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Kenneth McCormack has been at 8 events

HostFollowersTitleDateGuestsLinks
Larry Fournillier1,382,070In this exciting episode of *Food Stories*, my favorite G+ couple,@101888088652157354149 and @117875987563872032638  will be cooking and serving up a tasty Belgian dish, *Stoverij* *_(Carbonnade Flamande)_*.  This is a traditional Belgian sweet-sour beef and onion stew made with *beer*, and seasoned with *thyme, bay-leaf and mustard*. Mushrooms or spiced bread can also be added. In addition, George and Marilyn has a fascinating story behind this dish and I can’t wait for them to share it.  Meanwhile, check out *George's recipe* here:  http://goo.gl/s4okuq  So join us on *Sunday 15th, March at 1:00PM(PDT), 4:00PM(EDT & AST)* for another fun-filled and *_must see_* HOA.  I will have a special guest join us in Marilyn and George's kitchen :) *Reminder*: Don't forget to bring along your favorite *food and drink*. #belgianbeefstew   #foodstories   #hoa   #hangoutsonair   #STOVERIJ   #larryfournillier  Food Stories | Stoverij (Flemish Beef Stew) S02E052015-03-15 21:00:0069  
Eric Enge22,439This week on the #DMEShow  @104858643838035519891 and @108493275257625053433 and I will chat about Pinterest and G+ and how to leverage them together. The show airs at 5 PM EDT on Thursday May 29th.  Just say yes to get access to the video for live or later viewing.  I will also share the video here for mobile users. Please help us by inviting others or sharing the event!Pinterest and Google Plus: Two Peas in a Pod2014-05-29 23:00:23205  
Lisa Engles5,821*Link to the program mentioned in this hangout www.hangoutsforvisionaryleaders.com/program* *Coaches, Authors and Speakers: Go From Ground Zero to Hangout Hero* Have you spent a lot of time, energy and money spinning your wheels, trying to spread your message and build your audience using social media marketing, but haven’t seen the results that you hoped for?  Do you feel disconnected from the very people you want to reach?  Well, you’re not alone.  In fact, most heart-centered entrepreneurs and visionary leaders that I talk to all say the same thing: " I feel disconnected from the people I want to reach"  and : “I don’t like using social media, but I know I’m supposed to.”  And less than a year ago, I was one of them. ​I was frustrated because there was something about social media that didn’t feel right to me.  I was very resistant to using it.  It felt useless to me because honestly, I was a small fish in a big pond of thousands of 'experts' who were using all types of tactics that felt pushy and in your face. If that's what I needed to do to get seen and get clients, then no thanks.  It's just not who I am. Then one day, I had an ‘ah-ha” moment.  I realized that the reason I was feeling so much resistance was because at the core of who I am and what I do as a coach, author and speaker is - connect and communicate. In that moment I saw how social media was actually putting a divide between me and ideal audience and was keeping me from getting noticed and ultimately, getting clients because there was a lack of authentic connection and communication.  Think about it, how much can you really connect with people when you’re limited posting a 140 characters, a link or an image?  The lack of authentic engagement was not only keeping me from effectively communicating my message, it was keeping me from connecting with my ideal audience and it was ultimately keeping me from making money doing what I love to do.  So I made it my goal to figure out how I could reach others with my message in a way that felt real and that created an opportunity for authentic connection.  And that’s when I decided to look into google hangouts on air.   Within 6 months of using hangouts on air (HOA) I was finally able to break the barriers between me and my ideal clients, get the support of influencers both in google plus and in my niche, establish my expertise and build a loyal following of people who want what I have to offer… all things I had been unsuccessful in accomplishing before. So, in this hangout I want to show you how you can have this type of success using hangouts as well.    #RonnieBincer  has been a big piece of my 'winning' equation, so he'll be joining us in this hangout where you'll: *Learn the 4 critical steps that will take you from ground zero to hangout hero (or shero)* *Discover how to use hangouts on air to connect and communicate with your ideal audience in real time so that you create trust and meaningful relationships* *Learn how usHangout Strategies for Visionary Leaders2014-04-14 20:00:0094  
Chef Dennis Littley780,360Mobile Use this Link: http://youtu.be/OATc03mlDks Join me and my Co-host @108641528210325220263  with are very special guest @115620878851836664537  as we tackle the topic of *Semantic Search*  on the 10th episode of *The Bloggers Guide to Using Google+ Effectively* And who better to learn it from then the Author of Google Semantic Search himself.   Every Monday  for thirty minutes we will focus on a different aspect of Google+  offering guidance and  answering questions.    If you have questions please leave them in the Comment Bar of this event  before the start of the show and we will do our best our best to answer them. The goal of our series is to help everyone understand how Google+ works and what they need to do to become successful on G+.  Once G+ begins to make sense to you, you'll be able to enjoy your time on the plus, making new friends, engaging in communities and seeing some pretty amazing search engine results.  While our series will be focused on Bloggers everyone is welcome and we hope to see all of you with your questions-    You can also join us at the G+ Food Bloggers Community - http://goo.gl/IEKmsV  where we discuss all the issues that Bloggers have as well as sharing best practices. All of our previous episodes are on Youtube  http://goo.gl/3iukbR Monday February 1th @ 1 PM EST/12 PM CST/11 AM MST/10 AM PST #googleplustips   #bloggers   #Gplusfoodbloggers  The Bloggers Guide to Using Google+ Effectively - Semantic Search with David Amerland2014-02-17 19:00:00146  
martin shervington1,118,930*Google Plus for Individuals and Business!* _Including launch of the free 'Quickstarter' courses..._ There have been so many changes in the Plus over the past few months, and as such we wanted to get together to re-launch the website, tell you about some of the resources and pick up on some of your questions as well. So get yourself ready and see you on Monday!The PYB team talk about some amazing, free resources available for Google+!2014-02-10 21:00:00116  
Men's Health689,024Stay on track in 2014 with healthy eating and nutrition tips from our panel of experts. TOPICS OF DISCUSSION: -Tips for maintaining flavor while eating healthy -Cooking demo -How to incorporate fruits and vegetables during the winter months PARTICIPANTS: -Paul Kita, Men’s Health Senior Associate Editor -Cheryl Forberg, Nutritionist and Chef -David McInerney, Co-Founder, Fresh Direct -Christopher Mohr, Ph.D, RDHealthy Cooking & Nutrition Tips2014-01-28 19:00:00154  
Google+10,417,226The Google+ team will be sharing a few updates. RSVP to this event to watch the broadcast live.A Morning with Google+2013-10-29 17:30:0033855  
Google Australia187,336Join us for a special Doodle 4 Google explorer Hangout On Air and hear Project Loon engineer +Anton Staaf talk about exploring big ideas and a behind the scenes look at +Project Loon with students from Roydvale Primary School in Christchurch. #projectloon #loon #balloonpoweredinternetDoodle 4 Google Explorer Series: HOA with Project Loon's Anton Staaf2013-08-27 12:00:00423  

