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Kenneth McCormack has been at 8 events

HostFollowersTitleDateGuestsLinks
Larry Fournillier1,368,266In this exciting episode of *Food Stories*, my favorite G+ couple,@101888088652157354149 and @117875987563872032638  will be cooking and serving up a tasty Belgian dish, *Stoverij* *_(Carbonnade Flamande)_*.  This is a traditional Belgian sweet-sour beef and onion stew made with *beer*, and seasoned with *thyme, bay-leaf and mustard*. Mushrooms or spiced bread can also be added. In addition, George and Marilyn has a fascinating story behind this dish and I can’t wait for them to share it.  Meanwhile, check out *George's recipe* here:  http://goo.gl/s4okuq  So join us on *Sunday 15th, March at 1:00PM(PDT), 4:00PM(EDT & AST)* for another fun-filled and *_must see_* HOA.  I will have a special guest join us in Marilyn and George's kitchen :) *Reminder*: Don't forget to bring along your favorite *food and drink*. #belgianbeefstew   #foodstories   #hoa   #hangoutsonair   #STOVERIJ   #larryfournillier  Food Stories | Stoverij (Flemish Beef Stew) S02E052015-03-15 21:00:0071  
Eric Enge21,834This week on the #DMEShow  @104858643838035519891 and @108493275257625053433 and I will chat about Pinterest and G+ and how to leverage them together. The show airs at 5 PM EDT on Thursday May 29th.  Just say yes to get access to the video for live or later viewing.  I will also share the video here for mobile users. Please help us by inviting others or sharing the event!Pinterest and Google Plus: Two Peas in a Pod2014-05-29 23:00:23205  
Lisa Engles5,579*Link to the program mentioned in this hangout www.hangoutsforvisionaryleaders.com/program* *Coaches, Authors and Speakers: Go From Ground Zero to Hangout Hero* Have you spent a lot of time, energy and money spinning your wheels, trying to spread your message and build your audience using social media marketing, but haven’t seen the results that you hoped for?  Do you feel disconnected from the very people you want to reach?  Well, you’re not alone.  In fact, most heart-centered entrepreneurs and visionary leaders that I talk to all say the same thing: " I feel disconnected from the people I want to reach"  and : “I don’t like using social media, but I know I’m supposed to.”  And less than a year ago, I was one of them. ​I was frustrated because there was something about social media that didn’t feel right to me.  I was very resistant to using it.  It felt useless to me because honestly, I was a small fish in a big pond of thousands of 'experts' who were using all types of tactics that felt pushy and in your face. If that's what I needed to do to get seen and get clients, then no thanks.  It's just not who I am. Then one day, I had an ‘ah-ha” moment.  I realized that the reason I was feeling so much resistance was because at the core of who I am and what I do as a coach, author and speaker is - connect and communicate. In that moment I saw how social media was actually putting a divide between me and ideal audience and was keeping me from getting noticed and ultimately, getting clients because there was a lack of authentic connection and communication.  Think about it, how much can you really connect with people when you’re limited posting a 140 characters, a link or an image?  The lack of authentic engagement was not only keeping me from effectively communicating my message, it was keeping me from connecting with my ideal audience and it was ultimately keeping me from making money doing what I love to do.  So I made it my goal to figure out how I could reach others with my message in a way that felt real and that created an opportunity for authentic connection.  And that’s when I decided to look into google hangouts on air.   Within 6 months of using hangouts on air (HOA) I was finally able to break the barriers between me and my ideal clients, get the support of influencers both in google plus and in my niche, establish my expertise and build a loyal following of people who want what I have to offer… all things I had been unsuccessful in accomplishing before. So, in this hangout I want to show you how you can have this type of success using hangouts as well.    #RonnieBincer  has been a big piece of my 'winning' equation, so he'll be joining us in this hangout where you'll: *Learn the 4 critical steps that will take you from ground zero to hangout hero (or shero)* *Discover how to use hangouts on air to connect and communicate with your ideal audience in real time so that you create trust and meaningful relationships* *Learn how usHangout Strategies for Visionary Leaders2014-04-14 20:00:0094  
Chef Dennis Littley766,455Mobile Use this Link: http://youtu.be/OATc03mlDks Join me and my Co-host @108641528210325220263  with are very special guest @115620878851836664537  as we tackle the topic of *Semantic Search*  on the 10th episode of *The Bloggers Guide to Using Google+ Effectively* And who better to learn it from then the Author of Google Semantic Search himself.   Every Monday  for thirty minutes we will focus on a different aspect of Google+  offering guidance and  answering questions.    If you have questions please leave them in the Comment Bar of this event  before the start of the show and we will do our best our best to answer them. The goal of our series is to help everyone understand how Google+ works and what they need to do to become successful on G+.  Once G+ begins to make sense to you, you'll be able to enjoy your time on the plus, making new friends, engaging in communities and seeing some pretty amazing search engine results.  While our series will be focused on Bloggers everyone is welcome and we hope to see all of you with your questions-    You can also join us at the G+ Food Bloggers Community - http://goo.gl/IEKmsV  where we discuss all the issues that Bloggers have as well as sharing best practices. All of our previous episodes are on Youtube  http://goo.gl/3iukbR Monday February 1th @ 1 PM EST/12 PM CST/11 AM MST/10 AM PST #googleplustips   #bloggers   #Gplusfoodbloggers  The Bloggers Guide to Using Google+ Effectively - Semantic Search with David Amerland2014-02-17 19:00:00147  
martin shervington1,083,583*Google Plus for Individuals and Business!* _Including launch of the free 'Quickstarter' courses..._ There have been so many changes in the Plus over the past few months, and as such we wanted to get together to re-launch the website, tell you about some of the resources and pick up on some of your questions as well. So get yourself ready and see you on Monday!The PYB team talk about some amazing, free resources available for Google+!2014-02-10 21:00:00116  
Men's Health672,946Stay on track in 2014 with healthy eating and nutrition tips from our panel of experts. TOPICS OF DISCUSSION: -Tips for maintaining flavor while eating healthy -Cooking demo -How to incorporate fruits and vegetables during the winter months PARTICIPANTS: -Paul Kita, Men’s Health Senior Associate Editor -Cheryl Forberg, Nutritionist and Chef -David McInerney, Co-Founder, Fresh Direct -Christopher Mohr, Ph.D, RDHealthy Cooking & Nutrition Tips2014-01-28 19:00:00154  
Google+10,144,849The Google+ team will be sharing a few updates. RSVP to this event to watch the broadcast live.A Morning with Google+2013-10-29 17:30:0033898  
Google Australia184,324Join us for a special Doodle 4 Google explorer Hangout On Air and hear Project Loon engineer +Anton Staaf talk about exploring big ideas and a behind the scenes look at +Project Loon with students from Roydvale Primary School in Christchurch. #projectloon #loon #balloonpoweredinternetDoodle 4 Google Explorer Series: HOA with Project Loon's Anton Staaf2013-08-27 12:00:00423  

Kenneth McCormack has been shared in 257 public circles

You can see here the 50 latest shared circles.
If this is your profile, you can check your dashboard to see all shared circles you have been included.

AuthorFollowersDateUsers in CircleCommentsReshares+1Links
AyJay Schibig93,323ENGAGERS  CIRCLE  5.1.15  Welcome to the latest  edition of my  active Engager's Circle. Add  it to grow your G+ network !  Please ReShare.#circleshare #circlesharing #sharedcircles  #share #followers #addcircles #publicsharedcircles 2015-05-02 05:27:17415515471
John Hannah20,238Circle share with new friendsHi friends follow this circle1 - Include me in your circles2 - Share the circle (Publicly)3 - Add +1 to the post.4 - Leave a comment if you like.I will thankful if you plus and #share this #circle!#AksumitEmpirSyroGreemsionaries #who #arriveby #way #ReSewerresponsiblfor #logicadevelopmentIn #early #tcentury #newly #formeArabian #anrulsincludesmalfamily #groups #huntergarers #sucas #San #peopern #larger #morstructuregroups #sucas #family #clan #groupings #Bantuspeakinpeoples #centraern #aneastern #heavily #structureclan2015-05-01 06:10:37369221639
Simon Weiner6,4751.30 High Quality New Active Engager Circle. Enjoy:) #circle   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circles   #sharingcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #circlesunday #share #shared #followers #addcircles #publicsharedcircles #share #addpeople #addcircle #addfriends #circle #socialmedia #hillaryclinton   #president   #hillary2016  2015-04-27 04:22:14498001
Allan watson26,270Active users on Google+. Circle ShareIf you received a notification, please reshare to your #circlesIf you’d like to be added to the next circle share: • +1 this circle • Share this circle to PUBLIC • Include me in your circles • Comment on this post#Atlas #World #Washington #DC #National #Geographic #issue #Population #December #ebcom #Encyclopædia #Britannica #Chicago #Encyclopædia #Britannica #Inc #to #b #National #Geographic #Atlas #World #th #ed #Washington #Brief #No #February #includes2015-04-23 06:59:594045616
SJR Gamer144SHARED CIRCLE 2shared circle,  add circle , +1 circle !!compartilhando circulo 2adicionar circulo (para ter mais amigos), compartilhar circuloVamos fazer amizades, ver bons posts!!   #sharedcircle #sharedcircleoftheday #circleshared #circleshapesmonday #circle  2015-04-09 07:47:27501727
Rich Bradford38,736No.1 Version 22Rocking G+ this evening!! Let's grow your network with version 22 of my Favorite Circle!!   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! #circle #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles  #growthcircle  As a side note, I am on Tsu, which shares social revenues with all of us. https://www.tsu.co/rbradford 2015-04-07 22:12:01477524885
Luis V.69,140This is my 14th #FollowFriday shared circle of the new year.(One day late) All the people in here belong in my circles. These are all people that should be followed and post good content, interact with others and are active on Google Plus. I'm starting small and would like to have this circle expand. I am sharing on Fridays and if you want to be in any future shared circles, do this...Comment on here or +1 this post, share this circle and add me to your circles.I'll check your profile and posts. No spam. No blueheads.2015-04-03 17:10:2224759
Rich Bradford37,901Version 21!!Rocking G+ this evening!! Let's grow your network with version 21 of my Favorite Circle!!   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! #circle #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles  #growthcircle  As a side note, I am on Tsu, which shares social revenues with all of us. https://www.tsu.co/rbradford In other news, USMNT obtained a 1-1 draw in this afternoon's friendly vs. Switzerland! 2015-03-31 22:08:37475495393
Luis V.69,058This is my 13th #FollowFriday shared circle of the new year.(One day late) All the people in here belong in my circles. These are all people that should be followed and post good content, interact with others and are active on Google Plus. I'm starting small and would like to have this circle expand. I am sharing on Fridays and if you want to be in any future shared circles, do this...Comment on here or +1 this post, share this circle and add me to your circles.I'll check your profile and posts. No spam. No blueheads.2015-03-27 15:15:0422529
Rich Bradford35,776Version 20!! Rocking G+ this evening!! Let's grow your network with version 20 of my Favorite Circle!!   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! #circle #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles  #growthcircle  As a side note, I am on Tsu, which shares social revenues with all of us. https://www.tsu.co/rbradford 2015-03-13 04:20:58476545084
Tia McDowell23Shared circle to help you meet new people! Enjoy and share!2015-01-20 18:32:14495201219
AyJay Schibig84,141ENGAGERS  CIRCLE  1.19.15   by  +AyJay Schibig  Please ReShare.Welcome to the latest  edition of my  active Engagers Circle. Add  it to grow your G+ network !  #circleshare #circlesharing #sharedcircles #sharingcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #circlesunday #share #shared #followers #addcircles #publicsharedcircles #share #addpeople #addcircle #addfriends #circle #socialmedia 2015-01-20 07:39:00494473868
Rich Bradford31,008Version 19!! Rocking G+ this evening!! Let's grow your network with version 19 of my Favorite Circle!!   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! #circle #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles  #growthcircle  As a side note, I am on Tsu, which shares social revenues with all of us. https://www.tsu.co/rbradford 2015-01-20 00:03:104816057103
Noah Wesley17,004This is a public circle of Photographers and Photography loversTo increase your chances of inclusion in future circles please leave a comment when sharing the circle.If you received a notification, please reshare to your circlesIf you’d like to be added to the next circle share: • +1 this circle • Share this circle to PUBLIC • Include +ORIGINAL AUTHENTIC PHOTOGRAPHERS  • Comment on this postIf you like what you find in this circle, please share it with your followers to help these individuals reach a wider audience. I will share more circles of those I find Inspiring in the future#beautifulpictures #beautifulplaces #amazingphotos #circlesharing #circleshare #circles #circleoftheday #spain #barcelona #sweden #sweden #gothenburg #sweden #stockholm #switzerland #switzerland #berne #switzerland #geneva #switzerland #zurich #turkey #turkey #ankara #turkey #istanbul #beijing #chengdu #chongqing #dalian #fuzhou #guangzhou #harbinchina #hefefi 2015-01-13 10:46:12494181736
vivek asati0This is the circle of circle # profiles and pages that are active in circle sharing and have included me their circles. If you are looking for followers and engagement add these people and engage with them.If you received a notification, please reshare to your circlesIF YOU WANT TO BE INCLUDED IN A NEW VERSIONS OF MY CIRCLES PLZ LET ME KNOW AND MAKE THIS SIMPLE STEPS:1. Include me in your circles.2. Plus, Comment and Reshare my posts in PUBLIC3. Please make sure you plus, reshare and comment on the Original4. If possible, leave a comment on this circle so I know you have done the three steps above.2015-01-08 14:33:28370422
John Wood24,699This circle will add amazing, and wonderful content to you stream.Boost your visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!To be added to or stay in this Circle - Share the circleIf you received the notice you are in this circle, then well done.If you would like to be included in the next Circle Share, you only have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles2 - Share the circle (Publicly)3 - Add +1 to the post.4 - Leave a comment if you like.I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#circleshare #circlesharing #sharedcircles #sharingcircles #sharedpubliccircles #Kiribati #Korea #(ROK) #wait #Kyrgyzstan #Laos #Latvia #Lebanon #Lesotho #Liberia #Libyan #Arab #Jam. #Liechtenstein #Lithuania #Luxembourg #Macau #Macedonia #Madagascar #Malawi #Malaysia #Maldives #Mali #Malta #Marshall #Islands #Martinique #Mauritania #Mauritius #Mayotte #Mexico 2015-01-03 07:22:134306766121
Rich Bradford29,423Happy New Year!!Rocking G+ this evening!! Let's grow your network with version 18 of my Favorite Circle!! This circle includes individuals who engaged me recently with a plus, a comment or a re-share.   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! #circle #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles  #growthcircle  2015-01-01 01:31:044836353101
Luis V.66,374This is my first #FollowFriday  shared circle and all the people in here belong in my circles. These are all people that should be followed and post good content, interact with others and are active on Google Plus. If you want to be excluded, let me know and I will pull your name.I'll be sharing on Fridays and if you want to ne in any future shared circles, do these things...Comment on here, share this circle, add me.I'll check your profile and posts. No spam or porn. 2014-12-27 02:49:034783212
Rich Bradford28,349Merry Christmas! Happy Holidays! Seasons Greetings!!Rocking G+ this evening!! Let's grow your network with version 17 of my Favorite Circle!! This circle includes individuals who engaged me recently with a plus, a comment or a re-share.   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! #circle #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles  #growthcircle  2014-12-24 01:24:19491195628
Rajani Vijaya0My Awesome CircleThis is my circle of the day :)Add people in this circle to increase your follower. Enjoy it!#CircleShare#CircleSharing#Circles#CircleOfTheDay#SharedCircles#Shared#SharedPublicCircles#SharedCircleOfTheDay#Engagers#ShareCircle#SocialMedia#EngagersCircle#Share#Google#SharingCircles#ADD#Friends#SEOtips#Website#Marketing#SEOmarketing#Google#WebDesign#SocialMedia#DigitalMarketing#Business#LocalSEO#OnlineMarketing#Search#SocialMediaMarketing#SEOservices#ContentMarketing#Blogging#SEM#WebDevelopment#SEOStrategy2014-11-28 01:58:1048011912
Rich Bradford25,637Do over! or should I say seconds!! Happy Thanksgiving for all in the USA!! Happy Day to everyone else!! Rocking G+ this afternoon!! Let's grow your network with version 16 of my Favorite Circle!! This circle includes individuals who engaged me recently with a plus, a comment or a re-share.   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! #circle #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles  #growthcircle  2014-11-27 22:26:52493604492
Rich Bradford25,637Happy Thanksgiving for all in the USA!! Happy Day to everyone else!! Rocking G+ this afternoon!! Let's grow your network with version 16 of my Favorite Circle!! This circle includes individuals who engaged me recently with a plus, a comment or a re-share.   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! #circle #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles  #growthcircle  2014-11-27 22:10:52493568
John Wood21,093This circle will add amazing, and wonderful content to you stream.Boost your visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!To be added to or stay in this Circle - Share the circleIf you received the notice you are in this circle, then well done.If you would like to be included in the next Circle Share, you only have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles2 - Share the circle (Publicly)3 - Add +1 to the post.4 - Leave a comment if you like.I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#circleshare #circlesharing #sharedcircles #sharingcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #circlesunday #share #shared #followers #addcircles #publicsharedcircles #share #addpeople #addcircle #addfriends #circle #socialmedia #Singapore2014-11-27 10:51:04333202636
Rich Bradford25,167Version 15 is here!! Happy weekend everyone!! Let's Rock G+!!Let's grow your network with version 15 of my Favorite Circle!! This circle includes individuals who engaged me recently with a plus, a comment or a re-share.   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! #circle #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles  #growthcircle  2014-11-22 01:34:18493515186
Rich Bradford25,079Version 14!! Let's Rock G+!!Let's grow your network with version 14 of my Favorite Circle!! This circle includes individuals who engaged me recently with a plus, a comment or a re-share.   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! #circle #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles  #growthcircle  (Sorry about that! It has been a while since the last circle!)2014-11-21 01:33:12488505490
Rich Bradford23,482Where are we? Version 13? Let's Rock G+!! Let's grow your network with version 13 of my Favorite Circle!! This circle includes individuals who engaged me recently with a plus, a comment or a re-share.   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! #circle #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles  #growthcircle  2014-11-03 22:19:104746557101
Rich Bradford22,315 Let's grow your network and rock G+ with version 12 of my Favorite Circle!! This circle includes individuals who engaged me recently with a plus, a comment or a re-share.   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! #circle #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles  #growthcircle  2014-10-21 23:46:40464122319
Rich Bradford21,381Hope you are having an excellent Monday!! Let's grow your network and rock G+ with version 11 of my Favorite Circle!! This circle includes individuals who engaged me recently with a plus, a comment or a re-share.   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! #circle #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles  #growthcircle  2014-10-13 20:51:10448121517
Candy Archery199Good morning (or afternoon/evening)!! Looks like a new circle is long overdue! Let's grow your network and rock G+ with version 10 of my Favorite Circle!! This circle includes individuals who engaged me recently with a plus, a comment or a re-share.   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! #circle #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles  #growthcircle  2014-10-07 11:52:105008217
Rich Bradford20,012Good morning (or afternoon/evening)!! Looks like a new circle is long overdue! Let's grow your network and rock G+ with version 10 of my Favorite Circle!! This circle includes individuals who engaged me recently with a plus, a comment or a re-share.   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! #circle #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles  #growthcircle  2014-10-02 14:35:31409495098
Becky Collins16,515Hot and spicy foods circle! :Circle of very #social #engagerspeople and companiesTo be included in my shares (#sharedcircle), be so kind to:1 - Do +1 t the post2 - Comment the post and specify your "category" (job or interest) Ex: Fashion, SEO, Companies, Social Media Marketing, Sailing, Photography, Bloggers/Writers, Web graphics and design, Italy, Artists, Sport, Finance/Economy ...3 - include the circle among your circles4 - share the circle (include yourself)Improve your popularity, be social be cool !Keep yourself updated, enjoy the Shared Circles Hellenic Alliance, you can share your shared circles inside the upcoming Community:https://plus.google.com/communities/112552559573595396104  #socialmedia  #media  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing  #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins ?2014-09-15 05:16:26463107
shareing circle9,942Google Friends! - You're in this Circle +shareing circle .♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥If You receive this message You are included in circle !!!1. Add me to your circles, if you haven't done so already2. +1 this circle3. Publicly share this circle to public, your circles and extended circles.4. If possible, leave a comment on this circle so I know you have done the three steps above..♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥.♥#Circle#Sharers#Engagers#Followers#AddCircle#CoolPeople#Influencers#CircleShare#shareingcircle2014-09-06 10:09:063646957101
Rich Bradford17,989Continuing to rock G+!! Let's grow your network!! Can’t believe this is version 9 of my Favorite Circle!! This circle includes individuals who engaged me recently with a plus, a comment or a re-share.   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! Happy Friday to all of you!! Have an excellent weekend!#circle #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday#circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles#sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday#engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople#googlecircles #growthcircle  2014-09-05 23:48:55365566282
Added Healthy216This circle regularly tops 501 reshares because of all the awesome engagers in it. Make sure to be a part of it!➤ To be added into the next share, follow these simple steps:  1) Plus the original post2) Share this circle publicly (and with your circles/extended circles)3) Comment on the original post when complete4) Add the circle weekly so you can get the new members!  http://addedhealthy.blogspot.com/2014/08/5-symptoms-and-cause-appendicitis.html#circleshare #circlesharing #sharedcircles #sharingcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #circlesunday #share #shared #followers #addcircles #publicsharedcircles #share #addpeople #addcircle #addfriends #circle #socialmedia2014-08-28 09:53:23501121113
My-beez4,055Hey everyone, lets keep rocking G+ with this amazing 6th edition of my Top engagers membersThis circle contains primary profiles of recent engagers. If you receive a notification means you are inside. Have a look through these profiles. If you add these people, at least half will add you back and engage with you through pluses, shares and comments on your material.#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #bestcircle #news #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport #small #smallcircle #photography #health #Mybeezcircles #topengagers #engagedcircles #topcircles   #topcircleshare   Have a nice tuesday !Julie.2014-08-26 08:26:2250115920
Rich Bradford17,418Continuing to  rock G+!! Let's grow your network with version 8 of my Favorite Circle. This circle includes individuals who engaged me recently with a plus, a comment or a re-share.   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! Have an excellent weekend!#circle   #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles #growthcircle  2014-08-26 03:03:19344474875
Rich Bradford16,555Continuing to  rock G+!! Let's grow your network with version 7 of my Favorite Circle. This circle includes individuals who engaged me recently with a plus, a comment or a re-share.   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! Have an excellent weekend!#circle   #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles #growthcircle  2014-08-16 00:03:50327604588
Rich Bradford15,319Continuing to  rock G+!! Let's grow your network with version 6 of my Favorite Circle. This circle includes individuals who engaged me recently with a plus, a comment or a re-share.   As always, many thanks for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! Have a fantastic week!#circle   #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles #growthcircle  2014-08-05 20:36:01286413665
Rich Bradford14,105Now is a good time to do this!  Let’s rock G+ and grow your network with version 5 of my Favorite Circle. This circle includes individuals who engaged me recently with a plus, a comment or a re-share.   Thank you in advance for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! Have a fantastic week!#circle   #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles #growthcircle  2014-07-29 22:43:06246433958
Rich Bradford13,678Let’s rock G+ and grow your network with version 4 of my Favorite Circle. This circle includes individuals who engaged me recently with a plus, a comment or a re-share.   Thank you in advance for your support.  Shares, pluses and comments are appreciated! Have a fantastic week!#circle   #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles #growthcircle  2014-07-23 02:27:28200362852
Doug Hyatt5,572THIS IS MEGA CIRCLE 12  #DOUGHYATTCIRCLESHARING I AM GETTING 1,000+ FOLLOWERS A WEEK FROM THIS!  1) ADD THE CIRCLE2) RESHARE THE CIRCLE AND BE SURE TO REMEMBER TO CHECK THE BOX WHICH INCLUDES YOURSELF.3)RESHARE TO PUBLIC EVERY DAY!BE SURE TO COPY THE HASHTAG LIST AND ADD IN YOUR COMMENTS LIKE I HAVE!  IT WILL GIVE YOU MAXIMUM RESULTS#doughyattcirclesharing#circles   #circlemania   #circletoday   #circleplus   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #CircleSharing   #sharecircle   #sharecirclethis   #worldsharecircle   #pleasecircleaddme   #circleoftheday   #newgenerationcircle  #monstercircle   #usacircle   #bestofthecircle   #shareofthecircle   #pleasecircle   #newbestcircl  add circle add circle * best share circle * share please pleaseplease add circle * best share circle * share please please#add #circle   #addcircle   #pleasecircle   #bestcircle   #mostcircle  #bestsharecircle   #newcircle   #top100circle   #best500circle   #top500circle   2014-07-19 21:28:014624211
Rich Bradford12,684Let’s rock G+ and grow your network with version 3 of the Snowball Circle. This circle includes individuals who engaged me recently with a plus, a comment or a re-share.   To be added to future circles follow these simple steps:1 - Include me in one your circles if you haven’t already2 - share the circle (include yourself)3 - add +1 to the post4 - Leave a comment below#circle   #circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #circleoftheweek #share #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #engagers #engagerscircle   #engagerspeople #googlecircles #growthcircle  2014-07-15 19:52:54168322238
Cher Fauvél426This is my Elite Raw Rocks Shared Circle!This is my circle for anyone interested in raw, organic, vegan nutrition!May be you just wanna investigate raw living a little? You will find the leaders in this circle.Please G+ and share if you would like to be added :)Be sure to share the original post.Welcome to Raw Rocks Shared Circle!  #rawliving  #rawfood #rawfoodlifestyle #organic   #rawnutrition  2014-07-05 15:20:52500313
James Wilson245Sharing Sunday. Hope everyone has a great week. Add, plus and share#Circle   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circleoftheday   #shared   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday   #sharedpublicircles   #sharing   #sharingcircles 2014-06-29 14:58:28473424
John Wood8,708boost visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you want to be added to the next Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles 3 - Share the circle (Publicly) 4 - Add +1 to the post #powercircle #sharedcircle #topsharedcircle #circleoftheday #sharedcircle #trustinme #circlesharing #circleshare #circles         #circleoftheday #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircles #share #vipsnowballcircle #sharedcircleoftheday #sharewithyou             #followme #followers #followback #circle #googleplus #coolpeople #circleshare #sharedcircles #sharedcircle #sharedcircles     #sharedpubliccircles #circleshare #circlesharing #fullcircleshare 2014-06-24 11:05:052937514
Shivakant Tripathi1,827IN ORDER TO MAKE THIS WORK PLEASE FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS BELOW:  1. Plus the post  2. Share the post  3. Add the circle if you can, if not try again later.  4. Request to be added in comments or let me know if you should be in it and for some reason are not. (。◕‿◕。)#sharedcircle #publiccircleshare   #circleshare   #circleoftheday #circleshares   #circlesharing   #circlesshare   #publicsharedcircle #publicsharedcircles   #sharedcircleoftheday #sharedcircleoftheweek   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircle #todayspublicsharedcircle #todayssharedcircle   #publiccircle #circle   #circles   #awesome #awesomeness #awesomepeople #shareyourcircle   #bestengagers #followers #followback   #awesomecircles #topsharedcircle #topsharedcircle   #myseoissocial   #besocial   #socializethesocial   #trust #circles #sharedcircle   2014-06-23 14:14:30501417
John Wood8,050Follow this advice and grow your G+ community with people that share amazing content that will surprise you:Boost your visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!If you received the notice you are in this circle, then well done.If you would like to be included in the next Circle Share you only have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles (If you haven't already)2 - Share the circle (Publicly) - (cc) me ( ) in the comments on the share and I can add you to the next circle immediately.    _ Otherwise I may not notice your activity!_3 - Add +1 to the post.4 - Leave a comment if you like#circleshare #circlesharing #sharedcircles #sharingcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #circlesunday #share #shared #followers #addcircles #publicsharedcircles #share #addpeople #addcircle #addfriends #circle #socialmedia2014-06-20 10:26:17472211838
Shivakant Tripathi1,773IN ORDER TO MAKE THIS WORK PLEASE FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS BELOW:  1. Plus the post  2. Share the post  3. Add the circle if you can, if not try again later.  4. Request to be added in comments or let me know if you should be in it and for some reason are not.#sharedcircle #publiccircleshare   #circleshare   #circleoftheday #circleshares   #circlesharing   #circlesshare   #publicsharedcircle #publicsharedcircles   #sharedcircleoftheday #sharedcircleoftheweek   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircle #todayspublicsharedcircle #todayssharedcircle   #publiccircle #circle   #circles   #awesome #awesomeness #awesomepeople #shareyourcircle   #bestengagers #followers #followback   #awesomecircles #topsharedcircle #topsharedcircle   #myseoissocial   #besocial   #socializethesocial   #trust #circles #sharedcircle   2014-06-05 23:05:224351048
John Wood6,323Shared circle time, I am sure you all know how this works. Feel free to add this Circle, Re Share it & comment#sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #circleshare #circles #circleoftheday 2014-05-28 08:37:23498542274
John Nuntiatio (TodayNews)37,221#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #bestcircle #news   #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport #small   #smallcircle #tennis #golf #photography #health #weightloss 2014-05-27 06:18:55201172

