49:10477151421
Aman Singh2,014Circle of the dayYour re-share is appreciatedPlease re-share this circle in your stream.To be added:1- Add +Circles Circles Circles to your circles2- Write the URL of your blog in the comments section below3- Your blog must be an active blog (posts must be current)2014-07-16 12:15:324990617
Ryan Johnson9,485Hi friends! This is a great circle created with an important selection from all circles. The most important engagers are reshared because only that way can we grow our circle and have the people of google circle us.To get in, and to ensure you stay in this circle you need to do the following:1. Add me to your circles, if you haven't done so already!2. +1 this circle!3. Publicly share this circle to public, your circles and extended circles.4. If possible, leave a comment on this circle so I know you have done the three steps above!#circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #wanttobecircled #addmetoyourcircles #public #publiccircle #sharedcircles #Britain #sharedcircle #morefollowers #sharingcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedpublicircles #sharedcircle #photography #uk  #nottingham #Holland #Netherlands #Duch2014-07-16 10:40:014918812
Richard Green74,896Engagers Showcase Circle, July 12, 2014If I sent you a notification, it means that you are included in my Engagers Showcase Circle. “Showcase” means that you are invited to leave a comment (on the original post) with a link to one of your own posts, which ideally should be one of your best recent posts.This circle consists of people who have engaged with one of my recent posts in the form of +1s, comments and reshares.Everyone mentioned below is also included in the circle.Thistlehttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/CKB7ks1VWZ3“Star Gate” by +Gary Matthews https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/ean83YFix7sBubble (reshared from +Ann-Marie Jurek)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/PkybKJfXv14Gabriel's Hornhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/MXNTuq8ZEBPHibiscus flowerhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/Xsmw62v98CHStackable 12-sided dicehttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/5mLoukdZAA5Astronomical book priceshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/S15LTNxJA9GPyritohedral symmetryhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/XQUYMrKGiAQSt Stephen's Basilica (reshared from +Laura Orange)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/ApnSMBsUWFeCircular Pascal Arrays and Fibonacci numbershttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/NVqYKoRVnHg“Fungi tree” by +Tom Beddardhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/J6S4bDc6QwQAs always, reshares of this circle are appreciated, and I look forward to seeing everyone's links. Thanks for reading my posts!2014-07-12 05:31:36476209126225
Freizeit.ch2,752This is our 2nd FINEST SWISS CIRCLE !We are sharing this #CIRCLE in order to give you a powerful Google Plus experience and most of all, this circle contains Interactiv Googlers. In this #Circle are travelors, photograph and lots more.Sharing this cirlce allows you to gain more followers and specialy #Swiss followers.If you would like to get inside this circle, you just have to do this 4 simple steps:1. Add us !2. +1 this post3. share this post4. Comment on this post, so we can add you on the next circle. You have to share this circle in #Public so we  can easily find your share.#circleshare   #circlesharing #swiss #schweiz #switzerland #circle #sharing #publicsharedcircles #suisse   #circle   #circleshare   #sharecircle   #circleoftheday   #sport   #tips   #powercircle #sharedcircle #topsharedcircle #circleoftheday #sharedcircle #trustinme #circlesharing #circleshare #circles         #circleoftheday #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircles #share #vipsnowballcircle 2014-07-01 15:50:4649613815
AyJay Schibig65,081NEW HORIZONS CIRCLE   6.27.14 by  +AyJay Schibig RESHARE  if you wish to be included.Take your Circles to New Horizons  by adding this mix of interesting and active G Plussers! #circleshare #circlesharing #sharedcircles #sharingcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #circlesunday #share #shared #followers #addcircles #publicsharedcircles #share #addpeople #addcircle #addfriends #circle #socialmedia #circlesbyayjay  2014-06-28 03:56:34462544253
Freizeit.ch2,460This is our FINEST SWISS CIRCLE !We are sharing this #CIRCLE in order to give you a powerful Google Plus experience and most of all, this circle contains #Swiss   Googlers. In this #Circle are swiss travelors, photograph and lots more.Sharing this cirlce allows you to gain more followers and specialy #Swiss followers.If you would like to get inside this circle, you just have to do this 4 simple steps:1. Add us !2. +1 this post3. share this post4. Comment on this post, so we can add you on the next circle. You have to share this circle in #Public so we  can easily find your share.#circleshare   #circlesharing #swiss #schweiz #switzerland #circle #sharing #publicsharedcircles #suisse   #circle   #circleshare   #sharecircle   #circleoftheday   #sport   #tips   #powercircle #sharedcircle #topsharedcircle #circleoftheday #sharedcircle #trustinme #circlesharing #circleshare #circles         #circleoftheday #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircles #share 2014-06-27 09:20:5348424814
Richard Green73,445Engagers Showcase Circle, June 26, 2014 (Anniversary Edition)If I sent you a notification, it means that you are included in my Engagers Showcase Circle. “Showcase” means that you are invited to leave a comment (on the original post) with a link to one of your own posts, which ideally should be one of your best recent posts.This circle consists of people who have engaged with one of my recent posts in the form of +1s, comments and reshares.Everyone mentioned below is also included in the circle.24, the Monster, and quantum gravityhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/9sKMLRJYjnaTiled Dome (reshared from +BJ Bolender)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/7u73y5FzEZYMonths with five weekendshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/HWMeFjECa1rThe sandpile grouphttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/QezmLcTCTMJ“Cheshire Cat” by Ross Hilberthttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/YfjVmetdnHwSunrise (reshared from +Mark Hurn)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/6QQjTBviHeiRex and the girls, through Glasshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/dEPuHiZ5BFo“Dancing Triangles” by Richard Kenyonhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/CFZ8eFf5WqXWords that are hard to rhymehttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/c3n9jFam6FEFlowers on my drivewayhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/ZATFKnVorZPDragonfly (reshared from +Ralph Reichert)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/EggWRRfPm7JCircumference and area of a circlehttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/Ld2X7WoSbCRMassive Hangovers and the Harmonic Serieshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/XZGvNePaAt9A sheaf of pencilshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/EcdcRWsdbPSSolstice in Iceland (reshared from +2014-06-26 20:15:03483196120234
WorldBreakingNews LatestNewsCurrentNews6 #sharecircle   #sharecirclethis   #worldsharecircle   #pleasecircleaddme   #circleoftheday   #newgenerationcircle  #monstercircle   #usacircle   #bestofthecircle   #shareofthecircle   #pleasecircle   #newbestcircl  add circle add circle * best share circle * share please pleaseplease add circle * best share circle * share please please#add #circle   #addcircle   #pleasecircle   #bestcircle   #mostcircle  #bestsharecircle   #newcircle   #top100circle   #best500circle   #top500circle   #circleoftheday   #circledaily   #nicecircle  #photography   #photographer   #bestphotographer   #topphotographer  #AddCircle   #FindCircles   #awesome   #AwesomePeople  #AwesomeCircle #addmetoyourcircles   2014-06-23 10:07:01499538
Eroto Graphy2,818     *If you received this Notice - You're in this Circle #128*         •-::-•:*:•-:¦: Summer Share and Be Shared :¦:-•:*:•.::-•This circle contains people who really are interesting and active people on Google Plus to add in your circles.Top Google+ users that share unique and original contents, and if you add them, you will have an even better Google plus experience.Follow this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:Boost your visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you received the notice you are in this circle, then well done.If you would like to be included in the next Circle Share you only have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles (If you haven't already)2 - Share the circle (Publicly) - (cc) me ( ) in the comments on the share and I can add you to the next circle immediately.    _ Otherwise I may not notice your activity!_3 - Add +1 to the post.4 - Leave a comment if you like.5 - Add the circle.Follow your dreams, Share and Be Shared.More you share more you get! :)Thanks!LINK TO THE ORIGINAL POST:https://plus.google.com/114802438985444128484/posts/itMhCJE4o7dCircle Networkhttps://plus.google.com/b/112542593288160483901/112542593288160483901/postsNetwork Circleshttps://plus.google.com/b/112542593288160483901/communities/113362757071870225795If you would like to be removed from future circles, please send me a private message and I won't share your profile in the future.2014-06-23 03:27:52500352781
Dina Tika355Another great circle shared with me by an amazing G+'er!!This circle will add great, amazing, wonderful, and awesome content to you feed plus your page will receive massive engagement and ppplllluuuussss OnEs!!!   Welcome to +circle your circle with circles!!!!!  :DBoost your visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!To be added to the Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - include me in your circles2 - Click add people and create your circle3 - share the circle (include yourself)4 - add +1 to the post2014-06-16 10:19:174935012
Dina Tika166Another great circle shared with me by an amazing G+'er!!This circle will add great, amazing, wonderful, and awesome content to you feed plus your page will receive massive engagement and ppplllluuuussss OnEs!!!   Welcome to +circle your circle with circles!!!!!  :DBoost your visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!To be added to the Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - include me in your circles2 - Click add people and create your circle3 - share the circle (include yourself)4 - add +1 to the post2014-06-11 11:31:414936210
Becky Collins10,439Super Science Circle :Circle of very #social #engagerspeople and companiesTo be included in my shares (#sharedcircle), be so kind to:1 - Do +1 t the post2 - Comment the post and specify your "category" (job or interest) Ex: Fashion, SEO, Companies, Social Media Marketing, Sailing, Photography, Bloggers/Writers, Web graphics and design, Italy, Artists, Sport, Finance/Economy ...3 - include the circle among your circles4 - share the circle (include yourself)Improve your popularity, be social be cool !Keep yourself updated, enjoy the Shared Circles Hellenic Alliance, you can share your shared circles inside the upcoming Community:https://plus.google.com/communities/112552559573595396104  #socialmedia  #media  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing  #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins ?2014-05-31 05:09:154901211
rudi firmansyah442please add me my profile in your circle,Reshare if you like! Please plus to tell me you have seen it! *There is no need to thank me, this is me thanking you! *1. Plus The Post2. Comment3. Add People To Circles4. share the circle (include yourself)#circlesharing #circleshare #circles #circle #googleplustips #googleplus #indonesia #artists #artist #artistphotographeramateurorprofessional2014-05-12 18:26:34501001
fendy syahputra409please add me my profile in your circle,Reshare if you like! Please plus to tell me you have seen it! *There is no need to thank me, this is me thanking you! *1. Plus The Post2. Comment3. Add People To Circles4. share the circle (include yourself)#circlesharing #circleshare #circles #circle #googleplustips #googleplus #indonesia #artists #artist #artistphotographeramateurorprofessional2014-05-12 05:34:44501114
Richard Green68,138Engagers Showcase Circle, May 12, 2014If you received a notification, it means that you are included in my Engagers Showcase Circle. “Showcase” means that you are invited to leave a comment (on the original post) with a link to one of your own posts, which ideally should be one of your best recent posts.This circle consists of people who have engaged with one of my recent posts in the form of +1s, comments and reshares.Everyone mentioned below is also included in the circle.Peruvian glacier (reshared from +Irina Tcherednichenko)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/Z6NR7zaZa5qGrape hyacinthshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/GZoHH2bnRUiSymmetries of a regular octagonhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/bFcGcsurF5HHappy Easter!https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/YkWFA9WmxVAPerfect Squared Squareshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/HDU4mWD3wptOur dog Rexhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/5JtEcnt5MpPPerrott's Follyhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/8DzXHLn6fe4The Lonely Runner Conjecturehttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/YHJkEdKg3jz“Owl” by Andrea Mininihttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/12uh9J9MjMXPenrose nanotileshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/7PZPSLaFkAx“Interlaced Stars” by Magnenauthttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/5vNjv1yjVMqBlack Forest View (reshared from +Ralph Reichert)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/YKPsvCFDyUv“Hippie Bus Apartments” by +Richie Montgomeryhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/iCMXCBVzjd2Not crazy enoughhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/d5EeDSoHe5u“Impossible Sphere” by Alexey Ermushevhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/J2yUMw6YASqBeethoven, high on 2014-05-12 05:07:06489214129231
Tourej Ansari16,540All Kinds of People Shared CircleReshare or comment or plus to be in the next circle share!  Let me know if you want to be in the circle! Circle these plussers they are cool people! #circle #circles #circlesharing #circleshare #circleoftheday #circleplus #public #publiccircles2014-05-10 11:00:124583111
Bakerson, LLC287This Circle is Amazing! If you want more likes, shares, and +1's, you will want to join and add this circle! To be added to this circle of Super Engagers simply +1, reshare, and comment!! You will be added to the next go around soon. Boost your social status quickly!2014-05-01 15:52:48479121014
Ben Forstie54This is the best Circle of Engagers I have come across yet! If you want to increase your visibility, gain likes and shares, you need to add this circle! To get added to this circle in the future, simply +1 and Reshare!Enjoy!Ths circle consists of #seoexperts   #internetmarketing  and #awesomepeople  2014-04-30 20:52:39455617
AyJay Schibig58,195NEW HORIZONS CIRCLE   4.28.14Take your Circles to New Horizons  by adding this mix of interesting and active G Plussers!  SHARE  to be included in my next edition.#circleoftheday   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlesharingforthepeopleplc   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles     #sharedcircleoftheday   #sharedcircleday   #publiccirclesproject #publiccircles   #publicsharedcircles     #sharedpublicircles     #circle #circles   #circlemeup     #awesomepeople   #awesomecircle #circleme   #sharedpoint   #sharewithyou   #ShareYourCircle 2014-04-29 05:37:54496373752
andi steven0- This is a game to expand the circle of friends.- If you see this message and you want to participate. Just perform the following actions:+ Plus: Click +1 this post.+ Comment: You note that any comments.+ Share: You share this comment to more people.+ Add: Select to add the button to connect with 500 people following, including me.The way to [Super Circle Part 2]: If you do all the steps above, of course, you have your bot acc add 1, and based on the number of people I will add up round [Super Circle Part 2], in addition to the many shared, and a new positive ..Thank you for reading.#indonesia #circlesharing #circleshare #circleoftheday #circles2014-04-26 09:26:094786211
Becky Collins8,289Engagers Showcase Circle :Circle of very #social #engagerspeople and companiesTo be included in my shares (#sharedcircle), be so kind to:1 - Do +1 t the post2 - Comment the post and specify your "category" (job or interest) Ex: Fashion, SEO, Companies, Social Media Marketing, Sailing, Photography, Bloggers/Writers, Web graphics and design, Italy, Artists, Sport, Finance/Economy ...3 - include the circle among your circles4 - share the circle (include yourself)Improve your popularity, be social be cool !Keep yourself updated, enjoy the Shared Circles Hellenic Alliance, you can share your shared circles inside the upcoming Community:https://plus.google.com/communities/112552559573595396104  #socialmedia  #media  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing  #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins ?2014-04-23 05:59:02400201526
Richard Green64,997Engagers Showcase Circle, April 17, 2014If you received a notification, it means that you are included in my Engagers Showcase Circle. “Showcase” means that you are invited to leave a comment (on the original post) with a link to one of your own posts, which ideally should be one of your best recent posts.This circle consists of people who have engaged with one of my recent posts in the form of +1s, comments and reshares. Two of the posts below attracted too much engagement to be usable for the circle, but I am including links to them for completeness.Everyone mentioned below is also included in the circle.Adding cubeshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/WqimoVTZWL3Flower and snail shell (reshared from +Ralph Reichert)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/5st1n4VBMh5April Fools' Dayhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/Mxa1TNjYo4r“Trinity” by Jen Starkhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/gfRheBovSZUHyperbolic honeycombs (reshared from +Roice Nelson)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/59yPx8yoFbuCoxeter—Conway friezeshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/4XvYb9biaLpTriple helix staircase (reshared from +Romain Brasselet)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/SRJ7CqGNrtLWhich airport is closest to you?https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/FxxdDb6orPy“Spinning Cosmos” by Paul Friedlanderhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/RjnVfRhBPmZStrč prst skrz krkhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/h87PZWs2MSbMersenne primes and perfect numbershttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/cLWBTddiSyy“Urge to fly” by Hermin Abramovitchhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/j2K97AvLvAoKeeper of Time (reshared from +Michael Quinn)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/QnaHrgKjsUUSeven mutual2014-04-17 04:49:32487185132233
Circle Connection570The Mix it Up Circle! #circleconnection  2014-04-10 20:22:45481723035
Richard Green62,178Engagers Showcase Circle, March 29, 2014If you received a notification, it means that you are included in my Engagers Showcase Circle. “Showcase” means that you are invited to leave a comment (on the original post) with a link to one of your own posts, which ideally should be one of your best recent posts.This circle consists of people who have engaged with one of my recent posts in the form of +1s, comments and reshares. My most recent post will be included next time.Everyone mentioned below is also included in the circle.Happy Pi Day!https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/74oomcTuJoVSierpinski sponge (reshared from +David Roberts)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/ZKUreVJfWxoCloud Gate (reshared from +Christian Cable)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/XGRNqbbBjgEContinued fractionshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/2mbZvUrewmCFood mapshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/BKMgJ6WzfiyNeptune's Lament (reshared from +Paul Haworth)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/1AHZMatxm8JEscher's “Ascending and Descending”... in Legohttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/9XJsanAguNCDead Horse Point State Park (reshared from +Tom Malloy)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/edKVZ8NqAW4It's the Chicken from Hell! (reshared from +Chad Haney)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/2tc9WchRABJDerangements, or how everyone got the wrong homework backhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/Bjb3CvDYBwxSnowy La Sal Mountains (reshared from +Tom Malloy)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/8tiW4gbzVrXMultimove chess2014-03-29 04:30:56482209162234
Enrico Altavilla5,522I'm sharing with you my Science circle. It's focused mainly on physics, astrophysics and math but it also contains subjects (both people and pages) who share news about other scientific fields. Enjoy! 2014-03-21 06:45:031031015
Richard Green61,119Engagers Showcase Circle, March 20, 2014If you received a notification, it means that you are included in my Engagers Showcase Circle. “Showcase” means that you are invited to leave a comment (on the original post) with a link to one of your own posts, which ideally should be one of your best recent posts.This circle consists of people who have engaged with one of my recent posts in the form of +1s, comments and reshares. I ran out of room, so my most recent posts will be included next time instead.Everyone mentioned below is also included in the circle.Michelangelo and the Jordan curve theoremhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/UN8TetdX48VThe Kelpieshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/M6aWXwu6zESAntoine's necklacehttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/4anPfBNTyjXThe Farey-Ford tessellationhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/GrZP3ajnRGUAlien Garden (reshared from +Kevin Clift)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/j55RpNfocNABetween a rock and a hard placehttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/WGNdNFneW1uAlan Turing: a universal Turing machine?https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/MUjAnVtL7hbVisual artist Aliza Razellhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/hbd3e6U1fhSBeet it (reshared from +Laura Ockel)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/U7RjV31mM7WChess played on a sphere... and other animalshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/LGXUE73Z3MoPass 'Em Onhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/iFCQcXfhNdDArizona sunset (reshared from +Debashish Samaddar)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/CR1yJ48g8CWThe inside of my fridge, through Glasshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/SQK6KoFL2rmBatmobile 1?https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/aV43AZenAd9Mary O'Malley ceramics (reshared from 2014-03-20 19:09:36469199157230
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:27:36393014
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:26:50393033
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:26:17393011
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:25:52393011
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:25:16393203
John Nuntiatio29,572#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-12 06:21:31469006
John Nuntiatio29,572#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-12 06:20:51469102
Richard Green59,075Engagers Showcase Circle, March 4, 2014If you received a notification, it means that you are included in my Engagers Showcase Circle. “Showcase” means that you are invited to leave a comment (on the original post) with a link to one of your own posts, which ideally should be one of your best recent posts.This circle consists of people who have engaged with one of my recent posts in the form of +1s, comments and reshares. I ran out of room, so my eight most recent posts will be included next time instead.Everyone mentioned below is also included in the circle.Robert Wadlowhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/442C6iBpXpTBlanchard Springs Park (reshared from +David D)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/ZJmBps8sgSNPascal's triangle and the number ehttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/3KfcsUy994bMy dog Luna, through Glasshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/axiVS2b4jDjMy portrait by +Bearman Cartoons https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/V34HkBjd5mDHow many ways can a tie be tied?https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/RQrjPGQ6nwmWine glass photography (reshared from +Tiffany Lykins)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/bATjvaZrcL4Valentine's Dayhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/1zHKQxAV4ynThe fractal music of Per Nørgårdhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/RLuTaqtxc9jCalvin Seibert's sandcastleshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/RuVoyCdhN4MHerkimer Diamonds (reshared from +BJ Bolender)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/9Z1KuS7sqd1Automorphic numbershttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/JUPgnCtRvhxIndra's pearlshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/eaaFWPKrNTrMolecular machinery2014-03-04 22:10:56498222153265
John Nuntiatio28,623#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #newcircle #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport #health   #entertainment  #news  2014-03-01 15:15:34459271929
Becky Collins3,213Baseball circle #Baseball  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins 2014-02-26 10:30:413883216
Becky Collins2,634Marketing Circle : Feb 22#circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday +Becky Collins2014-02-22 06:29:4945517724
Scott Lewis119,839*The Amazing Women Circle*So as today's Hangout from +STEM Women on G+ w/ +Jonathan Eisen started, I decided to go back through my "Amazing Women's Circle" and feature the fantastic people that enrich my life, particularly in the fields of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. These brilliant women contribute regularly here on +Google+ and are a shining example of how it doesn't matter what sex or gender you are, everyone can do remarkable things.Please feel free to share this about and let me know in the comments if there are more Amazing Women I should add to this group! #STEMWomen   #GenderEquality   #Equality   #ScienceEveryday   #ScienceSunday  2014-02-16 21:06:57103251529
Richard Green56,916Engagers Showcase Circle, February 14, 2014If you received a notification, it means that you are included in my Engagers Showcase Circle. “Showcase” means that you are invited to leave a comment (on the original post) with a link to one of your own posts, which ideally should be one of your best recent posts.This circle consists of people who have engaged with one of my recent posts in the form of +1s, comments and reshares. Because it has been so long since the last edition of this circle, some of my recent posts have not been included here, but I will include them next time.Everyone mentioned below is also included in the circle.Beware of geeks bearing gifshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/3jPVUtb4FemStanley Park (reshared from +Alex Milton)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/5PwJjn6qdhcThe Knight Sky (reshared from +Vincent Knight)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/9jAvErWz3ZrCornwall painting (reshared from +Paul Haworth)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/GaeDF8V3bTqPrairie dogshttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/SUJSbQPdpA2Glass towers (reshared from +Graeme McRae)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/VspBXwaF8d2Crete coastline (reshared from +Ralph Reichert)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/jFCqBYxcubAMy cat Comethttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/1ZmQ5qKP5nrDispensing batterhttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/CYbtWVa2EDmThe Diophantine quintuple conjecturehttps://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/FNDF7e8pW9XSculpture (reshared from +Henry Segerman)https://plus.google.com/101584889282878921052/posts/ZcqzpV7QSTfLapis lazuli beads (reshared 2014-02-15 00:24:58490221146236
John Nuntiatio27,263#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport #health   #entertainment  2014-02-14 08:17:4447916625
Johnny Wood28,960My Ultimate   #VIP Circle Is Back!For the last couple of months I've been locked away working on a Social Media Marketing training program, and its finally ready for you!  I am giving away free copies to a few lucky people...see this post to WIN a copy for yourself:https://plus.google.com/u/0/+JohnnyWood/posts/RwyaT9JSHeHI'm going to get back to more regular circle shares now too, and introducing some fun new circles.  You know the drill...1. RESHARE2. PLUS +13. ADD CIRCLE4. COMMENTIf nothing else just leave a comment to say hi...I'm looking forward to catching up with everybody!#circlesharing         #circleshare         #circles         #circleoftheday   #sharedpubliccircles         #sharedcircles     #share  2014-02-05 01:12:15415572740
Elvis Duarte2,191New Version of Active Share Members CircleMany if these active members will add you back when you add this circle to your circles. Adding a shared circle helps you to increase the number of people following you.Please do this:1.  Plus this original post.2. Comment on this post.3. Add this circle to your circles4. Reshare this post publicly#circle #circles #publiccircle #circleshare #circlesharing #sharedcircles   #sharedcircle #morefollowers #sharingcircles #circleshare #sharedpubliccircles #sharedpublicircles #sharedcircle #photography #photographer #bestphotographer #topphotographer #AddCircle #FindCircles #AwesomeCircle #addcircle #addpeople #circlemeup #circlesdiscovery #circleshare #circlesharing #publiccircle   #publicsharedcircles #SharedCircles#sharedcircles   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circle   #circleoftheday   2014-02-01 06:51:0249512320
Mikhail Petrovsky62,708Good morning / evening to all.You'll love this circle. Photographers, artists and other interesting people!Это социальный круг / This social circleВам понравится этот круг, добавьте его себе. Фотографы, художники и другие интересные люди!#EarthMyMother #ForFriends #photo2014-01-21 02:56:05499411872