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2015-06-08 16:30:03 (3 comments, 0 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

Today in History: U.S. Missile Mail Experiment Performed, 1959
On June 8, 1959 — 56 years ago today — the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) and the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) collaborated in the first substantial experiment to carry mail by missiles in the United States. The Navy diesel-powered submarine U.S.S. Barbero, off the coast of Florida, launched a Regulus I missile containing about 3,000 letters to a U.S. Navy facility at Mayport, Florida, about 100 miles away.

While such mail attempts had been tried before by other individuals in other countries, and even in the United States, never before had the U.S. Postmaster General worked closely with the DOD to coordinate such an experiment involving so many pieces of mail. The DOD probably agreed to cooperate with the USPS, because it was interested in demonstrating the accuracy of its intercontinental ballistic missiles (to beuse... more »

Most reshares: 3

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2015-06-24 23:09:30 (0 comments, 3 reshares, 9 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Two Luminaries Were Born — Turing, 1912; Cerf, 1943
On June 23, 1912 — 103 years ago today — Alan Turning was born in London, England. Alan Turing was a mathematical genius and extraordinary polymath who is credited with helping to save countless lives by deciphering the encrypted German military communications code during World War II. After the war, Turing worked in Britain's National Physical Laboratory where he developed designs for the world's first "Automatic Computing Engine" — ACE (aka "the Turing machine"). He is frequently called "the father of computer science." Tragically, in his late 30s, his honesty with police led him to be convicted for being gay; he was sentenced to hormonal treatment that resulted in chemical castration. Turing died at the age of 41 (perhaps by suicide), while he was exploring"m... more »

Most plusones: 9

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2015-06-24 23:09:30 (0 comments, 3 reshares, 9 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Two Luminaries Were Born — Turing, 1912; Cerf, 1943
On June 23, 1912 — 103 years ago today — Alan Turning was born in London, England. Alan Turing was a mathematical genius and extraordinary polymath who is credited with helping to save countless lives by deciphering the encrypted German military communications code during World War II. After the war, Turing worked in Britain's National Physical Laboratory where he developed designs for the world's first "Automatic Computing Engine" — ACE (aka "the Turing machine"). He is frequently called "the father of computer science." Tragically, in his late 30s, his honesty with police led him to be convicted for being gay; he was sentenced to hormonal treatment that resulted in chemical castration. Turing died at the age of 41 (perhaps by suicide), while he was exploring"m... more »

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2015-07-05 12:48:34 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 7 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Apple Released the first iPhone, 2007
On June 29, 2007 — 8 years ago today — Apple released the first iPhone, one of the most influential consumer-electronics products ever made. When Steve Jobs introduced the phone on January 9, 2007, he said, “Today, Apple is going to reinvent the phone” and explained that the iPhone was a combination of 3 devices:
(1) “widescreen iPod with touch controls”
(2) “revolutionary mobile phone”
(3) “breakthrough Internet communicator”

Back in 2007, to get the necessary perspective, George Bush (the Younger) was president, Pixar released the movie “Ratatouille,” the top music chart tune was Rihanna’s “Umber-ella”, and Apple stock was selling for about $17 a share! Since that time, the Apple iPhone has become Apple’s main source of revenue — selling well over 700 million units to date.
Steve Jobs framed the ipho... more »

Today in History: Apple Released the first iPhone, 2007
On June 29, 2007 — 8 years ago today — Apple released the first iPhone, one of the most influential consumer-electronics products ever made. When Steve Jobs introduced the phone on January 9, 2007, he said, “Today, Apple is going to reinvent the phone” and explained that the iPhone was a combination of 3 devices:
(1) “widescreen iPod with touch controls”
(2) “revolutionary mobile phone”
(3) “breakthrough Internet communicator”

Back in 2007, to get the necessary perspective, George Bush (the Younger) was president, Pixar released the movie “Ratatouille,” the top music chart tune was Rihanna’s “Umber-ella”, and Apple stock was selling for about $17 a share! Since that time, the Apple iPhone has become Apple’s main source of revenue — selling well over 700 million units to date.

Steve Jobs framed the iphone in this context, describing 3 revolutionary Apple products and their concomitant revolutionary user interfaces [UIs]: 
(1) In 1984, Apple introduced the Macintosh — a product that changed the entire computer industry. Revolutionary UI = Mouse.
(2) In 2001, Apple introduced the first iPod — it changed the entire music industry. Revolutionary UI = Click Wheel.
(3) In 2007, Apple introduced the iPhone — a product that will change the world by reinventing the phone. Revolutionary UI = Multi-touch Screen.

Steve went on to explain where the iPhone would fit into the cell phone market on an x-y graph, where the y axis went from “not so smart” to “smart” and the x-axis went from “hard to use” to “easy to use.” [Please see image below.]

Moreover, Steve explained how the iPhone would not have factory-set hard buttons, like many of the top existing cellphones of the time, but would only have a big screen and that the human finger would be used instead of hard-wired buttons that could not be changed once shipped. The iphone, Steve said, “Works like magic,” with “no stylus,” is “far more accurate than any other touch display ever shipped.” In addition, the iPhone ignored “unintended touches” and incorporated “multi-finger gestures.” Finally, Steve laughed, “And, boy, have we patented it.”