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2015-04-29 12:29:38 (2 comments, 0 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

Weavesilk.com
Have you seen this online drawing tool? I didn’t know what to do, but the direction said: “Drawing something.” So i did what i do with my mouse to “draw something” and made 2 quick swiggly lines and this is the result! Imagine what you can do if you are an artist. 

Most reshares: 2

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2015-05-25 10:48:44 (0 comments, 2 reshares, 5 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Moon Landing Goal Announced
On May 25, 1961 — 54 years ago today — President John F. Kennedy announced his goal of landing a man on the Moon by the end of the 1960s and returning him safely to Earth. The U.S. met that goal when Neil Armstrong set foot on the Moon in July, 1969, and returned safely to Earth.

Background: The old Soviet Union became the first nation to send a man into space: On April 12, 1961, Yuri Gagarin orbited the earth inVostok 1. Less than a month later, the U.S. sent a man into space for just a few minutes in a sub-orbital flight: On May 5, Alan Shepard piloted Freedom 7 into a sub-orbital flight that splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean. At this point, the Soviet Union was clearly ahead in what was becoming a "space race" between the two global super-powers. Before long, the U.S. had become the leading pioneer in space, butbud... more »

Most plusones: 10

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2015-04-23 12:25:10 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 10 +1s)Open 

Today in History: First YouTube Video Was Uploaded, 2005
On April 23, 2005 — just 10 years ago today (and a full year after Facebook began) — Jawed Karim, one of the co-founders of YouTube, uploaded the first video to YouTube. Since this first 18-second video user upload, YouTube has grown to more than 1 billion users and 300 hours of video are uploaded to YouTube every minute! In addition, more than a million user channels are earning revenue from the YouTube Partner Program, and thousands of channels are making 6-figure incomes per year.

YouTube videos:
•The first YouTube video uploaded: “Me at the Zoo” (length 00:18). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jNQXAC9IVRw

Web sources:
•http://mashable.com/2014/04/23/youtube-first-video/
•http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/06/magazine/06FOB-medium-t.html?_r=4&ref=magazine&•http://en.... more »

Latest 50 posts

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2015-05-25 14:27:02 (1 comments, 0 reshares, 2 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Moon Landing Goal Announced
On May 25, 1961 — 54 years ago today — President John F. Kennedy announced his goal of landing a man on the Moon by the end of the 1960s and returning him safely to Earth. The U.S. met that goal when Neil Armstrong set foot on the Moon in July, 1969, and returned safely to Earth.

Background: The old Soviet Union became the first nation to send a man into space: On April 12, 1961, Yuri Gagarin orbited the earth inVostok 1. Less than a month later, the U.S. sent a man into space for just a few minutes in a sub-orbital flight: On May 5, Alan Shepard piloted Freedom 7 into a sub-orbital flight that splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean. At this point, the Soviet Union was clearly ahead in what was becoming a "space race" between the two global super-powers. Before long, the U.S. had become the leading pioneer in space, butbud... more »

Today in History: Moon Landing Goal Announced
On May 25, 1961 — 54 years ago today — President John F. Kennedy announced his goal of landing a man on the Moon by the end of the 1960s and returning him safely to Earth. The U.S. met that goal when Neil Armstrong set foot on the Moon in July, 1969, and returned safely to Earth.

Background: The old Soviet Union became the first nation to send a man into space: On April 12, 1961, Yuri Gagarin orbited the earth inVostok 1. Less than a month later, the U.S. sent a man into space for just a few minutes in a sub-orbital flight: On May 5, Alan Shepard piloted Freedom 7 into a sub-orbital flight that splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean. At this point, the Soviet Union was clearly ahead in what was becoming a "space race" between the two global super-powers. Before long, the U.S. had become the leading pioneer in space, but budgetary restraints are now impeding U.S. leadership in space exploration.

YouTube videos:
•John F. Kennedy “Landing a Man on the Moon” Address to Congress, May 25, 1961 (length 03:46). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TUXuV7XbZvU

Web sources:
• http://history.nasa.gov/moondec.html
• http://www.space.com/11772-president-kennedy-historic-speech-moon-space.html
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercury_Seven
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neil_Armstrong

Book sources:
• Failure is Not an Option: Mission Control from Mercury to Apollo 13 and Beyond by Gene Kranz. http://amzn.to/1FxFWcT
• NASA’s Moon Program: Paving the Way for Apollo 11 by David M. Harland. http://amzn.to/1Sy37KM

DVD sources:
• The Race to the Moon by the History Channel. http://amzn.to/1ITsWlB

Image credits:
•John F. Kennedy addressing Congress, May 15, 1961, and bolding putting forth the goal of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to Earth before the end of the decade.
•The moon landing program was composed on 3 projects: (1) Mercury (single manned flights), (2) Gemini (2-manned flights), and finally Apollo (3 manned flights using the spacecraft that would be required for the moon landing). NASA drawings and my text overlays.

#history #Kennedy #moon___

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2015-05-25 10:48:44 (0 comments, 2 reshares, 5 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Moon Landing Goal Announced
On May 25, 1961 — 54 years ago today — President John F. Kennedy announced his goal of landing a man on the Moon by the end of the 1960s and returning him safely to Earth. The U.S. met that goal when Neil Armstrong set foot on the Moon in July, 1969, and returned safely to Earth.

Background: The old Soviet Union became the first nation to send a man into space: On April 12, 1961, Yuri Gagarin orbited the earth inVostok 1. Less than a month later, the U.S. sent a man into space for just a few minutes in a sub-orbital flight: On May 5, Alan Shepard piloted Freedom 7 into a sub-orbital flight that splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean. At this point, the Soviet Union was clearly ahead in what was becoming a "space race" between the two global super-powers. Before long, the U.S. had become the leading pioneer in space, butbud... more »

Today in History: Moon Landing Goal Announced
On May 25, 1961 — 54 years ago today — President John F. Kennedy announced his goal of landing a man on the Moon by the end of the 1960s and returning him safely to Earth. The U.S. met that goal when Neil Armstrong set foot on the Moon in July, 1969, and returned safely to Earth.

Background: The old Soviet Union became the first nation to send a man into space: On April 12, 1961, Yuri Gagarin orbited the earth inVostok 1. Less than a month later, the U.S. sent a man into space for just a few minutes in a sub-orbital flight: On May 5, Alan Shepard piloted Freedom 7 into a sub-orbital flight that splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean. At this point, the Soviet Union was clearly ahead in what was becoming a "space race" between the two global super-powers. Before long, the U.S. had become the leading pioneer in space, but budgetary restraints are now impeding U.S. leadership in space exploration.

YouTube videos:
•John F. Kennedy “Landing a Man on the Moon” Address to Congress, May 25, 1961 (length 03:46). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TUXuV7XbZvU

Web sources:
• http://history.nasa.gov/moondec.html
• http://www.space.com/11772-president-kennedy-historic-speech-moon-space.html
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercury_Seven
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neil_Armstrong

Book sources:
• Failure is Not an Option: Mission Control from Mercury to Apollo 13 and Beyond by Gene Kranz. http://amzn.to/1FxFWcT
• NASA’s Moon Program: Paving the Way for Apollo 11 by David M. Harland. http://amzn.to/1Sy37KM

DVD sources:
• The Race to the Moon by the History Channel. http://amzn.to/1ITsWlB

Image credits:
•John F. Kennedy addressing Congress, May 15, 1961, and bolding putting forth the goal of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to Earth before the end of the decade.
•The moon landing program was composed on 3 projects: (1) Mercury (single manned flights), (2) Gemini (2-manned flights), and finally Apollo (3 manned flights using the spacecraft that would be required for the moon landing). NASA drawings and my text overlays.

#history #Kennedy #moon___

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2015-05-24 13:57:43 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 5 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Samuel Morse Sent Telegraph Message over First Telegraph Line
On May 24, 1844 — 171 years ago today — long-distance communication was revolutionized and the telecommunications industry was born when Samuel Morse sent words from the Bible (Numbers 23:23), “What hath God wrought,” from the U.S. Capitol basement to Baltimore, Maryland — officially opening the first telegraph line from Washington, D.C. to Baltimore, a distance of about 38 miles. Before this invention, communications (primarily letters) took days or even months to arrive at their destination.

Interestingly, Morse became passionate about developing a way to communicate messages quickly because he had been unable to return home swiftly enough after learning too slowly that his wife was sick and then died. 

YouTube videos:
•Samuel Morse, Portrait in a Minute by National PortraitGallery, Smi... more »

Today in History: Samuel Morse Sent Telegraph Message over First Telegraph Line
On May 24, 1844 — 171 years ago today — long-distance communication was revolutionized and the telecommunications industry was born when Samuel Morse sent words from the Bible (Numbers 23:23), “What hath God wrought,” from the U.S. Capitol basement to Baltimore, Maryland — officially opening the first telegraph line from Washington, D.C. to Baltimore, a distance of about 38 miles. Before this invention, communications (primarily letters) took days or even months to arrive at their destination.

Interestingly, Morse became passionate about developing a way to communicate messages quickly because he had been unable to return home swiftly enough after learning too slowly that his wife was sick and then died. 

YouTube videos:
•Samuel Morse, Portrait in a Minute by National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution (length 02:58). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h2IAh3uIGcc
•Samuel Morse’s Flash of Genius Born of Grief by American Heroes Channel (length 02:46). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UwIUbQE7oto

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Morse
•http://archive.constantcontact.com/fs087/1108762609255/archive/1109675366464.html
•http://inventors.about.com/od/tstartinventions/a/telegraph.htm
•http://inventors.about.com/od/indrevolution/a/telegraph.htm
•http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/sfbmhtml/sfbmhighlights01.html
•http://www.personal.psu.edu/jtk187/art2/telegraph.htm
•http://www.history.com/topics/inventions/telegraph

Book sources:
• The Telegraph in America, 1832-1920 (Johns Hopkins Studies in the History of Technology) by David Hochfelder. http://amzn.to/1HBh5s0
• Samuel Morse and the Telegraph (Inventions and Discovery) by David Seidman. http://amzn.to/1HoPzbX

Image credits:
Samuel Morse, about 1850, with an early type of telegraph printing receiver. Smithsonian Libraries.

#history, #history-tech #Morse #telegraph___

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2015-05-23 13:18:46 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 6 +1s)Open 

Today in History: First Successful Reattachment of a Human Limb
On May 23, 1962 — 53 years ago today — a team of 12 doctors performed the first successful reattachment of a severed human limb. While doctors had previously attached a partly severed limb, no doctors had ever before performed a complete reimplantation. In this first successful case, a 12-year-old boy, Everett Knowles, had his arm torn off by a stone bridge abutment as he was attempting to catch a ride on a freight train in Somerville, MA. The boy held his right severed arm by his left hand and walked away from the accident scene for help. Police were called, and he was immediately raced across the Charles River to the Massachusetts General Hospital. Dr. Ronald Malt, the 30-year-old chief surgical resident, made a decision that the youthful boy with his “perfectly” severed limb was an ideal candidate for a completereimpla... more »

Today in History: First Successful Reattachment of a Human Limb
On May 23, 1962 — 53 years ago today — a team of 12 doctors performed the first successful reattachment of a severed human limb. While doctors had previously attached a partly severed limb, no doctors had ever before performed a complete reimplantation. In this first successful case, a 12-year-old boy, Everett Knowles, had his arm torn off by a stone bridge abutment as he was attempting to catch a ride on a freight train in Somerville, MA. The boy held his right severed arm by his left hand and walked away from the accident scene for help. Police were called, and he was immediately raced across the Charles River to the Massachusetts General Hospital. Dr. Ronald Malt, the 30-year-old chief surgical resident, made a decision that the youthful boy with his “perfectly” severed limb was an ideal candidate for a complete reimplantation.

Dr. Malt assembled a team of experts who needed to perform a number of specialized techniques, all of which had been used before successfully, but never had all the techniques been used in combination to save an entire limb. The initial surgery lasted for hours, during which time the doctors (1) reconnected blood vessels, (2) pinned the arm bone together, and (3) grafted skin and muscle together. To everyone’s delight, the patient’s hand turned a lively pink and his pulse returned in his wrist.

The doctors held off reattaching the nerves until September when they reattached 4 major nerve trunks. In about 10 days following this nerve reattachment surgery, the patient started complaining about severe pain in his arm — and, to doctors, this was a welcome sign that surgery had been successful, given the terrible nature of the accident. In about a year after the nerve surgery, the patient’s arm and fingers were sensitive to touch and extreme temperatures and the patient could move his fingers and bend his wrist. In about 2 years, the patient was playing tennis and baseball; and after 4 years of recovery, the patient had the same use of his right arm as a natural left-handed person.

YouTube videos:
•The History of Massachusetts General Hospital (length 07:49). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CE48gVSWygk
•Michael K. Obeng, MD, F.A.C.S. Arm Reattachment Surgery (not this surgery but a subsequent arm reattachment surgery; length 01:57). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zkhFeu-bI20

Web sources:
•http://www.thesomervilletimes.com/archives/36886
•http://www.thecrimson.com/article/2002/10/15/surgeon-first-to-replant-severed-limb/
•http://www.nytimes.com/2002/10/17/us/ronald-a-malt-70-is-dead-innovator-in-reattaching-limb.html
•http://www.failurethebook.com/2010/10/08/medicine-pain-is-good-time/
•http://www.wired.com/2011/05/0523surgery-reattaches-boys-arm/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Replantation

Book references:
• Blood and Guts: A History of Surgery by Richard Hollingham. http://amzn.to/1Loapv5

Image credits:
•Top: Everett Knowles, with reattached arm. Massachusetts General archive photo.
•Bottom: Dr. Roanld Malt (standing at far left) and team of fellow doctors with patient Ronald Malt. http://www2.massgeneral.org/bicentennial/Images/300%20dpi/Red%20Knowles.jpg

#history #history -tech #surgery___

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2015-05-22 03:00:32 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Manchester Ship Canal Dedicated, 1894
On May 21,1894 — 121 years ago today — Queen Victoria dedicated the Manchester Ship Canal — a 36 mile-long (58 kilometer-long) waterway linking the inland city of Manchester, Northwestern England with the port of Liverpool on the Irish Sea. At the time, this waterway was the longest river navigation canal in the world. 

The idea to build a shipping canal from the Irish Sea to Manchester was first proposed in 1660, but it took another 200 years before the Industrial Revolution made Manchester a hub for textile manufacture. By 1871, Manchester had become “the Cottonopolis” — a city that was responsible for 32% of the global cotton production. Coal from nearby mines powered the textile plants, and a railway network brought the raw cotton imported through the port city of Liverpool to Manchester. The canal was built as amuch less ex... more »

Today in History: Manchester Ship Canal Dedicated, 1894
On May 21,1894 — 121 years ago today — Queen Victoria dedicated the Manchester Ship Canal — a 36 mile-long (58 kilometer-long) waterway linking the inland city of Manchester, Northwestern England with the port of Liverpool on the Irish Sea. At the time, this waterway was the longest river navigation canal in the world. 

The idea to build a shipping canal from the Irish Sea to Manchester was first proposed in 1660, but it took another 200 years before the Industrial Revolution made Manchester a hub for textile manufacture. By 1871, Manchester had become “the Cottonopolis” — a city that was responsible for 32% of the global cotton production. Coal from nearby mines powered the textile plants, and a railway network brought the raw cotton imported through the port city of Liverpool to Manchester. The canal was built as a much less expensive way to transport both the raw material and finished products.
 
YouTube videos:
•Manchester Ship Canal (part 1; length 08:48). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zKN5K49idEQ
•Manchester Ship Canal (part 2; length 08:08). 
•Manchester Ship Canal (part 3; length 08:48).

Web sources:
•http://www.bbc.co.uk/england/sevenwonders/north_west/ship_canal_mm/index.shtml
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cottonopolis
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_Ship_Canal
•https://books.google.com/books?id=3Y0_AAAAYAAJ&pg=PA289&lpg=PA289&dq=%22may+21%22+manchester+ship+canal&source=bl&ots=RrXdu5zveU&sig=r27_C0yFyIjqHrs1RB-jRUc-CBo&hl=en&sa=X&ei=5X9cVe7uLofvtQWLqoLYCQ&ved=0CC8Q6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=%22may%2021%22%20manchester%20ship%20canal&f=false

Book sources:
• History of the Manchester Ship Canal from its Inception to its Completion: With Personal Reminiscences by Bosdin Leech. http://amzn.to/1Hk5eZU
• Manchester’s Ship Canal: The Big Ditch by Cyril J. Wood. http://www.amazon.co.uk/Manchesters-Ship-Canal-The-Ditch/dp/075242811X
• A Hundred Years of the Manchester Ship Canal by T. Gray. 

Image credits (left to right, top to bottom):
*Queen Victoria dedicating the Manchester Shipping Canal, May 21, 1894. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AQueen_Victoria_opening_the_Manchester_Ship_Canal.jpg
•Queen Victoria. Alexander Bassano [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Queen_Victoria_by_Bassano.jpg
•Manchester Shipping Canal route from Liverpool on the Irish Sea to Manchester. Google Maps
•Overhead view of the beginning of the canal. By Parrot of Doom (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AManchester_Ship_Canal_viewed_from_the_air.jpg
•Map of the Manchester Shipping Canal Route.By Parrot of Doom (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AShip_canal_map.png

Additional Events in History on May 21:
•Lindbergh landed in Paris successfully completing the first solo transatlantic flight, 1927.
•Amelia Earhart landed in Northern Ireland successfully completing the first female solo transatlantic flight, 1932.