Activity

Average numbers for the latest posts (max. 50 posts, posted within the last 4 weeks)

3
comments per post
6
reshares per post
24
+1's per post

1,946
characters per posting

Top posts in the last 50 posts

Most comments: 22

posted image

2014-07-27 13:38:29 (22 comments, 17 reshares, 42 +1s) 

"Is America Falling Off the Flat Earth?"  Investments in basic scientific research provide crucial contributions to a robust and thriving economy. 

"The power of America’s economic system and the role its universities, industry and government have played in its effectiveness have not gone unnoticed by other countries competing in the global job market. In fact, they seek not only to copy it but to improve upon it."

"[I]nstead of racing to meet the challenge, America...is permitting this highly successful system of discovery and innovation that has served this nation well since the end of WWII, to atrophy."

Neal F. Lane, Former director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy

Four experts recently offered testimony at the U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation hearing "TheFede... more »

Most reshares: 429

posted image

2014-07-25 13:08:38 (4 comments, 429 reshares, 1699 +1s) 

Complex interrelationships between Earth and life. Changing levels of a single species can have far-reaching impacts on local plants and animals - and even change the course of rivers. 

"When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the Universe." John Muir

We have discovered that food chains are also webs - and that complex interrelationships can have far-reaching impacts that are difficult to predict.

The human-led near-extermination of the wolves changed Yellowstone. The human-led attempt to undo the damage changed it, too.  But additional studies show that not all that was lost has been restored:

● Stream hydrology limits recovery of riparian ecosystems after wolf reintroduction. (http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/280/1756/20122977)

● Are wolves saving Yellowstone'saspen... more »

Most plusones: 1699

posted image

2014-07-25 13:08:38 (4 comments, 429 reshares, 1699 +1s) 

Complex interrelationships between Earth and life. Changing levels of a single species can have far-reaching impacts on local plants and animals - and even change the course of rivers. 

"When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the Universe." John Muir

We have discovered that food chains are also webs - and that complex interrelationships can have far-reaching impacts that are difficult to predict.

The human-led near-extermination of the wolves changed Yellowstone. The human-led attempt to undo the damage changed it, too.  But additional studies show that not all that was lost has been restored:

● Stream hydrology limits recovery of riparian ecosystems after wolf reintroduction. (http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/280/1756/20122977)

● Are wolves saving Yellowstone'saspen... more »

Latest 50 posts

posted image

2014-09-17 12:53:25 (4 comments, 3 reshares, 10 +1s) 

Great article on the Higgs particle/field with an update on the on-going basic physics research at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC).  Worth a read to get a quick update on the strangeness underlying our universe and how humans are going about discovering it. 

"...every particle is really a disturbance in its underlying field."

h/t +Jonah Miller who adds:

This is a really wonderful article about the Higgs boson with some excellent analogies that help explain what the darn thing is.

If you want to learn more about the Higgs in fun way, check out this video and this comic by 
+PHD Comics  :
http://www.phdcomics.com/comics.php?f=1489
http://www.phdcomics.com/comics.php?f=1684

#physics #LHC #higgs #waveparticleduality #scienceeveryday  

Still Chasing the God Particle!

Physicists at CERN -- home of the world's most powerful particle accelerator -- are bracing for a fresh assault on the tantalizing Higgs boson.

In 2012 they used CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to generate subatomic debris that could be interpreted as traces of a single "God particle" (as the Higgs sometimes is called). (Don't call it that around most physicists -- they hate that nickname!)

The discovery capped decades of searching and brought a 2013 shared Nobel Prize to Peter Higgs, the theorist for whom the particle is named.

The LHC is a 17-mile circular tube, located at Geneva, Switzerland, in which protons collide at almost the speed of light. For its 2012 experiments, the LHC operated at 7 TeraElectronVolts (TeV). Translation: That's a buncha-buncha energy! Enough to fry an egg, or (more likely) a medium asteroid.

The machine has been cooling down ever since, while undergoing upgrades and maintenance. All prepping it for its next round of experiments in 2015 at 13 TeV (nearly double the power).

This forthcoming run should provide never-before-possible insights into the structure of our universe, possibly including dark matter -- something we're pretty sure exists, but know next to nothing about.

Higgs: Why It Matters

So why did Leon Lederman, director-emeritus of Fermilab, annoy his fellow-physicists by dubbing this baby the "God particle"? Why is the Higgs so vital?

Answer: The Higgs particle isn't important at all, except insofar as it provides tangible evidence for a reality much deeper -- the Higgs field. The field, not the particle, is what matters. Here's why:

Many elementary particles, such as quarks and electrons, have mass -- some more, some less. Others, like photons in the wild, have none. For a long time, physicists could see no reason why any particle should have any mass. Lacking mass, particles would zip around at the speed of light, with no gravitational pull. There'd be no atoms -- hence no galaxies, stars, or planets. No you and me!

Higgs and his colleagues filled the gap by postulating a hitherto unknown energy field -- a field pervading all of space and time. In this model, any particle interacting strongly with the Higgs field picks up some of its energy in the form of mass. The more interaction, the more mass. Particles such as photons, lacking mass altogether, presumably don't interact at all.

We might thus compare mass to the drag we experience in wading through molasses. A broad, beefy person would encounter far more drag (i.e., be more massive) than a skinny one. This isn't a perfect analogy; but then, physics analogies never are.

Having a Field Day

The Higgs field made sense of physics equations that otherwise seemed senseless. But how to prove it? Let's consider the nature of fields in quantum theory:

Fields -- not particles -- are the basic realities of modern physics. So what is a field? Ask a gaggle of physicists, and you'll get lots of hemming and hawing that boils down to this: A field is a vacuum that can vibrate. In other words, the so-called spacetime continuum is never a featureless void, even when it seems empty:  That "emptiness" is itself a medium rich in physical properties!

Foremost among those properties is the capacity to transmit effects that correspond, in some ways, to what we know as waves or ripples. These in turn give rise to particles. No elementary particle is really a thing-in-itself: It's just a splash or wiggle in its underlying field.

Physicists call this the wave-particle duality. Observe an electron (for example) one way, and it acts like a wave. Observe it another way, and it acts like a moving point or speck. This paradoxical behavior is not something we can visualize using any familiar physical analogy: We can only model it mathematically.

The point is that every particle is really a disturbance in its underlying field. Space is alive with such fields -- electromagnetic, gravitational, and many more -- along with their associated particles. Is the Higgs field one of these? If so, it would be one of the most important and interesting, given its proposed role in conferring mass on particles arising from other fields.

To prove the Higgs field, one must find and identify the Higgs particle (boson). CERN scientists calculated that by smashing protons together in the LHC, with sufficient force, they might shake the Higgs field just enough to create the barest quiver. That momentary ripple (viewed as a particle) would give them their telltale clue. It would travel hardly any distance; it would last for an inconceivably tiny fraction of a nano-second. It could be detected only by its after-effects.

This is what CERN achieved in 2012. It validated the Higgs field by -- apparently -- generating a Higgs "particle" (wave). More questions than answers? Sure; what else is new? As we know, it was enough of a grand slam to make Peter Higgs a Nobel laureate and to chalk up yet another historic first for CERN.

Just to be clear, CERN isn't known only for its contributions to esoteric particle research. In 1989 it also invented this little gadget called the World Wide Web. Well, technically, Tim Berners-Lee invented it -- but he did so as an employee of CERN, which then placed the technology in public domain.

So stay tuned: There's a whole lotta shakin' going on!

====================
This article is reprinted from my blog. The original post is here:
http://garymatthews.com/2014/09/still-chasing-god-particle/

The cover image below is a fractal design I created. It's a stylized, symbolic representation of protons swirling and colliding inside a particle accelerator. The real thing looks nothing like this. In fact, it looks like nothing at all, since the truly interesting interactions involve quantum units that not only can't be seen -- they can't even be visualized or imagined!

So this picture, fanciful as it is, will have to do!

#higgsboson   #higgsfield   #godparticle   #scienceeveryday  ___Great article on the Higgs particle/field with an update on the on-going basic physics research at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC).  Worth a read to get a quick update on the strangeness underlying our universe and how humans are going about discovering it. 

"...every particle is really a disturbance in its underlying field."

h/t +Jonah Miller who adds:

This is a really wonderful article about the Higgs boson with some excellent analogies that help explain what the darn thing is.

If you want to learn more about the Higgs in fun way, check out this video and this comic by 
+PHD Comics  :
http://www.phdcomics.com/comics.php?f=1489
http://www.phdcomics.com/comics.php?f=1684

#physics #LHC #higgs #waveparticleduality #scienceeveryday  

posted image

2014-09-12 11:59:31 (1 comments, 3 reshares, 12 +1s) 

In Saturn's rings.  Giant-screen space film takes viewers on a tour of over a million animated images set to music from the Greensboro Symphony Orchestra. This looks great. 2:49 trailer.

http://www.insaturnsrings.com/ "Take the journey - in memory of Carl Sagan and Stanley Kubrick"

I think it’s time for some mind- and spirit-cleansing beauty. Something to remind us that humans and nature can sometimes produce awe-inspiring things. Like this video.
-Gizmodo

This is not visual effects or CGI. This is not "based on" scientific data. This IS the actual scientific data.
- www.InSaturnsRings.com

Bonus preview: Adagio for Strings 
NOW IN 4K! Saturn Cassini Photographic Animation

#saturn #cassini #hubble #IMAX #spaceexploration  
#adagioforstrings

Watch the latest 4K teaser for +In Saturn's Rings here: http://youtu.be/ANuCH-_olaw

In Saturn’s Rings is a ground-breaking IMAX film that will take viewers on a stunning tour of our Solar System. The film is created from over 1 million real photographs taken by the Cassini spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope, among other NASA missions. Using a filmmaking technique called photoanimation, the film will provide audiences with the most authentic experience of what space travel is really like without the use of CGI.