YouTube videos:
•Steve Jobs’s iPhone Launch 2007 Reimagined (easyexplainvideo; length 01:53). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SBVs7xag_LI
•Steve Jobs iPhone 2007 Presentation (January 9, 2007). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vN4U5FqrOdQ
•Steve Jobs TV Interview about iPhone (2007). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pZJPP_I04vA

Web Sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IPhone
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IPhone_(1st_generation)
•http://www.cultofmac.com/103229/how-iphone-changed-the-world/
•http://www.cultofmac.com/327605/iphone-first-went-on-sale-8-years-ago-today/?utm_medium=twitter.com&utm_source=applenws.com
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Apple_Inc.
•https://www.apple.com/pr/library/2013/10/28Apple-Reports-Fourth-Quarter-Results.html
•http://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1873486_1873491_1873469,00.html

Book Sources:
• Steve Jobs by Walter Isaacson. http://amzn.to/1BRyZES
• Steve Jobs: The Man Who Thought Different by Karen Blumenthal. http://amzn.to/1R04wvp
• The Rise of Apple: Invention, and Reinvention, in Silicon Valley by real-time feature writers of the New York Times. http://amzn.to/1KpG7vs
• Dogfight: How Apple and Google Went to War and Started a Revolution by Fred Vogelstein. http://amzn.to/1SYPraZ

Image Credits:
•Steve Jobs holding the original iPhone. http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/09/the-original-iphone-keynote-is-still-amazing-to-watch/279518/
•Steve Jobs with a slide at the iPhone introduction in which he positions the new product with reference to existing smartphones on the market. From a frame in the January 9, 2007 “Steve Jobs iPhone 2007 Presentation.”  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vN4U5FqrOdQ___

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2015-07-05 12:47:53 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 6 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Colossal Explosion in the Sky over Siberia, 1908

On June 30, 1908 — 107 years ago today — at about 7:15 in the morning, people in Verevara along the Tanguska River in the middle of Siberia, Russia, were awoken by the sight and sound of a huge fireball in the sky heading for Earth — the biggest explosion in recorded human history. A loud explosion took place about 40 miles away in the Taiga Forest; the explosion knocked people over and smashed windows many miles away. One speculated conclusion was that the explosion was an airburst of an asteroid from a 100 feet to a couple of miles in diameter. Whatever it was left 830 square miles of scorched earth and blown-down trees. The affected area was over 10 times the size of Washington, DC. 

And the shock waves from the explosion traveled twice around the world and registered on seismometers everywhere on Earth. Noimpact crat... more »

Today in History: Colossal Explosion in the Sky over Siberia, 1908

On June 30, 1908 — 107 years ago today — at about 7:15 in the morning, people in Verevara along the Tanguska River in the middle of Siberia, Russia, were awoken by the sight and sound of a huge fireball in the sky heading for Earth — the biggest explosion in recorded human history. A loud explosion took place about 40 miles away in the Taiga Forest; the explosion knocked people over and smashed windows many miles away. One speculated conclusion was that the explosion was an airburst of an asteroid from a 100 feet to a couple of miles in diameter. Whatever it was left 830 square miles of scorched earth and blown-down trees. The affected area was over 10 times the size of Washington, DC. 

And the shock waves from the explosion traveled twice around the world and registered on seismometers everywhere on Earth. No impact crater was ever found.

Scientists calculate that a stony meteoroid of only 30 feet in diameter can produce an explosion similar to the atomic bomb that was dropped on Nagasaki, Japan in World War II. Scientists estimate that the Tanguska Event probable asteroid entered the Earth’s atmosphere traveling at 33,500 mph, weighing about 220 million pounds, generating heat of about 44,500°F in the air around it, producing a fireball and releasing energy equivalent to 185 Hiroshima atomic bombs!



From Scientific American: June 30, 1908, 7:14 a.m., central Siberia—Semen Semenov, a local farmer, saw “the sky split in two. Fire appeared high and wide over the forest.... From ... where the fire was, came strong heat.... Then the sky shut closed, and a strong thump sounded, and I was thrown a few yards.... After that such noise came, as if ... cannons were firing, the earth shook ...”



The asteroid, if it was an asteroid, picked a remote place upon which to do its destruction, which still shows over a century later. (See photos in linked articles.) 

At least one scientist suggested the event was caused by a comet, not an asteroid. After the explosion, observers across Europe has reported “skyglows,” which can be explained by the dust and ice that would have dispersed from a comet’s tail across the upper atmosphere. Moreover, a comet may not have made a crater impact.

Some observers think that this fireball was actually caused by a high energy beam that Nikola Tesla created to light up the North Pole, but his experiment went awry. [Please see https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YIBqSuLum9Qhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YIBqSuLum9Q.]

YouTube videos:
•Asteroid air-burst over Siberia — The Tunguska Event (by Stargazer Nation; length 06:03). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ov8h_ddLfDI
•1908 Mystery in Tunguska, Russia. (by 3dtimespace; length 01:15:20). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tudVC8NSDHw
•Big Bang in Tunguska — Documentary of the Mysterious 1908 Event (length 49:20). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HXfvhJoNi90
•Nikola Tesla Experiment — Tunguska 1908???? (by Matrix World Disclosure; 20:16). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YIBqSuLum9Qhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YIBqSuLum9Q
•NASAFLIX — Tunguska: The Russian Roswell (by NASAFLIX Lost History; length 50:57). 
•Nikola Tesla | The Missing Secrets (by ScientistX; length 46:25). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1b5ciAZmyd0

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tunguska_event

•http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=the-tunguska-mystery-100-years-later

•http://www.world-mysteries.com/sci_tunguska.htm

•http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2008/30jun_tunguska/
•
http://www.universetoday.com/36398/what-is-the-difference-between-asteroids-and-meteorites/

•http://scienceblogs.com/startswithabang/2010/11/02/how-afraid-of-asteroids-should/
•http://www.topo.biz/2013/02/tunguska-event-large-meteoroid-or-comet-fragment-at-an-altitude-of-5%E2%80%9310-kilometres/
•http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/06/090624152941.htm

Book sources:
• The Tunguska Event: The Mystery of the Biggest Explosion in Recorded History by Charles River Editors. http://amzn.to/1KoLucC
• The Tunguska Mystery by Vladimir Rubtsov. http://amzn.to/1g90YGs
• Tunguska by Paul England. http://amzn.to/1LBnS5B
• The Tunguska Fireball: Solving One of the Great Mysteries of the 20th Century by Surendra Verma. http://amzn.to/1KoLfhR

Image credits:
•Google Earth map of the location of the Tunguska Event. Created by Google Maps.
•Artist’s depiction of the Tunguska Event. http://www.ismar.cnr.it/events-and-news/news/il-mistero-di-tunguska-a-superquark-rai-uno-ore-21-20-del-26-agosto-2010___

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2015-06-29 16:42:55 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 1 +1s)Open 

Today in History: First major band releases song for free online download, 1994
On June 27, 1994 — 21 years ago today — the music industry began transitioning away from hard media sold in record stores to online distribution. Aerosmith via Geffen Records became the first major band to release a new song exclusively online, “Head First,” which could be digitally downloaded for free if you were a member of the CompuServe online service. Are you old enough to remember using CompuServe (the first major commercial online service in the U.S.)?

