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Most comments: 12

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2016-09-10 17:05:28 (12 comments; 0 reshares; 2 +1s; )Open 

Given that I've mostly known about 'cultural appropriation' from people making fun of the whole idea, I was happy to run across a discussion of it that made the concept make sense:

> “Borrowing” is a key component of cultural appropriation. In the 1950s, white musicians borrowed the musical stylings of their black counterparts. Because African Americans weren’t widely accepted in U.S. society at that time, record executives chose to have white recording artists replicate the sound of black musicians. This led to musical forms such as rock-n-roll being largely associated with whites in spite of the fact that black musicians were pioneers of the art form. This move also had financial consequences, as many of the black musicians who helped pave the way for rock-n-roll’s success never saw a dime for their contributions to the music. [...]

> Cultural appropriationremains... more »

Most reshares: 8

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2016-09-09 13:28:25 (2 comments; 8 reshares; 64 +1s; )Open 

"A Russian cement company is building Game of Thrones's Winterfell with a 3D printer just because it can"

Most plusones: 64

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2016-09-09 13:28:25 (2 comments; 8 reshares; 64 +1s; )Open 

"A Russian cement company is building Game of Thrones's Winterfell with a 3D printer just because it can"

Latest 50 posts

2016-09-24 18:03:53 (0 comments; 0 reshares; 1 +1s; )Open 

> ACCORDING to Mesopotamian beliefs, the Tigris has its model in the star Anunit and the Euphrates in the star of the Swallow. [...] For the Ural-Altaic peoples the mountains, in the same way, have an ideal prototype in the sky. In Egypt, places and nomes were named after the celestial "fields": first the celestial fields were known, then they were identified in terrestrial geography.

> In Iranian cosmology of the Zarvanitic tradition, "every terrestrial phenomenon, whether abstract or concrete, corresponds to a celestial, transcendent invisible term, to an 'idea' in the Platonic sense. Each thing, each notion presents itself under a double aspect: that of menok and that of getik. There is a visible sky: hence there is also a menok sky which is invisible (Bundahisn, Ch. I). Our earth corresponds to a celestial earth. Each virtue practiced here below, in the getah, has... more »

> ACCORDING to Mesopotamian beliefs, the Tigris has its model in the star Anunit and the Euphrates in the star of the Swallow. [...] For the Ural-Altaic peoples the mountains, in the same way, have an ideal prototype in the sky. In Egypt, places and nomes were named after the celestial "fields": first the celestial fields were known, then they were identified in terrestrial geography.

> In Iranian cosmology of the Zarvanitic tradition, "every terrestrial phenomenon, whether abstract or concrete, corresponds to a celestial, transcendent invisible term, to an 'idea' in the Platonic sense. Each thing, each notion presents itself under a double aspect: that of menok and that of getik. There is a visible sky: hence there is also a menok sky which is invisible (Bundahisn, Ch. I). Our earth corresponds to a celestial earth. Each virtue practiced here below, in the getah, has a celestial counterpart which represents true reality" [...]

[list of similar examples from other cultures]

> The world that surrounds us, then, the world in which the presence and the work of man are felt - the mountains that he climbs, populated and cultivated regions, navigable rivers, cities, sanctuaries - all these have an extraterrestrial archetype, be it conceived as a plan, as a form, or purely and simply as a "double" existing on a higher cosmic level. But everything in the world that surrounds us does not have a prototype of this kind. For example, desert regions inhabited by monsters, uncultivated lands, unknown seas on which no navigator has dared to venture, do not share [...] the privilege of a differentiated prototype. They correspond to a mythical model, but of another nature: all these wild, uncultivated regions and the like are assimilated to chaos; they still participate in the undifferentiated, formless modality of pre-Creation. This is why, when possession is taken of a territory - that is, when its exploitation begins - rites are performed that symbolically repeat the act of Creation: the uncultivated zone is first "cosmicized," then inhabited. We shall presently return to the meaning of this ceremonial taking possession of newly discovered countries. For the moment, what we wish to emphasize is the fact that the world which surrounds us, civilized by the hand of man, is accorded no validity beyond that which is due to the extraterrestrial prototype that served as its model. Man constructs according to an archetype. Not only do his city or his temple have celestial models; the same is true of the entire region that he inhabits, with the rivers that water it, the fields that give him his food, etc. The map of Babylon shows the city at the center of a vast circular territory bordered by a river, precisely as the Sumerians envisioned Paradise. This participation by urban cultures in an archetypal model is what gives them their reality and their validity.

> Settlement in a new, unknown, uncultivated country is equivalent to an act of Creation. When the Scandinavian colonists took possession of Iceland, Landnama, and began to cultivate it, they regarded this act neither as an original undertaking nor as human and profane work. Their enterprise was for them only the repetition of a primordial act: the transformation of chaos into cosmos by the divine act of Creation. By cultivating the desert soil, they in fact repeated the act of the gods, who organized chaos by giving it forms and norms. Better still, a territorial conquest does not become real until after - more precisely, through - the ritual of taking possession, which is only a copy of the primordial act of the Creation of the World. In Vedic India the erection of an altar dedicated to Agni constituted legal taking possession of a territory. "One settles (avasyati) when he builds the garhapatya, and whoever are builders of fire-altars are 'settled' (avasitah)" says the Satapatha Brahmana (VII, 1 , 1, 1-4). But the erection of an altar dedicated to Agni is merely the microcosmic imitation of the Creation. Furthermore, any sacrifice is, in turn, the repetition of the act of Creation, as Indian texts explicitly state. It was in the name of Jesus Christ that the Spanish and Portuguese conquistadores took possession of the islands and continents that they had discovered and conquered. The setting up of the Cross was equivalent to a justification and to the consecration of the new country, to a "new birth" thus repeating baptism (act of Creation). In their turn the English navigators took possession of conquered countries in the name of the king of England, new Cosmocrator.

> The importance of the Vedic, Scandinavian, or Roman ceremonials will appear more clearly when we devote a separate examination to the meaning of the repetition of the Creation, the pre-eminently divine act. For the moment, let us keep one fact in view: every territory occupied for the purpose of being inhabited or utilized as Lebensraum is first of all transformed from chaos into cosmos; that is, through the effect of ritual it is given a "form" which makes it become real. Evidently, for the archaic mentality, reality manifests itself as force, effectiveness, and duration. Hence the outstanding reality is the sacred; for only the sacred is in an absolute fashion, acts effectively, creates things and makes them endure. The innumerable gestures of consecration of tracts and territories, of objects, of men, etc. reveal the primitive's obsession with the real, his thirst for being.

-- Mircea Eliade: Cosmos and History - The Myth of the Eternal Return___

2016-09-24 17:49:24 (2 comments; 0 reshares; 0 +1s; )Open 

> If we observe the general behavior of archaic man, we are struck by the following fact: neither the objects of the external world nor human acts, properly speaking, have any autonomous intrinsic value. Objects or acts acquire a value, and in so doing become real, because they participate, after one fashion or another, in a reality that transcends them. [...]

> ... let us turn to human acts - those, of course, which do not arise from pure automatism. Their meaning, their value, are not connected with their crude physical datum but with their property of reproducing a primordial act, of repeating a mythical example. Nutrition is not a simple physiological operation; it renews a communion. Marriage and the collective orgy echo mythical prototypes; they are repeated because they were consecrated in the beginning ("in those days," in illo tempore, ab origine) by gods, ancestors, or... more »

> If we observe the general behavior of archaic man, we are struck by the following fact: neither the objects of the external world nor human acts, properly speaking, have any autonomous intrinsic value. Objects or acts acquire a value, and in so doing become real, because they participate, after one fashion or another, in a reality that transcends them. [...]

> ... let us turn to human acts - those, of course, which do not arise from pure automatism. Their meaning, their value, are not connected with their crude physical datum but with their property of reproducing a primordial act, of repeating a mythical example. Nutrition is not a simple physiological operation; it renews a communion. Marriage and the collective orgy echo mythical prototypes; they are repeated because they were consecrated in the beginning ("in those days," in illo tempore, ab origine) by gods, ancestors, or heroes.

> In the particulars of his conscious behavior, the "primitive," the archaic man, acknowledges no act which has not been previously posited and lived by someone else, some other being who was not a man. What he does has been done before. His life is the ceaseless repetition of gestures initiated by others.

> This conscious repetition of given paradigmatic gestures reveals an original ontology. The crude product of nature, the object fashioned by the industry of man, acquire their reality, their identity, only to the extent of their participation in a transcendent reality. The gesture acquires meaning, reality, solely to the extent to which it repeats a primordial act.

> Various groups of facts, drawn here and there from different cultures, will help us to identify the structure of this archaic ontology. We have first sought out examples likely to show, as clearly as possible, the mechanism of traditional thought; in other words, facts which help us to understand how and why, for the man of the premodern societies, certain things become real. [...]

> We have distributed our collection of facts under several principal headings:

> 1. Facts which show us that, for archaic man, reality is a function of the imitation of a celestial archetype.

> 2. Facts which show us how reality is conferred through participation in the "symbolism of the Center": cities, temples, houses become real by the fact of being assimilated to the "center of the world."

> 3. Finally, rituals and significant profane gestures which acquire the meaning attributed to them, and materialize that meaning, only because they deliberately repeat such and such acts posited ab origine by gods, heroes, or ancestors.

-- Mircea Eliade: Cosmos and History - The Myth of the Eternal Return___

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2016-09-23 16:26:18 (8 comments; 0 reshares; 1 +1s; )Open 

Huh. Also interesting comments from other people in response:

> Relevant to the recent discussion of weird childhood memories, does anyone else have sudden-onset childhood amnesia?