#history #canal #Manchester #cottonopolis___

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2015-05-20 11:41:11 (1 comments, 0 reshares, 2 +1s)Open 

Today in History: 2 Firsts in Solo Transatlantic Flight History
Lindbergh took off on first solo transatlantic flight; 5 years later, Earhart took off on second solo transatlantic flight (first solo for a woman)

On May 20, 1927 — 88 years ago today — Charles Lindbergh climbed aboard his single engine, single seat, single wing plane, The Spirit of St. Louis, and flew from Roosevelt Field near New York City up the northeast coast of North America across the Atlantic Ocean to Le Bourget Field in Paris — becoming the first individual to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean.

Exactly five years later, on May 20, 1932 — 83 years ago today — Amelia Earhart took off from Harbour Grace, New Brunswick and landed the next day in a farm pasture at Culmore, north of Derry, Northern Ireland — becoming the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean. (In 1928, Earhartbecame the ... more »

Today in History: 2 Firsts in Solo Transatlantic Flight History
Lindbergh took off on first solo transatlantic flight; 5 years later, Earhart took off on second solo transatlantic flight (first solo for a woman)

On May 20, 1927 — 88 years ago today — Charles Lindbergh climbed aboard his single engine, single seat, single wing plane, The Spirit of St. Louis, and flew from Roosevelt Field near New York City up the northeast coast of North America across the Atlantic Ocean to Le Bourget Field in Paris — becoming the first individual to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean.

Exactly five years later, on May 20, 1932 — 83 years ago today — Amelia Earhart took off from Harbour Grace, New Brunswick and landed the next day in a farm pasture at Culmore, north of Derry, Northern Ireland — becoming the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean. (In 1928, Earhart became the first woman to fly across the Atlantic, but she was not the primary pilot and traveled with two other men.)

YouTube videos:
•Across the Atlantic: Behind the Lindbergh Legend (length 53:37). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oR1FkSasydM
•The Lindbergh Story—Full Vintage Documentary (length 48:13). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2XW_rWyTfGk
•Amelia Earhart—First Woman to Fly Solo Across the Atlantic Ocean (length 01:59). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1E33q3EW3Ew
•Amelia Earhart Departs on Solo Flight Across Atlantic, May 20, 1932 (length 02:05). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y-itPeJOyzI
•Amelia Mary Earhart Documentary (length 52:52). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hlOGX6HZ1Gg

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Lindbergh
•http://www.charleslindbergh.com/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spirit_of_St._Louis
•http://www.space.com/16677-charles-lindbergh.html
•https://dalrock.wordpress.com/2010/12/04/charles-lindbergh-and-amelia-earhart/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amelia_Earhart
•http://historys-shadow.blogspot.com/2006/05/amelia-earhart-completes-transatlantic.html
•http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/May-June-08/On-this-Day--Amelia-Earhart-Embarks-on-Solo-Atlantic-Flight.html

Book sources:
• Lindbergh by A. Scott Berg. http://amzn.to/1Hrxrkd
• Night Flight: Amelia Earhart Crosses the Atlantic by Robert Burleigh. http://amzn.to/1BaOH8A

Image Credits (left to right, top to bottom):
•Charles Lindbergh with his transatlantic plane, “The Spirit of St. Louis.” 
•Charles Lindbergh. http://www.biography.com/people/charles-lindbergh-9382609
•Google Map / Satellite View of the North American continent (left), the Northern Atlantic Ocean (center), and Europe (right). The pink arrow is Amelia Earhart’s 1932 transatlantic route; and the blue arrow is Charles Lindbergh’s 1927 transatlantic route.
•Amelia Earhart. 
•Amelia Earhart with her transatlantic plane. Associated Press photo. http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/May-June-08/On-this-Day--Amelia-Earhart-Embarks-on-Solo-Atlantic-Flight.htmYouTube videos:

#history #history-tech #transatlantic #Lindbergh #Earhart___

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2015-05-19 12:52:44 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Apple Opened Its First 2 Retail Stores, 2001
On May 19, 2001 — 14 years ago today — Apple opened its first two retail stores, located in Glendale, California and McLean, Virginia. A number of analysts at the time doubted Apple would have success with such stores. One such analyst, David Goldstein, then president of Channel Marketing, said: “I give them two years before they’re turning out the lights on a very painful and expensive mistake.” The magazine Business Week wrote, “Sorry Steve, Here’s Why Apple Stores Won’t Work.”

Although it did take a couple of years for the stores to become profitable, Apple Stores have grown to become the most successful retail stores in business history — generating more than $6,000 in sales per square foot (Tiffany, the former gold standard, generates about $3,000 sales per square foot). 

During hisentrepreneurial care... more »

Today in History: Apple Opened Its First 2 Retail Stores, 2001
On May 19, 2001 — 14 years ago today — Apple opened its first two retail stores, located in Glendale, California and McLean, Virginia. A number of analysts at the time doubted Apple would have success with such stores. One such analyst, David Goldstein, then president of Channel Marketing, said: “I give them two years before they’re turning out the lights on a very painful and expensive mistake.” The magazine Business Week wrote, “Sorry Steve, Here’s Why Apple Stores Won’t Work.”

Although it did take a couple of years for the stores to become profitable, Apple Stores have grown to become the most successful retail stores in business history — generating more than $6,000 in sales per square foot (Tiffany, the former gold standard, generates about $3,000 sales per square foot). 

During his entrepreneurial career cut short by premature death, Steve Jobs arguably revolutionized or re-imagined 7 industries: 
(1) personal computers,
(2) animated movies,
(3) music,
(4) phones,
(5) tablet computing,
(6) digital publishing, and
(7) retail stores.

Few people have had such a significant influence in so many industries, but a quick history of Jobs’s involvement in the planning and launch of the Apple retail stores shows why he had such an impact. The Apple Board was not fully behind the idea of moving into retail stores — too many computer stores were failing. But Steve was determined to launch retail stores because he felt that Apple had to develop a direct channel for communicating with consumers. In 1999, Jobs had recruited Mickey Drexler to the Board. Drexler had created the casual culture brand of the Gap stores. Drexler gave a key piece of advice to Jobs: Secretly create a prototype store near Apple headquarters, filled with products, and visit it frequently until you are comfortable with its ambience. Drexler proved to be a vital asset on the Board in generating a positive decision to go into the retail store business.

In early 2000, Jobs recruited Ron Johnson, who was Target’s vice president for merchandising. To support his developing vision for the stores and to decide if Ron Johnson was the right candidate to lead the retail store effort, Jobs and Johnson visited the Stanford Shopping Mall before stores opened and walked back and forth through the 140-store mall to understand its organization and discuss what was good and not so good. During this walk, Jobs realized that a store that had multiple entrances was a bad idea, because the consumer experience could not be gracefully directed. Jobs wanted only one public entrance for Apple Stores. Moreover, Jobs thought it was important that customers could grasp the store layout as soon as they entered. 

The conventional wisdom at the time was that it was cheaper to set up an expensive retail store off the beaten track, because people would travel extra distance for an expensive product. Jobs disagreed with this wisdom: Jobs wanted Apple Stores to be at peak “foot traffic” locations, regardless of rental cost. Moreover, he wanted the stores to be relatively big — Jobs reasoned that Apple was a bigger brand than Gap and therefore its stores should be bigger than the Gap stores. With these two basic notions, Johnson and Jobs spent months secretly building the prototype Apple retail store. When it was done, the Board visited the store and approved the concept and opening of the first few stores.

Questions:
(1) About how many times have you visited an Apple retail store?
(2) If you visit Apple retail stores, how frequently would you estimate that you have an enjoyable experience?

YouTube videos:
•Steve Jobs Introduces the Apple Store, 2001 (length 04:15). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xLTNfIaL5YI
•Apple Retail Stores – 10th Anniversary Video (length 05:51). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZtC8zvitv2Y
•Top 10 Impressive Apple Stores from around the World (length 01:35). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J7WMubnUr9w

Web sources:
•http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2001/05/21Apple-Retail-Stores-Welcome-Over-7700-People-in-First-Two-Days.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_Store
•http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/the-buzz/post/fun-facts-about-the-worlds-first-apple-store/2011/05/18/AFgP9j6G_blog.html
•http://www.macworld.com/article/1159499/applestoresinancials.html
•http://www.cultofmac.com/95409/may-2001-the-first-apple-store-opens/
•http://www.macworld.com/article/1159817/first2applestores.html
•http://www.padgadget.com/2012/11/13/apple-stores-still-the-most-profitable-retail-business/

Book sources:
• Steve Jobs by Walter Isaacson. http://amzn.to/1AbGyFZ
• Becoming Steve Jobs: The Evolution of a Reckless Upstart into a Visionary Leader by Brent Schlender and Rick Tetzeli. http://amzn.to/1B8Yhsr
• The Apple Experience: Secrets to Building Insanely Great Customer Loyalty by Carmine Gallo. http://amzn.to/1QYQl6d

Image credits (left to right, top to bottom)
•Apple Store, New York City.
•Spiral Staircase in Apple Store designed by Steve Jobs.
•Apple Store - location?
•Apple Store, Boylston Street, Boston, MA.
•Apple Store, Lincoln Park, Chicago.
•Apple Genius Bar. http://mcmillandoolittle.blogspot.com/2011/05/apple-decade-of-retail-revolution.html
•Steve Jobs behind at Apple Genius Bar in an Apple Store. http://www.financetwitter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/Steve_Jobs_Apple_Store_2002.jpg

#history #history-tech #Apple #retail___

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2015-05-17 12:03:42 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 0 +1s)Open 

Today in History: MTV Launched URGE Online Music Store, 2006
On May 17, 2006 — 9 years ago today — the URGE digital music store was opened by MTV Networks. Apple had opened its iTunes online store 3 years earlier and was experiencing rapid growth as increasing numbers of people were downloading music to their iPods and other portable music players. The market for downloaded tunes looked huge, and it was for Apple. After Apple introduced its iPhone on January 9, 2007, further consolidating Apple’s hold on the music market, URGE was losing brand recognition. Later in 2007, URGE (MTV Networks) teamed up with Rhapsody (Real Networks) and Verizon Wireless to form a new online music service, called Rhapsody America. It’s still here as just Rhapsody — http://www.rhapsody.com/ — as a streaming service that competes with a number of other streaming services, including Spotify, Rdio, GooglePlay Music ... more »

Today in History: MTV Launched URGE Online Music Store, 2006
On May 17, 2006 — 9 years ago today — the URGE digital music store was opened by MTV Networks. Apple had opened its iTunes online store 3 years earlier and was experiencing rapid growth as increasing numbers of people were downloading music to their iPods and other portable music players. The market for downloaded tunes looked huge, and it was for Apple. After Apple introduced its iPhone on January 9, 2007, further consolidating Apple’s hold on the music market, URGE was losing brand recognition. Later in 2007, URGE (MTV Networks) teamed up with Rhapsody (Real Networks) and Verizon Wireless to form a new online music service, called Rhapsody America. It’s still here as just Rhapsody — http://www.rhapsody.com/ — as a streaming service that competes with a number of other streaming services, including Spotify, Rdio, Google Play Music All Access, Deezer, Tidal, Microsoft’s Xbox Music, and soon Apple Music (iTunes’s Beats), et al.

Questions:
(1) Did you ever use the URGE digital music store?
(2) What is your favorite online music store?
(3) Do you subscribe to a streaming music service?

YouTube videos:
•Online Music Services by Arik Hesseldahl, Senior Technology Writer at Business Week (length 06:33). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xoAYQIjxaf4

Web sources:
•http://todayinsci.com/5/5_17.htm#event
•http://old.tagedonline.org/news/engineering-education-%E2%80%9Ctoday-history%E2%80%9D-blog-cern-convention-ratified
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/URGE_%28digital_music_service%29
•https://techjourney.net/mtv-urge-digital-music-service-for-windows-media-player-11-review-by-forbes/
•http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/tech/columnist/edwardbaig/2006-05-17-urge-beta_x.htm
•http://urbanhonking.com/ideasfordozens/2008/01/12/a_brief_history_of_the_music_i/
•http://praveenchoudhary.blogspot.com/2006/05/window-media-player-11-and-urge.html
•http://www.digitalmusicnews.com/permalink/2014/08/15/30-years-music-industry-change-30-seconds-less
•https://gigaom.com/2015/03/06/the-music-industrys-broken-business-could-change-in-2015/
•http://www.geek.com/news/rhapsody-urge-and-verizon-wireless-form-rhapsody-america-567702/
•https://www.apple.com/pr/library/2007/01/09Apple-Reinvents-the-Phone-with-iPhone.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhapsody_%28online_music_service%29
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Online_music_store
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_online_music_stores

Book sources and/or sources for further information about this subject:
• The Digital Solution: A Plan for Collecting and Distributing Streaming Music Royalties by David M. Ross. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1502745038/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1502745038&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=JIYF3H4WMU2ID77A

Image credits:
•Home page of URGE, the digital music service from MTV Networks. http://praveenchoudhary.blogspot.com/2006/05/window-media-player-11-and-urge.html
•10 Years of iTunes explosive growth. http://applebytecrunch.com/2014/05/23/why-beats-music/
•We Are Entering the Fourth Phases of Digital Music. http://ajournalofmusicalthings.com/entering-fourth-phase-digital-music-mean-exactly/

Additional events in history on May 17:
•ESRO 2B became the first successfully launched European Space Research Organization (ESRO) satellite.

#history #history-tech #onlinemusic___

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2015-05-16 16:17:16 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 0 +1s)Open 

Today in History: First Working Laser Made, 1960
On May 16, 1960 — 55 years ago today — the first working laser was made by physicist Theodore Maiman conducting experiments at the Hughes Research Laboratory in Malibu, California. Maiman used a solid-state pink ruby device that he developed to fire a laser. Most other scientists working to develop a laser did not believe the ruby device would work. But Mainman’s pink ruby laser emitted man’s first coherent light (light in which the rays are all the same wavelength and fully in phase). Maiman’s device was awarded U.S. patent 3,353,115 on November 14, 1967.

Of course, today’s laser and all the applications that have followed this first firing are the work of many scientists in the fields of optics and photonics over the course of history. Charles Townes with the help of Arthur Leonard Schawlow, both working at ColumbiaUniversity,... more »

Today in History: First Working Laser Made, 1960
On May 16, 1960 — 55 years ago today — the first working laser was made by physicist Theodore Maiman conducting experiments at the Hughes Research Laboratory in Malibu, California. Maiman used a solid-state pink ruby device that he developed to fire a laser. Most other scientists working to develop a laser did not believe the ruby device would work. But Mainman’s pink ruby laser emitted man’s first coherent light (light in which the rays are all the same wavelength and fully in phase). Maiman’s device was awarded U.S. patent 3,353,115 on November 14, 1967.

Of course, today’s laser and all the applications that have followed this first firing are the work of many scientists in the fields of optics and photonics over the course of history. Charles Townes with the help of Arthur Leonard Schawlow, both working at Columbia University, developed the maser, from which the laser was conceived. In 1917, Albert Einstein put forth the idea at the heart of the laser when he described the possibility of stimulated emission of radiation. Interestingly enough, Niels Bohr, one of the great quantum physicists, did not think Townes’s maser idea would ever work. Maiman developed his working laser largely based on the design that Townes had conceived. 

Gordon Gould also claimed credit for the invention of the laser. In 1957, he had his design drawings notarized at the local candy store, but he did not file a patent until after Townes and Schawlow had filed their patent. A 30-year patent war ensued that Gould finally won and he was awarded $30 million.

Question: 
Do you think laser technology has affected your life in any way? Please answer here before reading further: https://plus.google.com/+BradAcker/posts/FP8tZrMfcQ1


Laser technology is the core of many of today’s products:
• CD and DVDs
• supermarket barcode scanners 
• speed detectors used by police
• altimeters (altitude meters)
• rangefinders (devices that measure the distance from observer to target)
• surgical scalpels
• skin smoothers
• tattoo removers
• cornea shapers to reattach retinas
• fiber-optic cables used for the transmission of high-speed data

YouTube videos:
•Celebrating 50 Years of the Laser (length 40:13). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eQQeSUvgmJE
•A Brief History of Laser Light (length 04:21). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XRLRSdgvLg0
•How Lasers Work (length 03:54). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lW4Uq_2VPhE

Web sources:
•http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/284158_townes.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodore_Harold_Maiman
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_H._Townes
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Leonard_Schawlow
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gordon_Gould
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coherence_(physics)
•https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=8tDcbiVLAXIC&oi=fnd&pg=PT12&dq=first+laser+bounced+off+moon+1962&ots=0OgBJMPgUq&sig=h3GK-PJE001Y6FvadqMoWmnst5Q#v=onepage&q&f=false

Book sources:
• How the Laser Happened: Adventures of a Scientist by Charles H. Townes (Nobel laureate, 1964, who invented the maser, of which the laser is one example). http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B0052IQKB8/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B0052IQKB8&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=JFAZIBNHE4H33763
• Laser: The Inventor, the Nobel Laureate, and the Thirty-Year Patent War by Nick Taylor. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0595465285/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0595465285&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=N2DQLUFSNIPWCR7D

Image credits:
•Dr. Theodore Maiman with the first working laser. HRL Laboratories, LLC: http://laserfest.org/lasers/history/early.cfm

Additional events in history on May 16:
•The Soviet space probe Venera 5 landed on Venus.

#history #history -tech #laser___

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2015-05-16 15:30:45 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 1 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Einstein Received Benjamin Franklin Award, 1935
On May 15, 1935 — 80 years ago today — Albert Einstein was awarded the Benjamin Franklin Medal in recognition of his “fundamental contributions to theoretical physics; especially for his theories of relativity and his work on the photoelectric effect.” The Medal was and still is awarded by the Franklin Institute for special performance in the field of science and the arts. Oddly enough, in the ceremony that took place at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, PA, Einstein elected not to speak, stunning the host. Seriously, Time magazine reported at the time: “A throng of scientists and dignitaries was assembled to hear what the medalist had to say. Einstein genially informed the chairman that he had nothing to say, that inspiration which he had awaited until the last moment failed him. The chairman, much moreembarrass... more »

Today in History: Einstein Received Benjamin Franklin Award, 1935
On May 15, 1935 — 80 years ago today — Albert Einstein was awarded the Benjamin Franklin Medal in recognition of his “fundamental contributions to theoretical physics; especially for his theories of relativity and his work on the photoelectric effect.” The Medal was and still is awarded by the Franklin Institute for special performance in the field of science and the arts. Oddly enough, in the ceremony that took place at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, PA, Einstein elected not to speak, stunning the host. Seriously, Time magazine reported at the time: “A throng of scientists and dignitaries was assembled to hear what the medalist had to say. Einstein genially informed the chairman that he had nothing to say, that inspiration which he had awaited until the last moment failed him. The chairman, much more embarrassed than the medalist, conveyed this information to the audience.” Subsequently, Einstein sent the Franklin Institute what he had been thinking about and why he may have been unable to speak: http://prof.mkostic.com/Physics_and_Reality-Albert_Einstein.pdf. 

Here is the program information that the Franklin Institute provided regarding Albert Einstein and the 1935 Benjamin Franklin award:

Albert Einstein was born at Ulm, in Wurttemberg, Germany, in 1879. In his youth, his family moved to Munich and then to Italy, and Einstein received much of his early education in Switzerland. In 1896 he entered the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich to be trained as a teacher in physics and mathematics. In 1901, he gained his degree and acquired Swiss citizenship. Unable to find a teaching post, he accepted a position as technical assistant in the Swiss Patent Office. In 1905, he obtained his doctoral degree.

It was during his employment at the Patent Office that he produced much of his groundbreaking work. In 1908 he was appointed Privatdozent in Berne; in 1909 he became Professor Extraordinary at Zurich; and in 1911 Professor of Theoretical Physics at Prague, then returning to Zurich in the following year to fill a similar post. He was appointed Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Physical Institute (later the Max Planck Institute for Physics) and Professor in the University of Berlin in 1914. He became a German citizen in 1914 and remained in Berlin until 1933 when he renounced his citizenship for political reasons and emigrated to America to take the position of Professor of Theoretical Physics at Princeton. He became a United States citizen in 1940 and retired from his post in 1945.

Einstein realized the inadequacies of Newtonian mechanics and his special theory of relativity stemmed from an attempt to reconcile the laws of mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. He dealt with classical problems of statistical mechanics and problems in which they were merged with quantum theory: this led to an explanation of the Brownian movement of molecules. He investigated the thermal properties of light with a low radiation density and his observations laid the foundation of the photon theory of light.

He postulated that the correct interpretation of the special theory of relativity must also furnish a theory of gravitation. In 1916 he published his paper on the general theory of relativity. During this time he also contributed to the problems of the theory of radiation and statistical mechanics. In the 1920s, Einstein embarked on the construction of unified field theories, although he continued to work on the probabilistic interpretation of quantum theory, and he persevered with this work in America. He contributed to statistical mechanics by his development of the quantum theory of a monatomic gas and he has also accomplished valuable work in connection with atomic transition probabilities and relativistic cosmology.

Einstein was honored with the Franklin Award of The Franklin Institute in 1935. Additionally, he received honorary doctorate degrees in science, medicine, and philosophy from many European and American universities. He was awarded Fellowships or Memberships of all the leading scientific academies throughout the world.

YouTube videos:
•Albert Einstein documentary (length 01:29:52). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NyK5SG9rwWI

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_Franklin_Medal_%28Franklin_Institute%29
•http://www.einstein-website.de/z_information/honours.html#franklin
•http://prof.mkostic.com/Physics_and_Reality-Albert_Einstein.pdf
•http://www.famousscientists.org/albert-einstein/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_Institute
•http://todayinsci.com/5/5_15.htm#event
•https://www.fi.edu/franklin-institute-awards

Book sources:
• Einstein: His Life and Universe by Walter Isaacson. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B000PC0S0K/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B000PC0S0K&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=5GPHJ3SNDCPBBVBK

Image credits:
•Albert Einstein (about 1935). http://cnx.org/contents/719899b5-ff3d-479d-a6b5-530b9e84da62@2/Nuclear_Chemistry
•Benjamin Franklin portrait. Joseph-Siffrein Duplessis [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ABenFranklinDuplessis.jpg
•Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, PA. 
•Franklin Institute Award. http://tmt.org/news-center/segments-news-items-4

#history #history -tech #Einstein___

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2015-05-15 15:15:14 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Einstein Received Benjamin Franklin Award, 1935
On May 15, 1935 — 80 years ago today — Albert Einstein was awarded the Benjamin Franklin Medal in recognition of his “fundamental contributions to theoretical physics; especially for his theories of relativity and his work on the photoelectric effect.” The Medal was and still is awarded by the Franklin Institute for special performance in the field of science and the arts. Oddly enough, in the ceremony that took place at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, PA, Einstein elected not to speak, stunning the host. Seriously, Time magazine reported at the time: “A throng of scientists and dignitaries was assembled to hear what the medalist had to say. Einstein genially informed the chairman that he had nothing to say, that inspiration which he had awaited until the last moment failed him. The chairman, much moreembarrass... more »

Today in History: Einstein Received Benjamin Franklin Award, 1935
On May 15, 1935 — 80 years ago today — Albert Einstein was awarded the Benjamin Franklin Medal in recognition of his “fundamental contributions to theoretical physics; especially for his theories of relativity and his work on the photoelectric effect.” The Medal was and still is awarded by the Franklin Institute for special performance in the field of science and the arts. Oddly enough, in the ceremony that took place at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, PA, Einstein elected not to speak, stunning the host. Seriously, Time magazine reported at the time: “A throng of scientists and dignitaries was assembled to hear what the medalist had to say. Einstein genially informed the chairman that he had nothing to say, that inspiration which he had awaited until the last moment failed him. The chairman, much more embarrassed than the medalist, conveyed this information to the audience.” Subsequently, Einstein sent the Franklin Institute what he had been thinking about and why he may have been unable to speak: http://prof.mkostic.com/Physics_and_Reality-Albert_Einstein.pdf. 