The “Head First” tune was an unused cut from Aerosmith’s earlier “Get a Grip” sessions. In 8 days, 10,000 CompuServe subscribers downloaded the tune. Don’t laugh, but in these early Internet days, the tune took 60-90 minutes to download; and it was only 3 minutes, 14 seconds long! In 1994, the Internet was only a primitive versionof what exists for ... more »

Today in History: First major band releases song for free online download, 1994
On June 27, 1994 — 21 years ago today — the music industry began transitioning away from hard media sold in record stores to online distribution. Aerosmith via Geffen Records became the first major band to release a new song exclusively online, “Head First,” which could be digitally downloaded for free if you were a member of the CompuServe online service. Are you old enough to remember using CompuServe (the first major commercial online service in the U.S.)?

The “Head First” tune was an unused cut from Aerosmith’s earlier “Get a Grip” sessions. In 8 days, 10,000 CompuServe subscribers downloaded the tune. Don’t laugh, but in these early Internet days, the tune took 60-90 minutes to download; and it was only 3 minutes, 14 seconds long! In 1994, the Internet was only a primitive version of what exists for most of Internet users today, at least in the most technologically advanced countries. The Web — the amazing interactive software that rides atop the hardware of the Internet — has just begun and consumed only 1% of all Internet traffic.

Tom Hamilton, Aerosmith’s bassist, had been in Internet chat rooms where he talked with fans and occasionally provided first-hand testimony regarding myths and misconceptions that had grown around the Aerosmith band/brand. When Geffen approached Aerosmith with the idea of offering to distribute a new tune via the Internet, Hamilton quickly embraced the idea and did the other musicians in Aerosmith. Aerosmith was generally an “edgy” band — experimenting and moving toward the future of music.

YouTube:
•Aerosmith-Head First (with lyrics; length 04:40). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Am1E0T2ygo
•Aerosmith-Head First (length 04:42). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=auuiMvtAgck
•Aerosmith Head First in Wide Angle (length 04:49). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zjZlJg0kYKc
•Steve Tyler Talks of Kurt Cobain’s Death & His Own Drug Addiction on Turning Point, April 1994 (length 05:13). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TnhKEKiMSRA
•Steven Tyler Interview (length 17:09). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1mXg_x9o7wE

Web Sources:
•http://noisey.vice.com/blog/go-aerosmith-how-head-first-became-the-first-song-available-for-digital-download-20-years-ago-today
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aerosmith
•https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steven_Tyler
•http://music.wikia.com/wiki/Aerosmith
•http://www.thefreelibrary.com/GEFFEN+RECORDS,+COMPUSERVE+AND+AEROSMITH+MAKE+HISTORY+WITH+FIRST+SONG...-a015447912
•http://articles.sun-sentinel.com/1994-06-27/lifestyle/9406260159_1_compuserve-sound-card-geffen

Book Sources:
• Walk This Way: The Autobiography of Aerosmith by Aerosmith (and Stephen Davis). http://amzn.to/1GCJh8M
• Steven Tyler: Does the Noise in my Head Bother You? A Rock ‘n’ Roll Memoir by Steven Tyler. http://amzn.to/1GCJh8M
• Rocks: My Life in and out of Aerosmith by Joe Perry. http://amzn.to/1GCJh8M

Image Credits (left to right, top to bottom):
•Menu of CompuServe Internet Services, the provider that allowed for free downloads of the first music song, Aerosmith’s “Head First” in 1994.
•Aerosmith in the 1980s.
•Steve Tyler (right), lead singer for Aerosmith in the 1980s.
•Aerosmith in recent years. https://circlekj.files.wordpress.com/2014/06/aero-1403847970_2_credit_ross_halfin.jpg___

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2015-06-29 05:52:21 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 0 +1s)Open 

Today in History, June 28: Vannevar Bush Died (1974); Elon Musk Was Born (1971)
On June 28 — 2 major visionaries came and went: Vannevar Bush died on June 28, 1974, and Elon Musk was born on June 28, 1971. [Still working on the text of this post.]

YouTube videos:
•Vannevar Bush in One Minute (Computing History Stony Brook University; length 01:17). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vUwe8ks7iao
•Linking Minds Part One (length 06:17). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UHGF_BQi1PM

************************************
•Elon Musk: How I Became the Real “Iron Man” (Bloomberg Business; length 44:59). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mh45igK4Esw
•Conversation with Elon Musk on SpaceX, Tesla, and his personal life (Computer History Museum; length 01:16:51). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zaVRPgQ8DGw
•Elon Musk (Khan Academy; length 48:41).https://www.you... more »

Today in History, June 28: Vannevar Bush Died (1974); Elon Musk Was Born (1971)
On June 28 — 2 major visionaries came and went: Vannevar Bush died on June 28, 1974, and Elon Musk was born on June 28, 1971. [Still working on the text of this post.]

YouTube videos:
•Vannevar Bush in One Minute (Computing History Stony Brook University; length 01:17). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vUwe8ks7iao
•Linking Minds Part One (length 06:17). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UHGF_BQi1PM

************************************
•Elon Musk: How I Became the Real “Iron Man” (Bloomberg Business; length 44:59). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mh45igK4Esw
•Conversation with Elon Musk on SpaceX, Tesla, and his personal life (Computer History Museum; length 01:16:51). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zaVRPgQ8DGw
•Elon Musk (Khan Academy; length 48:41). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FLbhpb-MExg
•Elon Musk & Sir Richard Branson Hangout on Air (Google for Entrepreneurs; length 57:38). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vy9y_YSpYxA


Web sources:
•https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vannevar_Bush

•https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elon_Musk

Book sources:
• Endless Frontier: Vannevar Bush, Engineer of the American Century by G. Pascal Zachary. http://amzn.to/1HplIGb
• From Memex to Hypertext by James M. Nyce and Paul Kahn. http://amzn.to/1HpY50b

• Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future_ by Ashlee Vance. http://amzn.to/1HpYEak
• _ Elon Musk: Renaissance Man_ by Ryan McIntire. http://amzn.to/1RJstSC
• Elon Musk: Biography of a Self-Made Visionary, Entrepreneur, and Billionaire by B. Storm. http://amzn.to/1NqZTEp


Image credits:
Top right: Vannevar Bush at desk.
Bottom left: Elon Musk.___

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2015-06-26 15:53:39 (0 comments, 2 reshares, 7 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Two Luminaries Were Born — Turing, 1912; Cerf, 1943
On June 23, 1912 — 103 years ago today — Alan Turning was born in London, England. Alan Turing was a mathematical genius and extraordinary polymath who is credited with helping to save countless lives by deciphering the encrypted German military communications code during World War II. After the war, Turing worked in Britain's National Physical Laboratory where he developed designs for the world's first "Automatic Computing Engine" — ACE (aka "the Turing machine"). He is frequently called "the father of computer science." Tragically, in his late 30s, his honesty with police led him to be convicted for being gay; he was sentenced to hormonal treatment that resulted in chemical castration. Turing died at the age of 41 (perhaps by suicide), while he was exploring"m... more »

Today in History: Two Luminaries Were Born — Turing, 1912; Cerf, 1943
On June 23, 1912 — 103 years ago today — Alan Turning was born in London, England. Alan Turing was a mathematical genius and extraordinary polymath who is credited with helping to save countless lives by deciphering the encrypted German military communications code during World War II. After the war, Turing worked in Britain's National Physical Laboratory where he developed designs for the world's first "Automatic Computing Engine" — ACE (aka "the Turing machine"). He is frequently called "the father of computer science." Tragically, in his late 30s, his honesty with police led him to be convicted for being gay; he was sentenced to hormonal treatment that resulted in chemical castration. Turing died at the age of 41 (perhaps by suicide), while he was exploring "morphogenesis," a fundamental aspect of developmental biology.

On June 23, 1943 — 72 years ago today —Vinton Gray Cerf was born in New Haven, Connecticut. Cerf is often referred to as one of "the fathers of the internet." Cerf is currently Google Vice President & Chief Internet Evangelist, and he's responsible for “identifying new enabling technologies and applications on the Internet and other platforms for the company [Google].”

YouTube videos:
•Alan Turing — Celebrating the Life of a Genius (length 08:13). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gtRLmL70TH0
•Breaking the Code: Biography of Alan Turing (Derek Jacobi, BBC, 1996; length 01:30:47). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S23yie-779k
•Big interview with Vint Cerf, “the father of the Internet” (length 09:42). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RmTh2PSXA8M
•The History and Future of the Internet: Vinton G. Cerf (length 01:13:15). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vmKfR-zN1EM
•Leo Laporte interviewing Vint Cerf in a Google+ Hangout (length 44:05). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=17GtmwyvmWE

The Colbert Report videos:
•Vint Cerf (part 1; length 05:30). http://thecolbertreport.cc.com/videos/08a2dg/vint-cerf-pt--1
•Vint Cerf (part 2; length 03:31). http://thecolbertreport.cc.com/videos/x9hnxr/vint-cerf-pt--2

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alan_Turing
•http://www.biography.com/people/alan-turing-9512017#awesm=~oHnewRFSRKvP2t
•http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-18561092
•http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/06/alan-turing-saved-my-life/258891/
•http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/people/alan_turing
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automatic_Computing_Engine
•http://www.engadget.com/2012/06/22/remembering-alan-turing-at-100/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vint_Cerf
•http://research.google.com/pubs/author32412.html

Book sources:
• The Man Who Knew Too Much: Alan Turing and the Invention of the Computer by David Leavitt. http://amzn.to/1GoF1JN
• Alan M. Turing: Centenary Edition by Sara Turing. http://amzn.to/1BzQMR5
• Alan Turing: Pioneer of the Information Age by B. Jack Copeland. http://amzn.to/1BzQQjx
• Vint Cerf: TCP/IP Co-Designer: The Internet is for Everyone by Vint Cerf. http://amzn.to/1SItqNt
• Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins of the Internet by Matthew Lyon and Katie Hafner. http://amzn.to/1Ll5nC4

Image credits (left to right):
•Alan Turing. http://www.wired.com/wp-content/uploads/images_blogs/wiredscience/2011/02/01turing.jpg
•Vint Cerf. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vint_Cerf#mediaviewer/File:Vint_Cerf_-_2010.jpg___

2015-06-26 15:53:22 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

Wow!!.  The supreme court decides Gay Marriage allowed in all 50 states.    Best Birthday Present Ever.  

Wow!!.  The supreme court decides Gay Marriage allowed in all 50 states.    Best Birthday Present Ever.  ___

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2015-06-24 23:09:30 (0 comments, 3 reshares, 9 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Two Luminaries Were Born — Turing, 1912; Cerf, 1943
On June 23, 1912 — 103 years ago today — Alan Turning was born in London, England. Alan Turing was a mathematical genius and extraordinary polymath who is credited with helping to save countless lives by deciphering the encrypted German military communications code during World War II. After the war, Turing worked in Britain's National Physical Laboratory where he developed designs for the world's first "Automatic Computing Engine" — ACE (aka "the Turing machine"). He is frequently called "the father of computer science." Tragically, in his late 30s, his honesty with police led him to be convicted for being gay; he was sentenced to hormonal treatment that resulted in chemical castration. Turing died at the age of 41 (perhaps by suicide), while he was exploring"m... more »

Today in History: Two Luminaries Were Born — Turing, 1912; Cerf, 1943
On June 23, 1912 — 103 years ago today — Alan Turning was born in London, England. Alan Turing was a mathematical genius and extraordinary polymath who is credited with helping to save countless lives by deciphering the encrypted German military communications code during World War II. After the war, Turing worked in Britain's National Physical Laboratory where he developed designs for the world's first "Automatic Computing Engine" — ACE (aka "the Turing machine"). He is frequently called "the father of computer science." Tragically, in his late 30s, his honesty with police led him to be convicted for being gay; he was sentenced to hormonal treatment that resulted in chemical castration. Turing died at the age of 41 (perhaps by suicide), while he was exploring "morphogenesis," a fundamental aspect of developmental biology.