> I don’t mean just not being able to remember things that happened when you were very young, which seems to be the standard usage of “childhood amnesia”. I remember a clear dividing line before which there is nothing, and then the lights come on all at once.

> The demarcation point was in the middle of a dream I was having aged 3. I remember waking up and thinking something like “huh, I can’t remember anything ever, maybe I should tell an adult – eh, they probably wouldn’t believe me, whatever”, and not wanting to go to preschool because I wouldn’t know anyone there. I still had language and could recognise my parents, though.

> Does anybody else have asimilar amnesia-e... more »

Huh. Also interesting comments from other people in response:

> Relevant to the recent discussion of weird childhood memories, does anyone else have sudden-onset childhood amnesia?

> I don’t mean just not being able to remember things that happened when you were very young, which seems to be the standard usage of “childhood amnesia”. I remember a clear dividing line before which there is nothing, and then the lights come on all at once.

> The demarcation point was in the middle of a dream I was having aged 3. I remember waking up and thinking something like “huh, I can’t remember anything ever, maybe I should tell an adult – eh, they probably wouldn’t believe me, whatever”, and not wanting to go to preschool because I wouldn’t know anyone there. I still had language and could recognise my parents, though.

> Does anybody else have a similar amnesia-event memory from childhood, or know what might be behind it? It doesn’t seem to be a common experience looking at Google, so I’m worried I might have had a mini-stroke or something.___

2016-09-23 15:57:18 (0 comments; 0 reshares; 3 +1s; )Open 

> ... I want to emphasize that publication bias is not just about the “file drawer effect,” it’s not just about positive findings being published and zero or negative findings remaining unpublished. It’s also that, within any project, there are so many different results that researchers can decide what to focus on.

> So, yes, sometimes a research team will try an idea and it won’t work and they won’t bother writing it up. Just one more dry hole—but if only the successes are written up and published, we will get a misleading view of reality: we’re seeing a nonrandom sample of results. But it’s more than that. Any study contains within itself so many possibilities that often something can be published that appears to be consistent with some vague theory. Embodied cognition, anyone.

> This “garden of forking paths” is important because it shows howpublication bias can ... more »

> ... I want to emphasize that publication bias is not just about the “file drawer effect,” it’s not just about positive findings being published and zero or negative findings remaining unpublished. It’s also that, within any project, there are so many different results that researchers can decide what to focus on.

> So, yes, sometimes a research team will try an idea and it won’t work and they won’t bother writing it up. Just one more dry hole—but if only the successes are written up and published, we will get a misleading view of reality: we’re seeing a nonrandom sample of results. But it’s more than that. Any study contains within itself so many possibilities that often something can be published that appears to be consistent with some vague theory. Embodied cognition, anyone.

> This “garden of forking paths” is important because it shows how publication bias can occur, even if every study is published and there’s nothing in the file drawer.___

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2016-09-23 15:37:34 (0 comments; 0 reshares; 1 +1s; )Open 

Interesting way of doing a choose-your-own-adventure book:

> The choices are not made from the point of view of any of the characters, but are questions asked of the reader, who is not a character in the story. They concern the player’s preferences, not any kind of story-influencing command, and are often reflective:

> > 2. Figbash scattered cracker crumbs on Hooglyboo.

> > If this makes you uncomfortable, turn to 3.
> > If it doesn’t, turn to 8.

> A number of options seem like complete non-sequiturs: “If you loathe prunes more than you do turnips, turn to 22.” Some are meta-choices: “If you want to keep on with the story, turn to 25. For a meaningful aside, turn to 15.” Most, though, are about the player expressing moral approval or disapproval of what’s happening, even though all the events are much alike. There’s asense that your... more »

Interesting way of doing a choose-your-own-adventure book:

> The choices are not made from the point of view of any of the characters, but are questions asked of the reader, who is not a character in the story. They concern the player’s preferences, not any kind of story-influencing command, and are often reflective:

> > 2. Figbash scattered cracker crumbs on Hooglyboo.

> > If this makes you uncomfortable, turn to 3.
> > If it doesn’t, turn to 8.

> A number of options seem like complete non-sequiturs: “If you loathe prunes more than you do turnips, turn to 22.” Some are meta-choices: “If you want to keep on with the story, turn to 25. For a meaningful aside, turn to 15.” Most, though, are about the player expressing moral approval or disapproval of what’s happening, even though all the events are much alike. There’s a sense that your agency is being… not even denied, exactly; but the possibility of it mattering is made to seem ridiculous.___

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2016-09-23 14:50:39 (0 comments; 0 reshares; 2 +1s; )Open 

To quote Bruce Schneier:

> In this article, detailing the Australian and then worldwide investigation of a particularly heinous child-abuse ring, there are a lot of details of the pedophile security practices and the police investigative techniques. The abusers had a detailed manual on how to scrub metadata and avoid detection, but not everyone was perfect. The police used information from a single camera to narrow down the suspects. They also tracked a particular phrase one person used to find him.

> This story shows an increasing sophistication of the police using small technical clues combined with standard detective work to investigate crimes on the Internet. A highly painful read, but interesting nonetheless.

To quote Bruce Schneier:

> In this article, detailing the Australian and then worldwide investigation of a particularly heinous child-abuse ring, there are a lot of details of the pedophile security practices and the police investigative techniques. The abusers had a detailed manual on how to scrub metadata and avoid detection, but not everyone was perfect. The police used information from a single camera to narrow down the suspects. They also tracked a particular phrase one person used to find him.

> This story shows an increasing sophistication of the police using small technical clues combined with standard detective work to investigate crimes on the Internet. A highly painful read, but interesting nonetheless.___

2016-09-23 13:39:40 (1 comments; 0 reshares; 5 +1s; )Open 

After +Tiina Malinen explained the point of Discordianism to me, I realized that I'd been thinking like that for a long time. I just didn't know that it was a religion.

Since it's now Friday, we are celebrating my newfound Discordianism by having (soy) hot dogs.

On the previous Friday, we celebrated my newfound Discordianism by not having hot dogs.

After +Tiina Malinen explained the point of Discordianism to me, I realized that I'd been thinking like that for a long time. I just didn't know that it was a religion.

Since it's now Friday, we are celebrating my newfound Discordianism by having (soy) hot dogs.

On the previous Friday, we celebrated my newfound Discordianism by not having hot dogs.___

2016-09-23 12:53:41 (0 comments; 0 reshares; 2 +1s; )Open 

A 1982 newsgroup discussion in which smileys were invented for the purpose of being "joke markers". Other suggestions for the joke marker included "&" ("surely the funniest character on the keyboard, looks funny like a jolly fat man in convulsions of laughter") and the sequence {#} ("because it looks like two lips with teeth showing between them, the expected result if someone actually laughs their head off").

The idea soon spread beyond the original conversation, such as in this message which explained the concept to others:

> Because you can't see the person who is sending you electronic mail you are sometimes uncertain whether they are serious or joking. Recently, Scott Fahlman at CMU devised a scheme for annotating one's messages to overcome this problem. If you turn your head sideways to look at the three characters :-) they... more »

A 1982 newsgroup discussion in which smileys were invented for the purpose of being "joke markers". Other suggestions for the joke marker included "&" ("surely the funniest character on the keyboard, looks funny like a jolly fat man in convulsions of laughter") and the sequence {#} ("because it looks like two lips with teeth showing between them, the expected result if someone actually laughs their head off").

The idea soon spread beyond the original conversation, such as in this message which explained the concept to others:

> Because you can't see the person who is sending you electronic mail you are sometimes uncertain whether they are serious or joking. Recently, Scott Fahlman at CMU devised a scheme for annotating one's messages to overcome this problem. If you turn your head sideways to look at the three characters :-) they look sort of like a smiling face. Thus, if someone sends you a message that says "Have you stopped beating your wife?:-)" you know they are joking. If they say "I need to talk to you :-(", be prepared for trouble.___

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2016-09-23 12:44:25 (0 comments; 0 reshares; 0 +1s; )Open 

> There’s one song that’s been sampled far more than any other, according to one measure. The website WhoSampled.com, whose audience obsessively tracks what’s sampled, says that a 1960s track called “Amen, Brother” by The Winstons is the most-sampled track in history, and it’s not particularly close. By its count, more than 2,000 songs have sampled a particular drum beat from “Amen, Brother” that’s now known as the Amen Break. As you play the clip below, you can hear the The Winstons’ drummer, G.C. Coleman, play the kick drums, snare drums and cymbals in a funky four-bar pattern.

> But what is it about a 47-year-old, six-second drum solo from a relatively unknown soul band that’s given it musical immortality? The answer involves the invention of two new musical genres, a new piece of technology and a power blackout.

> There’s one song that’s been sampled far more than any other, according to one measure. The website WhoSampled.com, whose audience obsessively tracks what’s sampled, says that a 1960s track called “Amen, Brother” by The Winstons is the most-sampled track in history, and it’s not particularly close. By its count, more than 2,000 songs have sampled a particular drum beat from “Amen, Brother” that’s now known as the Amen Break. As you play the clip below, you can hear the The Winstons’ drummer, G.C. Coleman, play the kick drums, snare drums and cymbals in a funky four-bar pattern.

> But what is it about a 47-year-old, six-second drum solo from a relatively unknown soul band that’s given it musical immortality? The answer involves the invention of two new musical genres, a new piece of technology and a power blackout.___

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2016-09-23 12:37:49 (0 comments; 0 reshares; 1 +1s; )Open 

> Fastbrick Robotics has just released a new animation video of the Hadrian X, Australia’s next generation one-armed brick laying robot.