Here is the program information that the Franklin Institute provided regarding Albert Einstein and the 1935 Benjamin Franklin award:

Albert Einstein was born at Ulm, in Wurttemberg, Germany, in 1879. In his youth, his family moved to Munich and then to Italy, and Einstein received much of his early education in Switzerland. In 1896 he entered the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich to be trained as a teacher in physics and mathematics. In 1901, he gained his degree and acquired Swiss citizenship. Unable to find a teaching post, he accepted a position as technical assistant in the Swiss Patent Office. In 1905, he obtained his doctoral degree.

It was during his employment at the Patent Office that he produced much of his groundbreaking work. In 1908 he was appointed Privatdozent in Berne; in 1909 he became Professor Extraordinary at Zurich; and in 1911 Professor of Theoretical Physics at Prague, then returning to Zurich in the following year to fill a similar post. He was appointed Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Physical Institute (later the Max Planck Institute for Physics) and Professor in the University of Berlin in 1914. He became a German citizen in 1914 and remained in Berlin until 1933 when he renounced his citizenship for political reasons and emigrated to America to take the position of Professor of Theoretical Physics at Princeton. He became a United States citizen in 1940 and retired from his post in 1945.

Einstein realized the inadequacies of Newtonian mechanics and his special theory of relativity stemmed from an attempt to reconcile the laws of mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. He dealt with classical problems of statistical mechanics and problems in which they were merged with quantum theory: this led to an explanation of the Brownian movement of molecules. He investigated the thermal properties of light with a low radiation density and his observations laid the foundation of the photon theory of light.

He postulated that the correct interpretation of the special theory of relativity must also furnish a theory of gravitation. In 1916 he published his paper on the general theory of relativity. During this time he also contributed to the problems of the theory of radiation and statistical mechanics. In the 1920s, Einstein embarked on the construction of unified field theories, although he continued to work on the probabilistic interpretation of quantum theory, and he persevered with this work in America. He contributed to statistical mechanics by his development of the quantum theory of a monatomic gas and he has also accomplished valuable work in connection with atomic transition probabilities and relativistic cosmology.

Einstein was honored with the Franklin Award of The Franklin Institute in 1935. Additionally, he received honorary doctorate degrees in science, medicine, and philosophy from many European and American universities. He was awarded Fellowships or Memberships of all the leading scientific academies throughout the world.

YouTube videos:
•Albert Einstein documentary (length 01:29:52). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NyK5SG9rwWI

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_Franklin_Medal_%28Franklin_Institute%29
•http://www.einstein-website.de/z_information/honours.html#franklin
•http://prof.mkostic.com/Physics_and_Reality-Albert_Einstein.pdf
•http://www.famousscientists.org/albert-einstein/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_Institute
•http://todayinsci.com/5/5_15.htm#event
•https://www.fi.edu/franklin-institute-awards

Book sources:
• Einstein: His Life and Universe by Walter Isaacson. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B000PC0S0K/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B000PC0S0K&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=5GPHJ3SNDCPBBVBK

Image credits:
•Albert Einstein (about 1935). http://cnx.org/contents/719899b5-ff3d-479d-a6b5-530b9e84da62@2/Nuclear_Chemistry
•Benjamin Franklin portrait. Joseph-Siffrein Duplessis [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ABenFranklinDuplessis.jpg
•Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, PA. 
•Franklin Institute Award. http://tmt.org/news-center/segments-news-items-4

#history #history -tech #Einstein___

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2015-05-14 06:21:42 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 2 +1s)Open 

Today in History: First U.S. Space Station Launched into Space, 1973
On May 14, 1973 — 41 years ago today — NASA launched the U.S.’s first space station, Skylab, which remained in orbit from 1973 to 1979. This launch was unmanned, but later 3 crews joined the station to make major repairs, conduct solar research, and perform scientific experiments.

During launch, Skylab’s micrometeoroid shield tore away from the main body of the craft, took one of the two main solar panel arrays with it, and jammed the remaining array so that it could not deploy. The first crew repaired the station by deploying a replacement heat shade and freeing the jammed solar panel array. Plans were developed to refurbish and reuse Skylab, using the new Space Shuttle to boost its orbit and repair it. Unfortunately, the Shuttle program ran into delays, and Skylab reentered Earth’s atmosphere anddisintegr... more »

Today in History: First U.S. Space Station Launched into Space, 1973
On May 14, 1973 — 41 years ago today — NASA launched the U.S.’s first space station, Skylab, which remained in orbit from 1973 to 1979. This launch was unmanned, but later 3 crews joined the station to make major repairs, conduct solar research, and perform scientific experiments.

During launch, Skylab’s micrometeoroid shield tore away from the main body of the craft, took one of the two main solar panel arrays with it, and jammed the remaining array so that it could not deploy. The first crew repaired the station by deploying a replacement heat shade and freeing the jammed solar panel array. Plans were developed to refurbish and reuse Skylab, using the new Space Shuttle to boost its orbit and repair it. Unfortunately, the Shuttle program ran into delays, and Skylab reentered Earth’s atmosphere and disintegrated in 1979 (with debris hitting Western Australia).   

Questions:
(1) How long have humans been living continuously in space (not the same humans, of course) aboard space stations?
(2) Would you live on a space station if it were possible?

YouTube videos:
•Skylab: Space Station I — 1970’s NASA Space Station (educational documentary; length 28:08). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xJb2yjtDYaY
•Skylab Disaster (length 07:47). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0WUugbcIE1I
•Skylab Falls (length 00:45). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1cDHPz1Qk2I
•Astronaut Jack Lousma Interviewed by Phil Konstantin (length 04:28). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wCl6z67AJw4

Web sources:
•http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/on-this-day/may-14/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skylab
•https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/skylab
•http://www.space.com/24927-showering-on-skylab.html

Book sources:
• Homesteading Space: The Skylab Story by David Hitt [including Astronaut Alan Bean’s journal that he kept during his time on Skylab]. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0803224346/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0803224346&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=JK4NBMQVHVK7ON5N

Image credits:
•A close-up view of Skylab photographed against the Earth background by the Skylab 3 Command Service Module during station keeping maneuvers just before docking. NASA http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Skylab_(SL-4).jpg
•Lift-off of Skylab 1 on May 14, 1973 from Launch Pad 39A from the Kennedy Space Center. NASA: https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/s73-26911.jpg
•Astronaut Jack R. Lousma taking a bath/shower in Skylab. NASA: http://www.space.com/24927-showering-on-skylab.html 

#history #history-tech #Skylab___

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2015-05-13 06:09:52 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Sikorsky Flew First Untethered Flight of U.S. Helicopter
On May 13, 1940 — 75 years ago today — Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky flew the first untethered flight of the VS-300 helicopter that he had spent years developing.

Questions:
(1) Have you flown in a helicopter? If you have time to share the experience, please do in the comments — e.g., at a vacation spot, in the military, a ride with the President in Marine One.
(2) Do you have more fear flying in a helicopter than an airplane?

YouTube videos:
•Igor Sikorsky test flies the Vought-Sikorsky helicopter (length 00:47). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PnbKZOG2gII
•Vought-Sikorsky VS-300 (length 01:12) [not in English, but great video of helicopter]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sHxEPJ7d6Fs
•The History of the Helicopter (length 17:43).https://www... more »

Today in History: Sikorsky Flew First Untethered Flight of U.S. Helicopter
On May 13, 1940 — 75 years ago today — Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky flew the first untethered flight of the VS-300 helicopter that he had spent years developing.

Questions:
(1) Have you flown in a helicopter? If you have time to share the experience, please do in the comments — e.g., at a vacation spot, in the military, a ride with the President in Marine One.
(2) Do you have more fear flying in a helicopter than an airplane?

YouTube videos:
•Igor Sikorsky test flies the Vought-Sikorsky helicopter (length 00:47). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PnbKZOG2gII
•Vought-Sikorsky VS-300 (length 01:12) [not in English, but great video of helicopter]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sHxEPJ7d6Fs
•The History of the Helicopter (length 17:43). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6_hScNDX53Y
•Helicopter History (length 10:42). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H5Bwu8-CNsY
•Igor Sikorsky Documentary (length 19:39). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hgJy8-6SBR4
•The Century of Flight—The Helicopter Story (BBC) (length 52:03). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M1EpgrbpA40

Web sources:
•http://www.sikorskyarchives.com/VS-300_Helicopter.php
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Igor_Sikorsky
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vought-Sikorsky_VS-300
•http://www.sikorskyarchives.com/S-47.php
•http://thegraph.com/2010/12/american-exceptionalism-igor-sikorsky-and-the-practical-helicopter/

Book sources:
• Heelicopter: Pioneering with Igor Sikorsky; Based on a Personal Account by William E. Hunt by William E. Hunt. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1853107689/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1853107689&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=OZMNYKGGAFN4BUDD
• Whirlybirds: A History of the U.S. Helicopter Pioneers by Jay P. Spenser. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0295976993/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0295976993&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=XH3E2RKMASPYQQM3
• The Sikorsky Legacy by Sergei I. Sikorsky. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0738549959/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0738549959&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=S6WGNGQ5OGZQQK5K

Image credits:
•First untethered flight of the VS-300 helicopter by Igor Sikorsky. 
•Igor Sikorsky and Charles Lindbergh. Igor Sikorsky taught Lindbergh how to fly a helicopter. Nice story about it here: http://www.charleslindbergh.com/mystory/helo.asp

Additional events in history on May 13:
•Igor Sikorsky Flew First 4-Engine Airplane

#history #history-tech #helicopter #Sikorsky___

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2015-05-12 14:08:42 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 0 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Dvorak Simplified Keyboard Patented, 1936
On May 12, 1936 — 79 years ago today — a keyboard designed to increase efficiency of input was patented by Dr. August Dvorak and Dr. William Dealer. The keyboard was designed to make typing as easy and painless as possible. In tests, it was found that the average QWERTY production typist’s fingers travel about 16-20 miles a day while typing. The DSK typist’s fingers traveled only about one mile — a 16x to 20x efficiency increase. As of 2005, according to the Guiness Book of World Records, the fastest English typist used the DSK to achieve a top speed of over 200 words per minute (wpm) while averaging 150 wpm for 50 minutes. Although the Dvorak Simplified Keyboard (DSK) has failed to become a popular standard, most major operating systems (Windows, OS, Linux, Android, iOS) support DSK.

The first keyboard designs inthe 1800s... more »

Today in History: Dvorak Simplified Keyboard Patented, 1936
On May 12, 1936 — 79 years ago today — a keyboard designed to increase efficiency of input was patented by Dr. August Dvorak and Dr. William Dealer. The keyboard was designed to make typing as easy and painless as possible. In tests, it was found that the average QWERTY production typist’s fingers travel about 16-20 miles a day while typing. The DSK typist’s fingers traveled only about one mile — a 16x to 20x efficiency increase. As of 2005, according to the Guiness Book of World Records, the fastest English typist used the DSK to achieve a top speed of over 200 words per minute (wpm) while averaging 150 wpm for 50 minutes. Although the Dvorak Simplified Keyboard (DSK) has failed to become a popular standard, most major operating systems (Windows, OS, Linux, Android, iOS) support DSK.

The first keyboard designs in the 1800s seemed to accommodate the needs of the machine more than the comfortable positioning of keys for easy access by humans. Some sets of commonly used keys were distributed away from each other to prevent the keybars from jamming as they smacked against the platen. In addition, to make it easier for salespeople to type “typewriter” in demonstrations of the product, all the keys for “typewriter” were located on the top alphabetical row. Over time the keyboard design was tweaked to incorporate frequently used keys that translated morse code. What resulted from this hodgepodge evolution is what has become known as the QWERTY keyboard today (named for the first 6 letters of the top alphabetical row on the keyboard). 

Questions:
(1) Do you think that the QWERTY keyboard will be replaced by a more efficient input system (for example, finger gesturing, eye movements, and voice commands) in the future? Please see polling question:
https://plus.google.com/+BradAcker/posts/LfNVCXRRQhY

(2) Do you use the Dvorak Simplified Keyboard or are you considering a change to it (as it is supported by most major operating systems)? Please see polling question: https://plus.google.com/+BradAcker/posts/KnrVBmtPzTm

YouTube videos:
•History of the Typewriter (prepared by IBM’s Office Products Division as a marketing piece for IBM products; length 08:57). History begins at 01:30. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zdLlrV8ruC0
•Early Typewriters (length 03:38). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-n1FDu2GZ8M
•A Brief History of Type (length 10:42). Big picture look at getting print on pages. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XohCW4ecYyg

Web sources:
•http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/fact-of-fiction-the-legend-of-the-qwerty-keyboard-49863249/?no-ist
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Words_per_minute
•http://www.google.com/patents/US2040248
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dvorak_Simplified_Keyboard
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_Dvorak
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Typewriting_Behavior
•https://www.addedbytes.com/blog/dvorak-vs-qwerty/
•http://www.dvorak-keyboard.com/
•http://site.xavier.edu/polt/typewriters/tw-history.html
•https://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/modelb/modelb_informal.html
•https://books.google.com/books?id=uVHlBwAAQBAJ&pg=PA66&lpg=PA66&dq=US+No.+2,040,248&source=bl&ots=NfTyeGhuVR&sig=_bvd9swVry9IT1aZprV-ZMtbB4s&hl=en&sa=X&ei=gqpQVYHpO8PFsAWPtoHgBg&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=US%20No.%202%2C040%2C248&f=false

Book sources:
• The Typewriter: An Illustrated History by Dover Pictorial Archive Series. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0486412377/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0486412377&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=TFJAVEQB6LMBVJVB
• Antique Typewriters: From Creed to Qwerty by Michael H. Adler. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0764301322/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0764301322&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=BIKQZRSZXU6NFQ3U

Image credits:
•A modern U.S. Dvorak keyboard layout. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:KB_United_States_Dvorak.svg
•U.S. Patent No. 207,559 by C. L. Sholes for the QWERTY layout and typewriter machine. Google patents.

#history #typewriter #keyboard #Dvorak___

2015-05-12 14:08:28 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 0 +1s)Open 

Dvorak Simplified Keyboard
Do you use the Dvorak Simplified Keyboard or are you considering a change to it (as it is supported by most major operating systems)?

Dvorak Simplified Keyboard
Do you use the Dvorak Simplified Keyboard or are you considering a change to it (as it is supported by most major operating systems)?___

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2015-05-11 13:39:22 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

Today in History: First Transcontinental Railroad Completed, 1869
On May 10, 1869 — 146 years ago today — the transcontinental railroad, connecting New York City to San Francisco, was completed. A ceremonial last spike was driven into a rail line at Promontory, Utah, to connect the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads and the first transcontinental railroad in the United States was “done” — the exact word sent out by telegraphers about this monumental achievement. What used to be a trip that took months by horse-powered wagon-trains from NYC to San Francisco could now be completed in days by locomotive.


Brief Background
For many decades, frontier statesmen realized a need to connect the East and West Coast of the American continent. But it wasn’t until 1853 that Congress appropriated funds to survey possible routes for the transcontinental railroad. ThenNorth-South... more »

Today in History: First Transcontinental Railroad Completed, 1869
On May 10, 1869 — 146 years ago today — the transcontinental railroad, connecting New York City to San Francisco, was completed. A ceremonial last spike was driven into a rail line at Promontory, Utah, to connect the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads and the first transcontinental railroad in the United States was “done” — the exact word sent out by telegraphers about this monumental achievement. What used to be a trip that took months by horse-powered wagon-trains from NYC to San Francisco could now be completed in days by locomotive.


Brief Background
For many decades, frontier statesmen realized a need to connect the East and West Coast of the American continent. But it wasn’t until 1853 that Congress appropriated funds to survey possible routes for the transcontinental railroad. Then North-South tensions that eventually resulted in the Civil War (1861-1865) prevented Congress from reaching an agreement on where the line would begin. One year into the Civil War, Congress passed the Pacific Railroad Act (1862), setting aside public land and making loans to two railroad companies that it chose to build the transcontinental line. The companies began work in 1866 — the Central Pacific from Omaha and the Union Pacific from Sacramento. With the incentive of acquiring land along the rail route, the two companies actually built lines past each other. So the meeting place had to be renegotiated at Promontory.

Constructing the line was an astounding undertaking, inasmuch as all supplies had to be shipped from the East Coast. Moreover, wild and mountainous terrain, harsh winters with workers being killed in avalanches, staggering summer heat, Indian attacks, explosive mishaps, and no existing housing made working conditions abominable for the railway laborers. Despite all this extreme adversity, the Union Pacific and Central Pacific built nearly 2,000 miles of track by 1869 — ahead of schedule and under budget. 

Completion of this first transcontinental railroad on May 10, 1869, had an immediate impact on the nation as the railroad facilitated rapid growth and expansion westward and helped to unite the entire continent.

YouTube videos:
•The Transcontinental Railroad. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-kq1r27S5DU

Web sources:
•http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Transcontinental_Railroad
•http://wunc.org/post/descendants-chinese-laborers-reclaim-transcontinental-tracks

Book sources:
• Empire Express: Building the First Transcontinental Railroad by David Howard Bain. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00B4FU6WC/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B00B4FU6WC&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=CYYIBHUK3NTMCGLQ
• Hear that Lonesome Whistle Blow: The Epic Story of the Transcontinental Railroads by Dee Brown. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B009LBSCMW/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B009LBSCMW&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=GVL3OIRWZTAMPLTI
• The Men Who Built the Transcontinental Railroad, 1863-1869: Nothing Like It in the World by Stephen E. Ambrose. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0743203178/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0743203178&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=QSK3VUKISPABAYEJ [recommended here on Google+, but not highly recommended by amazon critics]

Image credits:
•Last spike ceremony for the first transcontinental railroad, May 10, 1969. By Andrew J. Russell (1830-1902) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3A1869-Golden_Spike.jpg
•Meeting point of the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads in Promontory, Utah. Frame from The Transcontinental Railroad. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-kq1r27S5DU
•Plaque commemorating the last spike. The Transcontinental Railroad. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-kq1r27S5DU
•Cross-section of mountainous terrain from Omaha to San Francisco. Drawn by C. H. Wells for Harper’s Weekly, December 7, 1867.

#history #history-tech #railroad #transcontinental #Promontory #Union Pacific #Central Pacific___

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2015-05-11 13:39:14 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 0 +1s)Open 

Today in History: First Transcontinental Railroad Completed, 1869
On May 10, 1869 — 146 years ago today — the transcontinental railroad, connecting New York City to San Francisco, was completed. A ceremonial last spike was driven into a rail line at Promontory, Utah, to connect the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads and the first transcontinental railroad in the United States was “done” — the exact word sent out by telegraphers about this monumental achievement. What used to be a trip that took months by horse-powered wagon-trains from NYC to San Francisco could now be completed in days by locomotive.


Brief Background
For many decades, frontier statesmen realized a need to connect the East and West Coast of the American continent. But it wasn’t until 1853 that Congress appropriated funds to survey possible routes for the transcontinentalrailroad. T... more »

Today in History: First Transcontinental Railroad Completed, 1869
On May 10, 1869 — 146 years ago today — the transcontinental railroad, connecting New York City to San Francisco, was completed. A ceremonial last spike was driven into a rail line at Promontory, Utah, to connect the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads and the first transcontinental railroad in the United States was “done” — the exact word sent out by telegraphers about this monumental achievement. What used to be a trip that took months by horse-powered wagon-trains from NYC to San Francisco could now be completed in days by locomotive.


Brief Background
For many decades, frontier statesmen realized a need to connect the East and West Coast of the American continent. But it wasn’t until 1853 that Congress appropriated funds to survey possible routes for the transcontinental railroad. Then North-South tensions that eventually resulted in the Civil War (1861-1865) prevented Congress from reaching an agreement on where the line would begin. One year into the Civil War, Congress passed the Pacific Railroad Act (1862), setting aside public land and making loans to two railroad companies that it chose to build the transcontinental line. The companies began work in 1866 — the Central Pacific from Omaha and the Union Pacific from Sacramento. With the incentive of acquiring land along the rail route, the two companies actually built lines past each other. So the meeting place had to be renegotiated at Promontory.

Constructing the line was an astounding undertaking, inasmuch as all supplies had to be shipped from the East Coast. Moreover, wild and mountainous terrain, harsh winters with workers being killed in avalanches, staggering summer heat, Indian attacks, explosive mishaps, and no existing housing made working conditions abominable for the railway laborers. Despite all this extreme adversity, the Union Pacific and Central Pacific built nearly 2,000 miles of track by 1869 — ahead of schedule and under budget. 

Completion of this first transcontinental railroad on May 10, 1869, had an immediate impact on the nation as the railroad facilitated rapid growth and expansion westward and helped to unite the entire continent.

YouTube videos:
•The Transcontinental Railroad. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-kq1r27S5DU

Web sources:
•http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Transcontinental_Railroad
•http://wunc.org/post/descendants-chinese-laborers-reclaim-transcontinental-tracks

Book sources:
• Empire Express: Building the First Transcontinental Railroad by David Howard Bain. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00B4FU6WC/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B00B4FU6WC&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=CYYIBHUK3NTMCGLQ
• Hear that Lonesome Whistle Blow: The Epic Story of the Transcontinental Railroads by Dee Brown. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B009LBSCMW/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B009LBSCMW&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=GVL3OIRWZTAMPLTI
• The Men Who Built the Transcontinental Railroad, 1863-1869: Nothing Like It in the World by Stephen E. Ambrose. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0743203178/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0743203178&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=QSK3VUKISPABAYEJ [recommended here on Google+, but not highly recommended by amazon critics]

Image credits:
•Last spike ceremony for the first transcontinental railroad, May 10, 1969. By Andrew J. Russell (1830-1902) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3A1869-Golden_Spike.jpg
•Meeting point of the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads in Promontory, Utah. Frame from The Transcontinental Railroad. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-kq1r27S5DU
•Plaque commemorating the last spike. The Transcontinental Railroad. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-kq1r27S5DU
•Cross-section of mountainous terrain from Omaha to San Francisco. Drawn by C. H. Wells for Harper’s Weekly, December 7, 1867.

#history #history-tech #railroad #transcontinental #Promontory #Union Pacific #Central Pacific___

2015-05-11 13:37:21 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 0 +1s)Open 

DO YOU AGREE?
The Internet is the largest experiment involving anarchy in history.