On June 23, 1943 — 72 years ago today —Vinton Gray Cerf was born in New Haven, Connecticut. Cerf is often referred to as one of "the fathers of the internet." Cerf is currently Google Vice President & Chief Internet Evangelist, and he's responsible for “identifying new enabling technologies and applications on the Internet and other platforms for the company [Google].”

YouTube videos:
•Alan Turing — Celebrating the Life of a Genius (length 08:13). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gtRLmL70TH0
•Breaking the Code: Biography of Alan Turing (Derek Jacobi, BBC, 1996; length 01:30:47). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S23yie-779k
•Big interview with Vint Cerf, “the father of the Internet” (length 09:42). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RmTh2PSXA8M
•The History and Future of the Internet: Vinton G. Cerf (length 01:13:15). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vmKfR-zN1EM
•Leo Laporte interviewing Vint Cerf in a Google+ Hangout (length 44:05). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=17GtmwyvmWE

The Colbert Report videos:
•Vint Cerf (part 1; length 05:30). http://thecolbertreport.cc.com/videos/08a2dg/vint-cerf-pt--1
•Vint Cerf (part 2; length 03:31). http://thecolbertreport.cc.com/videos/x9hnxr/vint-cerf-pt--2

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alan_Turing
•http://www.biography.com/people/alan-turing-9512017#awesm=~oHnewRFSRKvP2t
•http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-18561092
•http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/06/alan-turing-saved-my-life/258891/
•http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/people/alan_turing
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automatic_Computing_Engine
•http://www.engadget.com/2012/06/22/remembering-alan-turing-at-100/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vint_Cerf
•http://research.google.com/pubs/author32412.html

Book sources:
• The Man Who Knew Too Much: Alan Turing and the Invention of the Computer by David Leavitt. http://amzn.to/1GoF1JN
• Alan M. Turing: Centenary Edition by Sara Turing. http://amzn.to/1BzQMR5
• Alan Turing: Pioneer of the Information Age by B. Jack Copeland. http://amzn.to/1BzQQjx
• Vint Cerf: TCP/IP Co-Designer: The Internet is for Everyone by Vint Cerf. http://amzn.to/1SItqNt
• Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins of the Internet by Matthew Lyon and Katie Hafner. http://amzn.to/1Ll5nC4

Image credits (left to right):
•Alan Turing. http://www.wired.com/wp-content/uploads/images_blogs/wiredscience/2011/02/01turing.jpg
•Vint Cerf. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vint_Cerf#mediaviewer/File:Vint_Cerf_-_2010.jpg___

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2015-06-23 14:06:21 (1 comments, 1 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Galileo Sentenced for Heretical Heliocentric Beliefs, 1633
On June 22, 1633 — 381 years ago today — after a long trial before the Roman Catholic inquisitor Vincenzo Maculani, the sentence of Galileo (often considered to be “the father of modern science”) was delivered. Galileo’s sentence was for his formulating independent, scientific views of how the universe was structured (heliocentrically, rather than Earth-centered as the Catholic Church taught) and for publishing those views. Galileo had built the first telescope to explore “the heavens” and viewed Jupiter’s moons, and so he was the first human to observe that smaller bodies orbited larger bodies in space.

(1) Galileo was found guilty of heresy — for holding to his belief that the Sun lies in the center of the universe and that the Earth moves around the sun. He was ordered to “abjure, curseand detest” this be... more »

Today in History: Galileo Sentenced for Heretical Heliocentric Beliefs, 1633
On June 22, 1633 — 381 years ago today — after a long trial before the Roman Catholic inquisitor Vincenzo Maculani, the sentence of Galileo (often considered to be “the father of modern science”) was delivered. Galileo’s sentence was for his formulating independent, scientific views of how the universe was structured (heliocentrically, rather than Earth-centered as the Catholic Church taught) and for publishing those views. Galileo had built the first telescope to explore “the heavens” and viewed Jupiter’s moons, and so he was the first human to observe that smaller bodies orbited larger bodies in space.

(1) Galileo was found guilty of heresy — for holding to his belief that the Sun lies in the center of the universe and that the Earth moves around the sun. He was ordered to “abjure, curse and detest” this belief. 

(2) Galileo was sentenced to prison, but the following day this sentence was commuted to house arrest for the remainder of his life.

(3) His writings were banned — past, present, and future.

Although the inquisitor Maculani had a reputation for being cold and uncaring, he did determine that Galileo was too old and too ill to undergo torture to force recantation of his heliocentric writings and beliefs. Oddly enough, Galileo was a practicing Catholic who believed that the Bible was God’s word, but he just thought the Bible was not a good astronomy textbook. Galileo’s daughter became a Catholicnun, and he communicated with his daughter as his developed his book on the heliocentric universe.

In 1992 — 359 years after Galileo was sentenced — Pope John Paul II, writing in L’Osservatore Romano, stated: “Thanks to his intuition as a brilliant physicist and by relying on different arguments, Galileo, who practically invented the experimental method, understood why only the sun could function as the centre of the world, as it was then known, that is to say, as a planetary system. The error of the theologians of the time, when they maintained the centrality of the Earth, was to think that our understanding of the physical world's structure was, in some way, imposed by the literal sense of Sacred Scripture....”

YouTube videos:
•Galileo — Mini Biography (Bio Channel; 02:51). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2J0-ZbbrD6U
•Galileo’s Battle for the Heavens (PBS Documentary; length 01:48:55). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VnEH9rbrIkk
•How Did Galileo Galilei Change the World Today (documentary Science Space History; length 54:52). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yQmalmF1bvc
•Great Books: Galileo’s Dialogue (length 51:48). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mlYrW8r8eVQ

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galileo_Galilei
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vincenzo_Maculani
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Urban_VIII
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galileo_affair
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heliocentrism
•http://www.nytimes.com/1992/11/01/world/vatican-science-panel-told-by-pope-galileo-was-right.html

Book sources:
• The Essential Galileo by Galileo Galilei (Maurice A. Finocchiaro, translator). http://amzn.to/1SDxHSd
• Thus Spoke Galileo: The great scientist’s ideas and their relevance to the present day by Andrea Frova, Mariapiera Marenzana, James H. McManus. http://amzn.to/1IusF3e