Want to learn more about the film? Check out this great video local filmmaker Philip Powell created about the making of In Saturn's Rings: http://vimeo.com/104651246

#InSaturnsRings #Penny4NASA #NASA #Space #Saturn #Cassini___In Saturn's rings.  Giant-screen space film takes viewers on a tour of over a million animated images set to music from the Greensboro Symphony Orchestra. This looks great. 2:49 trailer.

http://www.insaturnsrings.com/ "Take the journey - in memory of Carl Sagan and Stanley Kubrick"

I think it’s time for some mind- and spirit-cleansing beauty. Something to remind us that humans and nature can sometimes produce awe-inspiring things. Like this video.
-Gizmodo

This is not visual effects or CGI. This is not "based on" scientific data. This IS the actual scientific data.
- www.InSaturnsRings.com

Bonus preview: Adagio for Strings 
NOW IN 4K! Saturn Cassini Photographic Animation

#saturn #cassini #hubble #IMAX #spaceexploration  
#adagioforstrings

posted image

2014-09-11 23:09:15 (4 comments, 0 reshares, 9 +1s) 

+Lindsey Stirling will be playing at +Kansas State University this Saturday, Sep 13, 2014 at 7:30 p.m.  :)

Union Program Council to bring dubstep violinist Lindsey Stirling
By Arthur White

"+YouTube favorite +Lindsey Stirling will bring her unique performance style to +Kansas State University at 7:30 p.m. Saturday, Sept. 13, on the Bosco Student Plaza."

Stirling's performance is a rare combination of dubstep, violin and dance and has become a hit on YouTube with more than 100 million views on her single "Crystallize." "Shatter Me" debuted at No. 2 on Billboard's Top 200 albums chart.

Union Program Council will host Stirling at a free outdoor concert, as voted on by K-State students as one of the most desired artists on a spring 2014 survey.

Local act Vineyard will be opening the evening.

Foraddit... more »

+Lindsey Stirling will be playing at +Kansas State University this Saturday, Sep 13, 2014 at 7:30 p.m.  :)

Union Program Council to bring dubstep violinist Lindsey Stirling
By Arthur White

"+YouTube favorite +Lindsey Stirling will bring her unique performance style to +Kansas State University at 7:30 p.m. Saturday, Sept. 13, on the Bosco Student Plaza."

Stirling's performance is a rare combination of dubstep, violin and dance and has become a hit on YouTube with more than 100 million views on her single "Crystallize." "Shatter Me" debuted at No. 2 on Billboard's Top 200 albums chart.

Union Program Council will host Stirling at a free outdoor concert, as voted on by K-State students as one of the most desired artists on a spring 2014 survey.

Local act Vineyard will be opening the evening.

For additional information on this event or for a complete list of all Union Program Council activities, visit k-state.edu/upc or call the Union Program Council office at 785-532-6571.

Article link:
http://www.k-state.edu/today/announcement.php?id=15364&category=events&referredBy=K-State%20Today%20Archive

Bosco Student Plaza:
http://www.k-state.edu/facilities/tour/bosco.html

Google Maps:
http://tinyurl.com/bosco-student-plaza

Video:
Elements - Lindsey Stirling (Dubstep Violin Original Song)

#music   #electric   #violin #concert #kansasstate #wildcats___

posted image

2014-09-11 00:04:48 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 13 +1s) 

Earth images from +Alexander Gerst in 4k.  The International Space Station has been inhabited continuously since Nov. 2, 2000. It offers a great view of our beautiful home planet and could become a base camp for further exploration. 

h/t  +Bob Jacobs, +Bobak Ferdowsi, and +Alexander Gerst. :)

Earth images from Alexander Gerst in 4K
1 min 30 seconds, Ultra High Definition.

How many people are in space right now:
http://www.howmanypeopleareinspacerightnow.com/

Where is the ISS?
http://www.isstracker.com/

Get notified when the ISS will be visible in your area:
http://spotthestation.nasa.gov/

#ISS   #esa #timelapse   #earth #space #exploration #humansareawesome  

___Earth images from +Alexander Gerst in 4k.  The International Space Station has been inhabited continuously since Nov. 2, 2000. It offers a great view of our beautiful home planet and could become a base camp for further exploration. 

h/t  +Bob Jacobs, +Bobak Ferdowsi, and +Alexander Gerst. :)

Earth images from Alexander Gerst in 4K
1 min 30 seconds, Ultra High Definition.

How many people are in space right now:
http://www.howmanypeopleareinspacerightnow.com/

Where is the ISS?
http://www.isstracker.com/

Get notified when the ISS will be visible in your area:
http://spotthestation.nasa.gov/

#ISS   #esa #timelapse   #earth #space #exploration #humansareawesome  

posted image

2014-09-06 11:24:06 (5 comments, 15 reshares, 44 +1s) 

We Are Here. Short, beautiful video showing Earth and our Milky Way home galaxy in the context of our local supercluster (of galaxies).

Thanks +Patrice Chalin for sharing.

In celebration of #sciencesunday. :)

#earth #space #galaxy #supercluster #laniakea #homeaddress

A nice yet short documentary of our local galactic supercluster. It shares how some scientists have recently proposed a clear definition of "supercluster". ___We Are Here. Short, beautiful video showing Earth and our Milky Way home galaxy in the context of our local supercluster (of galaxies).

Thanks +Patrice Chalin for sharing.

In celebration of #sciencesunday. :)

#earth #space #galaxy #supercluster #laniakea #homeaddress

posted image

2014-09-06 11:10:48 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 6 +1s) 

Smarter Web Sites +Google Developers added: Today we updated a Google Search feature called sitelinks search box to take advantage of machine-readable API descriptions using Schema.org #actions (http://schema.org/docs/actions.html). When the sitelinks search box is shown, it will make it easier for users to reach specific content on your site, directly through your own site-search functionality. Check out the +Google Webmasters Blog to learn more: http://googlewebmastercentral.blogspot.com/2014/09/improved-sitelinks-search-box.html. For a technical deep dive on REST and hypermedia API design, check out the tech talk from +Mike Amundsen: REST, Hypermedia, and the Semantic Gap: Why "RMM Level-3 REST" is not enough

In late April, +Samuel Goto (Schema.org #actions  spec co-lead) hosted +Mike Amundsen  at the Googleplex. Mike is the co-author of "RESTful Web APIs" (O'Reilly, http://goo.gl/PhKpgV) and he gave a tech talk entitled "REST, Hypermedia, and the Semantic Gap: Why "RMM Level-3 REST" is not enough". If you are interested in REST and API design, check out the video recording, I think you'll enjoy it. 
Some of the concepts (affordances, shared vocabularies, hypermedia) Mike explained in his talk are integral to Schema.org #actions  design and today a Google Search feature called "Sitelinks Search Box" was updated to take advantage of machine-readable API descriptions. In fact, you have the power of #RFC6570  at your disposal so you can totally geek out on that one :) 

You can read about the new feature in the official +Google Webmasters blog post: http://googlewebmastercentral.blogspot.com/2014/09/improved-sitelinks-search-box.html and find the documentation here: https://developers.google.com/webmasters/richsnippets/sitelinkssearch. 

An example API description supported by Google Search is expressed in JSON-LD like this:

<script type="application/ld+json">
{
   "@context":"http://schema.org",
   "@type":"WebSite",
   "url": "https://www.example-petstore.com/",
   "potentialAction": {
     "@type":"SearchAction",
     "target": "https://host.example-petstore.com/search?q={search_term}",
     "query-input": "required name=search_term"
   }
}
</script>

You can read more about Schema.org actions at http://schema.org/docs/actions.html.

For a good discussion of the feature check out +Pierre Far's post here: https://plus.google.com/+PierreFar/posts/YytRv3nJ7nr. 

Last but not least, we have also featured the SearchAction in our #iobyte  with +Shawn Simister, you can watch the video here: Build a Small Knowledge Graph Part 3 of 3: Activating Graph Data With Actions.___Smarter Web Sites +Google Developers added: Today we updated a Google Search feature called sitelinks search box to take advantage of machine-readable API descriptions using Schema.org #actions (http://schema.org/docs/actions.html). When the sitelinks search box is shown, it will make it easier for users to reach specific content on your site, directly through your own site-search functionality. Check out the +Google Webmasters Blog to learn more: http://googlewebmastercentral.blogspot.com/2014/09/improved-sitelinks-search-box.html. For a technical deep dive on REST and hypermedia API design, check out the tech talk from +Mike Amundsen: REST, Hypermedia, and the Semantic Gap: Why "RMM Level-3 REST" is not enough

2014-09-05 13:01:05 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 7 +1s) 

100 Rules for +NASA Project Managers.  Great project management advice - easy to read, some very novel insights. 

The Project Manager
Initial Work
Communications
People
Reviews and Reports
Contractors and Contracting
Engineers and Scientists
Hardware
Computers and Software
Senior Management, Program Offices and Above
Program Planning, Budgeting, and Estimating
The Customer
NASA Management Instructions
Decision Making
Professional Ethics and Integrity
Project Management and Teamwork
Treating and Avoiding Failures

h/t +Ninja On Rye 

#projectmanagement #nasa #scienceeveryday

Nasa has 100 rules for project managers
"Rule 56: The first sign of trouble comes from
the schedule or the cost curve. Engi-
neers are the last to know they are
in trouble. Engineers are born opti-
mists. "
http://www.oliverlehmann.com/project-management-sources/Nasa-Hundred-Rules-for-Project-Managers.pdf___100 Rules for +NASA Project Managers.  Great project management advice - easy to read, some very novel insights. 

The Project Manager
Initial Work
Communications
People
Reviews and Reports
Contractors and Contracting
Engineers and Scientists
Hardware
Computers and Software
Senior Management, Program Offices and Above
Program Planning, Budgeting, and Estimating
The Customer
NASA Management Instructions
Decision Making
Professional Ethics and Integrity
Project Management and Teamwork
Treating and Avoiding Failures

h/t +Ninja On Rye 

#projectmanagement #nasa #scienceeveryday

posted image

2014-09-05 12:51:58 (9 comments, 6 reshares, 32 +1s) 

Shedding light on errant ideas.  Free speech allows us to say things that don't make any sense - but a little sunlight and the open exchange of alternate viewpoints help ensure that better thinking prevails.  If too many people in a bubble repeat a logically flawed idea, it may persist in relative darkness, but bad ideas never seem to do quite as well out in the open. 

h/t +Rachel Blum 

See also:
https://plus.google.com/u/0/+RachelBlum/posts/K8UzS5n5XA7

#logicalconsistency   #consumerprivacy

Today's Maximumble is private.
http://maximumble.thebookofbiff.com/2014/09/03/932-privacy/___Shedding light on errant ideas.  Free speech allows us to say things that don't make any sense - but a little sunlight and the open exchange of alternate viewpoints help ensure that better thinking prevails.  If too many people in a bubble repeat a logically flawed idea, it may persist in relative darkness, but bad ideas never seem to do quite as well out in the open. 

h/t +Rachel Blum 

See also:
https://plus.google.com/u/0/+RachelBlum/posts/K8UzS5n5XA7

#logicalconsistency   #consumerprivacy

posted image

2014-08-30 17:51:22 (6 comments, 30 reshares, 82 +1s) 

Do NOT pour water on a grease fire.  Sometimes a visual helps. :)

h/t +Jessica Meyer 

#firesafety #science #experiment #donttrythisathome


Basic Cooking Do Not water being poured into a pot of hot grease___Do NOT pour water on a grease fire.  Sometimes a visual helps. :)

h/t +Jessica Meyer 

#firesafety #science #experiment #donttrythisathome

posted image

2014-08-28 12:17:33 (3 comments, 1 reshares, 13 +1s) 

Fun with a smart phone. How to create and share 360° surround-sight photos. Great article/video tutorial from +Mark Bruce on how to create and share PhotoSpheres. 

Beautiful PhotoSphere examples: 

https://www.google.com/maps/views/profile/115624860057949518963?gl=au 

Bonus: 

Virtual Reality with a Smart Phone (Google Cardboard)

https://plus.google.com/+MarkBruce/posts/JHRdLZScVES

Make your own Virtual Reality experience from a smart phone and a pizza-box sized piece of cardboard (and a few other not-very-expensive things). :)

#photography #photosphere #virtualreality #vr #googlecardboard

PhotoSphere Tutorial: Capturing, Editing, Fixing, and Uploading.

It is long overdue, and a number of people have asked for me to do a tutorial in the past (such as +Cyrus Khan & +Fadhli Yunus), but I finally made a complete PhotoSphere tutorial to explain and demonstrate a number of different aspects of the PhotoSphere process as follows:

1. Basic form and posture that works for me; foot planted on a spot on the ground, phone held in portrait mode (to avoid black holes at top and bottom) at comfortable spot above foot, rotating about spot on ground and minimising spatial movement of the phone’s camera while rotating. 

2. Uploading to +Google Maps via the Gallery App’s Google Maps share option and confirming the desire to publicly publish. 

3. Logging into Google Maps Views to check on the PhotoSphere just published as well as all other PhotoSphere’s that have been captured so far. Using the Google Maps Views edit option to adjust the GPS location of the image to the correct spot. Launching the PhotoSphere into public Google Maps; the image and interface that most people will see.

4. Fixing PhotoSpheres containing stitching errors with a standard graphics editing program in order to perform basic image editing to correct the defective stitching, such as occurs with broken distant horizons. 

5. Uploading the edited PhotoSphere / panorama file to a Web utility provided by Google in order to perform other minor corrections if desired and mainly to add back the metadata that was lost by the graphics editing program - metadata required by PhotoSphere viewers to produce the full 360 panorama effect. Re-uploading and publishing this image once ready. 

6. Brief examples of edited and fixed PhotoSpheres containing varying stitching errors. 

For those who love building their PhotoSphere collections, those only newly discovering the PhotoSphere format, and those yet to give it a try - I hope you found this tutorial useful and helpful. If you have any other questions, comments, or suggestions please let me know. 

Links to resources demonstrated in the video:

* The PhotoSphere captured at the start of the video, with my wife visible holding the video camera, can be found here: https://www.google.com/maps/@-34.900084,138.615555,3a,75y,88h,90t/data=!3m5!1e1!3m3!1scjXfvGahRWUAAAQfCV0eoQ!2e0!3e11

* My Google Maps Views account, with my entire collection of PhotoSpheres across eight (soon to be ten) different countries and with a total of nearly 1.5 million views, can be found here: https://www.google.com/maps/views/profile/115624860057949518963?gl=au 

* The web utility provided by Google to add back metadata, etc to panoramas and PhotoSpheres in order to make edited PhotoSpheres viewable again, can be found here: http://photo-sphere.appspot.com/ 

* I also create Tiny Planet images of all of my PhotoSpheres and the whole collection can be found here: https://plus.google.com/u/0/photos/115624860057949518963/albums/5833644721656381185 

#photosphere   #googlemaps   #googlemapsviews  ___Fun with a smart phone. How to create and share 360° surround-sight photos. Great article/video tutorial from +Mark Bruce on how to create and share PhotoSpheres. 

Beautiful PhotoSphere examples: 

https://www.google.com/maps/views/profile/115624860057949518963?gl=au 

Bonus: 

Virtual Reality with a Smart Phone (Google Cardboard)

https://plus.google.com/+MarkBruce/posts/JHRdLZScVES

Make your own Virtual Reality experience from a smart phone and a pizza-box sized piece of cardboard (and a few other not-very-expensive things). :)

#photography #photosphere #virtualreality #vr #googlecardboard

posted image

2014-08-25 02:47:44 (1 comments, 6 reshares, 36 +1s) 

Born Brave.  :)  

Thanks +Christopher Zhong for sharing. :)

#computerscience #computationalscience #debug  

we Born With Ability___Born Brave.  :)  

Thanks +Christopher Zhong for sharing. :)

#computerscience #computationalscience #debug  

posted image

2014-08-22 02:34:08 (2 comments, 8 reshares, 32 +1s) 

If we had the right sensors, the universe would seem even grander than it appears to our limited vision. All that we can see - impressive as it is - is only a small fraction of what we know is there. By studying indirect evidence, we can tell much about what we are missing.

Interesting question on what might happen when dark matter meets a black hole. :) 

"Every cubic inch of space is a miracle."

— Walt Whitman

Clumping dark matter  & smoothly distributed dark energy
[44 min video]: 
Dark Matter ; the Undetectable Mass

Dark energy interactive:
http://hubblesite.org/hubble_discoveries/dark_energy/

Full size infographic:
http://chandra.harvard.edu/graphics/resources/illustrations/dark_infograph.jpg


#darkenergy   #darkmatter #physics #blackholes  
#nasa   #chandra

Question of the Day!
What if we viewed dark matter as easily disrupted and smooth flowing through the universe? Could it be possible that it could collide with another cloud of dark matter or become disrupted by some type of gravitational pull, if we mirrored this to events in our atmosphere, but instead of high and low pressure, different gravitational pulls, something that might violently react? Or some other element. With the motions of dark matter and the similar attributes of a black hole (void of light) and the fact that most scientists believe that dark matter is connected to black holes would that not indicate at some point they must have crossed paths or been composed of like substances?

Answer!
It does seem that at dark matter and black holes should interact. If there are black holes distributed in some way throughout galaxies (of smaller mass than the massive black hole in the center of most galaxies) as does seem to be the case, then they must at some point come into contact with the huge halo of dark matter that surrounds a galaxy like our own.

What happens when they cross paths? It depends - on what dark matter actually is. We could imagine that dark matter particles would fall into the black hole, because they seem to interact gravitationally as any other massive particle. The black hole would gain mass and would perhaps attract more dark matter, and at a certain point it would have pulled in the nearest particles and the rest of the dark matter would be too far away to be affected. We might test this if at some point we could monitor the growth of black holes near the halo, which we cannot do at this time (and in fact measurements like this seem a long way off!).

Keep in mind that just because two masses interact, such as black holes and dark matter, does not mean they are the same thing. The only inference that can be made from the fact that two bodies interact via gravity is that they both have mass. Nothing more. Imagine a girl standing across from a wall, hitting a tennis ball which bounces off the wall and comes back to her so that she can hit is again. The girl and the wall interact via the ball, but this does not mean this girl and the wall are the same.

The key idea is that we don't know what dark matter is. It could be an indication that the laws of gravity need to be modified in some way, even though this seems unlikely.