More context: The Internet is the largest experiment involving anarchy in history. Hundreds of millions of people are, each minute, creating and consuming an untold amount of digital content in an online world that is not truly bound by terrestrial laws.... Never before in history have so many people, from so many places, had so much power at their fingertips. And while this is hardly the first technology revolution in our history, it is the first that will make it possible for almost everybody to own, develop and disseminate real-time content without having to rely on intermediaries. ~Eric Schmidt and Jared Cohen (The New Digital Age: Reshaping the Future of People, Nations and Business, p. 4)

DO YOU AGREE?
The Internet is the largest experiment involving anarchy in history.

More context: The Internet is the largest experiment involving anarchy in history. Hundreds of millions of people are, each minute, creating and consuming an untold amount of digital content in an online world that is not truly bound by terrestrial laws.... Never before in history have so many people, from so many places, had so much power at their fingertips. And while this is hardly the first technology revolution in our history, it is the first that will make it possible for almost everybody to own, develop and disseminate real-time content without having to rely on intermediaries. ~Eric Schmidt and Jared Cohen (The New Digital Age: Reshaping the Future of People, Nations and Business, p. 4)___

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2015-05-11 13:37:04 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 1 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Computer Beats Chess Champion for First Time in 6-Game Match, 1997
On May 11, 1997 — 18 years ago today — for the first time in history a computer beat a reigning world human chess champion, Garry Kasparov, after a 6 game match: IBM computer Deep Blue, 2 wins to Kasparov’s 1 win; there were 3 draws. The match lasted several days, and Kasparov accused the IBM team of cheating by using human input during the match. IBM denied the charge.

The odds of IBM winning the match were not known before the match began, but IBM knew that its machine could explore up to 200 million possible chess positions per second. On average, it computed 100 million possible chess positions per second, according to IBM research scientist Dr. Murray Campbell who was one of the developers of Deep Blue. This match was a rematch after Kasparov had won the first match with Deep Blue a yearearli... more »

Today in History: Computer Beats Chess Champion for First Time in 6-Game Match, 1997
On May 11, 1997 — 18 years ago today — for the first time in history a computer beat a reigning world human chess champion, Garry Kasparov, after a 6 game match: IBM computer Deep Blue, 2 wins to Kasparov’s 1 win; there were 3 draws. The match lasted several days, and Kasparov accused the IBM team of cheating by using human input during the match. IBM denied the charge.

The odds of IBM winning the match were not known before the match began, but IBM knew that its machine could explore up to 200 million possible chess positions per second. On average, it computed 100 million possible chess positions per second, according to IBM research scientist Dr. Murray Campbell who was one of the developers of Deep Blue. This match was a rematch after Kasparov had won the first match with Deep Blue a year earlier 4-2.

Can it be concluded that Deep Blue was more intelligent than a human being? According to Deep Blue’s architect, Feng-Hsiun Hsu, “No, it is only a finely-crafted tool that exhibits intelligent behavior in a limited domain.”

YouTube videos:
•Deep Blue beat Garry Kasparov in 1997 (length 06:06). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NJarxpYyoFI
•Game Over: Kasparov vs. Deep Blue (length 01:24:58). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EtMdMmrfipY
•IBM Research Scientist Dr. Murray Campbell on Deep Blue (length 03:24). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KFSVZlkHHmM
•Authors@Google: Garry Kasparov (length 01:04:06). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9hf31xOhchY

Web sources:
•http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/ibm100/us/en/icons/deepblue/
•http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/the-man-vs-the-machine-fivethirtyeight-films-signals/
•http://stanford.edu/~cpiech/cs221/apps/deepBlue.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deep_Blue_versus_Garry_Kasparov
•http://www.forbes.com/sites/davidewalt/2011/08/22/kasparov-deep-blue-game-6-1997/

Book sources:
• Behind Deep Blue: Building the Computer that Defeated the World Chess Champion by Feng-Hsiung Hsu. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0691118183/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0691118183&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=BOASKOBLWLRJILIX
• Kasparov versus Deep Blue: Computer Chess Comes of Age by Monty Newborn [book about the 1996 match that Kasparov won, 4-2, but in which Deep Blue defeated a reigning chess champion in a game for the first time in history; IBM nicknamed the 1997 match winner, Deeper Blue] http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0387948201/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0387948201&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=POJ5GGRCV6J67B55

Image credits:
•World chess champion (1996), Garry Kasparov (left) walks away from game 6 after resigning. Joseph Hoane, Jr., an IBM Deep Blue computer chess project team member remains behind (right) taking notes. http://www.forbes.com/sites/davidewalt/2011/08/22/kasparov-deep-blue-game-6-1997/
•Garry Kasparov contemplating move in match against Deeper Blue, 1997. http://www.historia.ro/sites/default/files/gty_russia_garry_kasparov_lpl_130606_wmain.jpg

#history #chess #DeeperBlue___

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2015-05-10 12:08:48 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 5 +1s)Open 

Ghost Town Data - Please Keep Secret
Tim Berners-Lee cites data from InternetLiveStats.com, so i’m assuming the figures reported have validity. If “active user” growth continues at the current rate (of the last 3 weeks), Google+ will have more active users than Facebook on Halloween 2015 — an appropriate time for “Ghost Town” to come alive, hey?

Source: www.internetlivestats.com

#Google+

Ghost Town Data - Please Keep Secret
Tim Berners-Lee cites data from InternetLiveStats.com, so i’m assuming the figures reported have validity. If “active user” growth continues at the current rate (of the last 3 weeks), Google+ will have more active users than Facebook on Halloween 2015 — an appropriate time for “Ghost Town” to come alive, hey?

Source: www.internetlivestats.com

#Google+___

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2015-05-10 12:08:35 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

Google’s Tribute to Moms
Did you see the Google Search tribute to Mother’s Day?
HAPPY MOTHER’S DAY! Without you, we wouldn’t be here.

Google’s Tribute to Moms
Did you see the Google Search tribute to Mother’s Day?
HAPPY MOTHER’S DAY! Without you, we wouldn’t be here.___

2015-05-09 20:59:33 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 0 +1s)Open 

Size of Planets in Our Solar System?
How many of these planets, based on their respective sizes, can you identify (without consulting google, haha)? [By hovering over the picture, and then clicking on the arrows that appear in the upper right corner, you can enlarge the image for better viewing.]

Size of Planets in Our Solar System?
How many of these planets, based on their respective sizes, can you identify (without consulting google, haha)? [By hovering over the picture, and then clicking on the arrows that appear in the upper right corner, you can enlarge the image for better viewing.]___

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2015-05-09 20:57:18 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 6 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Laser travelled through space and bounced off Moon for first time, 1962
On May 9, 1962 — 53 years ago today and about 2 years after the first laser was invented — for the first time in history a laser travelled through space and laser pulses were bounced off the Moon and used to determine the most accurate measurement of distance between the Earth and the Moon to that date.This historical first was conducted by Louis D. Smullin and Giorgio Flocco as part of project “Luna See” at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

YouTube videos:
•Measuring distance within the solar system with lasers and radar (length 01:32). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QFLNepr1GQU
•Understanding LASER Technology (length 56:46). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cXmVitV3UBw

Web sources:•http://w... more »

Today in History: Laser travelled through space and bounced off Moon for first time, 1962
On May 9, 1962 — 53 years ago today and about 2 years after the first laser was invented — for the first time in history a laser travelled through space and laser pulses were bounced off the Moon and used to determine the most accurate measurement of distance between the Earth and the Moon to that date.This historical first was conducted by Louis D. Smullin and Giorgio Flocco as part of project “Luna See” at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

YouTube videos:
•Measuring distance within the solar system with lasers and radar (length 01:32). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QFLNepr1GQU
•Understanding LASER Technology (length 56:46). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cXmVitV3UBw

Web sources:
•http://www.universetoday.com/30622/weekend-skywatchers-forecast-may-8-10-2009/
•http://the60sat50.blogspot.com/2012/05/wednesday-may-9-1962-project-luna-see.html
•http://www.cosmeo.com/viewTodayInHistoryEvents.cfm?guidAssetId=5671a19e-6a63-4b6f-85b3-89ac05180173&eventId=1154
•http://famousdaily.com/history/laser-beam-first-bounced-off-moon.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laser
•http://laserfest.org/lasers/history/early.cfm
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lunar_Laser_Ranging_experiment
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lidar
•https://books.google.com/books?id=0hWpWSF7e7YC&pg=PA673&lpg=PA673&dq=first+successful+use+of+laser+off+surface+of+moon&source=bl&ots=2fQQDBTjvE&sig=ucccZGKGo7en_8BqaMEyoZAhuBY&hl=en&sa=X&ei=E55NVfPAPMndsAWxx4CoAw&ved=0CEMQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=first%20successful%20use%20of%20laser%20off%20surface%20of%20moon&f=false
•http://physics.ucsd.edu/~tmurphy/apollo/basics.html
•http://steamregister.com/let-there-be-light-nasa-celebrates-the-international-year-of-light/
•http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/53764/RLE_QPR_066_VII.pdf?sequence=1 [see page 60 of report]

Book sources:
• How the Laser Happened: Adventures of a Scientist by Charles H. Townes (Nobel laureate, 1964, who invented the maser, of which the laser is one example). http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B0052IQKB8/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B0052IQKB8&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=JFAZIBNHE4H33763

Image credits:
•Top left: Moon with box outline of approximate area that first laser was directed. http://s1215.photobucket.com/user/lupuvictor1/media/AlbategniusandHipparchusCraters.jpg.html
•Top right: Photo of leaders of MIT’s Project Luna See—(from left to right) Louis D. Smullin, Stanley Kass from Raytheon, and Giorgio Fiocco. MIT Museum: http://www.k3pgp.org/Notebook/Lasereme/lunasee.jpg
•Bottom: Diagram of the transmitter and receiver devices used to conduct the first laser through space experiment: http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/53764/RLE_QPR_066_VII.pdf?sequence=1 [see page 63 of report]

#history #history-tech #laser #MoonToday in History: Laser travelled through space and bounced off Moon for first time, 1962
On May 9, 1962 — 53 years ago today and about 2 years after the first laser was invented — for the first time in history a laser travelled through space and laser pulses were bounced off the Moon and used to determine the most accurate measurement of distance between the Earth and the Moon to that date.This historical first was conducted by Louis D. Smullin and Giorgio Flocco as part of project “Luna See” at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

YouTube videos:
•Measuring distance within the solar system with lasers and radar (length 01:32). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QFLNepr1GQU
•Understanding LASER Technology (length 56:46). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cXmVitV3UBw

Web sources:
•http://www.universetoday.com/30622/weekend-skywatchers-forecast-may-8-10-2009/
•http://the60sat50.blogspot.com/2012/05/wednesday-may-9-1962-project-luna-see.html
•http://www.cosmeo.com/viewTodayInHistoryEvents.cfm?guidAssetId=5671a19e-6a63-4b6f-85b3-89ac05180173&eventId=1154
•http://famousdaily.com/history/laser-beam-first-bounced-off-moon.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laser
•http://laserfest.org/lasers/history/early.cfm
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lunar_Laser_Ranging_experiment
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lidar
•https://books.google.com/books?id=0hWpWSF7e7YC&pg=PA673&lpg=PA673&dq=first+successful+use+of+laser+off+surface+of+moon&source=bl&ots=2fQQDBTjvE&sig=ucccZGKGo7en_8BqaMEyoZAhuBY&hl=en&sa=X&ei=E55NVfPAPMndsAWxx4CoAw&ved=0CEMQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=first%20successful%20use%20of%20laser%20off%20surface%20of%20moon&f=false
•http://physics.ucsd.edu/~tmurphy/apollo/basics.html
•http://steamregister.com/let-there-be-light-nasa-celebrates-the-international-year-of-light/
•http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/53764/RLE_QPR_066_VII.pdf?sequence=1 [see page 60 of report]

Book sources:
• How the Laser Happened: Adventures of a Scientist by Charles H. Townes (Nobel laureate, 1964, who invented the maser, of which the laser is one example). http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B0052IQKB8/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B0052IQKB8&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=JFAZIBNHE4H33763

Image credits:
•Top left: Moon with box outline of approximate area that first laser was directed. http://s1215.photobucket.com/user/lupuvictor1/media/AlbategniusandHipparchusCraters.jpg.html
•Top right: Photo of leaders of MIT’s Project Luna See—(from left to right) Louis D. Smullin, Stanley Kass from Raytheon, and Giorgio Fiocco. MIT Museum: http://www.k3pgp.org/Notebook/Lasereme/lunasee.jpg
•Bottom: Diagram of the transmitter and receiver devices used to conduct the first laser through space experiment: http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/53764/RLE_QPR_066_VII.pdf?sequence=1 [see page 63 of report]

#history #history-tech #laser #Moon___

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2015-05-08 14:33:40 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 6 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Bahrain World Trade Center Was Finished, 2008
—World’s First Wind Turbines Incorporated into Commercial Building Structure
On May 8, 2008 — 7 years ago today — the Bahrain twin tower World Trade Center (WTC) was completed. Bahrain is an island in the Persian Gulf and is exposed to wind flows that come across the Persian Gulf. In fact, over 70% of the windflow from the Persian Gulf comes directly onshore in Bahrain. This natural explosure to wind makes Bahrain an ideal location for energy generation from wind. The WTC architects created a world’s structural first by athestically incorporating commercial wind turbines into the fabric of the building.

The Bahrain WTC is a 240 meters high complex, consisting of 2 towers linked via 3 “sky bridges,” each of which holds a 275 kilowatt wind turbine for a total windpower generation of 675kilowatts.... more »

Today in History: Bahrain World Trade Center Was Finished, 2008
—World’s First Wind Turbines Incorporated into Commercial Building Structure
On May 8, 2008 — 7 years ago today — the Bahrain twin tower World Trade Center (WTC) was completed. Bahrain is an island in the Persian Gulf and is exposed to wind flows that come across the Persian Gulf. In fact, over 70% of the windflow from the Persian Gulf comes directly onshore in Bahrain. This natural explosure to wind makes Bahrain an ideal location for energy generation from wind. The WTC architects created a world’s structural first by athestically incorporating commercial wind turbines into the fabric of the building.

The Bahrain WTC is a 240 meters high complex, consisting of 2 towers linked via 3 “sky bridges,” each of which holds a 275 kilowatt wind turbine for a total windpower generation of 675 kilowatts.

YouTube videos:
•Spinning Turbines (length 00:15). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zyw4sVZRby8
•2009 NOVA Award Winner—Bahrain World Trade Center Wind Turbines (length 05:35). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cb36OgCWi1I

Web sources:
•http://thegreatgeekmanual.com/blog/this-day-in-geek-history-may-8/2
•http://www.reuters.com/article/2007/03/19/us-bahrain-windpower-idUSL1928644820070319
•http://www.designbuild-network.com/projects/bahrain-world-trade-centre/
•http://yygeneralcorner.blogspot.com/2012/06/bahrain-world-trade-center.html
•http://www.mywindpowersystem.com/2013/12/26/the-most-amazing-wind-turbines-designs/
•http://islamicbay.blogspot.com/2009/05/bahrain-world-trade-center-activates.html
•http://bahrainwtc.com/en/content/about-bahrain-world-trade-center
•http://www.atkinsglobal.com/en-gb/projects/bahrain-world-trade-center
•http://www.worldwatch.org/node/5489
•http://www.mywindpowersystem.com/2013/12/26/the-most-amazing-wind-turbines-designs/
•http://www.archinomy.com/case-studies/283/the-world-trade-center-at-baharain-has-giant-wind-turbines
•http://www.alternative-energy-news.info/bahrain-wtc-wind-turbines/
•http://www.ctbuh.org/TallBuildings/FeaturedTallBuildings/Archive2008/BahrainWorldTradeCenterManama/tabid/4371/language/en-GB/Default.aspx
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_tallest_buildings_in_the_world

Book sources:
• Skyscrapers: A History of the World’s Most Extraordinary Buildings by Judith Dupre and Adrian Smith. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1579129420/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1579129420&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=EEVQEHCGHWWI5VNF

Image credits:
•Bahrain World Trade Center Twin Towers with Wind Turbin Bridges. http://assets.inhabitat.com/wp-content/blogs.dir/1/files/bahrainwtc2.jpg
•Satellite location of Bahrain relative to Iran, SaudiArabia, Yemen, and PersianGulf. GoogleMaps.

#history #history -tech #Bahrain #skyscraper___

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2015-05-07 06:14:15 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 1 +1s)Open 

Today in History: First Rocket Motor Delivered to Satellite to Thrust It into Geosynchronous Orbit, 1992
On May 7, 1992 — 23 years ago today — the Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-49) made its first of what would be a total of 25 flights into space, during which it docked once with the Russian space station Mir (now defunct) and 12 times with the International Space Station. On this maiden mission, for the first time in space history, 3 astronauts performed a simultaneous “spacewalk” (called an “EVA” for “extra-vehicular activity”) to capture a communications satellite, Intelsat VI, which had been launched March 14, 1990, but had failed to achieve its geosynchronous orbit, because its upper stage failed. After 3 attempts at getting the satellite attached to its new booster rocket, which was brought along in Endeavour’s cargo bay, the astronauts finally captured the satellite andsecured it to a “... more »

Today in History: First Rocket Motor Delivered to Satellite to Thrust It into Geosynchronous Orbit, 1992
On May 7, 1992 — 23 years ago today — the Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-49) made its first of what would be a total of 25 flights into space, during which it docked once with the Russian space station Mir (now defunct) and 12 times with the International Space Station. On this maiden mission, for the first time in space history, 3 astronauts performed a simultaneous “spacewalk” (called an “EVA” for “extra-vehicular activity”) to capture a communications satellite, Intelsat VI, which had been launched March 14, 1990, but had failed to achieve its geosynchronous orbit, because its upper stage failed. After 3 attempts at getting the satellite attached to its new booster rocket, which was brought along in Endeavour’s cargo bay, the astronauts finally captured the satellite and secured it to a “perigee motor” that would put the satellite in its desired geosynchronous orbit. The motor worked and successfully raised the Intelsat VI to its desired orbit for optimal communications — providing a relay station for 120,000 2-way simultaneous telephone calls and 3 television channels.

The Space Shuttle Endeavour was authorized to be built by Congress after the catastrophic loss of Space Shuttle Columbia on January 28, 1986. It was named by an elementary and secondary school competition in which students were asked to select a name based on “an exploratory or research sea vessel.” The name “Endeavour” won the competition, as it was the sea vessel used by world explorer James Cook, who had been commissioned by the King of England to explore the largely unknown lands of Australia and New Zealand and to observe the transit of Planet Venus at Tahiti. The readings Cook got on Venus enabled astronomers to calculate the distance of the Earth from the Sun and to estimate the dimensions of the Universe. Cook also accurately charted New Zealand and Australia and successfully navigated the Great Barrier Reef; moreover, his team observed thousands of new plants and animals. Space Shuttle Endeavour, in its planned missions, embodied the same spirit of exploration and research work as Cook’s Endeavor sea vessel.

During its 19-years of space flight service, Endeavour flew 123 million miles (198 million kilometers) and orbited the Earth more than 4,600 times. It was constructed mostly from spare parts left over from the building of shuttles Discovery and Atlantis, and this “recycling ethic” helped to keep the cost of its construction to only $1.7 billion. Endeavor went on to fix the Hubble Space Telescope on its STS-61 flight. In December 1998, on STS-88, Endeavour took the Unity node (the passageway that connects the working modules) to initiate the start of the International Space Station.

Endeavour was retired in 2011 and took an historic retirement flight atop NASA’s Boeing 747, which flew over multiple cities throughout the U.S., including Mountain View, as it moved from the East Coast to its retirement home at the California Science Center in Los Angeles. [Please see: https://plus.google.com/+AlexLightman/posts/F6t7owrxV5s]

YouTube videos:
•Space Shuttle STS-49 Endeavour Intelsat VI Repair, p 1-2 Post Flight Press Conference 1992 NASA (length 13:12). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z5MPkiPoL4g
•Space Shuttle STS-49 Endeavour Intelsat VI Repair, p 1-2 Post Flight Press Conference 1992 NASA (length 09:24). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DCr2W2XGvKI

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Endeavour
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intelsat_603
•http://www.nasa.gov/centers/kennedy/shuttleoperations/orbiters/endeavour-info.html
•http://www.space.com/11667-nasa-shuttle-endeavour-1st-commander-brandenstein.html
•http://www.space.com/17695-space-shuttle-endeavour-surprising-facts.html
•https://plus.google.com/+AlexLightman/posts/F6t7owrxV5s
•http://www.space.com/11296-memorable-space-shuttle-missions.html

Book sources:
• The Space Shuttle Endeavour by Stephen Hayward Silberkraus. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1467131571/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1467131571&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=P5ZOGQEY74MCBTIJ
• The Space Shuttle: Celebrating Thirty Years of NASA’s First Space Plane by Piers Bizony. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0760339414/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0760339414&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=KQP3U6DB55SH2OEZ
• Captain Cook’s Journal During His First Voyage Round the World Made in H.M. Bark “Endeavour,” 1768-1771 by James Cook. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00AQMBMVS/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B00AQMBMVS&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=2B7JFJP2QKSOYCAJ

Memorabilia:
•Space shuttle F/S/ Endeavor (L) Aircraft by Mastercraft Collections. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00EYYLYOY/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B00EYYLYOY&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=TGDV7RCMJ5C72KHQ
•Space Shuttle Endeavour with Crawler Transporter by Dragon Models USA. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00LMIPJ78/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B00LMIPJ78&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=X7UKS2RRYXRQGUAT

Image credits:
•First time 3-astronauts in space — capturing the Intelsat VI communications satellite and affixing it to its new perigee motor, brought along in the shuttle’s cargo bay. NASA [see: http://www.space.com/11667-nasa-shuttle-endeavour-1st-commander-brandenstein.html]
•Portrait of James Cook, British Explorer whose ship was named the Endeavour. Nathaniel Dance-Holland [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ACaptainjamescookportrait.jpg
•Replica of HMS Endeavour, the ship captained by James Cook on his first voyage of discovery to Australia and New Zealand from 1769 to 1771. http://extremethinkover.com/tag/hms-bark-endeavour/
•Map showing the first voyage of James Cook’s voyage around the world (in a ship called the HMS Endeavor), 1768 to 1771. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/1/1d/Cook%27sFirstVoyage54.png

#history #history -tech #space #Endeavour___

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2015-05-06 06:09:51 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 8 +1s)Open 

Testing the new collections feature ...
Today in History: First Planetary Probe Launched from Space Shuttle, 1989
On May 4, 1989 — 26 years ago today — the Magellan spacecraft was launched from the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-30) on a trajectory to a Venus orbit to conduct radar mapping of Venus. A spring mechanism in the cargo bay sent Magellan on a slow launch until it was about 400-500 feet (120-125 meters) from Atlantis, when the crew of Atlantis activated Magellan’s solid rocket motor and sent it on its way to Venus. 

Magellan was the first planetary probe to be launched by a space shuttle. It was built partially with back-up space parts from other spacecraft and weighed 7,612 pounds (3,460 kilograms) at launch. Magellan arrived at Venus and was inserted into an orbit of Venus on August 10, 1990. 

Although the surface temperature of Venusis abou... more »

Testing the new collections feature ...
Today in History: First Planetary Probe Launched from Space Shuttle, 1989
On May 4, 1989 — 26 years ago today — the Magellan spacecraft was launched from the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-30) on a trajectory to a Venus orbit to conduct radar mapping of Venus. A spring mechanism in the cargo bay sent Magellan on a slow launch until it was about 400-500 feet (120-125 meters) from Atlantis, when the crew of Atlantis activated Magellan’s solid rocket motor and sent it on its way to Venus. 