> The video features a simulation of the Hadrian X commercial prototype which acts like a giant 3D printer to build a house.

> The Hadrian X is being built to do in an hour what would take two human bricklayers almost a day to complete.

> The truck-mounted, fully-automated bricklaying machine can lay up to 1,000 standard bricks an hour from a 30 metre boom.

> “We actually print a house, layer by layer … almost as if it’s growing out of the ground,” says Fastbrick chief technical officer Mark Pivac.

> Fastbrick Robotics has just released a new animation video of the Hadrian X, Australia’s next generation one-armed brick laying robot.

> The video features a simulation of the Hadrian X commercial prototype which acts like a giant 3D printer to build a house.

> The Hadrian X is being built to do in an hour what would take two human bricklayers almost a day to complete.

> The truck-mounted, fully-automated bricklaying machine can lay up to 1,000 standard bricks an hour from a 30 metre boom.

> “We actually print a house, layer by layer … almost as if it’s growing out of the ground,” says Fastbrick chief technical officer Mark Pivac.___

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2016-09-23 12:15:48 (0 comments; 0 reshares; 3 +1s; )Open 

> One of [the first creations of Google Ideas] was a tool called uProxy that allows anyone whose Internet access is censored to bounce their traffic through a friend’s connection outside the firewall; it’s now used in more than 100 countries. Another tool, a Chrome add-on called Password Alert, aims to block phishing by warning people when they’re retyping their Gmail password into a malicious look-­alike site; the company developed it for Syrian activists targeted by government-friendly hackers, but when it proved effective, it was rolled out to all of Google’s users.

> In February, the group was renamed Jigsaw to reflect its focus on building practical products. A program called Montage lets war correspondents and nonprofits crowdsource the analysis of YouTube videos to track conflicts and gather evidence of human rights violations. Another free service called Project Shield usesGoogle’s... more »

> One of [the first creations of Google Ideas] was a tool called uProxy that allows anyone whose Internet access is censored to bounce their traffic through a friend’s connection outside the firewall; it’s now used in more than 100 countries. Another tool, a Chrome add-on called Password Alert, aims to block phishing by warning people when they’re retyping their Gmail password into a malicious look-­alike site; the company developed it for Syrian activists targeted by government-friendly hackers, but when it proved effective, it was rolled out to all of Google’s users.

> In February, the group was renamed Jigsaw to reflect its focus on building practical products. A program called Montage lets war correspondents and nonprofits crowdsource the analysis of YouTube videos to track conflicts and gather evidence of human rights violations. Another free service called Project Shield uses Google’s servers to absorb government-sponsored cyberattacks intended to take down the websites of media, election-­monitoring, and human rights organi­zations. And an initiative, aimed at deradicalizing ISIS recruits, identifies would-be jihadis based on their search terms, then shows them ads redirecting them to videos by former extremists who explain the downsides of joining an ultraviolent, apocalyptic cult. In a pilot project, the anti-ISIS ads were so effective that they were in some cases two to three times more likely to be clicked than typical search advertising campaigns.

> The common thread that binds these projects, Cohen says, is a focus on what he calls “vulnerable populations.” To that end, he gives new hires an assignment: Draw a scrap of paper from a baseball cap filled with the names of the world’s most troubled or repressive countries; track down someone under threat there and talk to them about their life online. Then present their stories to other Jigsaw employees.___

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2016-09-23 12:02:26 (3 comments; 0 reshares; 1 +1s; )Open 

We all have our weak moments. Moments when we know the right thing to do, but are too tired, too afraid, or too frustrated to do it. So we slip up, and do something that we’ll regret.

An algorithm will never slip up in a weak moment. What if we could identify when we are likely to make mistakes, figure out what we’d want to do instead, and then outsource our decisions to a reliable algorithm? In what ways could we use software to make ourselves into better people?

We all have our weak moments. Moments when we know the right thing to do, but are too tired, too afraid, or too frustrated to do it. So we slip up, and do something that we’ll regret.

An algorithm will never slip up in a weak moment. What if we could identify when we are likely to make mistakes, figure out what we’d want to do instead, and then outsource our decisions to a reliable algorithm? In what ways could we use software to make ourselves into better people?___

2016-09-21 14:37:31 (2 comments; 0 reshares; 1 +1s; )Open 

Classifying different global states of consciousness (e.g. normal wakefulness, light sedation, dreaming, hypnosis, etc.) according to where they fit on different dimensions:

> The first of these two dimensions concerns the contents of consciousness. Although global states of consciousness are distinct from local, content-involving states, it is likely that some of the dimensions in terms of which global states can be modelled involve relations to conscious contents. In particular, we suggest that global states differ from each other in terms of how they gate conscious content. Normal waking experience allows for a wide range of contents to enter consciousness. In addition to the ‘low-level’ features of objects such as their colour, motion, texture, pitch, and so on, one can also be conscious of many of their high-level features. We see chairs as chairs, taste coffee as coffee, and hearpol... more »

Classifying different global states of consciousness (e.g. normal wakefulness, light sedation, dreaming, hypnosis, etc.) according to where they fit on different dimensions:

> The first of these two dimensions concerns the contents of consciousness. Although global states of consciousness are distinct from local, content-involving states, it is likely that some of the dimensions in terms of which global states can be modelled involve relations to conscious contents. In particular, we suggest that global states differ from each other in terms of how they gate conscious content. Normal waking experience allows for a wide range of contents to enter consciousness. In addition to the ‘low-level’ features of objects such as their colour, motion, texture, pitch, and so on, one can also be conscious of many of their high-level features. We see chairs as chairs, taste coffee as coffee, and hear police sirens as police sirens; we also have various capacities for conscious thought. However, in many global states the contents of consciousness appear to be gated in various ways, with the result that individuals are able to experience only a restricted range of contents. MCS patients, patients undergoing absence seizures, and mildly sedated individuals can consciously represent the low-level features of objects, but they are typically unable to represent the categories to which perceptual objects belong, nor are they typically able to entertain complex thoughts about them. For example, an MCS patient might be aware of motion, but be unable to recognise the moving object as the kind of object it is.

> Variation in the gating of conscious contents is likely to provide one dimension along which certain global states can be hierarchically organised. For example, one can distinguish post-coma patients who produce no fMRI response to spoken speech from patients who respond to speech more than to other non-speech sounds, and from patients who respond to the meaning of the speech itself [25]. Similarly, at low levels of sedation the awareness of low-level auditory properties of speech is retained but the awareness of high-level semantic properties (such as ambiguity) is lost, whereas the awareness of both low-level and high-level properties is lost at higher levels of sedation [26]. Thus, one can order these patients in terms of a content-based dimension of analysis. [...]

> We turn now to consider [...] the functional dimension. [...] Consciousness is associated with various forms of cognitive and behavioural control. In ordinary waking awareness the contents of consciousness are typically available to guide a wide range of cognitive and behavioural processes, such as those involved in verbal report, intentional agency, attentional control, reasoning, executive processing, memory consolidation, and so on [...] Patients undergoing absence seizures can engage in perceptual-driven motor responses even though their capacities for reasoning, executive processing, and memory consolidation are typically limited [30, 31, 32]. Similarly, mildly sedated patients can engage in some kinds of cognitions and behaviours but not others [33, 34]. [...] The fact that cognitive and behavioural control can fragment in these ways provides us with another dimension – or, perhaps, family of dimensions – for modelling consciousness, for certain cognitive and behavioural capacities are more preserved in some global states of consciousness than others.

> [...] We can now begin to see what an alternative to the level-based conception of global conscious states might look like. The central idea is that global states can be thought of as regions within a multidimensional state space (Figure 1). Although the dimensions of the state space are still unknown, we have suggested that one dimension tracks the gating of contents and another dimension (or family of dimensions) tracks the functional capacities associated with consciousness.___

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2016-09-21 13:20:23 (0 comments; 1 reshares; 1 +1s; )Open 

> > We develop a cultural evolutionary theory of the origins of prosocial religions and apply it to resolve two puzzles in human psychology and cultural history: (1) the rise of large-scale cooperation among strangers and, simultaneously, (2) the spread of prosocial religions in the last 10–12 millennia. We argue that these two developments were importantly linked and mutually energizing. We explain how a package of culturally evolved religious beliefs and practices characterized by increasingly potent, moralizing, supernatural agents, credible displays of faith, and other psychologically active elements conducive to social solidarity promoted high fertility rates and large-scale cooperation with co-religionists, often contributing to success in intergroup competition and conflict. In turn, prosocial religious beliefs and practices spread and aggregated as these successful groups expanded, or werec... more »

> > We develop a cultural evolutionary theory of the origins of prosocial religions and apply it to resolve two puzzles in human psychology and cultural history: (1) the rise of large-scale cooperation among strangers and, simultaneously, (2) the spread of prosocial religions in the last 10–12 millennia. We argue that these two developments were importantly linked and mutually energizing. We explain how a package of culturally evolved religious beliefs and practices characterized by increasingly potent, moralizing, supernatural agents, credible displays of faith, and other psychologically active elements conducive to social solidarity promoted high fertility rates and large-scale cooperation with co-religionists, often contributing to success in intergroup competition and conflict. In turn, prosocial religious beliefs and practices spread and aggregated as these successful groups expanded, or were copied by less successful groups. This synthesis is grounded in the idea that although religious beliefs and practices originally arose as nonadaptive by-products of innate cognitive functions, particular cultural variants were then selected for their prosocial effects in a long-term, cultural evolutionary process. This framework (1) reconciles key aspects of the adaptationist and by-product approaches to the origins of religion, (2) explains a variety of empirical observations that have not received adequate attention, and (3) generates novel predictions. Converging lines of evidence drawn from diverse disciplines provide empirical support while at the same time encouraging new research directions and opening up new questions for exploration and debate.___

2016-09-21 12:42:04 (0 comments; 0 reshares; 1 +1s; )Open 

Huh: "Worldwide there are substantial differences within and between countries in aggression and violence. Although there are various exceptions, a general rule is that aggression and violence increase as one moves closer to the equator, which suggests the important role of climate differences. While this pattern is robust, theoretical explanations for these large differences in aggression and violence within countries and around the world are lacking."