As far as dark matter flowing smoothly through the universe, this has not been shown to be true. The evidence shows that dark matter is concentrated in galaxies and clusters of galaxies. Within this concentration, dark matter could consist of a cloud of particles. Dark energy however, does seem to be a smoothly distributed energy spread throughout the Universe.

More information:
http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2004/darkenergy/
The links at the bottom will take you to an interview with a prominent cosmologist who explains what dark energy means and an article on measuring dark energy in the Universe. ___If we had the right sensors, the universe would seem even grander than it appears to our limited vision. All that we can see - impressive as it is - is only a small fraction of what we know is there. By studying indirect evidence, we can tell much about what we are missing.

Interesting question on what might happen when dark matter meets a black hole. :) 

"Every cubic inch of space is a miracle."

— Walt Whitman

Clumping dark matter  & smoothly distributed dark energy
[44 min video]: 
Dark Matter ; the Undetectable Mass

Dark energy interactive:
http://hubblesite.org/hubble_discoveries/dark_energy/

Full size infographic:
http://chandra.harvard.edu/graphics/resources/illustrations/dark_infograph.jpg


#darkenergy   #darkmatter #physics #blackholes  
#nasa   #chandra

posted image

2014-08-20 20:54:16 (4 comments, 5 reshares, 28 +1s) 

No boundary:  *The Theory of Everything.*  :)  

There should be no boundary to human endeavor.
- Stephen Hawking

It has been a great joy to watch this man defy every expectation -  both scientific and personal.
- from the trailer 

This looks good - thanks +Amine Benaichouche  for sharing. :) 

#physics #hawking #cosmology #noboundary #theoryofeverything   

I want to know: Are you excited to see "The Theory of Everything"? The film profiling the early life of Stephen Hawking hits theaters in the USA on November 7th. Fun fact: The script is based on a book by Jane Hawking, his former wife. 

#stephenhawking   #movietrailer  ___No boundary:  *The Theory of Everything.*  :)  

There should be no boundary to human endeavor.
- Stephen Hawking

It has been a great joy to watch this man defy every expectation -  both scientific and personal.
- from the trailer 

This looks good - thanks +Amine Benaichouche  for sharing. :) 

#physics #hawking #cosmology #noboundary #theoryofeverything   

posted image

2014-08-12 22:27:00 (0 comments, 13 reshares, 84 +1s) 

Near Real-Time World View.  Interactively explore global satellite imagery within hours of it being acquired. Use the features to find interesting imagery, then save and share what you find.  https://earthdata.nasa.gov/labs/worldview/

Hint:  Click on the +  (plus sign)  in the upper left to see the Base Layers and Overlays available. :)  

From the "About" page: 

Welcome to Worldview

This tool from NASA's EOSDIS provides the capability to interactively browse global, full-resolution satellite imagery and then download the underlying data. Most of the 100+ available products are updated within three hours of observation, essentially showing the entire Earth as it looks "right now". This supports time-critical application areas such as wildfire management, air quality measurements, and flood monitoring. Arctic and Antarctic views ofseveral ... more »

The View from VIIRS

NOAA recently released a new version of NOAA View, a data exploration tool that allows users to explore over 100 environmental variables. As part of the update, it's possible to browse daily Suomi NPP true-color imagery from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). With the tool, you can capture regional images at multiple resolutions, export images as PNG and Google Earth files, share links to data sets or exact dates, and zoom in on a particular image. This image from NOAA View shows the western hemisphere from the Suomi NPP satellite's VIIRS instrument on July 29, 2014.

Read more about it from NOAA at
http://www.nnvl.noaa.gov/MediaDetail2.php?MediaID=1596&MediaTypeID=1

Read more about VIIRS at
http://npp.gsfc.nasa.gov/viirs.html

Try out WorldView, a near-real time data exploration tool from NASA at https://earthdata.nasa.gov/labs/worldview/___Near Real-Time World View.  Interactively explore global satellite imagery within hours of it being acquired. Use the features to find interesting imagery, then save and share what you find.  https://earthdata.nasa.gov/labs/worldview/

Hint:  Click on the +  (plus sign)  in the upper left to see the Base Layers and Overlays available. :)  

From the "About" page: 

Welcome to Worldview

This tool from NASA's EOSDIS provides the capability to interactively browse global, full-resolution satellite imagery and then download the underlying data. Most of the 100+ available products are updated within three hours of observation, essentially showing the entire Earth as it looks "right now". This supports time-critical application areas such as wildfire management, air quality measurements, and flood monitoring. Arctic and Antarctic views of several products are also available for a "full globe" perspective. Browsing on tablet and smartphone devices is generally supported for mobile access to the imagery.

Worldview uses the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) to rapidly retrieve its imagery for an interactive browsing experience. While Worldview uses OpenLayers as its mapping library, GIBS imagery can also be accessed from Google Earth, NASA World Wind, and several other clients. We encourage interested developers to build their own clients or integrate NASA imagery into their existing ones using these services.

Imagery Use

NASA supports an open data policy and we encourage publication of imagery from Worldview; when doing so, please cite it as "NASA Worldview" and also consider including a permalink (such as this one) to allow others to explore the imagery.

Acknowledgements

Near-real time data is courtesy of LANCE data providers: AMSR-E SIPS, GES DISC, MODAPS, OMI SIPS, and FIRMS. Ocean color and temperature data provided by OBPG and PO.DAAC. Socioeconomic data supplied by SEDAC. Freeze / Thaw products supplied by NSIDC. Orbit tracks provided by space-track.org. Polar coastlines and graticules courtesy of ADD SCAR, OpenStreetMap, and PolarView. User-selectable color palettes are primarily derived from NEO. The imagery ingest and serving system (GIBS) is built by NASA/JPL and operated by NASA/GSFC. Worldview is built by the NASA/GSFC Earth Science Data Information System (ESDIS) Project and is grateful for the use of many open source projects.

Disclaimer

The information presented through this interface is provided "as is" and users bear all responsibility and liability for their use of the data. Please read the full disclaimer.

License

_Copyright © 2013 - 2014 United States Government as represented by the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. All Rights Reserved. This software is licensed under the NASA Open Source Software Agreement, Version 1.3.

Source code is available on github.  :)

#environmental #data #opensource #nasa #noaa #worldview  

posted image

2014-08-12 02:52:15 (11 comments, 7 reshares, 61 +1s) 

It shouldn't hurt so much to be a human. We lose too many to depression. Some of the kindest, most gentle, intelligent, loving, and sensitive souls. 

"I used to think the worst thing in life was to end up alone. It's not. The worst thing in life is to end up with people that make you feel alone."
-  Robin Williams as Lance Clayton in World’s Greatest Dad (2009).

"All mankind is of one author, and is one volume... No man is an island, entire of itself; every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main...any man's death diminishes me, because I am involved in mankind... never send to know for whom the bell tolls; it tolls for thee."
- John Donne, 16th Century English  poet

h/t  +Dennis Breen 

#HardToFightAnEnemyWithOutpostsInYourBrain
#RobinWilliams

He touched our hearts. I wish we could cure depression.

Rest In Peace Robin Williams

You touched our hearts, made us laugh, and gave us so much to be inspired by. I'm sorry I never had the opportunity to tell you this in person. ___It shouldn't hurt so much to be a human. We lose too many to depression. Some of the kindest, most gentle, intelligent, loving, and sensitive souls. 

"I used to think the worst thing in life was to end up alone. It's not. The worst thing in life is to end up with people that make you feel alone."
-  Robin Williams as Lance Clayton in World’s Greatest Dad (2009).

"All mankind is of one author, and is one volume... No man is an island, entire of itself; every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main...any man's death diminishes me, because I am involved in mankind... never send to know for whom the bell tolls; it tolls for thee."
- John Donne, 16th Century English  poet

h/t  +Dennis Breen 

#HardToFightAnEnemyWithOutpostsInYourBrain
#RobinWilliams

He touched our hearts. I wish we could cure depression.

posted image

2014-08-07 23:59:32 (5 comments, 18 reshares, 60 +1s) 

Extreme tech: IBM's new neuromorphic chip. 4096 cores, 1M programmable neurons.  Great update from +David Fuchs. 

#computerscience  #computing #truenorth #neuromorphic  

IBM cracks open a new era of computing with brain-like chip: 4096 cores, 1 million neurons, 5.4 billion transistors

Scientists at IBM Research have created by far the most advanced neuromorphic (brain-like) computer chip to date. The chip, called TrueNorth, consists of 1 million programmable neurons and 256 million programmable synapses across 4096 individual neurosynaptic cores. Built on Samsung’s 28nm process and with a monstrous transistor count of 5.4 billion, this is one of the largest and most advanced computer chips ever made. Perhaps most importantly, though, TrueNorth is incredibly efficient: The chip consumes just 72 milliwatts at max load, which equates to around 400 billion synaptic operations per second per watt — or about 176,000 times more efficient than a modern CPU running the same brain-like workload, or 769 times more efficient than other state-of-the-art neuromorphic approaches. Yes, IBM is now a big step closer to building a brain on a chip.

http://www.extremetech.com/extreme/187612-ibm-cracks-open-a-new-era-of-computing-with-brain-like-chip-4096-cores-1-million-neurons-5-4-billion-transistors___Extreme tech: IBM's new neuromorphic chip. 4096 cores, 1M programmable neurons.  Great update from +David Fuchs. 

#computerscience  #computing #truenorth #neuromorphic  

posted image

2014-08-06 17:31:15 (2 comments, 10 reshares, 41 +1s) 

Awesome selfie. :)

#animalphotos #SimianslikeSelfies  #familytree   

Wikimedia denies photographer's claim to a monkey's selfie
http://goo.gl/OkC25w

Should monkey selfies be in the public domain?

"Just because he owns the camera, he can't own the photograph, because he didn't take the photograph. He didn't choose the lighting, he didn't choose the angle," said intellectual property lawyer Brad Newberg.___Awesome selfie. :)

#animalphotos #SimianslikeSelfies  #familytree   

posted image

2014-08-06 12:19:51 (1 comments, 1 reshares, 10 +1s) 

Time to start talking about getting "rid of the grid"  Interesting comments from the CEO of one of our largest power companies. 

Technically, distributed renewables are still challenging to manage, but with advances in battery storage, we'll get there. David Crane, the NRG Energy CEO estimates most homes will be able to provide their own electrical needs within 30 years. :) 

+Jasper Janssen's comments on +David Brin's original post were interesting:

some off grid capability is easy, but switchover isn't.

True off grid capability requires a battery bank. Very expensive.

You basically have to do switchover for emergency use manually because your solar array never has enough power to run your home all the time. Otherwise you'd brown out the second you're online. It also requires heavy modifications to the breaker box. Normal solarar... more »

About the electrical grid:
“Everyone just stop a moment and think how shockingly stupid it is to build a 21st-century electric system based on a system of 130 million wooden poles,” Crane told the audience. “Stop trying to rearrange the deck chairs on the Titanic, and start talking about, ‘How do we get rid of the grid?” said the CEO of NRG Energy, one of the nation’s largest power companies.

“There will come a day, in a generation or so, when the grid is at best an antiquated system to a completely different way of buying electricity,” David Crane said at the ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit.
Crane told an audience at the Summit that he thinks most homes will generate their own electricity within 30 years.

Alas, today, a million solar roofed-homes (like mine) are programmed to go dark the instant the grid fails in their area.  Define insanity.

http://www.offthegridnews.com/2014/04/03/power-company-ceo-makes-stunning-admission/___Time to start talking about getting "rid of the grid"  Interesting comments from the CEO of one of our largest power companies. 

Technically, distributed renewables are still challenging to manage, but with advances in battery storage, we'll get there. David Crane, the NRG Energy CEO estimates most homes will be able to provide their own electrical needs within 30 years. :) 

+Jasper Janssen's comments on +David Brin's original post were interesting:

some off grid capability is easy, but switchover isn't.

True off grid capability requires a battery bank. Very expensive.

You basically have to do switchover for emergency use manually because your solar array never has enough power to run your home all the time. Otherwise you'd brown out the second you're online. It also requires heavy modifications to the breaker box. Normal solar arrays just plug into one downstream breaker. You can't do that if you want off grid. The "slowly re sync" capability requires that you're sideways to the main supply, rather than just on a regular breaker.

In other words: you can do it, it just isn't that easy. And it certainly isn't cheap.

The cheapest variety would probably be a chunky manual switch to throw the main feed over to your own feed, and another chunky switch to throw the feed from your inverter from the breaker over to your own feed. Much like you can have generator off-grid feeds. Some inverter models allow you to then say "hi, work in off grid mode please!", where they free-run.

Of course you'd have to turn off all the energy hogs first.

Keep in mind that for obvious reasons there need to be some safety features such that, say, firefighters don't get unexpectedly electrocuted after they've cut the power to the property by pulling the meter.

#energyindependence   #power   #grid #distributedpower #nrg

posted image

2014-08-06 12:02:01 (3 comments, 3 reshares, 32 +1s) 

Congrats to the Rosetta team.   After a 10-year journey, the spacecraft is orbiting the comet, taking images so the scientists can decide where to land Philae . :)

(The comet is about 125x as wide as the Rosetta spacecraft.)

Mission website
http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Science/Rosetta

Stunning Images:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/europeanspaceagency/sets/72157638315605535/

How to Orbit a Comet:
How to orbit a comet

Interactive 3D simulation of the orbital journey
http://www.solarsystemscope.com/rosetta/  

Detailed mission timeline:
http://www.dmuller.net/spaceflight/mission.php?mission=rosetta&appear=black&showimg=yes

Real-time simulation:
http://www.dmuller.net/spaceflight/realtime.php?mission=rosetta

Simulating the Landing with Legos:)... more »

After a decade-long journey chasing its target, ESA’s Rosetta has today become the first spacecraft to rendezvous with a comet, opening a new chapter in Solar System exploration.

http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Science/Rosetta/Rosetta_arrives_at_comet_destination

#rosettaarewethereyet  ___Congrats to the Rosetta team.   After a 10-year journey, the spacecraft is orbiting the comet, taking images so the scientists can decide where to land Philae . :)

(The comet is about 125x as wide as the Rosetta spacecraft.)

Mission website
http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Science/Rosetta

Stunning Images:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/europeanspaceagency/sets/72157638315605535/

How to Orbit a Comet:
How to orbit a comet

Interactive 3D simulation of the orbital journey
http://www.solarsystemscope.com/rosetta/  

Detailed mission timeline:
http://www.dmuller.net/spaceflight/mission.php?mission=rosetta&appear=black&showimg=yes

Real-time simulation:
http://www.dmuller.net/spaceflight/realtime.php?mission=rosetta

Simulating the Landing with Legos :)
http://blogs.esa.int/rosetta/2013/11/08/using-lego-to-simulate-esas-touchdown-on-a-comet/

Infographic from space.com:
http://www.space.com/24333-rosetta-spacecraft-comet-landing-explained-infographic.html

How big is Rosetta compared to the comet?
https://plus.google.com/u/0/+CorinaMarinescu/posts/Vt9bQr3Eipy

+Philip Plait's Slate Article
http://www.slate.com/blogs/bad_astronomy/2014/08/06/rosetta_its_journey_to_a_comet_achieves_its_goal.html

#space #science #stem #education  
#rosetta #comet #67p #spaceexploration 

posted image

2014-08-06 00:39:30 (5 comments, 3 reshares, 16 +1s) 

Why did scientists start considering the possibility of extra dimensions of space?   Engaging two-minute intro by Brian Greene. 

h/t +Guy Doyen 

For more, see 8 min video:
Brian Greene: The Search For Hidden Dimensions

Or "The Elegant Universe" on NOVA:
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/elegant/

#sciencesunday   #scienceeveryday   #physicsisfun  

#Maxwell #GunnarNordström #Einstein  
#electromagnetism #generalrelativity
#warpsandcurves   #extradimensions   

Why did scientists start considering the possibility of extra dimensions of space?

I'm not into mathematics, but each time I read or watch this story I am very impressed. It seems magical.

Kaluza wrote down the mathematical equations. He took Einstein maths, allowed for one additional spatial dimension (that we don’t see for some reason) and when he worked out the maths he found the equations of Einstein for gravity but because he added an extra dimension of space he found an additional equation that was none other than Maxwell’s equation of electromagnetism.

Incredible...___Why did scientists start considering the possibility of extra dimensions of space?   Engaging two-minute intro by Brian Greene. 

h/t +Guy Doyen 

For more, see 8 min video:
Brian Greene: The Search For Hidden Dimensions

Or "The Elegant Universe" on NOVA:
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/elegant/

#sciencesunday   #scienceeveryday   #physicsisfun  

#Maxwell #GunnarNordström #Einstein  
#electromagnetism #generalrelativity
#warpsandcurves   #extradimensions   

posted image

2014-08-05 20:49:11 (7 comments, 3 reshares, 12 +1s) 

Ectogenesis.  I'm guessing one day we'll look back on the old-fashioned way we used to procreate and it will seem terribly primitive.  An unfathomably messy, dangerous business.  

"Really?  They grew inside you?  Oh my. It's a wonder any of you survived at all." :) 

h/t +David Fuchs   

#ectogenesis #pregnancy #artificial #womb

Of all the transhumanist technologies coming in the near future, one stands out that both fascinates and perplexes people. It's called ectogenesis: raising a fetus outside the human body in an artificial womb.___Ectogenesis.  I'm guessing one day we'll look back on the old-fashioned way we used to procreate and it will seem terribly primitive.  An unfathomably messy, dangerous business.  

"Really?  They grew inside you?  Oh my. It's a wonder any of you survived at all." :) 

h/t +David Fuchs   

#ectogenesis #pregnancy #artificial #womb

posted image

2014-08-04 22:54:10 (2 comments, 3 reshares, 47 +1s) 

Run like a girl. :)

"My coach said  I run like a girl.   And I said  if he ran a little faster, he could too."