Magellan was the first planetary probe to be launched by a space shuttle. It was built partially with back-up space parts from other spacecraft and weighed 7,612 pounds (3,460 kilograms) at launch. Magellan arrived at Venus and was inserted into an orbit of Venus on August 10, 1990. 

Although the surface temperature of Venus is about 900° F (about 480° C), Venus is similar to Earth in size and scientists believe it can teach us about Earth’s history and inform us what we must do on Earth to avoid the temperature fate of Venus.

YouTube videos:
•Magellan Probe 1989 Deployment (length 00:57). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HBqEVCkEkoY
•Space Shuttle STS-30 Atlantis Magellan Venus Probe pt1-2 Post-flight Press Conference 1989 NASA (length 09:13). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=76zY-E2_jxg
•Space Shuttle STS-30 Atlantis Magellan Venus Probe pt2-2 Post-flight Press Conference 1989 NASA (length 07:40). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IM8gWxtD6Ao

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magellan_%28spacecraft%29
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-30
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inertial_Upper_Stage
•http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/magellan/
•http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/magellan.html
•http://astrosociety.org/edu/publications/tnl/18/18.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_missions_to_Venus

Book sources:
• Venus: Magellan Explores Our Twin Planet (A Voyage Into Space Book) by Franklyn M. Branley. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0060203846/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0060203846&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=6E4RIWNAZVUT36H4
• The Scientific Exploration of Venus by Fredric W. Taylor. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1107023483/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1107023483&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=3VSRSHQTCZIDVCRK
• The Space Shuttle: Celebrating Thirty Years of NASA’s First Space Plane by Piers Bizony. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0760339414/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0760339414&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=2CHQKZFWJ2CQ7GCR

Image credits:
•Top: Magellan deployment from Space Shuttle Atlantis cargo bay. NASA
•Bottom left to right: 
*Close up of the Magellan spacecraft in the Atlantis cargo bay. NASA
*Space Shuttle STS-30 Atlantis launch on May 4, 1989. NASA
*Crew of Space Shuttle STS-30 Atlantis that launched Magellan. From left to right: Ronald J. Grabe, pilot; David M. Walker, commander; and mission specialists Norman E. Thagard, Mary L. Cleave, and Mark C. Lee. 

#history #Magellan #Venus #Atlantis___

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2015-05-06 06:09:15 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 2 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Hindenburg Passenger Airship Destroyed by Fire, 1937
On May 6, 1937 — 78 years ago today —  the German rigid airship (lifted by highly flammable hydrogen) caught fire and crashed to the ground from about 200 feet in the air as it was attempting to land in Lakehurst, NJ. The Hindenburg (model LZ-129) was nearly 3 football fields long (803.8 feet) with a diameter well over twice as wide as a football field (135.1 feet). The LZ-129 was over 3 times the length of a Boeing 747 or the European Airbus and 10 times as wide as the fuselages of both. 

There were 36 passengers on board and 61 crew members; 13 passengers, 22 crew members, and 1 ground crewman died. The disaster shattered public confidence in these rigid airships and marked the ending of their manufacture for passenger travel.

YouTube videos:
•1937 Hindenburg Explosion in Color (01:09)with He... more »

Today in History: Hindenburg Passenger Airship Destroyed by Fire, 1937
On May 6, 1937 — 78 years ago today —  the German rigid airship (lifted by highly flammable hydrogen) caught fire and crashed to the ground from about 200 feet in the air as it was attempting to land in Lakehurst, NJ. The Hindenburg (model LZ-129) was nearly 3 football fields long (803.8 feet) with a diameter well over twice as wide as a football field (135.1 feet). The LZ-129 was over 3 times the length of a Boeing 747 or the European Airbus and 10 times as wide as the fuselages of both. 

There were 36 passengers on board and 61 crew members; 13 passengers, 22 crew members, and 1 ground crewman died. The disaster shattered public confidence in these rigid airships and marked the ending of their manufacture for passenger travel.

YouTube videos:
•1937 Hindenburg Explosion in Color (01:09) with Herbert Morrison’s famous commentary. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jH-mhZLuGRk
•Hindenburg Disaster Real Footage (1937) (length 05:00). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CgWHbpMVQ1U
•Hindenburg Disaster by the Disasters Channel (length 46:04). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_R7GoRcuDzA

Web sources:
•http://www.theatlantic.com/photo/2012/05/75-years-since-the-hindenburg-disaster/100292/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindenburg_disaster
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LZ_129_Hindenburg
•http://www.airships.net/hindenburg/size-speed
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wide-body_aircraft
•http://www.airbus.com/aircraftfamilies/passengeraircraft/a380family/specifications/

Book sources:
• Inside the Hindenburg by Mireille Majoor. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0316123862/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0316123862&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=M6H3ZPI3LAE4JTTF
• Hindenburg: An Illustrated History by Rick Archbold. http://www.amazon.com/Hindenburg-Illustrated-History-Rick-Archbold/dp/0446517844/ref=pd_sim_b_1?ie=UTF8&refRID=04JWFJ16831S1EY3WHTS
• Transatlantic Airships: An Illustrated History by John Christopher. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/184797161X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=184797161X&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=NMUYQN4OYGBRI6JJ
• Dirigible Dreams: The Age of the Airship by C. Michael Hiam. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1611685605/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1611685605&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=OTNXRJMDQW5HV4ZL

Image credits [coming soon]
•Top left: The Hindenburg floats past the Empire State Building over Manhattan on August 8, 1936, en route to Lakehurst, New Jersey, from Germany. This is not the journey that ended in disaster, but a year before. AP Photo via The Atlantic: http://www.theatlantic.com/photo/2012/05/75-years-since-the-hindenburg-disaster/100292/ 
•Top right: The Hindenburg floats over Manhattan Island in New York City on May 6, 1937, just hours from disaster in nearby New Jersey. AP Photo via The Atlantic: http://www.theatlantic.com/photo/2012/05/75-years-since-the-hindenburg-disaster/100292/
•Center left: The Hindenburg burst into flames as it nosed toward the mooring post at the Naval Air Station in Lakehurst, New Jersey, on May 6, 1937. The airship was still some 200 feet above the ground. AP Photo/Murray Becker: http://www.theatlantic.com/photo/2012/05/75-years-since-the-hindenburg-disaster/100292/
•Center right: The Hindenburg quickly went up in flames -- less than a minute passed between the first signs of trouble and complete disaster. This image captures a moment between the second and third explosions before the airship hit the ground. AP Photo: http://www.theatlantic.com/photo/2012/05/75-years-since-the-hindenburg-disaster/100292/
•Bottom: Looking a little like a gigantic dead whale, the burnt remains of the Hindenburg near the hangar at the Naval Air station in Lakehurst, New Jersey, on May 7, 1937. AP Photo/Murray Becker: http://www.theatlantic.com/photo/2012/05/75-years-since-the-hindenburg-disaster/100292/

PLEASE NOTE: I am not omniscient, so i use as many sources as my time permits for all the statements i make. Sometimes, i find that valid sources seem to contradict each other or do not confirm each other’s statements. If you know from your reading or experience that there are errors in this post, please let me know in comments below and please try to provide links to substantiate your points of concern. Thanks for your help.

#history #Hindenburg #dirigible___

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2015-05-05 12:47:59 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

Today in History: First Woman Granted U.S Patent, 1809
On May 5, 1809 — 206 years ago today — Mary Dixon Kies became the first female, and first African-American female, to be granted a patent by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. The patent was for a technique of weaving straw with silk and thread to be used in the making of straw hats for field workers and for bonnets. 

The Patent Act of 1790 provided an opportunity for anyone, either male or female, to protect an invention. But at this time, many states prohibited women from legally owning property independent of their husbands, so women inventors were discouraged from filing for patents on their inventions. Mary Dixon Kies was the first woman to break the pattern by filing for and gaining a patent.

There is no Google patent record for this patent, because there was a U.S. Patent Office fire on December 15, 1836that... more »

Today in History: First Woman Granted U.S Patent, 1809
On May 5, 1809 — 206 years ago today — Mary Dixon Kies became the first female, and first African-American female, to be granted a patent by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. The patent was for a technique of weaving straw with silk and thread to be used in the making of straw hats for field workers and for bonnets. 

The Patent Act of 1790 provided an opportunity for anyone, either male or female, to protect an invention. But at this time, many states prohibited women from legally owning property independent of their husbands, so women inventors were discouraged from filing for patents on their inventions. Mary Dixon Kies was the first woman to break the pattern by filing for and gaining a patent.

There is no Google patent record for this patent, because there was a U.S. Patent Office fire on December 15, 1836 that destroyed 10,000 patent records.

YouTube videos:
•How to pronounce Mary Dixon Kies (length 00:34). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cNBvp0YOOkw
•1st woman U.S. patent holder — Mary Dixon Kies in 1809 (length 01:27). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XPIAPgpby1I
•How to Patent and Sell an Invention (length 02:50). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G8W0xr__FUo

Web sources:
•http://www.americaslibrary.gov/jb/nation/jb_nation_maryk_1.html
•http://www.toptenz.net/10-great-female-inventors.php
•http://www.wired.com/2009/05/dayintech_0505/
•http://connecticut.sblc.wikispaces.net/Mary+Dixon+Kies
•http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blkeis.htm [date says May 15, but most other sources say May 5]
•http://www.womenhistoryblog.com/2011/11/mary-kies.html
•https://www.nwhm.org/online-exhibits/youngandbrave/metcalf.html
•http://www.stuffmomnevertoldyou.com/blog/lady-inventors-americas-female-patent-holder/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1836_U.S._Patent_Office_fire

Book sources:
• Girls Think of Everything: Stories of Ingenious Inventions by Women by Catherine Thimmesh. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0618195637/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0618195637&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=OTR35GD6JTZTINJZ
• The Patent Office Pony: A History of the Early Patent Office by Kenneth W. Dobyns. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1887901132/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1887901132&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=KLJYLTD5HJHX5ZNC

Image credit:
•Gravestone of Mary Dixon Kies in South Killingly, CT at Killingly Grange. https://www.flickr.com/photos/emma_jane_michelle/3726271801/

#history #patent #women #stawhats___

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2015-05-05 12:44:13 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 1 +1s)Open 

Today in History: First Planetary Probe Launched from Space Shuttle, 1989
On May 4, 1989 — 26 years ago today — the Magellan spacecraft was launched from the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-30) on a trajectory to a Venus orbit to conduct radar mapping of Venus. A spring mechanism in the cargo bay sent Magellan on a slow launch until it was about 400-500 feet (120-125 meters) from Atlantis, when the crew of Atlantis activated Magellan’s solid rocket motor and sent it on its way to Venus. 

Magellan was the first planetary probe to be launched by a space shuttle. It was built partially with back-up space parts from other spacecraft and weighed 7,612 pounds (3,460 kilograms) at launch. Magellan arrived at Venus and was inserted into an orbit of Venus on August 10, 1990. 

Although the surface temperature of Venus is about 900° F (about 480° C), Venus issimilar t... more »

Today in History: First Planetary Probe Launched from Space Shuttle, 1989
On May 4, 1989 — 26 years ago today — the Magellan spacecraft was launched from the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-30) on a trajectory to a Venus orbit to conduct radar mapping of Venus. A spring mechanism in the cargo bay sent Magellan on a slow launch until it was about 400-500 feet (120-125 meters) from Atlantis, when the crew of Atlantis activated Magellan’s solid rocket motor and sent it on its way to Venus. 

Magellan was the first planetary probe to be launched by a space shuttle. It was built partially with back-up space parts from other spacecraft and weighed 7,612 pounds (3,460 kilograms) at launch. Magellan arrived at Venus and was inserted into an orbit of Venus on August 10, 1990. 

Although the surface temperature of Venus is about 900° F (about 480° C), Venus is similar to Earth in size and scientists believe it can teach us about Earth’s history and inform us what we must do on Earth to avoid the temperature fate of Venus.

YouTube videos:
•Magellan Probe 1989 Deployment (length 00:57). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HBqEVCkEkoY
•Space Shuttle STS-30 Atlantis Magellan Venus Probe pt1-2 Post-flight Press Conference 1989 NASA (length 09:13). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=76zY-E2_jxg
•Space Shuttle STS-30 Atlantis Magellan Venus Probe pt2-2 Post-flight Press Conference 1989 NASA (length 07:40). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IM8gWxtD6Ao

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magellan_%28spacecraft%29
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-30
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inertial_Upper_Stage
•http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/magellan/
•http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/magellan.html
•http://astrosociety.org/edu/publications/tnl/18/18.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_missions_to_Venus

Book sources:
• Venus: Magellan Explores Our Twin Planet (A Voyage Into Space Book) by Franklyn M. Branley. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0060203846/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0060203846&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=6E4RIWNAZVUT36H4
• The Scientific Exploration of Venus by Fredric W. Taylor. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1107023483/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1107023483&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=3VSRSHQTCZIDVCRK
• The Space Shuttle: Celebrating Thirty Years of NASA’s First Space Plane by Piers Bizony. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0760339414/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0760339414&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=2CHQKZFWJ2CQ7GCR

Image credits:
•Top: Magellan deployment from Space Shuttle Atlantis cargo bay. NASA
•Bottom left to right: 
*Close up of the Magellan spacecraft in the Atlantis cargo bay. NASA
*Space Shuttle STS-30 Atlantis launch on May 4, 1989. NASA
*Crew of Space Shuttle STS-30 Atlantis that launched Magellan. From left to right: Ronald J. Grabe, pilot; David M. Walker, commander; and mission specialists Norman E. Thagard, Mary L. Cleave, and Mark C. Lee. 

#history #Magellan #Venus #Atlantis___

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2015-05-03 12:35:26 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 6 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Liberty Bell 7 Found on floor of Atlantic Ocean, 1999
On May 1, 1999 — 16 years ago today and 54 years after its original flight — the second Mercury spacecraft to successfully complete a suborbital mission, Liberty Bell 7, was located 3 miles down at the position on the floor of the Atlantic Ocean where it had accidentally sunk back on July 21, 1961. 

The Liberty Bell 7 flew on NASA’s second manned mission into space — a suborbital flight by astronaut Virgil I. (“Gus”) Grissom. The flight lasted but 15-½ minutes, reaching an altitude of more than 100 nautical miles (190 kilometers), and landed in the Atlantic Ocean. The mission went perfectly until just after “splashdown” — when the capsule’s hatch cover, which had been newly designed to release by a controlled explosion, accidently blew off and a torrent of water flooded the capsule. Grissomescaped into the ocea... more »

Today in History: Liberty Bell 7 Found on floor of Atlantic Ocean, 1999
On May 1, 1999 — 16 years ago today and 54 years after its original flight — the second Mercury spacecraft to successfully complete a suborbital mission, Liberty Bell 7, was located 3 miles down at the position on the floor of the Atlantic Ocean where it had accidentally sunk back on July 21, 1961. 

The Liberty Bell 7 flew on NASA’s second manned mission into space — a suborbital flight by astronaut Virgil I. (“Gus”) Grissom. The flight lasted but 15-½ minutes, reaching an altitude of more than 100 nautical miles (190 kilometers), and landed in the Atlantic Ocean. The mission went perfectly until just after “splashdown” — when the capsule’s hatch cover, which had been newly designed to release by a controlled explosion, accidently blew off and a torrent of water flooded the capsule. Grissom escaped into the ocean, but his spacesuit began filling with water and making it very difficult for him to stay afloat. While the recovery helicopter tried in vain to prevent Grissom’s capsule from sinking, Grissom was frantically waving and trying to signal that he was also drowning. Finally, the first helicopter that was showing signs of motor strain let the capsule sink; and a second helicopter moved in to rescue Grissom.

The Liberty Bell 7 sank to a depth of about 3 miles and remained there for decades until a dedicated team of space historians made a concerted effort to locate the capsule and retrieve it in 1999. On this day, May 1 (1999), the capsule was spotted by underwater robot and its location was properly recorded; but it wasn’t until the anniversary of the Moon landing on July 20 that Liberty Bell 7 was finally recovered (and 38 years from the eve of the Liberty Bell’s mission).

YouTube videos:
•In Search of Liberty Bell 7 (1/10) (length: 08:23). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v4ZdZDvx4-o
•In Search of Liberty Bell 7 (2/10) (length 09:50). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KEScKHrqZ1Q
•In Search of Liberty Bell 7 (3/10) (length 09:26). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ra9McuRODlQ
•In Search of Liberty Bell 7 (4/10) (length 10:18). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=68SZGOiWqCo
•In Search of Liberty Bell 7 (5/10) (length 10:57). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qIvamlDwsRM
•In Search of Liberty Bell 7 (6/10) (length 09:36). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=78izAxpHSOI
•In Search of Liberty Bell 7 (7/10) (length 08:35). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LD0M4Op5_Q8
•In Search of Liberty Bell 7 (8/10) (length 09:57). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lmlAmDRNk40
•In Search of Liberty Bell 7 (9/10) (length 06:27). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pkzZ-3q1zAM
•In Search of Liberty Bell 7 (10/10) (length 09:47). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FI-Y3fpQ_30
•Launch of Liberty Bell 7—CBS (length 02:51). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VyeclM9T1sE

Web sources:
•http://www.cnn.com/TECH/space/9907/20/grissom.capsule.01/
•http://www.science20.com/science_20/gus_grissom_and_liberty_bell_7_50_years_ago_today-81075
•http://articles.latimes.com/1999/dec/12/news/mn-43115
•https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=2202&dat=19990721&id=rBEmAAAAIBAJ&sjid=u_0FAAAAIBAJ&pg=6801,1790315&hl=en
•http://www.cnn.com/TECH/space/9907/20/grissom.capsule.01/
•http://www.space.com/26423-failed-attempt-to-recover-liberty-bell-7.html
•http://www.sfgate.com/news/article/Mystery-Unhatched-A-Kansas-museum-has-new-clues-3312238.php

Book sources:
• Liberty Bell 7: The Suborbital Mercury Flight of Virgil I. Grissom by Colin Burgess. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/3319043900/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=3319043900&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=TJAUHQAQUC2SWFPO
• Lost Spacecraft: The Search for Liberty Bell 7 by Curt Newport. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1896522882/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1896522882&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=RL6UMCJS7RQQMILO

Image credits:
•Top Left: Gus Grissom climbing into Liberty Bell 7 on the launch pad, July 21, 1961. NASA
•Top Right: Liberty Bell 7 — moment of lift-off, July 21, 1961. NASA
•Middle Left: Marine helicopter trying in vain to save Liberty Bell 7 as it fills with water. NASA
•Middle Right: Marine helicopter lifting a tired Gus Grissom to safety after his space suit had filled with water and he had almost drowned. NASA
•Bottom Left: Liberty Bell 7 first photographed on Atlantic Ocean floor on May 1, 1999 from the Magellan robot. [Frame from videos above.]
•Bottom Right: Liberty Bell 7 after $250,000 restoration at the Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center.

#history #LibertyBell7 #MercuryProgram___

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2015-05-03 12:34:47 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 1 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Royalty-Free Web Was Officially Born
On April 30, 1993 — 22 years ago today — the World Wide Web Was officially born for all Internet users when CERN (the Center for European Nuclear Research) put the Web software in the public domain. On the very next release of the software, CERN made it available with an open license, because it wanted to maximize its dissemination and use. 

To be sure, other dates are frequently cited as the birth of the Web. And why not? Its birth is worth celebrating as often as possible, hey?

• March 12, 1989 — Tim Berners-Lee submits his distributed information proposal to management as CERN. [See: https://plus.google.com/+BradAcker/posts/aB7zmFrmDz7]
• December 20, 1989 — the world’s first website and web server go online at CERN.
• November 13, 1990 — the first web page was created and posted by TimBerners-Lee. [See:... more »

Today in History: Royalty-Free Web Was Officially Born
On April 30, 1993 — 22 years ago today — the World Wide Web Was officially born for all Internet users when CERN (the Center for European Nuclear Research) put the Web software in the public domain. On the very next release of the software, CERN made it available with an open license, because it wanted to maximize its dissemination and use. 

To be sure, other dates are frequently cited as the birth of the Web. And why not? Its birth is worth celebrating as often as possible, hey?

• March 12, 1989 — Tim Berners-Lee submits his distributed information proposal to management as CERN. [See: https://plus.google.com/+BradAcker/posts/aB7zmFrmDz7]
• December 20, 1989 — the world’s first website and web server go online at CERN.
• November 13, 1990 — the first web page was created and posted by Tim Berners-Lee. [See: https://plus.google.com/+BradAcker/posts/aB7zmFrmDz7]
• January 10, 1991 — the web is extended to the high-energy physics community, and a wide range of research laboratories and universities began to use it.
• August 6, 1991 — Tim Berners-Lee posted a summary of the World Wide Web project on a number of Internet newsgroups. This moment is considered the public debut of the web. [See: https://plus.google.com/+BradAcker/posts/aB7zmFrmDz7]
• December 12, 1991 — the first web server outside of Europe was installed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in California.
• April 30, 1993 — CERN released the source code of Berners-Lee hypertext project, the World Wide Web, into the public domain.

And, yes, the Web is not the Internet. The Internet emerged in the late 1950s and 1960s. But the Web and the eventual development of browsers are what have led to the Internet’s phenomenal success as a platform for connecting billions of people instantaneously to one another, gathering and distributing knowledge, and empowering individuals. Billions of people now think of the Web as an inextricable part of modern existence!

YouTube videos:
•www.TheWorldWideWeb.com (length 02:28). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K1bE3OMoGFY
•The Web is not the Net (length 10:54). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=scWj1BMRHUA
•Brief History of the Internet: Ethan Zuckerman (length 06:51). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V2QdEj8UjBc
•How the World Wide Web just happened by Tim Berners-Lee (25:57). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yF5-6AcohQw
•Loic Le Meur interviews Tim Berners-Lee (51:13). https://plus.google.com/+BradAcker/posts/aB7zmFrmDz7

Web sources:
•http://home.web.cern.ch/topics/birth-web
•http://webfoundation.org/about/vision/history-of-the-web/

Book sources:
• Weaving the Web: The Original Design and Ultimate Destiny of the World Wide Web by Tim Berners-Lee. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/006251587X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=006251587X&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=6QPXTXUGVXVO6R32

Image:
Bottom Left: Tim Berners-Lee, writer of the original web.

#history #Web #WorldWideWeb #Internet #openweb___

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2015-05-03 12:33:43 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Microsoft Excel Introduced, 1985
On May 2, 1985 — 30 years ago today — a 10-year old Microsoft Corporation introduced a new spreadsheet application, Excel 1.0. Excel was primarily developed by Douglas Klunder (who is now a privacy activist for the American Civil Liberties Union in Washington state). Excel was a new Microsoft brand name for an enhanced “Multiplan,” the earlier Microsoft spreadsheet package built to compete with the first spreadsheet program, Visicalc, for personal computers. At the time of Excel’s introduction, Lotus 1-2-3 (made by Lotus Development Corporation, co-founded by Mitch Kapor and Jonathan Sachs) had become the dominant spreadsheet package on the market, replacing the original Visicalc as the most used personal computer “killer app.”