Huh: "Worldwide there are substantial differences within and between countries in aggression and violence. Although there are various exceptions, a general rule is that aggression and violence increase as one moves closer to the equator, which suggests the important role of climate differences. While this pattern is robust, theoretical explanations for these large differences in aggression and violence within countries and around the world are lacking."___

2016-09-20 14:02:21 (2 comments; 0 reshares; 1 +1s; )Open 

> An early and seemingly circular definition of intelligence came from the American psychologist E. G. Boring in 1923, when he stated, “Intelligence is what the tests test". Although this definition is often criticized by detractors of IQ (intelligence quotient)-type tests, it was taken out of context. The apparently dismissive comment came after a summary of strong empirical findings — for example, that the tests showed marked individual differences, that the differences were stable over time, that children developed greater intelligence over time but tended to maintain the same rank order. The sentence immediately following the famous quote was that the famously glib definition “is only the point of departure for a rigorous discussion of the tests.” Boring was simply stating that the psychometric data had to be good and then linked to other evidence about the origins and outcomes ofintelli... more »

> An early and seemingly circular definition of intelligence came from the American psychologist E. G. Boring in 1923, when he stated, “Intelligence is what the tests test". Although this definition is often criticized by detractors of IQ (intelligence quotient)-type tests, it was taken out of context. The apparently dismissive comment came after a summary of strong empirical findings — for example, that the tests showed marked individual differences, that the differences were stable over time, that children developed greater intelligence over time but tended to maintain the same rank order. The sentence immediately following the famous quote was that the famously glib definition “is only the point of departure for a rigorous discussion of the tests.” Boring was simply stating that the psychometric data had to be good and then linked to other evidence about the origins and outcomes of intelligence.

> A broader definition was agreed by 52 prominent researchers on intelligence: “Intelligence is a very general capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience. It is not merely book learning, a narrow academic skill, or test-taking smarts. Rather, it reflects a broader and deeper capability for comprehending our surroundings—‘catching on’, ‘making sense’ of things, or ‘figuring out’ what to do. Intelligence, so defined, can be measured, and intelligence tests measure it well".

> Intelligence tests generally consist of either complex tasks that involve different aspects of reasoning, such as the Ravens Progressive Matrices, or batteries of tasks that require different kinds of cognitive performance, such as providing definitions of words or visualizing three‑dimensional objects from two‑dimensional diagrams. Two properties of these kinds of tests are important. First, all intelligence tests — whether of single, unitary tasks or complex, multi‑faceted tasks — are correlated and tend to generate a strong general factor when applied to a large sample of people. Second, whatever our definition, intelligence should be assessed by its construct validity, meaning the accumulated evidence that the tests measure something of relevance: evidence on practical outcomes of intelligence differences, consistency of psychometric structure, and relationships with biological structures and processes. By that criterion, intelligence is a core and valid facet of individual differences among humans. As this article shows, irrespective of definition and test used, data from brain‑imaging and genetic studies show strong correlates with results from intelligence tests. This provides validity for psychometric intelligence measures, contrary to criticisms that such test scores (often expressed as IQ) are meaningless numbers.

-- Ian J. Deary, Lars Penke and Wendy Johnson (2010) The neuroscience of human intelligence differences. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol. 11, 201-211.___

2016-09-17 05:38:38 (1 comments; 1 reshares; 3 +1s; )Open 

> Although it has never been rigourously demonstrated, there is a common belief that CS grades are bimodal. We statisti- cally analyzed 778 distributions of final course grades from a large research university, and found only 5.8% of the dis- tributions passed tests of multimodality. We then devised a psychology experiment to understand why CS educators believe their grades to be bimodal. We showed 53 CS pro- fessors a series of histograms displaying ambiguous distri- butions and asked them to categorize the distributions. A random half of participants were primed to think about the fact that CS grades are commonly thought to be bimodal; these participants were more likely to label ambiguous dis- tributions as “bimodal”. Participants were also more likely to label distributions as bimodal if they believed that some students are innately predisposed to do better at CS. These results suggest thatbim... more »

More evidence that CS grades are not bimodal after all.___> Although it has never been rigourously demonstrated, there is a common belief that CS grades are bimodal. We statisti- cally analyzed 778 distributions of final course grades from a large research university, and found only 5.8% of the dis- tributions passed tests of multimodality. We then devised a psychology experiment to understand why CS educators believe their grades to be bimodal. We showed 53 CS pro- fessors a series of histograms displaying ambiguous distri- butions and asked them to categorize the distributions. A random half of participants were primed to think about the fact that CS grades are commonly thought to be bimodal; these participants were more likely to label ambiguous dis- tributions as “bimodal”. Participants were also more likely to label distributions as bimodal if they believed that some students are innately predisposed to do better at CS. These results suggest that bimodal grades are instructional folklore in CS, caused by confirmation bias and instructor beliefs about their students.

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2016-09-15 17:30:34 (1 comments; 1 reshares; 2 +1s; )Open 

> Numerous previous approaches towards the digital augmentation of non-digital games have considered dice rolling a menial or tedious computational task to be designed away. We disagree. In this article we argue that the physicality of dice has a positive effect on players’ experience and enjoyment of the game. This occurs through their tangibility, their role as a representational object (situationally, imaginatively and audibly), and through enabling shared experiences. Thus, while digital augmentation of physical games has the potential to make strong contributions to game play experiences, more careful consideration should be given to what might be lost through such efforts.

(via +Tiina Malinen)

> Numerous previous approaches towards the digital augmentation of non-digital games have considered dice rolling a menial or tedious computational task to be designed away. We disagree. In this article we argue that the physicality of dice has a positive effect on players’ experience and enjoyment of the game. This occurs through their tangibility, their role as a representational object (situationally, imaginatively and audibly), and through enabling shared experiences. Thus, while digital augmentation of physical games has the potential to make strong contributions to game play experiences, more careful consideration should be given to what might be lost through such efforts.

(via +Tiina Malinen)___

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2016-09-15 17:30:04 (1 comments; 0 reshares; 3 +1s; )Open 

Interesting point from +Tiina Malinen's Master's thesis: people don't usually think of things like crossword puzzles as "games", even though they are composed of a series of interrelated logical challenges, and so could be thought of as being comparable to adventure games like Monkey Island.

Also, the gamers who were interviewed for the thesis find online multiplayer games to not be very social experiences, and find board games to be much more so. One of them explains that in online games, the social interaction happens very much on the game's terms and is mostly just tied to achieving in-game objectives, whereas around board games there's a lot more social interaction that exists for the sake of the social interaction alone.

Interesting point from +Tiina Malinen's Master's thesis: people don't usually think of things like crossword puzzles as "games", even though they are composed of a series of interrelated logical challenges, and so could be thought of as being comparable to adventure games like Monkey Island.

Also, the gamers who were interviewed for the thesis find online multiplayer games to not be very social experiences, and find board games to be much more so. One of them explains that in online games, the social interaction happens very much on the game's terms and is mostly just tied to achieving in-game objectives, whereas around board games there's a lot more social interaction that exists for the sake of the social interaction alone.___

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2016-09-15 17:29:08 (0 comments; 1 reshares; 3 +1s; )Open 

> As a side note, one of the consequences of all this is that independent contracting requires an emotional capacity. You have to be able, emotionally, to charge (or accept being offered) hourly rates that are way higher than you may be accustomed to thinking your work is worth. That may sound funny – like, who wouldn't be delighted to get a huge raise? But the reality is that a lot of people have an emotional reaction to getting much more money, on an hourly basis, for their work than they think their work is worth. The often feel an anxiety to earn up to (what they think is represented by) the amount of money they are getting. Like, "I only do $x/hr work, but they're paying me $2x/hr, so now I need to do 2x work, but I don't know how to do/am not equipped to do 2x work, aaaaaaaah!"

> You need to not do that to yourself, emotionally. Coolly and cognitively assessingw... more »

> As a side note, one of the consequences of all this is that independent contracting requires an emotional capacity. You have to be able, emotionally, to charge (or accept being offered) hourly rates that are way higher than you may be accustomed to thinking your work is worth. That may sound funny – like, who wouldn't be delighted to get a huge raise? But the reality is that a lot of people have an emotional reaction to getting much more money, on an hourly basis, for their work than they think their work is worth. The often feel an anxiety to earn up to (what they think is represented by) the amount of money they are getting. Like, "I only do $x/hr work, but they're paying me $2x/hr, so now I need to do 2x work, but I don't know how to do/am not equipped to do 2x work, aaaaaaaah!"

> You need to not do that to yourself, emotionally. Coolly and cognitively assessing what your customers – remember, in contracting, they're not bosses, they're customers – will be willing to pay for just what level/amount of work so you can charge all the market will bear is fine and necessary. Freaking yourself out because of your own inner mental payscale: not okay. If you can't accept with aplomb the high level of remuneration that contracting economically requires, maybe contracting is not for you.___

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2016-09-15 17:28:36 (0 comments; 0 reshares; 4 +1s; )Open 

> And you know why I love my wife?

> She doesn’t regret her first marriage.