- Mia Hamm
professional soccer player

#runlikeagirl  #training   #motivationmonday   

Love Mia Hamm. Love this quote.

Run a like a girl!



#runlikeagirl #miahamm #womeninsports #ns___Run like a girl. :)

"My coach said  I run like a girl.   And I said  if he ran a little faster, he could too."

- Mia Hamm
professional soccer player

#runlikeagirl  #training   #motivationmonday   

posted image

2014-08-02 01:38:37 (5 comments, 7 reshares, 41 +1s) 

Ebola for Beginners: How it Works, Why There’s No Cure, and Why It’s So Hard to Control This Time.   Worth reading. Containment is especially challenging when something like this hits urban areas - and when people may spend up to three weeks going about their regular activities without knowing they're infected. 

Not to minimize how hard this would be in even a single case in isolation either. It must be very hard for anyone touched by someone dealing with this. 

Ebola for Beginners: How it Works, Why There’s No Cure, and Why It’s So Hard to Control This Time

By Maren Hunsberger, reposted with permission (originally published at http://goo.gl/ZVwoBU)

The internet is awash with news that one of the world’s foremost Ebola-fighting physicians, Sheikh Umar Khan, has himself been infected with the disease (http://goo.gl/i5T6yj), along with two American aid workers (http://goo.gl/VuQJA9). History’s deadliest outbreak of Ebola is currently sweeping across Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Liberia, having claimed more than 600 lives already. With a mortality rate of anywhere between 40% and 90% (this epidemic's is around 65%), what is it that makes Ebola one of the most lethal diseases in the pantheon of pathogens? Why is there no cure or vaccine? And why is so difficult to control?

The Basics: Ebola’s full name is Ebola haemorrhagic fever, a rather gruesome title (the details of which we’ll address shortly). It’s caused by the Ebola virus (no surprises there), which is a member of the Filoviridae family. For context, viruses can be 50-100 times smaller than bacteria, and come in a variety of shapes. Ebola virus, along with its sister, Marburg virus, is thread-like in appearance. Ebola is also a zoonotic disease (http://goo.gl/Kgo5Fu), which means it is transferrable from non-human animals to humans (and vice versa). In Ebola’s case, humans can catch it from non-human primates such as chimpanzees and gorillas, as well as from rodents, bats, and a few ungulates. Transfer of the virus occurs through close contact with infected bodily fluids such as blood, vomit, and feces, all of which abound after Ebola has done its damage.

A Little Background: The family of zoonotic diseases includes Rabies, Hanta virus, Anthrax, Lyme disease, the ever-infamous Plague (http://goo.gl/8Yeu5c), Toxoplasmosis, and many more, all of which have fascinating life cycles. They also present a unique challenge to communities that live in close contact with the animals that carry these diseases. Animals can often act as a reservoir, meaning they carry the bacteria or virus but present no symptoms themselves. Alternately, the disease can decimate populations of livestock and wildlife upon which a community might depend, contributing to a lack of resources and increased pressure on the human population. Identifying the natural reservoir of a disease is important in containing outbreaks--if you can identify the little bugger that carries the disease without showing it, you can minimize contact with the organism or take steps to control those populations. It’s widely believed that the fruit bat (http://goo.gl/C1qwqd) is the reservoir for Ebola. This is an issue because many communities in Ebola-prone areas consume the fruit that bats snack on (providing easy host-to-host transfer for the virus via bat saliva). Dwellings are also often located near fruit bat colonies. Some outbreaks may also begin when an individual consumes bush meat (http://goo.gl/15isqp), a dead animal carcass found in the vegetation surrounding the community. Consumption of bush meat is traditional in many parts of West Africa, and can sometimes be the only protein that is readily available. If the animal has been killed by Ebola or another zoonotic disease, the individual (and anyone to whom he feeds or sells the meat) can become infected. This ‘human-consumption-of-bushmeat’ infection path is the also leading theory for how the first human became infected with AIDS (http://goo.gl/Z8BZLM).

How it Works: Ebola. The nasty, worm-looking virus that’s causing  damage in West Africa. There are five subtypes (http://goo.gl/vWDxlt) known so far, all named  after their place of origin—the one that’s in the headlines right now is  closely related to the Zaire Ebola virus, the strain with highest mortality rate.  (As of now, no one knows what makes it more deadly than the other  strains). So how does it kill you? When your body produces any kind of  fever, that’s the immune system's response to an infection—inflammation  can help kill whatever’s bothering your body. Ebola essentially sends your  body’s immune system into overdrive. The virus infects the immune cells  that are your first line of defense--monocytes and macrophages. This  means your body is incapable of killing the virus when you first become  infected. The virus then gets to replicate as much as it wants, using your  own primary immune cells as hosts until the infection has grown so large  that the rest of your immune system can’t help but notice. In a valiant effort  to kill the virus, your body produces a fever so high that you go into shock,  your tissues start to degrade and your blood pressure drops, and eventually your organs start to fail.

The virus acts quickly. Initial symptoms of Ebola are varied and often resemble the symptoms of malaria, typhoid fever, influenza or various bacterial infections, all of which are more common than Ebola. It can take too long for Ebola to be diagnosed, and by then the secondary symptoms may have set in: diarrhea, red eyes, vomiting blood, gastrointestinal bleeding from the mouth or rectum, hemorrhaging from the nose and mouth, and bleeding in the brain that may lead to seizures and delirium. After the presentation of these symptoms and a miserable week or so, patients either recover or die from systemic multi-organ failure. While the visible hemorrhaging is what gives the virus its name, it actually presents in less than half of the patients infected with Ebola. Unfortunately for the current outbreak, the Zaire strain is the form of the virus that causes the most severe symptoms.

Why There’s No Cure: Viruses are too small to reproduce on their own, so they have to inject their genome into a host cell. This means that when the host cell replicates, so does the virus. In order for the virus to be able to do its injecting, ‘do all the hard work for me’ trick, it needs to be able to attach to a molecule on the surface of the host cell—this molecule is called a receptor. If the virus doesn’t have the equipment to attach to a certain kind of cell’s receptor, it can’t invade that cell. In fighting viruses, it’s important to identify the virus’ corresponding receptor so you can prevent it from binding and thus prevent it from replicating. With Ebola, this is the missing piece of the puzzle—we don’t know what the receptor is, so we don’t have  a way to stop the virus from proliferating. In humans, Ebola is capable of invading many different kinds of host cells, so it’s possible that it is capable of binding to more than one receptor, making it a dangerously versatile aggressor. Ebola is also notoriously hazardous to study, although many research universities (http://goo.gl/sR7Lk1) and institutions (http://goo.gl/ck7iPj) are working on unravelling its mysteries.

What’s Happening This Time: The current outbreak is the first time that Ebola has rapidly spread to urban areas. With previous incidents of the virus, responders were able to contain the infection within small, rural populations by identifying modes of transmission, points of origin, and mitigating the damage. With large, closely packed populations, however, the virus spreads faster. It’s much harder to identify who has it, who’s given it to whom, and it's difficult to stop people from leaving the area. The West African nations suffering from this outbreak also lack adequate medical facilities and personnel. Without isolation wards and advanced labs, the virus is extremely hard to contain. The infection of the physicians on the ground is a result of the sheer number of patients in their charge. They wore all the proper protective gear, but somewhere in the melee they came into direct contact with infectious fluid. Additionally, some traditional rural practices have accompanied recent transplants to the cities--it is customary in some of the cultures affected by the virus to wash a dead relative’s body by hand before the burial. This is obviously an issue when it comes to preventing disease transmission. To tackle the epidemic without losing the trust and cooperation of those being treated, it's necessary to implement informed, culturally appropriate health care and education.

David Quammen (http://goo.gl/XIS14W) has written an enthralling book, Spillover, about the histories, cultural contexts, and life cycles of the world's zoonotic diseases. His research makes a convincing case that the next human pandemic could be of zoonotic origin. Will it be Ebola? Probably not. In Q&A (http://goo.gl/Vzws4Y) with National Geographic, W. Ian Lipkin, of the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University (http://goo.gl/VoTFvE) addresses the fear that Ebola will spread worldwide. He posits that with the health care systems available in high-income countries like the US and the UK, "it's unlikely that we would have widespread disease as a result. We would be on top of it, and we would be able to contain it. Our health care system affords people access to gloves and gowns and personal protective equipment. I don't think there's reason for panic that we're going to be hit with an outbreak of Ebola". All we can do is wait and see, stay updated on developments, and support WHO (http://goo.gl/nT6J0H) and Médecins Sans Frontières (http://www.msf.org/) in their efforts to combat the spread of the disease.

Further Reading:
Mechanism of Genus Ebolavirus (http://goo.gl/0B47zf)
National Geographic Ebola News (http://goo.gl/iJFqeh)___Ebola for Beginners: How it Works, Why There’s No Cure, and Why It’s So Hard to Control This Time.   Worth reading. Containment is especially challenging when something like this hits urban areas - and when people may spend up to three weeks going about their regular activities without knowing they're infected. 

Not to minimize how hard this would be in even a single case in isolation either. It must be very hard for anyone touched by someone dealing with this. 

posted image

2014-07-31 00:06:17 (5 comments, 0 reshares, 16 +1s) 

Amazing in motion. Great kinetic art and music in this innovative ad from Lexus. Filmed in beautiful Kuala Lumpur - the music is "Running" from Computer Magic by DJ Danielle ‘Danz’ Johnson. :) 

Running: https://soundcloud.com/computer-magic/running

http://www.lexus-int.com/amazinginmotion/strobe/

  #design   #engineering  #art 

Amazing in motion. Great kinetic art and music in this innovative ad from Lexus. Filmed in beautiful Kuala Lumpur - the music is "Running" from Computer Magic by DJ Danielle ‘Danz’ Johnson. :) 

Running: https://soundcloud.com/computer-magic/running

http://www.lexus-int.com/amazinginmotion/strobe/

  #design   #engineering  #art ___

posted image

2014-07-28 00:21:12 (20 comments, 3 reshares, 22 +1s) 

Parallel computing. Great introduction by +Michael Schmidt writing as a guest author for +Jonah Miller.

Some jobs go faster when you divide the work and share it. I could move all my books to a new house by myself (and it might take me all day) - or I could ask some friends to help and we could work in parallel to finish faster. 

Parallel processing is a powerful concept - and surprisingly easy for students to grasp with the right introduction. +Kansas State University researchers have successfully used Scratch (a visual programming language) to introduce parallel computing to middle school students just learning about computer science. 

Minimum Time, Maximum Effect: Introducing Parallel Computing in CS0 and STEM Outreach Activities Using Scratch
http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2616568&dl=ACM&coll=DL&CFID=518616011&CFTOKEN=49598961
Code a catw/s... more »

A Parallel Computing Primer

This is a guest post on my blog (http://www.thephysicsmill.com/2014/07/27/parallel-computing-primer/) by my good friend +Michael Schmidt  that I've reposted here with his permission.

Thanks, Mike!

Everything below here is Mike's words

So, Jonah is moving and he asked me to write a guest post. Jonah’s recent articles about computing prompted me to write about distributed computing. The question I will answer is: how do you go from computing with a sequential program to computing on many core machines (aka Parallel Computation)?

Parallel Computation

First of all, what is parallel computation? In a nutshell, parallel computation is the science which allows you to use a many processors to compute faster. You certainly would want to do this if you worked on the stock market where the faster you are at calculating the faster you can buy and sell and make money. If you are trying render a TV show you’ll want to finish it before it is supposed to air. Many newer computers have many processors in them allowing them to take advantage of this speedup gained from using them.

I now want to discuss what it means to have a sequential program, which is the case when only one processor is used. To solve most problems you have a sequence of steps you must complete to get an answer. For example, suppose you want to find the sum of the numbers:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Computers can only do binary addition, that is add two numbers at the same time. Because of this we must add only two numbers at a time. Two possible ways are outlined below:

(((((((1 + 2) + 3) + 4) + 5) + 6) +7) +8) +9
or like this
((1 + 2) + (3 + 4)) + ((5 + 6) + (7 + 8))

The second way might not seem obvious but it lends itself to parallelization so we’ll use it as our primary example. Since we are only adding pairs of numbers we can give each pair a letter to represent it. So, in this case A represents the action of adding 1 and 2 and B represents adding 3 and 4, and so on. It’s a bit more abstract but E equals the sum of the results from A and B and similarly for F and G.

((1 + 2) + (3 + 4)) + ((5 + 6) + (7 + 8)) = ((A + B) + (C + D)) = (E + F) = (G)

To exemplify the sequential case: suppose you have a single processor which can only do one operation at a time. It would look like a single channel which you could send commands to which would be operated on sequentially.

====================================
CPU 0 | A B C D E F G
====================================

This is called the sequential method where only one processor is utilized.  If each step took 1 second to complete, this code would take 7 seconds. The steps could be performed in other orders as long as A and B come before E, C and D before F, and E and F before G. If this wasn’t the case, you wouldn’t have the output from the steps before and the code wouldn’t work.

Now, the trouble occurs when you have two processors. How do you decide how to run the commands in parallel? This example is pretty straight forward, you can only use commands that have left and right answers available for them. Using the example above, an efficient order could be

=====================================
CPU0 | A | B | E | G
=====================================
CPU1 |  C | D | F |
=====================================

Here A and C, B and D, and E and F are all performed in parallel. We can’t parallelize G as it just adds the two last numbers together and that can only be run on one processor. Now, again if each operation only takes one second then this would take 4 seconds. We seemed to have achieved a 3 second speed up in our code.

Flynn’s Taxonomy

Our example before this outlines one of the most common ways to run a program in parallel. However, there are many way to do multi-processing. To help identify the different types Michael J. Flynn created a taxonomy. His taxonomy, simply called Flynn’s Taxonomy, splits all programs into four groups denoted by SISD, MISD, SIMD, MIMD. You can visualize the taxonomy in figure 2.

The four types are separated into if they have one or more of each an instruction set and data set. The four combinations yield the four types in Flynn’s Taxonomy.

The four types with their names expanded are as follows:

1.   SISD – Single Instruction Single Data
2.   MISD – Multiple Instruction Single Data
3.   SIMD – Single Instruction Multiple Data
 3.  MIMD – Multiple Instruction Multiple Data

The sequential addition code is an example of the SISD type, and our parallel addition example is illustrative of the SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data) type. This is because each processor does the same thing, take four numbers and add them pairwise. However, CPU0 gets the numbers 1 2 3 4 and CPU1 gets 5 6 7 8. This means each set of instructions get a unique set of inputs.

So, you might ask, how do the other two types come into play. Well the MISD case can be an instance when say you have medical records of many patients, and you want to know if your model (A) predicts cancer better than another model (B). You would want to check it on the same data but you want to run two different instructions or models; in this case A and B.

As for MIMD, this usually comes about when processing large amounts of different data. For example, suppose you are Google and you have billions of photographs. If you want to store them in the most compact form possible you’ll probably want to compress them. Since different photos lend themselves to different compression algorithms you might want to compress it with two different algorithms (the instructions) and keep the best one. I’m not saying this is how they do it but it does illustrate an instance where you might use a MIMD type program.

An Example of Parallel Code

Weather simulations need to be fast and accurate. To accomplish the accuracy, software divides the surface of the earth up into little squares. Each square represents the whole area and contains the data for its temperature, humidity, wind, etc. To make the simulation doable the whole area is represented as a single point usually located in the center of the region.

To simulate the weather, the program will move air from such one point to another to represent wind. The wind carries water and clouds which change the temperature and, not to make it sound too simple, changes the weather. By simulating this we can predict to a reasonable extent how the weather will unfold tomorrow.

Of course, if the region is too large it will not reflect the weather accurately. For instance, if the region was chosen to be the size of the US, it would represent all the weather in the US as the same, which certainly isn’t true. The size of a region is usually about the size of a large neighborhood as seen in figure 3.

There is a cost to choosing a small area, you need more memory to store all the information for all of the regions. Additionally, each time you add more regions you must do computations on those new regions increasing the computing time.



To overcome this, the National Weather Society (NWS) predictions weather on large distributed computer systems putting a few areas onto each computer. Then each computer applies the same instructions to each set of areas progressing the simulation one small amount of time into the future. This is then done many times until the future time is reached.

This way they can have predictions about tomorrow’s weather before tomorrow gets here.

The Trouble With Parallelized Programs

At this point it might seems as if we could continue to use more computers and get better and better performance. This would be nice but we run into the issue that not all code is parallelizable. Remember the sum of numbers problem, the last step required us to use only one processor to add the two final numbers together. In fact if we add more processors to that example we see more steps that can only be run sequentially.

=====================================
CPU0 | A | E | G
=====================================
CPU1 |  B | F |
=====================================
CPU2 | C |
=====================================
CPU4 |  D |
=====================================

Here, if we assume each step takes a second, we use 3 seconds. This means when we have 1 processor it took 7 seconds, with 2 it took 4 seconds, and with 4 it took 3 seconds. It seems as we add more processors we get a diminishing return in speedup. In fact if we add more than four there will be no additional speedup. This fact is called Amdahl’s Law, which I show in figure 4. (See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amdahl%27s_law)

Amdahl’s Law gives us a set of equations which depend of the portion of the code that is parallelizable and number of processors used. The graphic above shows us that for any proportion of parallelizable code, there is an upper limit to the speedup. Past a certain point, it is not possible to get more speed by adding more processors.



This fact has forced people to look for alternative methods to speedup their code. Most of the time they find better algorithms and mathematics which simplify what they must do to solve a problem and this make it run faster.

Conclusion

Parallel computing makes it possible to do large calculations in a timely manner but it is not a simple situation and there are certainly caveats to be aware of. But as computers become more parallel (which is a discussion for another day), parallel computing becomes a bigger and bigger deal. For example, Google recently created a  system for processing big data in an efficient way called MapReduce (http://en.wikipedia.org/MapReduce).