Over the 1985-1995 period, Excel continued to improve with new releases, as did Lotus 1-2-3.The Lotus Dev... more »

Today in History: Microsoft Excel Introduced, 1985
On May 2, 1985 — 30 years ago today — a 10-year old Microsoft Corporation introduced a new spreadsheet application, Excel 1.0. Excel was primarily developed by Douglas Klunder (who is now a privacy activist for the American Civil Liberties Union in Washington state). Excel was a new Microsoft brand name for an enhanced “Multiplan,” the earlier Microsoft spreadsheet package built to compete with the first spreadsheet program, Visicalc, for personal computers. At the time of Excel’s introduction, Lotus 1-2-3 (made by Lotus Development Corporation, co-founded by Mitch Kapor and Jonathan Sachs) had become the dominant spreadsheet package on the market, replacing the original Visicalc as the most used personal computer “killer app.”

Over the 1985-1995 period, Excel continued to improve with new releases, as did Lotus 1-2-3. The Lotus Development Corporation also offered other productivity packages for business. But because Excel was made to work on MS-Windows and then became part of MS-Office, Excel was becoming the dominant spreadsheet package. In 1995, IBM acquired Lotus 1-2-3 by buying Lotus Development Corporation in order to compete in this market with Microsoft. As new versions of Microsoft Windows and Office emerged, Excel’s popularity grew while Lotus 1-2-3 slowly lost market share and eventually IBM ended its Lotus Software brand in 2013.

YouTube videos:
•The Computer Chronicles — Spreadsheet Wars (length 28:10). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eAiZBUYNUBA

Vimeo video:
•Protecting Civil Liberties in the Digital Age (length 44:45). https://vimeo.com/42900045 [Doug Klinder, prime developer of Multiplan/Excel at Microsoft, participates in a panel discussion—not about spreadsheets, but ramifications of data from spreadsheets on privacy]

Web sources:
•https://books.google.com/books?id=4y4EAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA28&lpg=PA28&dq=excel+Microsoft+%22may+2%22&source=bl&ots=WA_wad9XyZ&sig=sHbuRLbP--AbQS95K9Vx5jdEOes&hl=en&sa=X&ei=dZJDVaXCGMLwsAWRooCwBw&ved=0CFoQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=excel%20Microsoft%20%22may%202%22&f=false
•http://dssresources.com/history/sshistory.html
•http://jeanne-sewell.blogspot.com/2013/01/history-of-spreadsheet-software.html
•https://archive.org/details/CC606_spreadsheet_wars
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spreadsheet
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VisiCalc
•http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa010199.htm
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dan_Bricklin
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bob_Frankston
•http://www.bricklin.com/visicalc.htm
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiplan
•http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2010/12/27/microsoft-excel-the-programs-designer-reveals-the-secrets-behind-the-software-that-changed-the-world-25-years-ago.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lotus_1-2-3
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitch_Kapor
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jonathan_Sachs
•http://news.cnet.com/IBM-Finalizes-Lotus-Acquisition/2100-1033_3-205502.html
•http://spreadsheetpage.com/index.php/resource/excel_version_history/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_Excel

Book sources:
• Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy by Carl Shapiro and Hal R. Varian. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/087584863X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=087584863X&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=AZCPT7TDJNZLKKON

Image credits:
•Bottom: Bob Frankston and Daniel Bricklin, cofounders of Software Arts Inc. and co-developers of first spreadsheet program for personal computers, Visicalc. http://www.thocp.net/biographies/bricklin_dan.html

#history #Excel #spreadsheets___

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2015-05-03 12:33:14 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 0 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Kentucky Derby First Televised Nationally
On May 3, 1952 — 63 years ago today — the Kentucky Derby horse race was televised for the first time. The Kentucky Derby is held each year on the first Saturday in May, and has become known as “the most exciting two minutes in sports.” The race takes place at Churchill Downs, named for John and Henry Churchill, who donated land for the racetrack in the early 1870’s. Money was raised for a jockey club and the racing facilities by Meriwether Lewis Clark, Jr., the grandson of William Clark of the famous Lewis and Clark expedition. This year’s running of the 1-¼ mile (2 kilometers) race is the 141st in history.

YouTube videos:
•Run for the Roses: History of the Kentucky Derby (length 55:42). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5AyP5_vqioE
•Churchill Downs: There’s no place like it (length 03:08).https://www.youtub... more »

Today in History: Kentucky Derby First Televised Nationally
On May 3, 1952 — 63 years ago today — the Kentucky Derby horse race was televised for the first time. The Kentucky Derby is held each year on the first Saturday in May, and has become known as “the most exciting two minutes in sports.” The race takes place at Churchill Downs, named for John and Henry Churchill, who donated land for the racetrack in the early 1870’s. Money was raised for a jockey club and the racing facilities by Meriwether Lewis Clark, Jr., the grandson of William Clark of the famous Lewis and Clark expedition. This year’s running of the 1-¼ mile (2 kilometers) race is the 141st in history.

YouTube videos:
•Run for the Roses: History of the Kentucky Derby (length 55:42). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5AyP5_vqioE
•Churchill Downs: There’s no place like it (length 03:08). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xG7uxQ5FUr0
•The Kentucky Derby: Greatest Moments (length 51:02). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zieGI0jyOUU

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kentucky_Derby
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Kentucky_Derby_broadcasters
•http://www.cnn.com/2013/09/28/us/kentucky-derby-fast-facts/
•http://www.churchilldowns.com/about/history
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Churchill_Downs
•http://www.kentuckyderby.com/

Book sources:
• The Kentucky Derby: How the Run for the Roses Became America’s Premier Sporting Event by James C. Nicholson. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0813135761/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0813135761&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=5CZ7AVTJVT6YDAVO
• Churchill Downs: America’s Most Historic Racetrack by Kimberly Gatto. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1596298871/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1596298871&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=Y4WRQLZVH26XRTTY
• History of Horse Racing: First Past the Post: Champion Thoroughbreds, Owners, Trainers and Jockeys (illustrated with 220 drawings, paintings, and photographs) by John Carter. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0754826570/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0754826570&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=7F3MAZF3KQPBEFWQ

Image credits:
•Top: Frame from “The Kentucky Derby: Greatest Moments (length 51:02)” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zieGI0jyOUU at 00:26
•Bottom: See Google Maps (Churchill Downs, KY)

#history   #horseracing  #television___

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2015-05-03 12:32:58 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 2 +1s)Open 

Take your time and press.
Greetz.
wim.

Take your time and press.
Greetz.
wim.___

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2015-04-29 13:04:13 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 6 +1s)Open 

Your Immune System Needs Your Help
Simple Stress Reduction

States of stress trigger your sympathetic nervous system (fight or flight) to release powerful hormones preparing you for action. Efferent messages downregulate immune response to free up all remaining faculties for the impending crisis.

The problem is - there is no crisis.

Many of us are so used to living like this that we don't know how to relax. This results in chronic lowered immune function, fatigue, and accelerated aging. 

Just For Today
1. Periodically notice the state of your emotions and the effect on your body.
2. Take a deep breath and remind yourself there is no actual crisis.
3. Turn your attention to something beautiful or amazing.
4. See others stuck in stress mode and be of service. After all... more »

Your Immune System Needs Your Help
Simple Stress Reduction

States of stress trigger your sympathetic nervous system (fight or flight) to release powerful hormones preparing you for action. Efferent messages downregulate immune response to free up all remaining faculties for the impending crisis.

The problem is - there is no crisis.

Many of us are so used to living like this that we don't know how to relax. This results in chronic lowered immune function, fatigue, and accelerated aging. 

Just For Today
1. Periodically notice the state of your emotions and the effect on your body.
2. Take a deep breath and remind yourself there is no actual crisis.
3. Turn your attention to something beautiful or amazing.
4. See others stuck in stress mode and be of service. After all you are uniquely qualified to help ease their tension as you know what it's like.

To heal the world, heal yourself :)

#Integrative   #medicine  
cassonewellness.com___

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2015-04-29 12:29:38 (2 comments, 0 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

A new cool drawing tool and it's free. 

Weavesilk.com
Have you seen this online drawing tool? I didn’t know what to do, but the direction said: “Drawing something.” So i did what i do with my mouse to “draw something” and made 2 quick swiggly lines and this is the result! Imagine what you can do if you are an artist. ___A new cool drawing tool and it's free. 

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2015-04-29 11:42:03 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 2 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Cosmonaut and Astronaut Walk Together in Space, 1997
On April 29, 1997 — 18 years ago today — Russian Cosmonaut Vasily Tsibliyev and U.S. Astronaut Jerry Linenger made the first joint Russian-American spacewalk. The major purpose of their walk was to deploy the Advanced Materials Exposure Experiment (AMEE) by installing the Optical Properties Monitor on the outside of the Mir space station and to retrieve the Particle Impact Experiment. Also, the walk marked the first time that an American astronaut wore the Russian-made “Orlan-M” spacesuit.

YouTube videos:
•1997 April 29—First Joint US-Russian Spacewalk (length 03:29). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0l0kSUpt3LA

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mir
•http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-84.html•http://www.a... more »

Today in History: Cosmonaut and Astronaut Walk Together in Space, 1997
On April 29, 1997 — 18 years ago today — Russian Cosmonaut Vasily Tsibliyev and U.S. Astronaut Jerry Linenger made the first joint Russian-American spacewalk. The major purpose of their walk was to deploy the Advanced Materials Exposure Experiment (AMEE) by installing the Optical Properties Monitor on the outside of the Mir space station and to retrieve the Particle Impact Experiment. Also, the walk marked the first time that an American astronaut wore the Russian-made “Orlan-M” spacesuit.

YouTube videos:
•1997 April 29—First Joint US-Russian Spacewalk (length 03:29). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0l0kSUpt3LA

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mir
•http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-84.html
•http://www.americaspace.com/?p=75139
•http://www.aztechnology.com/spaceflight-opm.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Mir_spacewalks
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orlan_space_suit
•http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4225/mir/mir.htm
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerry_M._Linenger
•https://docs.google.com/document/d/1hAxS1sRDTmVKE-gDCG7LQ8Jhm_iPWFqO0O6AbwpdGCg/edit
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mir

Book sources:
• The Story of Space Station Mir by David M. Harland. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0387230114/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0387230114&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=7ZFUZ2OCLE67MSTZ 
• Off the Planet: Surviving Five Perilous Months Aboard the Space Station Mir by Jerry Linenger. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/007136112X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=007136112X&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=LTHQZYU2K76W7WYP

Image credits:
•Top: Mir Space Station. By NASA [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AMir_Space_Station_viewed_from_Endeavour_during_STS-89.jpg
•Bottom Left: Cosmonaut Vasily Tsibliyev. By NASA Tomhannen at en.wikipedia [Public domain], from Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ATsibliyev.jpg
•Bottom Middle: Astronaut Jerry Linenger. By NASA [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AJerry_Linenger.jpg
•Bottom Right: Spacewalk of April 29, 1997. NASA.

#history #spacewalk #Mir___

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2015-04-28 11:43:50 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Apple Opened the iTunes Music Store, 2003
On April 28, 2003 — 12 years ago today — Apple announced “a revolutionary online music store” which could be easily accessed from any Apple device to quickly find, buy, and download music for just 99¢ per song, without any subscription fees. In addition, the iTunes Music Store offered users “groundbreaking” personal user rights — such as burning songs onto an unlimited number of personal use CDs, listening to tunes on an unlimited number of Apple iPods, and playing songs on up to 3 Macintosh computers. Moreover, the tunes could be used in any Mac Application, including iPhoto, iMovie, and iDVD.

Apple moved into the field of music in 2000 when it released its iTunes music management software for Macintoshes and its portable music product, the iPod. With an iPod, a user could download tunes from a Macintosh thathad been uploa... more »

Today in History: Apple Opened the iTunes Music Store, 2003
On April 28, 2003 — 12 years ago today — Apple announced “a revolutionary online music store” which could be easily accessed from any Apple device to quickly find, buy, and download music for just 99¢ per song, without any subscription fees. In addition, the iTunes Music Store offered users “groundbreaking” personal user rights — such as burning songs onto an unlimited number of personal use CDs, listening to tunes on an unlimited number of Apple iPods, and playing songs on up to 3 Macintosh computers. Moreover, the tunes could be used in any Mac Application, including iPhoto, iMovie, and iDVD.

Apple moved into the field of music in 2000 when it released its iTunes music management software for Macintoshes and its portable music product, the iPod. With an iPod, a user could download tunes from a Macintosh that had been uploaded from previously purchased CDs; also, the user could select which tracks of an uploaded album would be downloaded to the iPod. However, up to this point, there was no way for the user to legally acquire new music online. The Apple iTunes Music Store changed that limitation.

Apple negotiated landmark contracts with the 5 top recording music companies to allow digital versions of their songs to be sold on the iTunes Music Store. The recording companies were reluctant to do so at first, because the Apple approach (pricing of 99¢ and unbundling of albums) was so new and appeared to be giving Apple too much control. However, Jobs was able to convince recording company executives of trying this approach because the new service was only going to be available on the Mactinosh, which made up only 5% of the computer market. If the store turned out to be destructive to the recording companies’ interests, it would only represent a small part of their business. Jobs later said, “I’ve never spent so much of my time trying to convince people to do the right thing for themselves.”

The iTunes Music Store began with 200,000 songs in its purchasable catalog. Today, it has well over 25 million tunes in its catalog and has sold over 40 billion tunes. [Please let me know if you have better data here (with link sources), thanks.]

YouTube videos:
•Steve Jobs introduces iTunes Music Store / Apple Special Event (2003). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S6DX5NaPvk4

Web sources:
•http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2003/04/28Apple-Launches-the-iTunes-Music-Store.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ITunes_Store
•http://www.macworld.com/article/1050112/30moments.html
•http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2015/01/buying-music-is-so-over/384790/
•http://techcrunch.com/2013/02/06/charting-the-itunes-stores-path-to-25-billion-songs-sold-40-billion-apps-downloaded-and-beyond/

Book sources:
• Steve Jobs by Walter Issacson. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B004W2UBYW/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B004W2UBYW&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=NFXTQ5XNQD277R6R
• Becoming Steve Jobs: The Evolution of a Reckless Upstart into a Visionary Leader by Brent Schlender and Rick Tetseli. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00N6PCWY8/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B00N6PCWY8&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=GEATQK3VTY7C63TP
• The Digital Rights Movement: The Role of Technology in Subverting Digital Copyright by Hector Postigo. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262017954/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0262017954&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=CGAUYNQUGDG4VW5K

Image credits:
•Frame from iTune Music Store European launch video.

#history #Apple #iTunes___

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2015-04-27 16:11:41 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

This story blew my mind.  After being set free from POW camp this happened.  

This story blew my mind.  After being set free from POW camp this happened.  ___

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2015-04-27 15:45:33 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 7 +1s)Open 

See you tomorrow! =^.^=  Have fun!  

See you tomorrow! =^.^=  Have fun!  ___

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2015-04-27 15:38:20 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

Happy Monday Friends

So, I feel it is a perfect opportunity to share some inspiring quotes about work and success to KICKstart your week!!

I stumbled upon this blog, with coffee in hand, and it was just what I needed to get movin and motivated.   As I read some these wise words of some very hard working women, and I might add, movers and shakers, it simply reminded me that good things to come to those who work like crazy to make their dreams come true. 

So from Lucille Ball to Lena Dunham and many others ... I present to you inspirational quotes to get you rocking!

Link to Quotes: http://hellogiggles.com/just-inspiring-quotes-hard-working-ladies-kickstart-week//#read

#mondaymotivation #success #moversandshakers #quotes  

Happy Monday Friends

So, I feel it is a perfect opportunity to share some inspiring quotes about work and success to KICKstart your week!!

I stumbled upon this blog, with coffee in hand, and it was just what I needed to get movin and motivated.   As I read some these wise words of some very hard working women, and I might add, movers and shakers, it simply reminded me that good things to come to those who work like crazy to make their dreams come true. 

So from Lucille Ball to Lena Dunham and many others ... I present to you inspirational quotes to get you rocking!

Link to Quotes: http://hellogiggles.com/just-inspiring-quotes-hard-working-ladies-kickstart-week//#read

#mondaymotivation #success #moversandshakers #quotes  ___

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2015-04-27 15:19:48 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Computer Mouse Commercially Debuted, 1981
On April 27, 1981 — 34 years ago today — the first mouse for use with a personal computer, the Xerox Star system (Xerox 8010), was officially introduced as a commercial product. The first mouse prototype was invented by Douglas Englebart at the Stanford Research Institute in the 1960s. Xerox subsequently launched its research and development facility, PARC (Palo Alto Research Center) in 1970, where it developed the first computer that included a mouse for navigation; however, it never intended for this product, called Alto, to be a commercial product. During the 1970s, Xerox manufactured about 1,500 Altos that were only in use on an experimental basis within Xerox and at another 500 collaborating universities and government offices. Finally, Xerox introduced a commercial product, the Xerox Star System (a.k.a. Xerox 8010), thatinc... more »

Today in History: Computer Mouse Commercially Debuted, 1981
On April 27, 1981 — 34 years ago today — the first mouse for use with a personal computer, the Xerox Star system (Xerox 8010), was officially introduced as a commercial product. The first mouse prototype was invented by Douglas Englebart at the Stanford Research Institute in the 1960s. Xerox subsequently launched its research and development facility, PARC (Palo Alto Research Center) in 1970, where it developed the first computer that included a mouse for navigation; however, it never intended for this product, called Alto, to be a commercial product. During the 1970s, Xerox manufactured about 1,500 Altos that were only in use on an experimental basis within Xerox and at another 500 collaborating universities and government offices. Finally, Xerox introduced a commercial product, the Xerox Star System (a.k.a. Xerox 8010), that incorporated a number of technologies that have since become standard in personal computers —

• bitmapped display
• window-based graphical user interface (GUI)
• screen icons
• screen folders
• a mouse
• e-mail
• Ethernet networking
• file servers
• print servers

Apple and Steve Jobs incorporated many of PARC’s ideas in the Lisa and Macintosh products. The biggest difference between the Xerox Star system and the Apple products was cost. The Xerox Star system, when it was announced on this day in 1981, was a single station in an integrated document preparation system, centering around laser printing (then quite expensive) and designed for large corporations, law firms, and big organizations that produced massive quantities of paper documents. Each Star workstation cost about $16,000 (about $42,000 today), and the basic integrated system started at $75,000 (about $195,000 today).

YouTube videos:
•How Steve Jobs got the ideas of GUI from Xerox (length 09:40). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J33pVRdxWbw
•The Final Demonstration of the Xerox Stat computer (length 02:20:14). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_OwG_rQ_Hqw [Also, see https://plus.google.com/+WayneRadinsky/posts/fRBtdm1x7Z2 for extensive notes on this presentation by Wayne Radinsky]
•DigiBarn TV: Xerox Star 8010 GUI (length 24:17). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0_bgAryP380
•PARC scientist recalls Jobs’s famous Xerox visits (length 06:26). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZOF-j6Nxm04
•Steve Jobs on why Xerox failed (length 02:54). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_1rXqD6M614

Web sources:
•http://www.historychannel.com.au/classroom/day-in-history/574/computer-mouse-debuts
•http://www.wired.com/2011/04/0427first-computer-mouse/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mouse_%28computing%29
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_graphical_user_interface
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xerox_Star
•http://members.dcn.org/dwnelson/XeroxStarRetrospective.html
•http://www.historychannel.com.au/classroom/day-in-history/574/computer-mouse-debuts
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PARC_%28company%29
•http://xeroxstar.tripod.com/
•http://toastytech.com/guis/star.html
•http://www.digibarn.com/collections/systems/xerox-8010/
•http://www.usinflationcalculator.com/

Book sources:
• Fumbling the Future: How Xerox Invented, Then Ignored, the First Personal Computer by Douglas K. Smith and Robert C. Alexander. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1583482660/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1583482660&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=5ZAWNCCDXI5WCCCT

Image credit:
• Single station Xerox Star. By Dave Curbow via DigiBarn Computer Museum: http://www.digibarn.com/collections/systems/xerox-8010/xerox-star-8010-large.jpg

#history   #computer  #mouse___

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2015-04-27 15:19:10 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Chernobyl Nuclear Plant Unit #4 Exploded, 1986
On April 26, 1986 — 29 years ago today — Nuclear Reactor #4 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant in the Ukraine (at the time under the control of the U.S.S.R.) exploded and released at least 5% of the radioactive core into the atmosphere. One person was killed immediately, and dozens more died in the weeks and months after the explosion from acute radiation syndrome (ARS). The accident was the worst nuclear catastrophe in the history of nuclear technology. 

The Soviet Union took many months to contain the contamination. Robots were required to do containment work, because radiation levels were too high for humans. When robots failed because radiation affected them, humans were used for periods of seconds only to move contaminated items and centralize them so they could be covered with an initial sarcophagus, built to lastappr... more »

Today in History: Chernobyl Nuclear Plant Unit #4 Exploded, 1986
On April 26, 1986 — 29 years ago today — Nuclear Reactor #4 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant in the Ukraine (at the time under the control of the U.S.S.R.) exploded and released at least 5% of the radioactive core into the atmosphere. One person was killed immediately, and dozens more died in the weeks and months after the explosion from acute radiation syndrome (ARS). The accident was the worst nuclear catastrophe in the history of nuclear technology. 

The Soviet Union took many months to contain the contamination. Robots were required to do containment work, because radiation levels were too high for humans. When robots failed because radiation affected them, humans were used for periods of seconds only to move contaminated items and centralize them so they could be covered with an initial sarcophagus, built to last approximately 30 years. A “New Safe Confinement” (an new sarcophagus to cover the existing sarcophagus) arch-structure is being built now and is planned to be slid over the reactor #4 site (see Center Left image below) and last for at least 100 years.

Mikhail Gorbachev has stated flatly that the Chernobyl explosion was “perhaps the real cause of the collapse of the Soviet Union.”