> She regrets a lot of the things that happened in the marriage – she wouldn’t have divorced him if there weren’t issues, natch. But at the time she met her husband, what she needed was stability to counteract the dysfunctionality of her broken family, and someone who matched her work ethic, and someone who was nicer than her family.

> He was perfect for her when she was twenty.

> But years later, when he wanted a stay-at-home, trophy wife who’d help advance his career and she wanted to be a little goofy and explore life, well, the fights started. And never stopped.

> She’d become something different, and he hadn’t. And that divergence was heartbreaking, but it happens.

> And you know why I love my wife?

> She doesn’t regret her first marriage.

> She regrets a lot of the things that happened in the marriage – she wouldn’t have divorced him if there weren’t issues, natch. But at the time she met her husband, what she needed was stability to counteract the dysfunctionality of her broken family, and someone who matched her work ethic, and someone who was nicer than her family.

> He was perfect for her when she was twenty.

> But years later, when he wanted a stay-at-home, trophy wife who’d help advance his career and she wanted to be a little goofy and explore life, well, the fights started. And never stopped.

> She’d become something different, and he hadn’t. And that divergence was heartbreaking, but it happens.___

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2016-09-15 17:28:01 (0 comments; 0 reshares; 0 +1s; )Open 

Watched "Maybe Logic", about the life and ideas of Robert Anton Wilson. Interestingly, I can get why a lot of people would find him mind-blowing, but my experience was that most of that stuff I already got from Less Wrong and other sources before. Though lately I haven't been thinking in a way that would emphasize those aspects of the nature of reality much, so it was nice to be reminded of them.

Watched "Maybe Logic", about the life and ideas of Robert Anton Wilson. Interestingly, I can get why a lot of people would find him mind-blowing, but my experience was that most of that stuff I already got from Less Wrong and other sources before. Though lately I haven't been thinking in a way that would emphasize those aspects of the nature of reality much, so it was nice to be reminded of them.___

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2016-09-15 17:27:35 (2 comments; 3 reshares; 5 +1s; )Open 

> Write out everything you know about the subject as if you were teaching it to someone else. Not your smart friend but rather a toddler. This may sound silly but this part is incredibly important and has worked wonders for me learning new things.

> When I used to learn new subjects I would explain them with complicated vocabulary and jargon. The problem with this approach is that I was fooling myself. I didn’t know that I didn’t understand. And often, because I was using the right vocabulary, my lack of understanding was obscured from my teachers.

> When you write out the idea from start to finish in simple language that a toddler can understand (tip: use only the most common words) you force yourself to understand the concept and you get a clear understanding of where you might have some gaps. [...]

> ... you will inevitably encounter gaps in your knowledgewhe... more »

> Write out everything you know about the subject as if you were teaching it to someone else. Not your smart friend but rather a toddler. This may sound silly but this part is incredibly important and has worked wonders for me learning new things.

> When I used to learn new subjects I would explain them with complicated vocabulary and jargon. The problem with this approach is that I was fooling myself. I didn’t know that I didn’t understand. And often, because I was using the right vocabulary, my lack of understanding was obscured from my teachers.

> When you write out the idea from start to finish in simple language that a toddler can understand (tip: use only the most common words) you force yourself to understand the concept and you get a clear understanding of where you might have some gaps. [...]

> ... you will inevitably encounter gaps in your knowledge where you’re forgetting something important, not able to explain it, or simply have trouble connecting an important concept. This is valuable feedback and where the learning starts to happen. When you get stuck go back to the source material and re-learn it. For example, if you’ve got a biology test coming up and you’re having problems explaining evolution in simple terms, open up the biology book and start re-reading the section on evolution. Now close the book, take out a new blank piece of paper and explain the sub-idea (in this case evolution) that you were having problems with using the Feynman Technique. Once you can do that return to your original sheet of paper and continue.___

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2016-09-15 17:27:03 (1 comments; 1 reshares; 2 +1s; )Open 

> For thousands of years, men worked the farm or in artisan labor. People worked hard, but most worked from home and set their own hours. According to Joel Mokyr, an economic historian at Northwestern University, it is hard to overstate how traumatic it was as workers shifted from home production to factories.

> Mokyr, whose forthcoming book, A Culture of Growth, describes the industrial revolution’s intellectual origins, explains that factory work was traumatic for men because it required showing up at a particular time, staying a full day, and taking orders from another man. Men frequently had such a hard time giving up their autonomy and dealing with a boss that factories originally employed women and children because they were more docile.

> A generation of men lost work and many never found another job. Traditional artisans couldn’t deal with factory work and therewer... more »

> For thousands of years, men worked the farm or in artisan labor. People worked hard, but most worked from home and set their own hours. According to Joel Mokyr, an economic historian at Northwestern University, it is hard to overstate how traumatic it was as workers shifted from home production to factories.

> Mokyr, whose forthcoming book, A Culture of Growth, describes the industrial revolution’s intellectual origins, explains that factory work was traumatic for men because it required showing up at a particular time, staying a full day, and taking orders from another man. Men frequently had such a hard time giving up their autonomy and dealing with a boss that factories originally employed women and children because they were more docile.

> A generation of men lost work and many never found another job. Traditional artisans couldn’t deal with factory work and there were fewer jobs because machines were more productive. It was a messy transition that played out over more than 100 years and sparked Marxism. Factory owners took proactive steps to make it work. They set up schools for children and made education available to the masses. But their intention was not to increase literacy. The schools existed largely to condition the next generation to work a full day and take orders.___

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2016-09-15 17:26:36 (3 comments; 1 reshares; 3 +1s; )Open 

> Over the past year or two, someone has been probing the defenses of the companies that run critical pieces of the Internet. These probes take the form of precisely calibrated attacks designed to determine exactly how well these companies can defend themselves, and what would be required to take them down. We don't know who is doing this, but it feels like a large a large nation state. China or Russia would be my first guesses. [...]

> ...some of the major companies that provide the basic infrastructure that makes the Internet work have seen an increase in DDoS attacks against them. Moreover, they have seen a certain profile of attacks. These attacks are significantly larger than the ones they're used to seeing. They last longer. They're more sophisticated. And they look like probing. One week, the attack would start at a particular level of attack and slowly ramp up before... more »

> Over the past year or two, someone has been probing the defenses of the companies that run critical pieces of the Internet. These probes take the form of precisely calibrated attacks designed to determine exactly how well these companies can defend themselves, and what would be required to take them down. We don't know who is doing this, but it feels like a large a large nation state. China or Russia would be my first guesses. [...]

> ...some of the major companies that provide the basic infrastructure that makes the Internet work have seen an increase in DDoS attacks against them. Moreover, they have seen a certain profile of attacks. These attacks are significantly larger than the ones they're used to seeing. They last longer. They're more sophisticated. And they look like probing. One week, the attack would start at a particular level of attack and slowly ramp up before stopping. The next week, it would start at that higher point and continue. And so on, along those lines, as if the attacker were looking for the exact point of failure.

> The attacks are also configured in such a way as to see what the company's total defenses are. There are many different ways to launch a DDoS attacks. The more attack vectors you employ simultaneously, the more different defenses the defender has to counter with. These companies are seeing more attacks using three or four different vectors. This means that the companies have to use everything they've got to defend themselves. They can't hold anything back. They're forced to demonstrate their defense capabilities for the attacker.___

2016-09-15 17:25:46 (1 comments; 0 reshares; 1 +1s; )Open 

> Tynan's Rimworld has drawn a lot of comparisons to Tarn Adams' Dwarf Fortress, and it's not hard to see why [...] However, the biggest difference between the two lies in their separate paradigms of what constitutes difficulty and fun. To put it simply, in Rimworld, the player is constantly reacting against events generated by the game, whereas in Dwarf Fortress the world is reacting against events the player sets into motion. This is, of course, a very simplified view and exceptions can be easily found in both games, but the crux of the matter is in how each of these games deals with randomness, and what role it serves. [...]

> Rimworld is balanced around that core loop of the AI storyteller and the player's efforts in reacting to threats thrown their way. But this means that the game is set around a reactive model of play, whereas Dwarf Fortress' lack of concern with... more »

> Tynan's Rimworld has drawn a lot of comparisons to Tarn Adams' Dwarf Fortress, and it's not hard to see why [...] However, the biggest difference between the two lies in their separate paradigms of what constitutes difficulty and fun. To put it simply, in Rimworld, the player is constantly reacting against events generated by the game, whereas in Dwarf Fortress the world is reacting against events the player sets into motion. This is, of course, a very simplified view and exceptions can be easily found in both games, but the crux of the matter is in how each of these games deals with randomness, and what role it serves. [...]

> Rimworld is balanced around that core loop of the AI storyteller and the player's efforts in reacting to threats thrown their way. But this means that the game is set around a reactive model of play, whereas Dwarf Fortress' lack of concern with providing escalating challenges means that play must be active, because there is little to react to. The difficulty in Dwarf Fortress comes in managing multiple interrelated production chains, not in escalating threat. Rimworld, at its core, is all about making sure threats escalate. I am not trying to argue that one is necessarily superior over the other, but to say that these are, in the end, games that have converged on similar mechanics and interactions, beginning from very different foundations.___

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2016-09-15 17:25:20 (0 comments; 0 reshares; 3 +1s; )Open 

<3

<3___

2016-09-15 17:25:03 (0 comments; 0 reshares; 3 +1s; )Open 

"No plan survives contact with the toddler"

"No plan survives contact with the toddler"___

2016-09-15 17:24:54 (0 comments; 0 reshares; 3 +1s; )Open 

Whenever Steam tells me that an item on my wishlist is on sale, I realize that "games on my wishlist" actually means "games that seem mildly interesting but not actually interesting enough that I'd bother playing or buying them".