Jonah uses very parallel computers to study gravitational physics and he’ll discuss the intricacies of scientific computing in this environment sometime soon.

Hope this inspired some of you to investigate further. Feel free to ask any questions you might have.

#science   #computing   #parallelcomputing   #bigdata   #sciencesunday  ___Parallel computing. Great introduction by +Michael Schmidt writing as a guest author for +Jonah Miller.

Some jobs go faster when you divide the work and share it. I could move all my books to a new house by myself (and it might take me all day) - or I could ask some friends to help and we could work in parallel to finish faster. 

Parallel processing is a powerful concept - and surprisingly easy for students to grasp with the right introduction. +Kansas State University researchers have successfully used Scratch (a visual programming language) to introduce parallel computing to middle school students just learning about computer science. 

Minimum Time, Maximum Effect: Introducing Parallel Computing in CS0 and STEM Outreach Activities Using Scratch
http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2616568&dl=ACM&coll=DL&CFID=518616011&CFTOKEN=49598961
Code a cat w/scratch: http://scratch.mit.edu/projects/editor/?tip_bar=getStarted

h/t +Russell Feldhausen +Scott Bell +Daniel Andresen 

Integrated illustrated version available on +Jonah Miller's blog at:
http://www.thephysicsmill.com/2014/07/27/parallel-computing-primer/

#computerscience #computationalscience #parallelcomputing
#stemeducation   #sciencesunday  

posted image

2014-07-27 14:18:41 (6 comments, 2 reshares, 23 +1s) 

Quantum gravity.  Two theories revolutionized physics in the twentieth century: general relativity and quantum theory.  

The behavior of typical light and large objects (e.g. cars) can be described with classical physics .The behavior of very heavy and very large objects (e.g. galaxies) can be described with general relativity and very light and very small objects (e.g. atoms) with quantum physics.

But we don't have a theory yet that integrates very heavy and very small - a theory that could be applied when both gravitational forces and quantum fuzziness apply. The missing piece would be a theory of quantum gravity. 

In celebration of #ScienceSunday :)

#space #time #matter #quantumgravity

Quantum Gravity in under five minutes [Fast Forward Science 2013]
Benjamin Bahr 
Published on 30 Aug 2013
A short introduction to the missing puzzle piece in our understanding of nature: the unification of quantum theory and general relativity. But why are physicists so interested in this theory of "quantum gravity", and what do they expect it to do for them? Watch this video and find out!

Submission to the Fast Forward Science Competition 2013 
http://www.fastforwardscience.de/en/home.html

h/t +Sabine Hossenfelder ___Quantum gravity.  Two theories revolutionized physics in the twentieth century: general relativity and quantum theory.  

The behavior of typical light and large objects (e.g. cars) can be described with classical physics .The behavior of very heavy and very large objects (e.g. galaxies) can be described with general relativity and very light and very small objects (e.g. atoms) with quantum physics.

But we don't have a theory yet that integrates very heavy and very small - a theory that could be applied when both gravitational forces and quantum fuzziness apply. The missing piece would be a theory of quantum gravity. 

In celebration of #ScienceSunday :)

#space #time #matter #quantumgravity

posted image

2014-07-27 13:38:29 (22 comments, 17 reshares, 42 +1s) 

"Is America Falling Off the Flat Earth?"  Investments in basic scientific research provide crucial contributions to a robust and thriving economy. 

"The power of America’s economic system and the role its universities, industry and government have played in its effectiveness have not gone unnoticed by other countries competing in the global job market. In fact, they seek not only to copy it but to improve upon it."

"[I]nstead of racing to meet the challenge, America...is permitting this highly successful system of discovery and innovation that has served this nation well since the end of WWII, to atrophy."

Neal F. Lane, Former director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy

Four experts recently offered testimony at the U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation hearing "TheFede... more »

"Is America Falling Off the Flat Earth?"  Investments in basic scientific research provide crucial contributions to a robust and thriving economy. 

"The power of America’s economic system and the role its universities, industry and government have played in its effectiveness have not gone unnoticed by other countries competing in the global job market. In fact, they seek not only to copy it but to improve upon it."

"[I]nstead of racing to meet the challenge, America...is permitting this highly successful system of discovery and innovation that has served this nation well since the end of WWII, to atrophy."

Neal F. Lane, Former director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy

Four experts recently offered testimony at the U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation hearing "The Federal Research Portfolio: Capitalizing on Investments in R&D" held on July 17, 2014.  

They included "Mariette DiChristina, editor in chief and senior vice president of Scientific American; Vinton G. Cerf, computer scientist, Google’s Internet Evangelist and one of the fathers of the Internet; Neal F. Lane, former director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy; and Stephen E. Fienberg, professor of statistics and social science at Carnegie Mellon University."

In Defense of Science
http://www.scientificamerican.com/report/in-defense-of-science/

Vinton G. Cerf: "The Value of Investment by the U.S. Government Cannot Be Overstated"

Mariette DiChristina: "Science Is an Engine of Human Prosperity"

Stephen E. Fienberg: "Innovation Is a Process That Itself Requires Investment"

Neal F. Lane: “Investments in Basic Research Are Just That: Investments”


Why Research Matters

"If the United States is to ... provide its citizens with the opportunity for high-quality jobs, it will require the nation to excel at innovation—that is, to be first to market new products and services based on new knowledge and the ability to apply that knowledge. This capacity to discover, create and market will continue to be heavily dependent on the nation’s prowess in science and technology."

"Indicators of trends in these fields are, at best, highly disconcerting. While many factors warrant urgent attention, the two most critical are these: (1) America must repair its failing K-12 educational system, particularly in mathematics and science, in part by providing more teachers qualified to teach those subjects, and (2) the federal government must markedly increase its investment in basic research, that is, in the creation of new knowledge."

"Only by providing leading-edge human capital and knowledge capital can America continue to maintain a high standard of living—including providing national security—for its citizens."

From the executive summary of:

Is America Falling Off the Flat Earth? 

Norman R. Augustine, Chair, Rising Above the 
Gathering Storm Committee, National Academy of 
Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and 
Institute of Medicine of the National Academies 
ISBN: 0-309-11224-9, 92 pages, 7 x 10, (2007)
http://www.nap.edu/catalog/12021.html
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. 

Read online at:
http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=12021&page=R9

IS AMERICA FALLING OFF THE FLAT EARTH?
 
CAN AMERICA COMPETE?
 
DISTANCE IS DEAD
 
THE GATHERING STORM
 
AMERICA, WE HAVE A PROBLEM 
 
THE DINOSAURS NEVER SAW IT COMING
 
WELCOME TO THE 21ST CENTURY BOARD ROOM
 
THE COMPETITIVENESS EQUATION—THE COST OF LABOR
 
THE COMPETITIVENESS EQUATION—THE QUALITY OF THE WORKFORCE

THE COMPETITIVENESS EQUATION—THE SUPPLY OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS

THE COMPETITIVENESS EQUATION—THE RESEARCH ENTERPRISE
 
THE COMPETITIVENESS EQUATION—THE INNOVATION ECOSYSTEM

GONDWANALAND LIVES!
 
A NEW BEGINNING … OR A NEW END?

See also: "Rising Above the Gathering Storm, Revisited: Rapidly Approaching Category 5".

National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine, Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2010.

Read online at: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=12999

Chart from Neal F. Lane's testimony. 

"Among OECD nations, the U.S. ranks 10th in national R&D investment as a percentage of GDP, or R&D intensity. As China’s R&D intensity (red line) rapidly grows at an average of 8% per year in pursuit of the globally-recognized 3% GDP goal, U.S. investments (blue line) have pulled back. At this pace, China will surpass the U.S. by this measure in about eight years."

Data Source: OECD, Main Science and Technology Indicators, 2013, Gross Domestic Expenditures on R&D as a percentage of GDP.

http://stats.oecd.org/

“Where nations once measured their strength by the size of their armies and arsenals, in the world of the future knowledge will matter most.”
President Bill Clinton

#science   #policy #stem #research #investment #economics  

For #ScienceSunday hosted by +Buddhini Samarasinghe, +Rajini Rao, +Chad Haney, +Allison Sekuler, +Robby Bowles, +Carissa Braun, and +Aubrey Francisco. ___

posted image

2014-07-25 13:08:38 (4 comments, 429 reshares, 1699 +1s) 

Complex interrelationships between Earth and life. Changing levels of a single species can have far-reaching impacts on local plants and animals - and even change the course of rivers. 

"When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the Universe." John Muir

We have discovered that food chains are also webs - and that complex interrelationships can have far-reaching impacts that are difficult to predict.

The human-led near-extermination of the wolves changed Yellowstone. The human-led attempt to undo the damage changed it, too.  But additional studies show that not all that was lost has been restored:

● Stream hydrology limits recovery of riparian ecosystems after wolf reintroduction. (http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/280/1756/20122977)

● Are wolves saving Yellowstone'saspen... more »

Complex interrelationships between Earth and life. Changing levels of a single species can have far-reaching impacts on local plants and animals - and even change the course of rivers. 

"When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the Universe." John Muir

We have discovered that food chains are also webs - and that complex interrelationships can have far-reaching impacts that are difficult to predict.

The human-led near-extermination of the wolves changed Yellowstone. The human-led attempt to undo the damage changed it, too.  But additional studies show that not all that was lost has been restored:

● Stream hydrology limits recovery of riparian ecosystems after wolf reintroduction. (http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/280/1756/20122977)

● Are wolves saving Yellowstone's aspen? A landscape-level test of a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade. (http://www.wyocoopunit.org/index.php/archives/2010/kauffman-m-j-j-brodie-and-e-s-jules-2010-are-wolves-saving-yello/)

We know that the activities of humans and other species can create fascinating and long-term changes in our environment. Predicting those changes - and how those changes may affect us - remains a difficult and important challenge.

An international team of scientists published a study on the loss of animals in the Anthropocene, the Earth's current geologic time period,  where the rise of humans and human activities have begun a significant impact on the Earth's ecosystems. 

[H]uman impacts on animal biodiversity are an under-recognized form of global environmental change. Among terrestrial vertebrates, 322 species have become extinct since 1500, and populations of the remaining species show 25% average decline in abundance. Invertebrate patterns are equally dire: 67% of monitored populations show 45% mean abundance decline. Such animal declines will cascade onto ecosystem functioning and human well-being.

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/345/6195/401

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/07/140724171956.htm

"Two billion years ago, cyanobacteria oxygenated the atmosphere and powerfully disrupted life on earth,” [Andrew Revkin] says. “But they didn’t know it. We’re the first species that’s become a planet-scale influence and is aware of that reality. That’s what distinguishes us.”

http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/what-is-the-anthropocene-and-are-we-in-it-164801414/#u4Rc8ff87u3KmGAL.99

1-Aug-2014: Edited to credit the international research team - h/t +Rich Pollett. 

  #interconnected   #ecology   #earthscience   #lifescience___

posted image

2014-07-21 13:06:27 (1 comments, 2 reshares, 25 +1s) 

Techno physics: See the future.  Physicist +Sabine Hossenfelder beautifully illustrates the wonders when we study the past, use our intelligence to build physical models, and then run our models forward to glimpse the future. :) 

In the beginning, the universe was simple. Entropy was small.  Nobody knows why.

Since then, it's only gotten more complicated. Quantum fluctuations formed first structures. Dark matter clumped under its own gravitational pull. Normal matter followed, forming a cosmic web, stars, solar systems, and eventually, life.

Bonus: References what is said to be Issac Asimov's favorite short story.  :)

The Last Question by Isaac Asimov © 1956
http://www.multivax.com/last_question.html

I saw the future

Physics - and techno physicists - are awesome.  Study physics. :)

#stemeducation  #physic... more »

Techno physics: See the future.  Physicist +Sabine Hossenfelder beautifully illustrates the wonders when we study the past, use our intelligence to build physical models, and then run our models forward to glimpse the future. :) 

In the beginning, the universe was simple. Entropy was small.  Nobody knows why.

Since then, it's only gotten more complicated. Quantum fluctuations formed first structures. Dark matter clumped under its own gravitational pull. Normal matter followed, forming a cosmic web, stars, solar systems, and eventually, life.

Bonus: References what is said to be Issac Asimov's favorite short story.  :)

The Last Question by Isaac Asimov © 1956
http://www.multivax.com/last_question.html

I saw the future

Physics - and techno physicists - are awesome.  Study physics. :)

#stemeducation   #physics   #cosmology #lastquestion #lettherebelight___

posted image

2014-07-21 12:30:02 (5 comments, 4 reshares, 27 +1s) 

The New Black is Really Black  The material  "is so dark the human eye struggles to discern its shape and dimension, giving the appearance of a black hole."

Named Vantablack, or super black, it also conducts heat seven and half times more effectively than copper, and is ten times stronger than steel.

+Gary Ray R,  +SciFi Author: Lacerant Plainer
+Brandon Petaccio, and  +Ulrich Baer add more information in the G+ discussions on the original posts. 

From +SciFi Author: Lacerant Plainer:  "Fascinating. I was looking at black body absorption as well as refractive indices for a nanotech course (now completed) and I came upon some papers which talk about this effect."

"Essentially, we are looking at absorption spectra across 200 nm to 200 micrometers (far infrared). The 'forest' of the nanotubes are orientated so as to reduce therefracti... more »

Researchers Push Light Absorption Barrier

Researchers at the British firm Surrey NanoSystems have now produced what may be the blackest or most light absorbing material made.

The material is made of a thin film of carbon nanotubes that are placed on a substrate like fibers in a shag rug.  This research into blackness builds upon research done at NASA and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

Blacker Than Black  NASA research, 12.02.10
"This is a technology that offers a lot of payback," said engineer Leroy Sparr, who is assessing its effectiveness on the Ocean Radiometer for Carbon Assessment (ORCA), a next-generation instrument that is designed to measure marine photosynthesis. "It's about 10 times better than black paint" typically used by NASA instrument designers to suppress stray light, he said.   ⓐ

The technology works because of its super-absorption abilities. The nanotubes themselves are packed vertically much like a shag rug. The tiny gaps between the tubes absorb 99.5 percent of the light that hits them. In other words, very few photons are reflected off the carbon-nanotube coating, which means that stray light cannot reflect off surfaces and interfere with the light that scientists actually want to measure. The human eye sees the material as black because only a small fraction of light reflects off the material.  ⓐ

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes are tiny hollow tubes made of pure carbon about 10,000 times thinner than a strand of human hair. NASA is investigating their use to help suppress errant light that ricochets off instrument components and contaminates measurements.  The team began working on the technology in 2007. Unbeknownst to the group, the New York-based Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute also had initiated a similar effort and announced in 2008 that its researchers had developed the darkest carbon nanotube-based material ever made — more than three times darker than the previous record. ⓐ

On January 16, 2008, researchers from Troy, New York's Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute announced the creation of the darkest material on the planet. The material, which reflects only .045 percent of light, was created from carbon nanotubes stood on end. This is 1/30 of the light reflected by the current standard for blackness, and one third the light reflected by the previous record holder for darkest substance.   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black#Optics

Now the record has been broken by: 
Surrey NanoSystems’ Vantablack® is revolutionary in its ability to be applied to light-weight, temperature-sensitive structures such as aluminum . . ..   ⓑ

The material absorbs all but 0.035 per cent of light, a new world record, and is so dark the human eye struggles to discern its shape and dimension, giving the appearance of a black hole. 
Named Vantablack, or super black, it also conducts heat seven and half times more effectively than copper, and is ten times stronger than steel.
It is created by Surrey NanoSystems using carbon nanotubes, which are 10,000 thinner than human hair and so miniscule that light cannot get in but can pass into the gaps in between.  ⓒ  

Vantablack, which was described in the journal Optics Express and will be launched at the Farnborough International Airshow this week, works by packing together a field of nanotubes, like incredibly thin drinking straws. These are so tiny that light particles cannot get into them, although they can pass into the gaps between. Once there, however, all but a tiny remnant of the light bounces around until it is absorbed.  ⓓ

ⓐ  http://www.nasa.gov/topics/technology/features/new-nano.html

ⓑ  http://www.surreynanosystems.com/news/19/


Daily Mail
ⓒ  http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2690424/Scientists-discover-new-black-British-researchers-devise-material-dark-looks-like-black-hole.html
 ⓓ   The Independent
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/blackest-is-the-new-black-scientists-have-developed-a-material-so-dark-that-you-cant-see-it-9602504.html

Image: Surrey NanoSystems___The New Black is Really Black  The material  "is so dark the human eye struggles to discern its shape and dimension, giving the appearance of a black hole."

Named Vantablack, or super black, it also conducts heat seven and half times more effectively than copper, and is ten times stronger than steel.

+Gary Ray R,  +SciFi Author: Lacerant Plainer
+Brandon Petaccio, and  +Ulrich Baer add more information in the G+ discussions on the original posts. 

From +SciFi Author: Lacerant Plainer:  "Fascinating. I was looking at black body absorption as well as refractive indices for a nanotech course (now completed) and I came upon some papers which talk about this effect."

"Essentially, we are looking at absorption spectra across 200 nm to 200 micrometers (far infrared). The 'forest' of the nanotubes are orientated so as to reduce the refractive index by increasing sparseness... see research paper here (open access) http://www.pnas.org/content/106/15/6044.full."

From +Ulrich Baer: 
http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/v5/n1/abs/nnano.2009.311.html

From +SciFi Author: Lacerant Plainer: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA_nanotechnology

#nanotech #materials #science #superblack #Vantablack

posted image

2014-07-19 16:14:18 (0 comments, 5 reshares, 20 +1s) 

www.FirstMenOnTheMoon.com.  The interactive experience is a great way to commemorate the 45th anniversary of Apollo 11 July 16-24, 1969. :) 

The 18 minutes leading up to landing were some of the most dangerous parts of the mission. 