Image credits (top to bottom, left to right):
•Trial of Galileo during the Roman Catholic Inquisition. Portrait created in the 19th century by Joseph Nicolas Robert-Fleury. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AGalileo_before_the_Holy_Office.jpg
•Maculani in priestly vestmans reading the charges against Galileo Galilei (standing), by Cristian Banti (1857). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vincenzo_Maculani#mediaviewer/File:Galileo_facing_the_Roman_Inquisition.jpg
•Galileo Galilei portrait (paint on silver paper) by Passignani. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6e/Galileo_by_Passignano.jpg
•Galileo Galilei. http://mrnussbaum.com/pioneers/galileo/___

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2015-06-21 21:40:28 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 2 +1s)Open 

Today in History: First LP Music Album (12-inch, 33-1/3) was Announced
On June 21, 1948 — 67 years ago today — Columbia Records announced the first “microgroove,” 12-inch,33-⅓ rpm, long play record (a.k.a. “the album”) and released a catalog of music available for the new medium. One week later the first album from this catalog was released — Nathan Milstein performing Mendelssohn’s Violin Concerto in E Minor with the New York Philharmonic Orchestra. More popular albums followed; and, by the end of 1948, Columbia had sold 1.25 million long-playing records — creating a new industry standard medium that would be popular for the next 4 decades (and still be in use today and maybe making a comeback after almost being replaced by other formats).

YouTube videos:
•Nathan Milstein plays Mendelssohn Violin Concerto in E minor (length 25:20).https://www.youtube.c... more »

Today in History: First LP Music Album (12-inch, 33-1/3) was Announced
On June 21, 1948 — 67 years ago today — Columbia Records announced the first “microgroove,” 12-inch,33-⅓ rpm, long play record (a.k.a. “the album”) and released a catalog of music available for the new medium. One week later the first album from this catalog was released — Nathan Milstein performing Mendelssohn’s Violin Concerto in E Minor with the New York Philharmonic Orchestra. More popular albums followed; and, by the end of 1948, Columbia had sold 1.25 million long-playing records — creating a new industry standard medium that would be popular for the next 4 decades (and still be in use today and maybe making a comeback after almost being replaced by other formats).

YouTube videos:
•Nathan Milstein plays Mendelssohn Violin Concerto in E minor (length 25:20). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l2tqvrIMDYs
•Making Vinyl Records: The Sound and the Story, 1956 (OldTimieMusic; length 23:49). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pKbAksbvUqQ
•Why does vinyl sound better than MP3? (Gigwise; length 10:54). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HKDt3JmELAM
•When Albums Ruled the World (length 01:28:56). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Em4kpy1YuNQ

Web Sources:
•http://www.wired.com/2010/06/0621first-lp-released/
•http://thejazzmonger.com/2012/06/20/columbia-introduces-first-lp-record/
•http://www.slate.com/articles/arts/books/2012/11/birth_of_the_long_playing_record_plus_rare_photos_from_the_heyday_of_columbia.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LP_album
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Columbia_Records
•http://lprecord.umwblogs.org/history/invention/
•http://www.33audio.com/enter/ML4001.html
•http://culturecatch.com/music/columbia-LP-birthday
•http://www.columbiarecords.com/timeline/#!date=1882-11-09_08:17:04!
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mendelssohn_Violin_Concerto_(Nathan_Milstein_album)
•Vinylmania: When life runs at 33 revolutions per minute (a documentary)

Book sources:
_ 360 Sound: The Columbia Records Story_ by Sean Wilentz. http://amzn.to/1eADg5L
_ The Label: The Story of Columbia Reocrds_ by Gary Marmorstein. http://amzn.to/1IsoXXP

Image credits (left to right, top to bottom):
•The original album sleeve for the first LP album from Columbia Records. Columbia Records: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mendelssohn_Nathan_Milstein_LP_1947.jpg#filelinks
•The original vinyl record of Nathan Milstein on violin with the Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra of New York playing “Mendelssohn: Concerto in E Minor.” Columbia Records: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mendelssohn_Nathan_Milstein_LP_1947.jpg#filelinks
•Nathan Milstein playing violin. Frame from YouTube video listed as first source under YouTube videos above.
•A “record player” for 33-⅓ rpm albums.
•A collection of albums in shelves.

#history #history-tech #music #albums #ColumbiaRecords___

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2015-06-20 16:28:39 (1 comments, 0 reshares, 1 +1s)Open 

Today in History: U.S. Secretary of State Approves Nazi Rocket Scientists’ Transfer to U.S., 1945
On June 20, 1945 — 70 years ago today — rocket pioneer Wernher von Braun and his team of over 100 Nazi scientists, who had surrendered to U.S. forces in the closing days of World War II, were approved for transfer to the United States. The Army embraced these German rocket scientists and allowed them to continue their work on rocket technology. On April 14, 1955, von Braun became a U.S. citizen; and a few years later when NASA was put together from various military programs as a response to the Soviet Sputnik launches, von Braun became responsible for developing the rockets used in the Apollo moon landing program. It is believed by some observers that von Braun was instrumental in convincing President Kennedy to set America’s Moon Goal. Wernher von Braun had the goal to land a man on theMoon be... more »

Today in History: U.S. Secretary of State Approves Nazi Rocket Scientists’ Transfer to U.S., 1945
On June 20, 1945 — 70 years ago today — rocket pioneer Wernher von Braun and his team of over 100 Nazi scientists, who had surrendered to U.S. forces in the closing days of World War II, were approved for transfer to the United States. The Army embraced these German rocket scientists and allowed them to continue their work on rocket technology. On April 14, 1955, von Braun became a U.S. citizen; and a few years later when NASA was put together from various military programs as a response to the Soviet Sputnik launches, von Braun became responsible for developing the rockets used in the Apollo moon landing program. It is believed by some observers that von Braun was instrumental in convincing President Kennedy to set America’s Moon Goal. Wernher von Braun had the goal to land a man on the Moon before President Kennedy.

YouTube Videos:
•Wernher von Braun: From Nazis to NASA (SciShow Space; good quick summary; length 04:49). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kyhe6MrOtiM
•Wernher von Braun: His Story Told. “Missile to Moon” (PBS documentary; length 56:16). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Ch0OgkkJKI
•Nova to the Moon (Documentary Daily; length 01:55:19). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sllgVYbIysI*****
•Saturn V Rocket (Joshua Bonini, great educational video about development of the Saturn V moon rocket); length 44:23). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mucb4Ttt1oY*****

*****For those people who doubt that the U.S. actually sent astronauts to the Moon, please watch these videos to understand all the problems that were overcome in order to make the staggering achievement.