Whenever Steam tells me that an item on my wishlist is on sale, I realize that "games on my wishlist" actually means "games that seem mildly interesting but not actually interesting enough that I'd bother playing or buying them".___

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2016-09-15 17:24:40 (2 comments; 1 reshares; 3 +1s; )Open 

> Corlett, Frith & Fletcher (2009) (henceforth CFF) expand on this idea and speculate on the biochemical substrates of each part of the process. They view perception as a “handshake” between top-down and bottom-up processing. Top-down models predict what we’re going to see, bottom-up models perceive the real world, then they meet in the middle and compare notes to calculate a prediction error. When the prediction error is low enough, it gets smoothed over into a consensus view of reality. When the prediction error is too high, it registers as salience/surprise, and we focus our attention on the stimulus involved to try to reconcile the models. If it turns out that bottom-up was right and top-down was wrong, then we adjust our priors (ie the models used by the top-down systems) and so learning occurs.

> In their model, bottom-up sensory processing involves glutamate via the AMPArecep... more »

> Corlett, Frith & Fletcher (2009) (henceforth CFF) expand on this idea and speculate on the biochemical substrates of each part of the process. They view perception as a “handshake” between top-down and bottom-up processing. Top-down models predict what we’re going to see, bottom-up models perceive the real world, then they meet in the middle and compare notes to calculate a prediction error. When the prediction error is low enough, it gets smoothed over into a consensus view of reality. When the prediction error is too high, it registers as salience/surprise, and we focus our attention on the stimulus involved to try to reconcile the models. If it turns out that bottom-up was right and top-down was wrong, then we adjust our priors (ie the models used by the top-down systems) and so learning occurs.

> In their model, bottom-up sensory processing involves glutamate via the AMPA receptor, and top-down sensory processing involves glutamate via the NMDA receptor. Dopamine codes for prediction error, and seem to represent the level of certainty or the “confidence interval” of a given prediction or perception. Serotonin, acetylcholine, and the others seem to modulate these systems, where “modulate” is a generic neuroscientist weasel word. They provide a lot of neurological and radiologic evidence for these correspondences, for which I highly recommend reading the paper but which I’m not going to get into here. What I found interesting was their attempts to match this system to known pharmacological and psychological processes.

> CFF discuss a couple of possible disruptions of their system. Consider increased AMPA signaling combined with decreased NMDA signaling. Bottom-up processing would become more powerful, unrestrained by top-down models. The world would seem to become “noisier”, as sensory inputs took on a life of their own and failed to snap into existing categories. In extreme cases, the “handshake” between exuberant bottom-up processes and overly timid top-down processes would fail completely, which would take the form of the sudden assignment of salience to a random stimulus.

> Schizophrenics are famous for “delusions of reference”, where they think a random object or phrase is deeply important for reasons they have trouble explaining. [...] In CFF, these are perceptual handshake failures; even though “there’s a story about the economy in today’s newspaper” should be perfectly predictable, noisy AMPA signaling registers it as an extreme prediction failure, and it fails its perceptual handshake with overly-weak priors. Then it gets flagged as shocking and deeply important. If you’re unlucky enough to have your brain flag a random newspaper article as shocking and deeply important, maybe phenomenologically that feels like it’s a secret message for you.___

2016-09-15 17:23:52 (0 comments; 1 reshares; 2 +1s; )Open 

> How do you know if a person is lying? If you’re like most people, your first response will be something like “Liars don’t make eye contact.”In a survey of 2,520 adults in sixty-three countries, 70 percent of respondents gave that answer. People also tend to list other allegedly telltale signs of lying, such as fidgeting, nervousness, and rambling. In an interview with the New York Times, psychologist Charles Bond, who studies deception, said the stereotype of what liars do “would be less puzzling if we had more reason to imagine that it was true.” It turns out that there’s no “Pinocchio effect,” no single nonverbal cue that will betray a liar. Judging a person’s honesty is not about identifying one stereotypical “reveal,”such as fidgeting or averted eyes. Rather, it’s about how well or poorly our multiple channels of communication —facial expressions, posture, movement,vocal qualities, speech —co... more »

> How do you know if a person is lying? If you’re like most people, your first response will be something like “Liars don’t make eye contact.”In a survey of 2,520 adults in sixty-three countries, 70 percent of respondents gave that answer. People also tend to list other allegedly telltale signs of lying, such as fidgeting, nervousness, and rambling. In an interview with the New York Times, psychologist Charles Bond, who studies deception, said the stereotype of what liars do “would be less puzzling if we had more reason to imagine that it was true.” It turns out that there’s no “Pinocchio effect,” no single nonverbal cue that will betray a liar. Judging a person’s honesty is not about identifying one stereotypical “reveal,”such as fidgeting or averted eyes. Rather, it’s about how well or poorly our multiple channels of communication —facial expressions, posture, movement, vocal qualities, speech —cooperate.

> When we are being inauthentic —projecting a false emotion or covering a real one —our nonverbal and verbal behaviors begin to misalign. Our facial expressions don’t match the words we’re saying. Our postures are out of sync with our voices. They no longer move in harmony with each other; they disintegrate into cacophony.

-- Amy Cuddey, Presence: Bringing Your Boldest Self to Your Greatest Challenges___

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2016-09-15 06:45:50 (2 comments; 4 reshares; 8 +1s; )Open 

___

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2016-09-14 20:50:16 (0 comments; 1 reshares; 1 +1s; )Open 

WHOA. I was the most impressed with the part where the user just sketched some outlines, and the software generated fitting images on the fly. Doing visual art is going to get a lot easier?

I don't know if this is all that important or useful, or like neural net style, it's more of a 'dumb NN tricks' but I still find this hilarious:

https://people.eecs.berkeley.edu/~junyanz/projects/gvm/___WHOA. I was the most impressed with the part where the user just sketched some outlines, and the software generated fitting images on the fly. Doing visual art is going to get a lot easier?

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2016-09-10 17:05:28 (12 comments; 0 reshares; 2 +1s; )Open 

Given that I've mostly known about 'cultural appropriation' from people making fun of the whole idea, I was happy to run across a discussion of it that made the concept make sense:

> “Borrowing” is a key component of cultural appropriation. In the 1950s, white musicians borrowed the musical stylings of their black counterparts. Because African Americans weren’t widely accepted in U.S. society at that time, record executives chose to have white recording artists replicate the sound of black musicians. This led to musical forms such as rock-n-roll being largely associated with whites in spite of the fact that black musicians were pioneers of the art form. This move also had financial consequences, as many of the black musicians who helped pave the way for rock-n-roll’s success never saw a dime for their contributions to the music. [...]

> Cultural appropriationremains... more »

Given that I've mostly known about 'cultural appropriation' from people making fun of the whole idea, I was happy to run across a discussion of it that made the concept make sense:

> “Borrowing” is a key component of cultural appropriation. In the 1950s, white musicians borrowed the musical stylings of their black counterparts. Because African Americans weren’t widely accepted in U.S. society at that time, record executives chose to have white recording artists replicate the sound of black musicians. This led to musical forms such as rock-n-roll being largely associated with whites in spite of the fact that black musicians were pioneers of the art form. This move also had financial consequences, as many of the black musicians who helped pave the way for rock-n-roll’s success never saw a dime for their contributions to the music. [...]

> Cultural appropriation remains a concern for a variety of reasons. For one, this sort of “borrowing” is exploitative because it robs minority groups of the credit they deserve. Art and music forms that originated with minority groups come to be associated with members of the dominant group. As a result, the dominant group is deemed innovative and edgy, while the disadvantaged groups they “borrow” from continue to face negative stereotypes that imply they’re lacking in intelligence and creativity. In addition, when members of a dominant group appropriate the cultures of others, they often reinforce stereotypes about minority groups.

> When singer Katy Perry performed as a geisha at the American Music Awards in November 2013, she described it as an homage to Asian culture. Asian Americans disagreed with this assessment, declaring her performance “yellowface.” The Wall Street Journal’s Jeff Yang said that her performance did not celebrate Asian culture but misrepresented it entirely. He found it particularly problematic that Perry dressed as a geisha to perform the song “Unconditonally,” which describes a woman who pledges to love her man no matter what.

> “The thing is, while a bucket of toner can strip the geisha makeup off of Perry’s face, nothing can remove the demeaning and harmful iconography of the lotus blossom from the West’s perception of Asian women — a stereotype that presents them as servile, passive,” Yang wrote, “and as Perry would have it, ‘unconditional’ worshippers of their men, willing to pay any price and weather any kind of abuse in order to keep him happy.”___

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2016-09-10 15:30:47 (0 comments; 0 reshares; 0 +1s; )Open 

CW: abuse, self-harm

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> Clyde never thought he'd be capable of abusing patients, until the horrifying reality of his job peeled his soul away with a rusty knife.

> "Many of our residents were severely retarded," Clyde says. "One even gouged his eyes out with forks and just had cavernous holes in his head ... You start out wanting to make a difference, but after cleaning up the bedroom of a guy who digs shit out of his ass and flings it at the walls, smears it on the floor, and then grabs you and gets shit on you, you get pissed ... You might walk into the bathroom to find that someone with hepatitis ripped his scrotum open with his fingernails and then wiped his blood on the walls and the toilet, and you have to clean it up by yourself."

> We all know that the more shit you have to deal with, the... more »

CW: abuse, self-harm

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> Clyde never thought he'd be capable of abusing patients, until the horrifying reality of his job peeled his soul away with a rusty knife.