YouTube videos:
•Zero Hour: Disaster at Chernobyl (depiction of reality; length 46:41). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ITEXGdht3y8
•Seconds from Disaster—Meltdown at Chernobyl (length 47:08). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5WGUbfzr31s
•Chernobyl Uncensored (documentary; length 01:32:58). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dS3WvKKSpKI
•The Battle of Chernobyl (National Geographic; length 44:36). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jh0KoOCYuuw
•Inside Chernobyl: Rare footage from ruins left by the world’s 1986 nuclear disaster (length 04:29). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VvH7BRubFIg

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chernobyl_disaster
•http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/04/27/science/chernobyl-capping-a-catastrophe.html?_r=1
•http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/Safety-and-Security/Safety-of-Plants/Chernobyl-Accident/
•http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/fact-sheets/chernobyl-bg.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Effects_of_the_Chernobyl_disaster
•http://www.businessinsider.com/drone-footage-shows-aftermath-of-ukraines-chernobyl-nuclear-disaster-2014-12
•http://www.theguardian.com/environment/gallery/2011/apr/26/chernobyl-nuclear-disaster-in-pictures
•http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/nuclear_power/2013/01/chernobyl_and_the_fall_of_the_soviet_union_gorbachev_s_glasnost_allowed.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chernobyl_Nuclear_Power_Plant_sarcophagus

Book sources:
• Voices from Chernobyl: The Oral History of a Nuclear Disaster by Svetlana Alexievich. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0312425848/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0312425848&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=AJA2YBRCDHDADLCC
• The Legacy of Chernobyl by Zhores Medvedev. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0393308146/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0393308146&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=OHWF6TDVKHUIUI4H
• The Truth about Chernobyl by Grigori Medvedev and Andrei Sakharov. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0465087752/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0465087752&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=Y24HYMYTCNJYKAYH
• Wormwood Forest: A Natural History of Chernobyl by Mary Mycio. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0309094305/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0309094305&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=LDYCOUMB3OFHP4IN

Image credits:
•Top Left: Frame from Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster at 01:26. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ADBZw3-y2Qo
•Top Right: Chernobyl Disaster Aftermath: very extensive damage to the main reactor hall (image center) and turbine building (image lower left). By Soviet Union authorities: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chernobyl_Disaster.jpg#file
•Center Left: 32,000 ton arch, “New Safe Confinement” sarcophagus. http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/04/27/science/chernobyl-capping-a-catastrophe.html?_r=1
•Center Right: The Chernobyl reactor #4 building as of 2006, including the later-built sarcophagus and elements of the maximum-security perimeter. By Carl Montgomery (Flickr) [CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AChernobylreactor_1.jpg
•Bottom: Google Maps: Chernobyl Nuclear Facility. https://www.google.com/maps/place/Chernobyl+Nuclear+Power+Plant/@51.3887679,30.1009129,735m/data=!3m1!1e3!4m2!3m1!1s0x472a7da0de25ddcf:0x6590333f52847059

 # history #Chernobyl #nuclearpower___

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2015-04-26 05:13:52 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Bell Labs Announced Invention of First Practical Silicon Solar Cell, 1954
On April 26, 1954 — 61 years ago today — executives of Bell Labs introduced a silicon-based solar cell with a 15x increase in efficiency over previous models. These cells were developed by Daryl Chapin, Calvin Fuller, and Gerald Pearson in their work at Bell Labs, who found that silicon when combined with certain “impurities” became highly sensitive to light, and who were able to gain a 6% efficiency (sunlight converted to electricity). Theoretical findings indicated that this 6% efficiency figure could be increased to about 24% — about the efficiency of today’s cells.

At the time, the U.S. was embarking on an “Atoms for Peace” program to overcome its global image as the only government to have used an atomic bomb on innocent civilians (in order to end World War II with Japan).According to... more »

Today in History: Bell Labs Announced Invention of First Practical Silicon Solar Cell, 1954
On April 26, 1954 — 61 years ago today — executives of Bell Labs introduced a silicon-based solar cell with a 15x increase in efficiency over previous models. These cells were developed by Daryl Chapin, Calvin Fuller, and Gerald Pearson in their work at Bell Labs, who found that silicon when combined with certain “impurities” became highly sensitive to light, and who were able to gain a 6% efficiency (sunlight converted to electricity). Theoretical findings indicated that this 6% efficiency figure could be increased to about 24% — about the efficiency of today’s cells.

At the time, the U.S. was embarking on an “Atoms for Peace” program to overcome its global image as the only government to have used an atomic bomb on innocent civilians (in order to end World War II with Japan). According to John Perlin, author of Let It Shine: the 6,000 Year Story of Solar Energy, the U.S. government allocated about $10 billion to nuclear power and “not a penny to solar.” Hans K. Ziegler, who came to the U.S. with rocket engineer Wernher Von Braun in a program designed to recruit German engineers and scientists immediately after World War II, examined the Bell Labs’ cells and wrote about them:Future development [of the silicon solar cell] may well render it into an important source of electrical power [as] the roofs of all our buildings in cities and towns equipped with solar [cells] would be sufficient to produce this country’s entire demand for electrical power.

More from the first link provided under Web sources:

One journalist thought it important for the public to know that “linked together electrically, the Bell solar cells deliver power from the sun at the rate of 50 watts per square yard, while the atomic cell announced recently by the RCA Corporation merely delivers a millionth of a watt” over the same area. An article in U.S. News & World Report speculated that one day such silicon strips “may provide more power than all the world’s coal, oil, and uranium.” The New York Times probably best summed up what Chapin, Fuller, and Pearson had accomplished. On page one of its April 26, 1954, issue, the Times stated that the construction of the first solar module to generate useful amounts of power marks “the beginning of a new era, leading eventually to the realization of one of mankind’s most cherished dreams—the harnessing of the almost limitless energy of the sun for the uses of civilization.”

YouTube sources:
•Energy 101: Solar Power (cartoon format; length 03:23). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NDZzAIcCQLQ
•Cost of Solar (length 00:58). http://gizmodo.com/60-years-ago-today-bell-labs-unveiled-the-solar-cell-1567543841
•The History of Solar Energy - Part 5 (length 07:59). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ez92w8ytZAM

Web sources:
•http://www.nrel.gov/education/pdfs/educational_resources/high_school/solar_cell_history.pdf
•http://www.aps.org/publications/apsnews/200904/physicshistory.cfm
•http://www.solareworld.com/2011/08/09/solar-history-bell-labs-and-the-first-modern-silicon-solar-cell/
•http://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/Happy-60th-Anniversary-to-the-Modern-Solar-Cell
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_solar_cells
•http://www.popsci.com/article/science/invention-solar-cell?src=SOC&dom=fb
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_K._Ziegler
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calvin_Souther_Fuller
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerald_Pearson
•http://inventors.about.com/od/sstartinventions/a/solar_cell.htm
•http://gizmodo.com/60-years-ago-today-bell-labs-unveiled-the-solar-cell-1567543841

Books:
• The Making of a Scientist: A Memoir by Calvin S. Fuller. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00KFXZQ9C/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B00KFXZQ9C&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=ZX2LIS5MVV42ZZFA
• Let It Shine: The 6,000 Year Story of Solar Energy by John Perlin. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00E512102/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B00E512102&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=PEBIRVNVPXVMAZ4E

Photo Credit:
•Top Left: Inventors of the Solar Cell (left to right): Gerald Pearson, Daryl Chapin, and Calvin Fuller (1954). Courtesy of AT&T Archives and History Center via John Perlin:http://www.nrel.gov/education/pdfs/educational_resources/high_school/solar_cell_history.pdf
•Top Right: Bell Labs Solar Battery. Courtesy of AT&T Archives and History Center.
•Bottom: Price history of crystalline silicon solar cells in $ per watt since 1977. By Hanjin, Rfassbind [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3APrice_history_of_silicon_PV_cells_since_1977.svg

#history #solarcell #solarenergy #solarpower

Additional April 26 events in history:
•A catastrophic nuclear explosion occurred at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine, 1986.___

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2015-04-25 13:47:25 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Robert Noyce granted patent for integrated circuit, 1961
On April 25, 1961 — 54 years ago today — Robert N. Noyce was granted patent #2981877 for his “semiconductor device-and-lead structure,” which would eventually be known as “the integrated circuit.” Integrated circuits have revolutionized the quality of human life — they have made possible all the amazing advances in personal computers, mobile communications, sophisticated spacecraft, cars, medical devices, home appliances, etc.

Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments applied for an integrated circuit patent earlier than Noyce. Kilby’s application was dated February 6, 1959 and Noyce’s application was dated July 30, 1959. Each of them was working independently. Noyce was granted a patent because he had solved a number of practical problems that Kilby had not. Noyce’s design caused for the use ofsilicon; Kilby’s ch... more »

Today in History: Robert Noyce granted patent for integrated circuit, 1961
On April 25, 1961 — 54 years ago today — Robert N. Noyce was granted patent #2981877 for his “semiconductor device-and-lead structure,” which would eventually be known as “the integrated circuit.” Integrated circuits have revolutionized the quality of human life — they have made possible all the amazing advances in personal computers, mobile communications, sophisticated spacecraft, cars, medical devices, home appliances, etc.

Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments applied for an integrated circuit patent earlier than Noyce. Kilby’s application was dated February 6, 1959 and Noyce’s application was dated July 30, 1959. Each of them was working independently. Noyce was granted a patent because he had solved a number of practical problems that Kilby had not. Noyce’s design caused for the use of silicon; Kilby’s chip used germanium. (It’s not called Germanium Valley, haha.)

[More background text coming: in the meantime, if you want to know more about Noyce and his impact on the information revolution, please consult the sources below or feel free to add commentary as a comment to this post, and thank you. The lecture by Leslie Brin (the first YouTube source) at a Google Talk is informative, and a great starting place.]

YouTube sources:
•Robert Noyce: The Man Behind the Microchip, by Leslie Berlin, the Project Historian for the Silicon Valley Archives in a Google Talk (length 37:53). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kp4-5nYqBL8
•The Impact of Integrated Circuits, lecture by Robert Noyce (length 41:46). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AfxUq_QrpyY
•Podfather — Robert Noyce and the Rise of Silicon Valley (length 59:05). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GvGVGcWS3Pg

Web sources:
•http://www.google.com/patents/US2981877
•http://www.computerhistory.org/tdih/April/25/
•http://www.edn.com/electronics-blogs/edn-moments/4412805/Noyce-receives-1st-IC-patent--April-25--1961-
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Traitorous_eight
•http://www.pbs.org/transistor/album1/eight/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Noyce
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Integrated_circuit
•http://www.computerhistory.org/semiconductor/timeline/1959-Noyce.html
•http://history-computer.com/ModernComputer/Basis/IC.html
•http://www.pbs.org/transistor/album1/addlbios/noyce.html
•http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/2011/1212/Why-Robert-Noyce-should-have-won-two-Nobel-Prizes-but-didn-t
•http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/history/museum-robert-noyce.html
•https://books.google.com/books?id=z7738Wq-j-8C&pg=PA237&lpg=PA237&dq=patent+2981877&source=bl&ots=R-83phJjKR&sig=DF2oIK6LVtP2nxS0XJjwuQRJdt0&hl=en&sa=X&ei=unk6VfDNG8jGsAW_t4CAAg&ved=0CDgQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=patent%202981877&f=false

Books:
• The Man Behind the Microchip: Robert Noyce and the Invention of Silicon Valley by Leslie Berlin. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/019531199X/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=019531199X&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=52PDER6HNDKE7G4Y
• Makers of the Microchip: A Documentary History of Fairchild Semiconductor by Christophe Lécuyer and David C. Brock. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262014246/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0262014246&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=DTBRRYYG5ZLUFTBI
• Invention of Integrated Circuits: Untold Important Facts by Arjun N. Saxena. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/9812814450/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=9812814450&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=WNJSCWMGUMN6AWX3
• Crystal Fire: The Invention of the Transistor and the Birth of the Information Age by Michael Riordan and Lillian Hoddeson. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0393318516/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0393318516&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=LB26RPPNATQVOOXE

Amazon DVDs:
•Silicon Valley / American Experience 2013 (good background information; length 01:23:00). http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00BD7MR2S/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B00BD7MR2S&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=S2T6D64VVWTBI2OG

Image credits:
•Photo includes what William Shockely of Shockley Semiconductory Laboratory, in 1957, called “the traitorous eight,” because they determined, after being hired for their extraordinary talent (6 were PhD graduates,including Noyce) by Shockley, they could not work with Shockley. Shockley, after winning a Nobel-Prize in 1956 for his co-invention of the transistor, became nearly impossible to work with. He did not trust the employees he had hired; he did not allow them to share their work results with each other. He recorded all phone calls and ordered all employees to take a lie dedector test. When the 8 employees asked the key investor, Arnold Beckman, to replace Shockley and Beckman refused, the 8 researchers decided to leave and start their own company, Fairchild Semiconductor. From left to right: Gordon Moore, C. Sheldon Roberts, Eugene Kleiner, Robert Noyce, Victor Grinich, Julius Blank, Jean Hoerni, and Jay Last (photo taken 1960).
•At Fairchild Semiconductor, Robert Noyce applied for this patent of the integrated circuit in 1959. Google Patent database images from the patent application by Noyce. http://www.google.com/patents/US2981877

#history #integratedcircuit #silicon #Noyce___

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2015-04-24 13:03:42 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 6 +1s)Open 

Excellent Post.  

Today in History: Hubble Space Telescope Launched, 1990
On April 24, 1990 — 25 years ago today — the Hubble Space Telescope was launched into space by the Space Shuttle Discovery. The telescope was secured in the shuttle’s cargo bay. On April 25, 1990, the Discovery crew, using the space shuttle arm, deployed the Hubble telescope into orbit. Hubble travels in a nearly circular orbit around the Earth every 97 minutes, about  343 miles (552 kilometers) above the Earth’s surface. In its 25 years in orbit, Hubble has orbited the Earth over 135,000 times!

Hubble is one of NASA’s Great Observatories, along with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and the Spitzer Space Telescope. The Hubble Telescope was named after astronomer Edwin Hubble, who first confirmed by observations from an Earth-based optical telescope that the Universe was expanding. The Hubble Space Telescope has recorded some of the most detailed visible-light images ever, especially probing deeply into space and time. A number of the Hubble observations have led to astrophysical breakthroughs, such as the determination of expansion rate of the universe. 

Interestingly, Hubble is the only telescope designed for service in space by astronauts. This design function allowed a near monumental error in its mirror grounding to be corrected. In 1993, the optics were corrected by astronauts who installed “spectacles” that compensated for the wrongly shaped mirror. In total, there have been 5 space shuttle servicing missions to Hubble to improve its usefulness. Hubble is now in the final phase of its life, as its vital systems are not expected to last much beyond this year and Earth’s gravity will eventually pull it back into the Earth’s atmosphere where it will burn up and disintegrate sometime after 2019.

YouTube videos:
•Hubble Space Telescope Deployment (length 01:13). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nPI28qRa4ng
•Full BBC Documentary — Hubble’s Space Telescope — Amazing Universe (length 01:15:13). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=amJtdCFoc5U
•National Geographic: Hubble’s Amazing Universe (length 45:48). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qcfN_HN4TVg
•Deep Universe: Hubble’s Universe Unfiltered (length 31:23). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W4GKf623Exk
•20 Years in 20 Images: Hubble’s Universe Unfiltered (length 28:15). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4jRplhKh9Bg

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hubble_Space_Telescope
•http://hubblesite.org/
•http://www.redorbit.com/news/space/1113127712/nasa-hubble-instruments-highlight-new-national-air-and-space-museum/
•http://www.nbcnews.com/science/space/hubble-space-telescope-turns-25-discoveries-drama-galore-n345911
•http://hubblesite.org/gallery/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_Telescope_Science_Institute
•http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/25-years-hubble-space-telescope-25-stunning-photos/
•http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/hubble/story/index.html
•http://hubble25th.org/

Book sources:
• Hubble’s Universe: Greatest Discoveries and Latest Images by Terence Dickinson. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1770851070/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1770851070&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=CODV4BDTDSKVW7TX
• Hubble: Imaging Space and Time by David H. Devorkin. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1426208944/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1426208944&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=C2OK6SZFTF2LVF7I

Image credits:
•Hubble Space Telescope as viewed from the departing Space Shuttle Atlantis, flying STS-125, Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 4. By Ruffnax (Crew of STS-125) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AHST-SM4.jpeg
•Exploded graphic of the Hubble Space Telescope. By HubbleExploded.svg: AndrewBuck derivative work: Julia\talk (HubbleExploded.svg) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AHubbleExploded_edit_1.svg
•Diagram showing the orbit of the Hubble Space Telescope. By NASA [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ADiagram_of_Hubble's_orbit.jpg
•The Hubble Control Center at Goddard Space Flight Center, 1999. By http://www.hubblesite.org/.Goodmanjoon at en.wikipedia [Public domain], from Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AHubble_Control_Centre.jpg

#history #Hubble #Discovery___Excellent Post.  

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2015-04-23 12:25:22 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 9 +1s)Open 

Today in History: First human died during a spaceflight mission, 1967
On April 23, 1967 — 48 years ago today — Soyuz 1 crashed into the ground at about 600 mph when its parachute failed to open after re-entry and the first in-flight fatality, cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov, occurred in the history of spaceflight. According to a number of accounts, Cosmonaut Komarov expected to die in this first flight of the new Soyuz spacecraft, designed for taking cosmonauts to the Moon. The mission was being rushed because the head of the Communist Party — the leader of the U.S.S.R., Leonid Brezhnev — wanted the U.S.S.R. to beat the U.S. to the first manned landing on the Moon. In the U.S. haste to beat the Soviet Union to a manned landing on the Moon, about 3 months earlier, 3 U.S. astronauts had burned to death in a fire during a practice exercise of the new Apollo spacecraft. May 1, 1967 was to be the50th an... more »

Today in History: First human died during a spaceflight mission, 1967
On April 23, 1967 — 48 years ago today — Soyuz 1 crashed into the ground at about 600 mph when its parachute failed to open after re-entry and the first in-flight fatality, cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov, occurred in the history of spaceflight. According to a number of accounts, Cosmonaut Komarov expected to die in this first flight of the new Soyuz spacecraft, designed for taking cosmonauts to the Moon. The mission was being rushed because the head of the Communist Party — the leader of the U.S.S.R., Leonid Brezhnev — wanted the U.S.S.R. to beat the U.S. to the first manned landing on the Moon. In the U.S. haste to beat the Soviet Union to a manned landing on the Moon, about 3 months earlier, 3 U.S. astronauts had burned to death in a fire during a practice exercise of the new Apollo spacecraft. May 1, 1967 was to be the 50th anniversary of the Communist revolution, and Brezhnev wanted a spectacular rendezvous and docking mission to occur just before the Anniversary — to highlight the technological lead in the race to the Moon with the new Soviet lunar manned spacecraft (while the U.S. was still fixing the problems that caused the Apollo 1 fire).

So political pressure was intense on Soviet scientists and cosmonauts to perform a space rendezvous and docking mission before the end of April, 1967. The plan called for one man, Cosmonaut Komarov, to be launched in Soyuz 1; the next day 2 cosmonauts were scheduled to be launched on Soyuz 2. The two spacecraft would then rendezvous, dock, and exchange crew members. However, as events transpired, Soyuz 1 began having numerous problems shortly after its launch; the Soyuz 2 mission was cancelled not only due to the problems aboard Soyuz 1, but also as a result of bad weather.

Prior to Soyuz 1’s launch, the first Soviet cosmonaut, Yuri Gagarin, had inspected the new Soyuz spacecraft and had documented over 200 structural problems that would make the spacecraft dangerous to navigate in space. Gagarin was urging that the Soyuz 1 and 2 missions be postponed. Gagarin’s protests were disregarded by the political machine of the U.S.S.R., and as a consequence, Gagarin’s friend, Cosmonaut Komarov faced an ongoing number of difficulties during his flight that eventually caused him to rage against the political machine that was sending him to his death — as he was unable to carefully position his spacecraft during re-entry, his capsule was heating up, his parachutes became tangled and could not deploy, and he became aware that he was plunging to his death.

YouTube videos:
•1967 Soyuz 1 (USSR) (length 02:14). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PnIE7DfCktE
•Vladimir Komarov’s Death Aboard Soyuz 1 (length 01:41). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=As0fzcCs7oY
•NASAFlix–Secret Space: Soyuz Cover-Up (length 51:49). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=60sYdhhFkmc

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soyuz_1
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vladimir_Komarov
•http://amyshirateitel.com/2012/01/13/soyuz-1-falling-to-earth/
•http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/april/24/newsid_2523000/2523019.stm
•http://www.svengrahn.pp.se/histind/Soyuz1Land/Soyanaly.htm
•http://www.npr.org/blogs/krulwich/2011/05/02/134597833/cosmonaut-crashed-into-earth-crying-in-rage
•http://www.russianspaceweb.com/soyuz1.html
•http://www.americaspace.com/?p=17776

Book sources:
• Soyuz: A Universal Spacecraft by Rex Hall and David Shayler. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1852336579/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1852336579&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=MXGIYN6Z2SLL2BRG
• Histories of the Soviet / Russian Space Program by U.S. Government, NASA, World Spaceflight News, Dr. Charles Sheldon, U.S. Congress. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00CW1IP1Q/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B00CW1IP1Q&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=XJWYY4JIVX6UOI5P
• The Soviet Space Race with Apollo by Asif A. Siddiqi. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0813026288/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0813026288&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=WOQBM4QHN7VOJIZE

Image credits:
•Top Left: Cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov. http://spacefeelings.com/outer-space-flight-critical-situations-2.shtml
•Top Right: Soyuz 1 spacecraft. http://spacefeelings.com/outer-space-flight-critical-situations-2.shtml
•Bottom Left: Soyuz 1 capsule crash in which Komarov died. http://www.astrocentral.co.uk/race7.html
•Bottom Right: Open casket of Cosmonaut Komarov with his burnt remains. http://www.npr.org/blogs/krulwich/2011/05/02/134597833/cosmonaut-crashed-into-earth-crying-in-rage

#history #Soyuz #space___

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2015-04-23 12:25:10 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 10 +1s)Open 

Today in History: First YouTube Video Was Uploaded, 2005
On April 23, 2005 — just 10 years ago today (and a full year after Facebook began) — Jawed Karim, one of the co-founders of YouTube, uploaded the first video to YouTube. Since this first 18-second video user upload, YouTube has grown to more than 1 billion users and 300 hours of video are uploaded to YouTube every minute! In addition, more than a million user channels are earning revenue from the YouTube Partner Program, and thousands of channels are making 6-figure incomes per year.

YouTube videos:
•The first YouTube video uploaded: “Me at the Zoo” (length 00:18). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jNQXAC9IVRw

Web sources:
•http://mashable.com/2014/04/23/youtube-first-video/
•http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/06/magazine/06FOB-medium-t.html?_r=4&ref=magazine&•http://en.... more »

Today in History: First YouTube Video Was Uploaded, 2005
On April 23, 2005 — just 10 years ago today (and a full year after Facebook began) — Jawed Karim, one of the co-founders of YouTube, uploaded the first video to YouTube. Since this first 18-second video user upload, YouTube has grown to more than 1 billion users and 300 hours of video are uploaded to YouTube every minute! In addition, more than a million user channels are earning revenue from the YouTube Partner Program, and thousands of channels are making 6-figure incomes per year.

YouTube videos:
•The first YouTube video uploaded: “Me at the Zoo” (length 00:18). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jNQXAC9IVRw

Web sources:
•http://mashable.com/2014/04/23/youtube-first-video/
•http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/06/magazine/06FOB-medium-t.html?_r=4&ref=magazine&
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jawed_Karim
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Me_at_the_zoo
•https://www.youtube.com/yt/press/en-GB/statistics.html

Book sources:
• YouTube: The Real YouTube Story by Eric Skaggs. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00U6E8ESU/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B00U6E8ESU&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=BPRY47NFSC6FGF7H
• YouTube: Online Video and Participatory Culture by Jean Burgess, Joshua Green, Henry Jenkins, and John Hartley. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0745644791/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0745644791&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=XKO6RVEM6432QJDI
• YouTube Founders: Steve Chen, Chad Hurley, and Jawed Karim by Patricia Wooster. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1467725811/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1467725811&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=NVA2DA3KFTSXJCAC
• Watching YouTube: Extraordinary Videos by Ordinary People by Michael Strangelove. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1442610670/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1442610670&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=2ZBANE5XOG2SJ7NF

Image credit:
• Jawed Karim in a frame from his original YouTube video (length 00:18). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jNQXAC9IVRw

#history #YouTube___

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2015-04-22 19:18:27 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 2 +1s)Open 

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