Eyles: The first two [landing] phases were very much under the computer's control using different targets. The final landing phase was the point where the astronauts took over semimanually to maneuver the spacecraft like a helicopter. When I say semimanually, I mean that the automatic system was controlling the throttle to maintain a commanded descent rate while the astronaut commanded the attitude of the spacecraft in order to scoot along the surface in whatever direction he needed to go.

Bruce McCandless, astronaut (CAPCOM), Green Team, Mission Control: Neil was flying, looking for a boulder-free spot. It's fair to say people wereho... more »

Winner of the 2013 Webby Award in the 'Science' category, the 'First Men On The Moon' interactive provides viewers with a seamless resource through which to experience (or re-experience) the Apollo 11 moon landing. A synchronized and integrated audio-visual experience, the educational project includes original Apollo 11 spaceflight video footage, communication audio, mission control room conversations, text transcripts, and telemetry data. The result? A moment in history captured so that generations may relive the events that took place on the Moon 45 years ago. 

Watch, listen, and relive the excitement of the Apollo 11 lunar landing as experienced minute-by-minute by the courageous crew of Apollo 11 and Mission Control: http://goo.gl/39Id3b

#NASA   #Penny4NASA   #Apollo   #Apollo11   #Moon   #Lunar   #MoonLanding   #NeilArmstrong   #BuzzAldrin   #MichaelCollins   #FirstMenOnTheMoon   #WebbyAward  ___www.FirstMenOnTheMoon.com.  The interactive experience is a great way to commemorate the 45th anniversary of Apollo 11 July 16-24, 1969. :) 

The 18 minutes leading up to landing were some of the most dangerous parts of the mission. 

Eyles: The first two [landing] phases were very much under the computer's control using different targets. The final landing phase was the point where the astronauts took over semimanually to maneuver the spacecraft like a helicopter. When I say semimanually, I mean that the automatic system was controlling the throttle to maintain a commanded descent rate while the astronaut commanded the attitude of the spacecraft in order to scoot along the surface in whatever direction he needed to go.

Bruce McCandless, astronaut (CAPCOM), Green Team, Mission Control: Neil was flying, looking for a boulder-free spot. It's fair to say people were holding their breath.

When they landed, they had less than 18 seconds of fuel left. 

from: http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/space/moon-mars/4318170

"Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed." -  Neil Armstrong to Nasa's Mission Control base as the Eagle touches down.

"Roger, Tranquility, we copy you on the ground. You got a bunch of guys about to turn blue here. We're breathing again. Thanks a lot" - Capsule Commander Charles Duke 

#nasa   #apollo #spaceexploration #scienceeveryday

posted image

2014-07-18 13:49:34 (1 comments, 1 reshares, 24 +1s) 

Interactive 3D Space Simulation: Rosetta Mission. Change your viewpoint on the solar system and fly with the Rosetta spacecraft from launch as it passes our local planets before heading into deep space to catch up - and land on - Comet 67P.   

http://www.solarsystemscope.com/rosetta/  

The beautiful simulation illustrates the rotational and orbital movements of our planets and the fascinating trajectory of the spacecraft. After a 10-year hibernation, Rosetta is awake and transmitting images as it nears the comet.  It is due to arrive within 100 km on 6 August 2014 and land this November. 

Twin target: New images reveal the comet appears to have two distinct parts. It could have formed from the collision of two comets or it could be a single comet getting pulled apart by gravitational forces - or there may be yet another reason for its distinctive shape.more »

Interactive 3D Space Simulation: Rosetta Mission. Change your viewpoint on the solar system and fly with the Rosetta spacecraft from launch as it passes our local planets before heading into deep space to catch up - and land on - Comet 67P.   

http://www.solarsystemscope.com/rosetta/  

The beautiful simulation illustrates the rotational and orbital movements of our planets and the fascinating trajectory of the spacecraft. After a 10-year hibernation, Rosetta is awake and transmitting images as it nears the comet.  It is due to arrive within 100 km on 6 August 2014 and land this November. 

Twin target: New images reveal the comet appears to have two distinct parts. It could have formed from the collision of two comets or it could be a single comet getting pulled apart by gravitational forces - or there may be yet another reason for its distinctive shape.

Article: http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2014/17jul_rosetta/

Video:   http://sci.esa.int/rosetta/54356-rotating-view-of-comet-67pc-g-on-14-july-2014/

Comets are of great interest to scientists because, to our knowledge, they are the oldest, most primitive bodies in the Solar System, preserving the earliest record of material from the nebula out of which our Sun and planets were formed. Planets have gone through chemical transformations, but comets have remained almost unchanged. Furthermore, comets brought ‘volatile’ light elements to the planets and likely played an important role in forming oceans and atmospheres. Comets are also carry complex organic molecules that may have been involved in the origin of life on Earth. 

http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Science/Rosetta/Frequently_asked_questions

Not to scale, e.g. the comet is ~125x as wide as Rosetta's solar arrays (4000:32 km).

Android apps by the developer:
https://play.google.com/store/apps/developer?id=INOVE,+s.r.o.

#space #science #outreach #stem #education
#rosetta #comet #67p #spaceexploration___

posted image

2014-07-18 03:27:31 (20 comments, 35 reshares, 190 +1s) 

Photographs from the new Siberian crater: most likely not an explosion, but an ejection - like popping a bottle of Champagne.

A new crater discovered in Siberia near the Bovanenkovo gas field is being investigated to see how it may have formed - several mechanisms have been proposed. Given the massive amounts of methane trapped in the permafrost, the investigation may yield important information for climate projections. 

Image credit (with story and more photographs):
http://siberiantimes.com/science/casestudy/news/first-pictures-from-inside-the-crater-at-the-end-of-the-world/

Why would methane release cause concern?

Like carbon dioxide, methane is a greenhouse gas. The presence of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere inhibits the Earth's heat from being released into space [and] may cause the Earth's temperature to increase over time.more »

Photographs from the new Siberian crater: most likely not an explosion, but an ejection - like popping a bottle of Champagne.

A new crater discovered in Siberia near the Bovanenkovo gas field is being investigated to see how it may have formed - several mechanisms have been proposed. Given the massive amounts of methane trapped in the permafrost, the investigation may yield important information for climate projections. 

Image credit (with story and more photographs):
http://siberiantimes.com/science/casestudy/news/first-pictures-from-inside-the-crater-at-the-end-of-the-world/

Why would methane release cause concern?

Like carbon dioxide, methane is a greenhouse gas. The presence of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere inhibits the Earth's heat from being released into space [and] may cause the Earth's temperature to increase over time.

Methane may be "stored" underground or under the seafloor as methane gas or methane hydrate; methane hydrate is a crystalline solid combining methane and water, which is stable at low temperatures and high pressure--conditions commonly found in marine sediments. When methane stores are released relatively quickly into the atmosphere, levels of atmospheric methane may rapidly spike.

As a greenhouse gas, methane is 30 times more potent (gram for gram) than carbon dioxide. This means that adding relatively modest amounts of methane to the atmosphere may yield relatively large impacts on climate.

From NSF "Questions and Answers on Potentially Large Methane Releases From Arctic, and Climate Change"

http://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=116534&org=NSF&from=news

How could the earth get gas (bubbles)?

http://www.nsf.gov/news/mmg/media/images/methane1_h1.jpg

The permafrost in this area can become "perforated like Swiss cheese. This allows methane gas stored under it under pressure to burst into the atmosphere." 

Credit: Zina Deretsky, National Science Foundation

http://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=116532

Update: Second hole found July 25, 2014
• http://www.nbcnews.com/science/weird-science/theyre-multiplying-second-black-hole-found-siberia-n165226
• http://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/melting-permafrost-creates-weird-phenomena-these-two-holes-siberia-180952160/?utm_source=twitter.com&utm_medium=socialmedia&utm_campaign=07252014&utm_content=smartnewssiberianholes1 h/t +Betsy McCall 


h/t +Constantine Thomas   #siberia #crater
#earthscience #scienceeveryday___

posted image

2014-07-17 13:58:56 (3 comments, 3 reshares, 25 +1s) 

Japanese Snow Monkey using an iPhone.  Story and more pictures at http://iso.500px.com/snow-monkey-iphone-photo/.

Thanks +Alireza Yavari - and +Derya Unutmaz for the reshare. :)

Evolutionary Relationship of Primates:

http://anthro.palomar.edu/primate/images/primate_evolutionary_relationships.gif

http://anthro.palomar.edu/primate/prim_8.htm

Monkeys are more distantly related to us than chimpanzees, but here's a short and interesting look at how our human genome compares to the chimpanzee genome:

https://www.youtube.com/embed/WBEtw7esmvg#t=14 [2 min]

Some very small changes in the DNA code result in significant differences, others, ...not so much. :)

 #monkeyonphone #cladogram    #primatespreferiOS   

The Story Behind This Incredible Photo Of A Monkey Using An iPhone
Whether you find it eerie or amusing—this stunning photo of a Japanese snow monkey using an iPhone captures just how much they resemble us humans. In this 500px ISO exclusive, we asked nature photographer Marsel van Oosten to share the full story behind his amazing shot and technique.

Read on, and prepare to be wowed! http://goo.gl/m81f2l___Japanese Snow Monkey using an iPhone.  Story and more pictures at http://iso.500px.com/snow-monkey-iphone-photo/.

Thanks +Alireza Yavari - and +Derya Unutmaz for the reshare. :)

Evolutionary Relationship of Primates:

http://anthro.palomar.edu/primate/images/primate_evolutionary_relationships.gif

http://anthro.palomar.edu/primate/prim_8.htm

Monkeys are more distantly related to us than chimpanzees, but here's a short and interesting look at how our human genome compares to the chimpanzee genome:

https://www.youtube.com/embed/WBEtw7esmvg#t=14 [2 min]

Some very small changes in the DNA code result in significant differences, others, ...not so much. :)

 #monkeyonphone #cladogram    #primatespreferiOS   

posted image

2014-07-17 13:27:51 (11 comments, 1 reshares, 15 +1s) 

Update on Google contacts.  Not yet, but maybe soon. :) 

#diabetes #smartcontactlens #contactlenscamera   #freakinlaserbeams  

Google Contacts : Well its not really here yet, but if you were to believe the sites such as Beforeitsnews, you can hoof down to your neighborhood store and pick one up. The truth? Google X labs (yes that super-secret place where all the magic happens) has filed for a patent. The news is of course way off the charts. Interesting fodder for me though, and makes for an excellent story arc. HUDs in your eye and cameras in your eye...

Article Extract: Google first unveiled its smart contact lenses -- one of many projects to emerge from the mysterious Google X lab -- in January, but in an announcement today (15 July) it has revealed it will collaborate with global healthcare provider Novartis on the development of the lenses.

Novartis has licensed the technology from and will continue to develop the lenses designed by Google into a commercial healthcare product. Its eye care division Alcon will start to use the non-invasive sensors in the lenses to analyse tear fluid, which allows for constant measuring of blood glucose levels. This information will be wirelessly transmitted to smartphones or other devices with the idea being diabetes sufferers will be able to monitor their glucose levels in real time.

The second thing Alcon hopes to use the lenses for is to help people who are living with presbyopia -- a condition that means they can no longer read without glasses. By restoring the eye's natural autofocus, the smart lenses have the ability to provide "accommodative vision correction" either in the form of a contact lens, or an intraocular lens that can be implanted directly into the eyeball as part of refractive cataract treatment.

From Business Insider: A new patent application details how Google could add sensors and a micro-camera to the surface of a contact lens. The wearer would be able to control the lens by blinking, according to the application, which was unearthed by Patent Bolt.

Article link: http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2014-07/15/google-smart-lens-novartis

Additional source: http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/future-tech/could-you-put-a-camera-in-a-contact-lens-.htm

Business Insider Link: http://www.businessinsider.co.id/googles-smart-contact-lens-concept-2014-4/#.U8en67GiIok

'A Creepier Glass' : http://readwrite.com/2014/04/17/google-patent-contact-lens-camera

Pics Courtesy: Business Insider, Wired.___Update on Google contacts.  Not yet, but maybe soon. :) 

#diabetes #smartcontactlens #contactlenscamera   #freakinlaserbeams  

posted image

2014-07-14 12:22:15 (1 comments, 3 reshares, 28 +1s) 

Moonrise over our home planet. Credit: @NASA

h/t astronaut +Ron Garan  #earthfromspace  #nasa

Moonrise over our home planet. Credit:@NASA___Moonrise over our home planet. Credit: @NASA

h/t astronaut +Ron Garan  #earthfromspace  #nasa

posted image

2014-07-14 12:11:43 (2 comments, 1 reshares, 20 +1s) 

How we use  light to learn about distant stars.  

All we ever see of stars are their old photographs. 
― Alan Moore, Watchmen

h/t +Rich Pollett


Spectroscopy and the Birth of Astrophysics

The 3D animation depicts how the light of a distant star is studied by astronomers. The spectrum of the light provides vital information about the composition and history of stars. Now, a brief history of stellar spectroscopy.

In 1802, William Wollaston noted that the spectrum of sunlight did not appear to be a continuous band of colors, but rather had a series of dark lines superimposed on it. Wollaston attributed the lines to natural boundaries between colors. Joseph Fraunhofer made a more careful set of observations of the solar spectrum in 1814 and found some 600 dark lines, and he specifically measured the wavelength of 324 of them. Many of the Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum retain the notations he created to designate them. In 1864, Sir William Huggins matched some of these dark lines in spectra from other stars with terrestrial substances, demonstrating that stars are made of the same materials of everyday material rather than exotic substances. This paved the way for modern spectroscopy.

Since even before the discovery of spectra, scientists had tried to find ways to categorize stars. By observing spectra, astronomers realized that large numbers of stars exhibit a small number of distinct patterns in their spectral lines. Classification by spectral features quickly proved to be a powerful tool for understanding stars.

The current spectral classification scheme was developed at Harvard Observatory in the early 20th century. Work was begun by Henry Draper who photographed the first spectrum of Vega in 1872. After his death, his wife donated the equipment and a sum of money to the Observatory to continue his work. The bulk of the classification work was done by Annie Jump Cannon from 1918 to 1924. The original scheme used capital letters running alphabetically, but subsequent revisions have reduced this as stellar evolution and typing has become better understood.

While the differences in spectra might seem to indicate different chemical compositions, in almost all instances, it actually reflects different surface temperatures. With some exceptions (e.g. the R, N, and S stellar types), material on the surface of stars is “primitive”: there is no significant chemical or nuclear processing of the gaseous outer envelope of a star once it has formed. Fusion at the core of the star results in fundamental compositional changes, but material does not generally mix between the visible surface of the star and its core. Ordered from highest temperature to lowest, the seven main stellar types are O, B, A, F, G, K, and M. Astronomers use one of several mnemonics to remember the order of the classification scheme. O, B, and A type stars are often referred to as early spectral types, while cool stars (G, K, and M) are known as late type stars.

Scientists assumed that the spectral classes represented a sequence of decreasing surface temperatures of the stars, but no one was able to demonstrate this quantitatively. Cecilia Payne, who studied the new science of quantum physics, knew that the pattern of features in the spectrum of any atom was determined by the configuration of its electrons. She showed that Cannon’s ordering of the stellar spectral classes was indeed a sequence of decreasing temperatures and she was able to calculate the temperatures.

More information: http://www.aip.org/history/cosmology/tools/tools-spectroscopy.htm

Credit: ESO, Jesse S. Allen

#spectroscopy #astrophysics  
.___How we use  light to learn about distant stars.  

All we ever see of stars are their old photographs. 
― Alan Moore, Watchmen

h/t +Rich Pollett

posted image

2014-07-13 17:14:04 (2 comments, 15 reshares, 46 +1s) 

Mysteries of the Unseen World. Beautiful  +Ted Talks video by  +Louis Schwartzberg  "slows down, speeds up, and magnifies the  astonishing wonders of nature".

We live in a world of unseeable beauty, so subtle and delicate that it is imperceptible to the human eye. To bring this invisible world to light, filmmaker Louie Schwartzberg bends the boundaries of time and space with high-speed cameras, time lapses and microscopes. At TED2014, he shares highlights from his latest project, a 3D film titled "Mysteries of the Unseen World,"

https://www.ted.com/talks/louie_schwartzberg_hidden_miracles_of_the_natural_world

Find IMAX showings:
https://maps.google.com/maps/ms?msid=213482110183615911326.0004f23b7c719b5cd9701&msa=0&dg=feature

http://movies.nationalgeographic.com/movies/mysteries-of-the-unseen-world/

LouisSchw... more »

Mysteries of the Unseen World. Beautiful  +Ted Talks video by  +Louis Schwartzberg  "slows down, speeds up, and magnifies the  astonishing wonders of nature".

We live in a world of unseeable beauty, so subtle and delicate that it is imperceptible to the human eye. To bring this invisible world to light, filmmaker Louie Schwartzberg bends the boundaries of time and space with high-speed cameras, time lapses and microscopes. At TED2014, he shares highlights from his latest project, a 3D film titled "Mysteries of the Unseen World,"

https://www.ted.com/talks/louie_schwartzberg_hidden_miracles_of_the_natural_world

Find IMAX showings:
https://maps.google.com/maps/ms?msid=213482110183615911326.0004f23b7c719b5cd9701&msa=0&dg=feature

http://movies.nationalgeographic.com/movies/mysteries-of-the-unseen-world/

Louis Schwartzberg is also the creator of "The Hidden Beauty of Pollination", an amazing film celebrating some of the crucial connections on which our world depends. A visual treat:

The hidden beauty of pollination - Louie Schwartzberg

Probably a bit biased, but I believe our home is one of the most beautiful planets in the universe.  It's worth taking a moment to be a bit impressed by it all. 