> "Many of our residents were severely retarded," Clyde says. "One even gouged his eyes out with forks and just had cavernous holes in his head ... You start out wanting to make a difference, but after cleaning up the bedroom of a guy who digs shit out of his ass and flings it at the walls, smears it on the floor, and then grabs you and gets shit on you, you get pissed ... You might walk into the bathroom to find that someone with hepatitis ripped his scrotum open with his fingernails and then wiped his blood on the walls and the toilet, and you have to clean it up by yourself."

> We all know that the more shit you have to deal with, the shittier you eventually become. It's the "you are what you eat" rule. And no one deals with more shit, literal or otherwise, than mental hospital employees. "Staff grows to hate the people they're taking care of, and eventually have no problem beating the shit out of someone for wanting a second glass of water or wanting to go outside when the staff didn't feel like going with them."___

2016-09-10 14:15:15 (1 comments; 0 reshares; 7 +1s; )Open 

> What's the difference between a hippo and a Zippo?

> One is really heavy, the other is a little lighter

> What's the difference between a hippo and a Zippo?

> One is really heavy, the other is a little lighter___

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2016-09-10 13:46:09 (1 comments; 0 reshares; 0 +1s; )Open 

Interesting: I've previously mentioned that getting sufficient sleep has an impact on my mood that's on the same order of magnitude as my antidepressants. Possibly that's very literally true, in that insufficient sleep actively blocks the effect of antidepressants. Though I'm not sure if this study is capable of distinguishing between "insufficient sleep blocks antidepressant effects" and "insufficient sleeps causes additional depression, causing to a reduced overall effect even though the antidepressants work fine":

> In the new U-M study published in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 68 adults were assigned to spend either six or eight hours in bed each night during their first two weeks on the antidepressant fluoxetine. [...]

> ...the group who spent the full eight hours in bed each night showed greater improvements on all fronts. The... more »

Interesting: I've previously mentioned that getting sufficient sleep has an impact on my mood that's on the same order of magnitude as my antidepressants. Possibly that's very literally true, in that insufficient sleep actively blocks the effect of antidepressants. Though I'm not sure if this study is capable of distinguishing between "insufficient sleep blocks antidepressant effects" and "insufficient sleeps causes additional depression, causing to a reduced overall effect even though the antidepressants work fine":

> In the new U-M study published in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 68 adults were assigned to spend either six or eight hours in bed each night during their first two weeks on the antidepressant fluoxetine. [...]

> ...the group who spent the full eight hours in bed each night showed greater improvements on all fronts. The subjects were almost twice as likely to achieve symptom remission after the full eight weeks of antidepressant treatment–63 percent compared with 33 percent in the six-hour group. They also experienced a faster response to treatment.

> “This is the first study to demonstrate that adequate sleep might accelerate and augment antidepressant treatment response,” Arnedt says, “but more research is necessary.”___

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2016-09-10 10:19:45 (0 comments; 3 reshares; 6 +1s; )Open 

Neat: how to use a regular expression to check if a number is a prime.

Neat: how to use a regular expression to check if a number is a prime.___

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2016-09-09 13:30:37 (1 comments; 5 reshares; 11 +1s; )Open 

> This post presents WaveNet, a deep generative model of raw audio waveforms. We show that WaveNets are able to generate speech which mimics any human voice and which sounds more natural than the best existing Text-to-Speech systems, reducing the gap with human performance by over 50%.

> We also demonstrate that the same network can be used to synthesize other audio signals such as music, and present some striking samples of automatically generated piano pieces.

> This post presents WaveNet, a deep generative model of raw audio waveforms. We show that WaveNets are able to generate speech which mimics any human voice and which sounds more natural than the best existing Text-to-Speech systems, reducing the gap with human performance by over 50%.

> We also demonstrate that the same network can be used to synthesize other audio signals such as music, and present some striking samples of automatically generated piano pieces.___

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2016-09-09 13:28:59 (2 comments; 3 reshares; 14 +1s; )Open 

> > Several years went by before the public grasped what the Wrights were doing; people were so convinced that flying was impossible that most of those who saw them flying about Dayton [Ohio] in 1905 decided that what they had seen must be some trick without significance – somewhat as most people today would regard a demonstration of, say, telepathy. It was not until May, 1908 – nearly four and a half years after the Wright’s first flight – that experienced reporters were sent to observe what they were doing, experienced editors gave full credence to these reporters’ excited dispatches, and the world at last woke up to the fact that human flight had been successfully accomplished.

> The Wrights’ story shows something more common than we realize: There’s often a big gap between changing the world and convincing people that you changed the world.

> > Several years went by before the public grasped what the Wrights were doing; people were so convinced that flying was impossible that most of those who saw them flying about Dayton [Ohio] in 1905 decided that what they had seen must be some trick without significance – somewhat as most people today would regard a demonstration of, say, telepathy. It was not until May, 1908 – nearly four and a half years after the Wright’s first flight – that experienced reporters were sent to observe what they were doing, experienced editors gave full credence to these reporters’ excited dispatches, and the world at last woke up to the fact that human flight had been successfully accomplished.

> The Wrights’ story shows something more common than we realize: There’s often a big gap between changing the world and convincing people that you changed the world.___

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2016-09-09 13:28:25 (2 comments; 8 reshares; 64 +1s; )Open 

"A Russian cement company is building Game of Thrones's Winterfell with a 3D printer just because it can"

"A Russian cement company is building Game of Thrones's Winterfell with a 3D printer just because it can"___

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2016-09-09 13:27:31 (2 comments; 0 reshares; 1 +1s; )Open 

> Some effective altruists assume that most of the expected impact of our actions comes from how we influence the very long-term future of Earth-originating intelligence over the coming ~billions of years. According to this view, helping humans and animals in the short term matters, but it mainly only matters via effects on far-future outcomes.

> There are a number of heuristic reasons to be skeptical of the view that the far future astronomically dominates the short term. This piece zooms in on what I see as perhaps the strongest concrete (rather than heuristic) argument why short-term impacts may matter a lot more than is naively assumed. In particular, there's a non-trivial chance that most of the copies of ourselves are instantiated in relatively short-lived simulations run by superintelligent civilizations, and if so, when we act to help others in the short run, our good deeds are... more »

> Some effective altruists assume that most of the expected impact of our actions comes from how we influence the very long-term future of Earth-originating intelligence over the coming ~billions of years. According to this view, helping humans and animals in the short term matters, but it mainly only matters via effects on far-future outcomes.

> There are a number of heuristic reasons to be skeptical of the view that the far future astronomically dominates the short term. This piece zooms in on what I see as perhaps the strongest concrete (rather than heuristic) argument why short-term impacts may matter a lot more than is naively assumed. In particular, there's a non-trivial chance that most of the copies of ourselves are instantiated in relatively short-lived simulations run by superintelligent civilizations, and if so, when we act to help others in the short run, our good deeds are duplicated many times over. Notably, this reasoning dramatically upshifts the relative importance of short-term helping even if there's only a small chance that Nick Bostrom's basic simulation argument is correct.

> My thesis doesn't prove that short-term helping is more important than targeting the far future, and indeed, a plausible rough calculation suggests that targeting the far future is still several orders of magnitude more important. But my argument does leave open uncertainty regarding the short-term-vs.-far-future question and highlights the value of further research on this matter.___

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2016-09-09 13:26:56 (0 comments; 0 reshares; 1 +1s; )Open 

Cool: the headphone jack is essentially a 138-year-old technology.

> Though you may not realize it, the 3.5-millimeter stereo miniplug on the end of your earbuds holds a direct link to the 1/4-inch phone plugs used in ancient switchboards, which date back deep into the 19th century. Since then, only two major innovations have changed the plug: the advent of stereo and miniature versions. [...]

> The jack has also made it possible to plug your phone into equipment that predated computer chips and integrated circuits. Even today, many headphone manufacturers still bundle a 1/4-inch adapter so you can plug directly into a Hi-Fi receiver if you, like many millennials, still love the cracks and pops of vinyl grooves.

> All this legacy has had some interesting results for consumers. Though there are dozens of hot new headphones in the $150 range, gadget review site The... more »

Cool: the headphone jack is essentially a 138-year-old technology.

> Though you may not realize it, the 3.5-millimeter stereo miniplug on the end of your earbuds holds a direct link to the 1/4-inch phone plugs used in ancient switchboards, which date back deep into the 19th century. Since then, only two major innovations have changed the plug: the advent of stereo and miniature versions. [...]

> The jack has also made it possible to plug your phone into equipment that predated computer chips and integrated circuits. Even today, many headphone manufacturers still bundle a 1/4-inch adapter so you can plug directly into a Hi-Fi receiver if you, like many millennials, still love the cracks and pops of vinyl grooves.

> All this legacy has had some interesting results for consumers. Though there are dozens of hot new headphones in the $150 range, gadget review site The Wirecutter still lists the Sony MDR-7506 as its top pick in the over-ear category. You may not know them or their popular sibling, the V6, by their less-than catchy names, but you have most likely seen them before, and as far back as 1985. You’d be hard-pressed to think of that many electronics whose performance has topped the charts for more than 35 years.___

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2016-09-09 13:26:04 (6 comments; 1 reshares; 12 +1s; )Open 

> This episode should’ve never worked. It was a one-off, inconsequential story about characters we’ve never seen before nor would ever see again. It had no battles, no enemies, no star trekking of any kind. And yet, “The Inner Light” from Star Trek: The Next Generation lives on; not just as one of the best episodes of Star Trek, but as one of the finest pieces of modern television. And I’m not the only one who thinks so.

> We talked to writer Morgan Gendel, and stars Margot Rose and Daniel Stewart (Patrick Stewart’s real-life son) about the episode, which not only tops most Star Trek best episode lists, but also won the 1993 Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, the first television show to do so since Star Trek: The Original Series won for “The City on the Edge of Forever.”