Animation and images:
http://www.random42.com/national-geographic

More about Science Photography:
http://www.nature.com/scitable/spotlight/science-photography-10285104

In celebration of #ScienceSunday and +Science on Google+.

#nature #science #technology   #photography  ___

posted image

2014-07-13 15:41:33 (2 comments, 7 reshares, 30 +1s) 

Thanks to all the people to take a moment from their busy days to make someone smile.    If you ever wonder if it makes a difference, it does. :) 

Heartwarming Thai Commercial - Thai Good Stories By Linaloved

Talk about ensuring a worthwhile life :)

  #thewakewemake  #bodhicitta #goodheartgoodmind  

Thanks to all the people to take a moment from their busy days to make someone smile.    If you ever wonder if it makes a difference, it does. :) 

Heartwarming Thai Commercial - Thai Good Stories By Linaloved

Talk about ensuring a worthwhile life :)

  #thewakewemake  #bodhicitta #goodheartgoodmind  ___

posted image

2014-07-11 19:48:26 (1 comments, 2 reshares, 19 +1s) 

Deadliest Space Weather.  Worth a watch. :)  Video footage, CGI animations, and dramatic narration tell the exciting story of Jupiter's super storm (a powerful vortex so large two Earths could fit inside). 

Thanks +Chris McClelland for the detour. :) 

#oursolarsystem   #weather   #superstorms  

Deadliest Space Weather.  Worth a watch. :)  Video footage, CGI animations, and dramatic narration tell the exciting story of Jupiter's super storm (a powerful vortex so large two Earths could fit inside). 

Thanks +Chris McClelland for the detour. :) 

#oursolarsystem   #weather   #superstorms  ___

posted image

2014-07-11 13:22:22 (1 comments, 2 reshares, 21 +1s) 

Beautiful. :)

#humansareamazing  

Magnificent CME Erupts on the Sun - August 31

On August 31, 2012 a long filament of solar material that had been hovering in the Sun's outer atmosphere, the corona, erupted out into space at 4:36 p.m. EDT
On August 31, 2012 a long filament of solar material that had been hovering in the sun's atmosphere, the corona, erupted out into space at 4:36 p.m. EDT. The coronal mass ejection, or CME, traveled at over 900 miles per second. The CME did not travel directly toward Earth, but did connect with Earth's magnetic environment, or magnetosphere, causing aurora to appear on the night of Monday, September 3. Pictured here is a lighten blended version of the 304 and 171 angstrom wavelengths. Cropped

Credit: NASA/GSFC/SDO

source
https://www.flickr.com/photos/24662369@N07/7931831962___Beautiful. :)

#humansareamazing  

posted image

2014-07-11 13:20:03 (6 comments, 3 reshares, 30 +1s) 

For friends. :) 

ArtPics - Photography Hendy Mp___For friends. :) 

posted image

2014-07-11 13:08:09 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 7 +1s) 

More hands-on science.    +John Baez shows how to use and modify free software to form El Niño projections (using R helps). 

One of the many great things about science is that it encourages us to take a look at all the information available and analyze it ourselves.  Scientists publish results and their colleagues and peers actively try to disprove the findings. Only after repeated attempts to counter (with additional data and analysis) fail, will other scholars accept the results.  What is learned is always open still more learning when new information or discoveries come available.  

R is an open-source statistical programming language used for analytics. See Intro to R: 
http://www.revolutionanalytics.com/what-r
http://www.r-project.org/

#computerscience #analytics #climatenetworks   #handsonscience  

El Niño coming?

See how the eastern Pacific has gotten much hotter since May?  That could be the start of an El Niño. 

My friends and I at the Azimuth Code Project are starting to work on El Niño prediction.  Now you can get free software to study a method that uses 'climate networks'.  I'll give you hints on how to modify it and make new discoveries of your own.  If you do, please tell us what you find! 

Here's how to get started:

http://johncarlosbaez.wordpress.com/2014/07/08/el-nino-project-part-4/

This explains how to download climate data and programs to analyze it.   First you go to a website (or ftp site) and get ahold of the Earth's surface air temperatures since 1950.  Then you run a program to get just the temperatures in the Pacific.  Then you run another to see how much temperatures near the equator are correlated to those in the rest of the Pacific.  The theory is that when they become strongly correlated, an El Niño is brewing!

The next blog article will about how a complete beginner - me - managed to actually do this stuff.  I didn't write the programs; Graham Jones did that.  But I managed to download the data and run and modify his programs.  I've always avoided programming.  But now I'm actually doing it - so you can too!  Maybe a lot better.___More hands-on science.    +John Baez shows how to use and modify free software to form El Niño projections (using R helps). 

One of the many great things about science is that it encourages us to take a look at all the information available and analyze it ourselves.  Scientists publish results and their colleagues and peers actively try to disprove the findings. Only after repeated attempts to counter (with additional data and analysis) fail, will other scholars accept the results.  What is learned is always open still more learning when new information or discoveries come available.  

R is an open-source statistical programming language used for analytics. See Intro to R: 
http://www.revolutionanalytics.com/what-r
http://www.r-project.org/

#computerscience #analytics #climatenetworks   #handsonscience  

posted image

2014-07-11 12:49:54 (1 comments, 17 reshares, 135 +1s) 

Hands-on science: calculating sea level rise.   Students calculate future sea-level rise in Olympia, Washington. 

Why it matters:
The city of Olympia is particularly vulnerable to a rise in sea level, due to its location and the layout of the city.

What they did:
[Students] used the latest climate models to forecast global ocean temperatures and sea-level rise, then used historical records to relate those changes to sea level in Seattle. Finally they used a more limited set of tide gauge data to relate Seattle and Olympia high-tide marks.

Results:
The group found that by 2100 the water near Olympia will rise by 14 to 32 inches, or slightly more than the open oceans.

http://www.washington.edu/news/2014/07/10/students-calculate-future-sea-level-rise-in-olympia/

Their website: http://courses.washington.edu/statclim/
... more »

Hands-on science: calculating sea level rise.   Students calculate future sea-level rise in Olympia, Washington. 

Why it matters:
The city of Olympia is particularly vulnerable to a rise in sea level, due to its location and the layout of the city.

What they did:
[Students] used the latest climate models to forecast global ocean temperatures and sea-level rise, then used historical records to relate those changes to sea level in Seattle. Finally they used a more limited set of tide gauge data to relate Seattle and Olympia high-tide marks.

Results:
The group found that by 2100 the water near Olympia will rise by 14 to 32 inches, or slightly more than the open oceans.

http://www.washington.edu/news/2014/07/10/students-calculate-future-sea-level-rise-in-olympia/

Their website: http://courses.washington.edu/statclim/

Do it yourself science: How to estimate global sea-level rise based on melting ice sheet projections.

In view of the vast size of the oceans, covering over 70% of the Earth’s surface area, many people might at first think that the addition of ice or melted ice from the ice sheets would have little impact on global sea level. The numbers prove otherwise.

How to estimate sea level rise if the Greenland and/or Antarctica ice sheets were to melt:
http://pumas.jpl.nasa.gov/files/02_10_97_1.pdf
(For middle-schoolers and up.)

It's a first-order estimate, but something similar could be used to estimate rise based on partial melting.  (Also, as the level rises, the shoreline increases, which would reduce the magnitude.)

Interactive map: 
http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2013/09/rising-seas/if-ice-melted-map

Note: Our massive ice sheets are expected to remain for quite a while. Over the coming centuries, we're looking at partial melting, which will still have significant impacts.  Recent estimates suggest a sea level rise of 3 meters (10 feet) or more .

"Today we present evidence that a large sector of the West Antarctic ice sheet has gone into irreversible retreat. It has passed the point of no return."  These six glaciers alone could cause the ocean to rise four feet as they disappear. - Dr. Eric Rignot, glaciologist, quoted in +The New York Times 13-May-2014

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/13/science/earth/collapse-of-parts-of-west-antarctica-ice-sheet-has-begun-scientists-say.html

http://news.agu.org/press-release/new-study-shows-major-increase-in-west-antarctic-glacial-loss/

+Science on Google+ +ScienceSunday 

#earthscience  #STEMeducation #climatechange___

posted image

2014-07-11 11:56:37 (8 comments, 1 reshares, 15 +1s) 

Window-spanning storm.   Not at all a hemisphere-spanning storm as thought when I first saw it. Thanks +Bill DeWitt for kindly pointing out the correct size! 

View of the recent supertyphoon Neoguri from the International Space Station by ESA astronaut +Alexander Gerst.
#ISS #bluedotmission #earth   #typhoonneoguri  

Went right above Supertyphoon Neoguri. It is ENORMOUS. Watch out, Japan!___Window-spanning storm.   Not at all a hemisphere-spanning storm as thought when I first saw it. Thanks +Bill DeWitt for kindly pointing out the correct size! 

View of the recent supertyphoon Neoguri from the International Space Station by ESA astronaut +Alexander Gerst.
#ISS #bluedotmission #earth   #typhoonneoguri  

posted image

2014-07-11 02:26:43 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 6 +1s) 

Should be interesting :)

Should be interesting :)___

posted image

2014-07-08 00:38:26 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 4 +1s) 

Use your CS superpowers for good!  Apply by Tues July 15 to be a 2015 Code for America Fellow:  http://codeforamerica.org/apply.

They're looking for developers, designers, researchers, and product managers to help tackle some of the most pressing challenges governments face. 

Free apps associated with the program:
http://codeforamerica.org/apps/free.html#nav-tabs

Paid apps:
http://codeforamerica.org/apps/paid.html#nav-tabs

GitHub repos:
https://github.com/codeforamerica

h/t +Google Developers 

#coding #computerscience #changetheworld   #stemeducation

Code for America is seeking fellows for their 2015 Fellowship! Application site is as follows, and deadline is 7/15.
http://codeforamerica.org/apply

Code for America fellows are developers, designers and project managers committed to discovering new ways that technology can help address the challenges that our governments face.  

Modern technology tools and approaches can foster collaboration and build trust while helping cities better address the challenges they face. If you want to make a difference while doing what you love, this is your chance — use your skills to build technology that helps local governments work better for the communities that they serve.

Fellows and government staff work together to foster new approaches to problem solving, build apps and effectively use technology and data to address social issues. In past years, teams have worked on increasing access to social services, exploring alternatives to incarceration, and providing new avenues for public input. It's your turn to help change the society you live in!___Use your CS superpowers for good!  Apply by Tues July 15 to be a 2015 Code for America Fellow:  http://codeforamerica.org/apply.

They're looking for developers, designers, researchers, and product managers to help tackle some of the most pressing challenges governments face. 

Free apps associated with the program:
http://codeforamerica.org/apps/free.html#nav-tabs

Paid apps:
http://codeforamerica.org/apps/paid.html#nav-tabs

GitHub repos:
https://github.com/codeforamerica

h/t +Google Developers 

#coding #computerscience #changetheworld   #stemeducation

posted image

2014-07-07 15:18:05 (1 comments, 4 reshares, 9 +1s) 

Rosetta Approach. In August 2014, ESA's Rosetta spacecraft will reach comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko.  This short video shows Rosetta's path as it gets close enough to begin the detailed mapping that will allow scientists to chose a landing site for the Philae lander, due to be deployed to the surface in November. 

Not to scale; the comet is ~125x as wide as Rosetta's solar arrays (4000:32 km).

Rosetta's orbit around the comet
Credit: ESA -- C. Carreau

Comets are of great interest to scientists because, to our knowledge, they are the oldest, most primitive bodies in the Solar System, preserving the earliest record of material from the nebula out of which our Sun and planets were formed. Planets have gone through chemical transformations, but comets have remained almost unchanged. Furthermore, comets brought ‘volatile’ light elements to theplane... more »

Rosetta Approach. In August 2014, ESA's Rosetta spacecraft will reach comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko.  This short video shows Rosetta's path as it gets close enough to begin the detailed mapping that will allow scientists to chose a landing site for the Philae lander, due to be deployed to the surface in November. 

Not to scale; the comet is ~125x as wide as Rosetta's solar arrays (4000:32 km).

Rosetta's orbit around the comet
Credit: ESA -- C. Carreau

Comets are of great interest to scientists because, to our knowledge, they are the oldest, most primitive bodies in the Solar System, preserving the earliest record of material from the nebula out of which our Sun and planets were formed. Planets have gone through chemical transformations, but comets have remained almost unchanged. Furthermore, comets brought ‘volatile’ light elements to the planets and likely played an important role in forming oceans and atmospheres. Comets are also carry complex organic molecules that may have been involved in the origin of life on Earth. 

http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Science/Rosetta/Frequently_asked_questions

Interactive mission timeline:
http://rosetta.jpl.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/rosetta_info/index.html

Recent images:
http://www.universetoday.com/112948/rosetta-watches-comet-67p-tumbling-through-space/

Where is Rosetta now? (Interactive 3D WebGL visualization)
http://sci.esa.int/where_is_rosetta/

#rosettamission #esa #nasa #spaceexploration  #scienceeveryday ___

posted image

2014-07-07 14:30:01 (3 comments, 1 reshares, 15 +1s) 

Day 3 of my #fivedayquest :  *Great things come in twos.*  

Today's a very special day in my family, so I figured for my quest, I might share a glimpse into a couple of the best twos in my life. The two in the middle have been together 50+ years, and they're still one of the cutest couples ever. They've been traveling the country, visiting us kids, their grand kids, and (especially) their truly great grand kids.

The outside two have been together since 8-1/2 months before they were born - part of at least five consecutive generations of boy-girl twins in the family tree. They were kind enough to wait to show up until just after graduation the first time I was in college, and still bring joy where ever they land. Each has expanded into a new couple of their own, adding still more wonderful twos to the best parts of my life.  (Many thanks to all who came and shared thiswo... more »

Day 3 of my #fivedayquest :  *Great things come in twos.*  

Today's a very special day in my family, so I figured for my quest, I might share a glimpse into a couple of the best twos in my life. The two in the middle have been together 50+ years, and they're still one of the cutest couples ever. They've been traveling the country, visiting us kids, their grand kids, and (especially) their truly great grand kids.

The outside two have been together since 8-1/2 months before they were born - part of at least five consecutive generations of boy-girl twins in the family tree. They were kind enough to wait to show up until just after graduation the first time I was in college, and still bring joy where ever they land. Each has expanded into a new couple of their own, adding still more wonderful twos to the best parts of my life.  (Many thanks to all who came and shared this wonderful week! ) 

Thanks +Mark Bruce - author of  +SciTech Digest published every week on #ScienceSunday - for the invite! 

These are the rules for the game:
1) Post 5 shots on 5 days that have something to do with your life.
2) Use the hashtag #fivedayquest on every post.
3) Mention the person who invited you on every post.
4) Tag a new person to join the challenge each day - no pressure, it's just for fun! :)

One of the things I love about G+ is the intelligent and insightful comments from many of the best and brightest in their fields.  One of the notable women in STEM and Computer science that I've enjoyed following since the first open AI course back in 2011 has been +Rachel Blum.  Rachel - would you be interested in joining the  #fivedayquest ?  ___

2014-07-01 11:03:02 (5 comments, 0 reshares, 9 +1s) 

Haskell in Computational Biology.   Haskell is an advanced purely-functional programming language.  From the paper:

...Implementing Viterbi’s equations in Haskell was pure joy. Writing an iterative search in purely functional style was easy. Transforming data in the HMMER file format, without using mutable state the way the C++ code does, was difficult.

You can live to surf the Haskell wave,
but if you slide off the crest, you drown.

http://www.haskell.org/haskellwiki/Haskell

Haskell vs Java at www.theHammerPrinciple.com:

LEARNING THIS LANGUAGE SIGNIFICANTLY CHANGED HOW I USE OTHER LANGUAGES (95% pick Haskell).

I FIND CODE WRITTEN IN THIS LANGUAGE VERY ELEGANT (91% pick Haskell).

I WOULD RECOMMEND MOST PROGRAMMERS LEARN THIS LANGUAGE, REGARDLESS OF WHETHER THEY HAVE A SPECIFIC NEED FOR IT (88% pick Haskell)

Java beat Haskell as aMAINSTREA... more »

Experience Report: Haskell in Computational Biology___Haskell in Computational Biology.   Haskell is an advanced purely-functional programming language.  From the paper:

...Implementing Viterbi’s equations in Haskell was pure joy. Writing an iterative search in purely functional style was easy. Transforming data in the HMMER file format, without using mutable state the way the C++ code does, was difficult.

You can live to surf the Haskell wave,
but if you slide off the crest, you drown.

http://www.haskell.org/haskellwiki/Haskell

Haskell vs Java at www.theHammerPrinciple.com:

LEARNING THIS LANGUAGE SIGNIFICANTLY CHANGED HOW I USE OTHER LANGUAGES (95% pick Haskell).

I FIND CODE WRITTEN IN THIS LANGUAGE VERY ELEGANT (91% pick Haskell).

I WOULD RECOMMEND MOST PROGRAMMERS LEARN THIS LANGUAGE, REGARDLESS OF WHETHER THEY HAVE A SPECIFIC NEED FOR IT (88% pick Haskell)

Java beat Haskell as a MAINSTREAM language (100%), for MOBILE APPLICATIONS (80%), for MAKING IT EASY TO SHOOT YOURSELF IN THE FOOT (81%), and OFTEN GETTING ANGRY (81%).

http://hammerprinciple.com/therighttool/items/haskell/java

Thanks +John Cook for resharing!

#computerscience #computationalbiology

Buttons

A special service of CircleCount.com is the following button.

The button shows the number of followers you have directly in a small button. You can add this button to your website, like the +1-Button of Google or the Like-Button of Facebook.






You can add this button directly in your website. For more information about the CircleCount Buttons and the description how to add them to another page click here.

Denise CaseCircloscope