> This episode should’ve never worked. It was a one-off, inconsequential story about characters we’ve never seen before nor would ever see again. It had no battles, no enemies, no star trekking of any kind. And yet, “The Inner Light” from Star Trek: The Next Generation lives on; not just as one of the best episodes of Star Trek, but as one of the finest pieces of modern television. And I’m not the only one who thinks so.

> We talked to writer Morgan Gendel, and stars Margot Rose and Daniel Stewart (Patrick Stewart’s real-life son) about the episode, which not only tops most Star Trek best episode lists, but also won the 1993 Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, the first television show to do so since Star Trek: The Original Series won for “The City on the Edge of Forever.”___

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2016-09-09 13:25:00 (0 comments; 1 reshares; 3 +1s; )Open 

> I'm curious how many episodes throughout Star Trek, from an in-universe perspective, either didn't happen or may as well not have happened, as in [...] All the events are forgotten (like in Voyager's "Unforgettable") [...] Events are erased from the timeline (like that time loop episode in The Next Generation where Data sends the number 3 into the next loop) [...] Events actually happened to duplicates of the main characters (like the Voyager episode on a duplicate ship)

According to one count, 16 of them (1 TOS, 1 TOS:AS, 6 TNG, 1 DS9, 6 VOY, 1 ENT)

> I'm curious how many episodes throughout Star Trek, from an in-universe perspective, either didn't happen or may as well not have happened, as in [...] All the events are forgotten (like in Voyager's "Unforgettable") [...] Events are erased from the timeline (like that time loop episode in The Next Generation where Data sends the number 3 into the next loop) [...] Events actually happened to duplicates of the main characters (like the Voyager episode on a duplicate ship)

According to one count, 16 of them (1 TOS, 1 TOS:AS, 6 TNG, 1 DS9, 6 VOY, 1 ENT)___

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2016-09-07 16:36:31 (1 comments; 0 reshares; 2 +1s; )Open 

> On a summer day in 1968, professor Julian Stanley met a brilliant but bored 12-year-old named Joseph Bates. The Baltimore student was so far ahead of his classmates in mathematics that his parents had arranged for him to take a computer-science course at Johns Hopkins University, where Stanley taught. Even that wasn't enough. Having leapfrogged ahead of the adults in the class, the child kept himself busy by teaching the FORTRAN programming language to graduate students. [...] Stanley convinced a dean at Johns Hopkins to let Bates, then 13, enrol as an undergraduate.

> Stanley would affectionately refer to Bates as “student zero” of his Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY), which would transform how gifted children are identified and supported by the US education system. As the longest-running current longitudinal survey of intellectually talented children, SMPY has for45 ... more »

SMPY___> On a summer day in 1968, professor Julian Stanley met a brilliant but bored 12-year-old named Joseph Bates. The Baltimore student was so far ahead of his classmates in mathematics that his parents had arranged for him to take a computer-science course at Johns Hopkins University, where Stanley taught. Even that wasn't enough. Having leapfrogged ahead of the adults in the class, the child kept himself busy by teaching the FORTRAN programming language to graduate students. [...] Stanley convinced a dean at Johns Hopkins to let Bates, then 13, enrol as an undergraduate.

> Stanley would affectionately refer to Bates as “student zero” of his Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY), which would transform how gifted children are identified and supported by the US education system. As the longest-running current longitudinal survey of intellectually talented children, SMPY has for 45 years tracked the careers and accomplishments of some 5,000 individuals, many of whom have gone on to become high-achieving scientists. The study's ever-growing data set has generated more than 400 papers and several books, and provided key insights into how to spot and develop talent in science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM) and beyond. [...]

> With the first SMPY recruits now at the peak of their careers, what has become clear is how much the precociously gifted outweigh the rest of society in their influence. Many of the innovators who are advancing science, technology and culture are those whose unique cognitive abilities were identified and supported in their early years through enrichment programmes such as Johns Hopkins University's Center for Talented Youth—which Stanley began in the 1980s as an adjunct to SMPY. At the start, both the study and the centre were open to young adolescents who scored in the top 1% on university entrance exams.Pioneering mathematicians Terence Tao and Lenhard Ng were one-percenters, as were Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg, Google co-founder Sergey Brin and musician Stefani Germanotta (Lady Gaga), who all passed through the Hopkins centre.

> “Whether we like it or not, these people really do control our society,” says Jonathan Wai, a psychologist at the Duke University Talent Identification Program in Durham, North Carolina, which collaborates with the Hopkins centre. Wai combined data from 11 prospective and retrospective longitudinal studies, including SMPY, to demonstrate the correlation between early cognitive ability and adult achievement. “The kids who test in the top 1% tend to become our eminent scientists and academics, our Fortune 500 CEOs and federal judges, senators and billionaires,” he says.

2016-09-06 16:43:50 (1 comments; 2 reshares; 0 +1s; )Open 

> When I say that mnemonics has changed my understanding of learning, I mean that these deeper mnemonic principles have seeped into every educational thought I ever have. Any time I notice myself struggling even the slightest bit while trying to learn something - be it a skill or the point of a philosophical argument - I automatically reach for the structure and significance of the information, and try to express it in concrete, emotional, multi-sensory, vivid, dynamic, engaging, and story-like terms - just as if I had dropped a link.

> For example, I was just reading about control theory, when I came upon this sentence in the fourth paragraph... 

> When I say that mnemonics has changed my understanding of learning, I mean that these deeper mnemonic principles have seeped into every educational thought I ever have. Any time I notice myself struggling even the slightest bit while trying to learn something - be it a skill or the point of a philosophical argument - I automatically reach for the structure and significance of the information, and try to express it in concrete, emotional, multi-sensory, vivid, dynamic, engaging, and story-like terms - just as if I had dropped a link.

> For example, I was just reading about control theory, when I came upon this sentence in the fourth paragraph... ___

2016-09-06 08:56:02 (1 comments; 3 reshares; 2 +1s; )Open 

> ...we examine empirical findings from a relatively new field of study: visual ensembles and summary statistics [19]. The key idea here is that the visual system exploits the redundancy found in real-world scenes to represent a large amount of information, often extending into the visual periphery, as a single summary statistic [20]. Critically, standard models of attention and working memory largely ignore ensemble representations, focusing instead on the representation of individual items [21–25]. Once ensembles and summary statistics are taken into consideration, it quickly becomes clear that observers have access to different aspects of the entire field of view, not just a handful of items.

> In addition, we also discuss the idea that neural structures within the visual system involved in representing visual scenes and ensemble statistics [26,27] comprise a unique neural channelt... more »

"What is the bandwidth of perceptual experience?", Cohen et al 2016: humans don't perceive scenes, they perceive high-level abstract summary statistics of scenes, accounting for their poor performance on arbitrary information recollection & change blindness to changes in visual appearance which are not reflected in the high-level summaries.___> ...we examine empirical findings from a relatively new field of study: visual ensembles and summary statistics [19]. The key idea here is that the visual system exploits the redundancy found in real-world scenes to represent a large amount of information, often extending into the visual periphery, as a single summary statistic [20]. Critically, standard models of attention and working memory largely ignore ensemble representations, focusing instead on the representation of individual items [21–25]. Once ensembles and summary statistics are taken into consideration, it quickly becomes clear that observers have access to different aspects of the entire field of view, not just a handful of items.

> In addition, we also discuss the idea that neural structures within the visual system involved in representing visual scenes and ensemble statistics [26,27] comprise a unique neural channel that is partially separate from other processing channels [28,29]. These results suggest that the visual system is functionally organized to allow for scene and ensemble representations to be efficiently formed somewhat independently of other object representations. In other words, there appear to be separate neural pathways for representing the forest and the trees.

> Together, these findings help reconcile the apparent tension between our subjective impression of a rich visual world and empirical results highlighting the limits of visual cognition. We argue that the apparent richness of visual experience can be captured without having to dissociate consciousness from higher-level cognitive functions and without arguing that visual awareness overflows cognitive access.

2016-09-06 08:55:33 (0 comments; 0 reshares; 0 +1s; )Open 

"Deep Neural Networks for YouTube Recommendations", Covington et al 2016:

"YouTube represents one of the largest scale and most sophisticated industrial recommendation systems in existence. In this paper, we describe the system at a high level and focus on the dramatic performance improvements brought by deep learning. The paper is split according to the classic two-stage information retrieval dichotomy: first, we detail a deep candidate generation model and then describe a separate deep ranking model. We also provide practical lessons and insights derived from designing, iterating and maintaining a massive recommendation system with enormous user-facing impact."

Deep learning at serious scale.

"Deep Neural Networks for YouTube Recommendations", Covington et al 2016:

"YouTube represents one of the largest scale and most sophisticated industrial recommendation systems in existence. In this paper, we describe the system at a high level and focus on the dramatic performance improvements brought by deep learning. The paper is split according to the classic two-stage information retrieval dichotomy: first, we detail a deep candidate generation model and then describe a separate deep ranking model. We also provide practical lessons and insights derived from designing, iterating and maintaining a massive recommendation system with enormous user-facing impact."

Deep learning at serious scale.___

2016-09-04 13:07:45 (1 comments; 0 reshares; 2 +1s; )Open 

How long until "making voice calls was the original reason for having phones" (as opposed to the calling feature being just one app among many on what's a general-purpose computing device) ceases to be common knowledge among young people?

How long until "making voice calls was the original reason for having phones" (as opposed to the calling feature being just one app among many on what's a general-purpose computing device) ceases to be common knowledge among young people?___

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