Web Sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wernher_von_Braun
•http://history.state.gov/departmenthistory/people/stettinius-edward-reilly
•http://www.pbs.org/wnet/secrets/features/hunt-for-nazi-scientists/wernher-von-braun/101/
•http://www.v2rocket.com/start/chapters/flight2.html
•http://www.space.com/20122-wernher-von-braun.html
•history.msfc.nasa.gov/vonbraun/bio.html

Image Credits:
(A) Wernher von Braun on cover of Time Magazine, February 17, 1958. http://content.time.com/time/covers/0,16641,19580217,00.html
(B) Wernher von Braun chatting with President John Kennedy about Moon goal on May 19, 1963. http://history.redstone.army.mil/bios/kennedy_vonbraun_19may63_02.jpg
(C) Wernher von Braun explaining the Saturn moon rocket system to President John Kennedy. NASA and Marshall Space Flight Center.
(D) Wernher von Braun (far right) with the original Mercury astronauts with whom he worked closely. From left to right: Gus Grissom, Wally Schirra, Alan Shepard, John Glenn, Scott Carpenter, Deke Slayton, and Wernher von Braun.
(E) Wernher von Braun sitting next to President Kennedy in presidential limousine as President Kennedy toured Marshall Space Flight Center at the Redstone Arsenal near Huntsville, Alabama. Von Braun was Director of the Marshall Space Flight Center at the time. NASA and Marshall Space Flight Center.
(F) Wernher von Braun with all the missiles he and his team designed for NASA. http://www.space.com/20122-wernher-von-braun.html
(G) Werner von Braun standing with the Saturn V rocket on launch pad in the background. https://vintagespace.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/6900841.jpg___

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2015-06-20 05:58:38 (1 comments, 0 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Sci-fi movie, E.T., The Extra-Terrestrial, was Released, 1982
On June 11, 1982 — 33 years ago today — E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, a science fiction-family film co-produced and directed by Steven Spielberg and written by Melissa Mathison, was released by Universal Pictures, and quickly became a blockbuster. The film surpassed the previous record-holder film, Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope, to become the highest-grossing film of all time (a record it held for the next 11 years). If you have not seen the film, a Rotten Tomatoes survey ranked it as “the greatest science fiction film ever made” and critics have acclaimed it as “a timeless story of friendship.” Maybe you should see it. 

YouTube videos:
•E.T. The Extra-Terrestrial Trailer. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Dvuf_R6KtM
•E.T. The Extra-Terrestrial movie clip:“Getting Drunk” ... more »

Today in History: Sci-fi movie, E.T., The Extra-Terrestrial, was Released, 1982
On June 11, 1982 — 33 years ago today — E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, a science fiction-family film co-produced and directed by Steven Spielberg and written by Melissa Mathison, was released by Universal Pictures, and quickly became a blockbuster. The film surpassed the previous record-holder film, Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope, to become the highest-grossing film of all time (a record it held for the next 11 years). If you have not seen the film, a Rotten Tomatoes survey ranked it as “the greatest science fiction film ever made” and critics have acclaimed it as “a timeless story of friendship.” Maybe you should see it. 

YouTube videos:
•E.T. The Extra-Terrestrial Trailer. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Dvuf_R6KtM
•E.T. The Extra-Terrestrial movie clip: “Getting Drunk” (length 02:39).
•E.T. The Extra-Terrestrial movie clip: “E.T., Phone Home” (length 02:45). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R_YZuYESaoo
•E.T. The Extra-Terrestrial movie clip: “Ride in the Sky” (length 02:39). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oR1-UFrcZ0k
•E.T. The Extra-Terrestrial movie clip: “He’s Alive! He’s Alive!” (length 03:29). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a-9990dlfvo
*E.T. The Extra-Terrestrial movie clip: “I’ll be right here” (length: 03:29). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=75M1XXEZciU

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E.T._the_Extra-Terrestrial
•http://io9.com/5950664/weird-facts-that-you-didnt-know-about-et-the-extra-terrestrial
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melissa_Mathison
•http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/real-life-stories/et-actor-henry-thomas-on-how-860593

Book sources:
• E.T. The Extra-Terrestrial from Concept to Classic: The Illustrated Story of the Film and the Filmmakers, 30th Anniversary Edition by Steven Spielberg and Melissa Mathison. http://amzn.to/1F9w1q1
• Steven Spielberg: A Biography (Second Edition) by Joseph McBride. http://amzn.to/1Tch1Cw
• Who is Steven Spielberg by Stephanie Spinner. http://amzn.to/1Tchgh3

Movie availability:
• E.T., The Extra-Terrestrial, 1982 http://amzn.to/1dyfQg9

Image credits (left to right, top to bottom):
•Movie poster for E.T., the Extra-Terrestrial by John Alvin, 1982 Universal Studios. Source: filmsite,org. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:E_t_the_extra_terrestrial_ver3.jpg#file
•Frames from the movie, _E.T., The Extra-Terrestrial

#history #history -tech #ET #Spielberg #Sci -Fi #friendship___

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2015-06-20 05:57:55 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 1 +1s)Open 

Today in History: The first Boeing 777 flew, 1994
On June 12, 1994 — 21 years ago today — the wide-body, twin-engine jet airliner, the Boeing 777, first flew. The 777 model was the first jetliner in history to be 100% digitally designed using 3D computer graphics. This highly advanced technological process enabled the 777 to be the first airplane design to reach 1,000 airliners in service faster than any other airliner manufactured in history. The basic model includes 3 million parts (coming from 500 global suppliers), many of which are made with new materials designed specifically to be lightweight. The twin engines are from GE Aviation, the GE90 engine — exclusively built for the 777. Both Boeing and GE Aviation worked closely together in designing the 777’s engines. Bill Millhaem, general manager of the GE90/9X Program at GE Aviation, stated, “Prior to its introduction, twin-engineairplanes... more »

Today in History: The first Boeing 777 flew, 1994
On June 12, 1994 — 21 years ago today — the wide-body, twin-engine jet airliner, the Boeing 777, first flew. The 777 model was the first jetliner in history to be 100% digitally designed using 3D computer graphics. This highly advanced technological process enabled the 777 to be the first airplane design to reach 1,000 airliners in service faster than any other airliner manufactured in history. The basic model includes 3 million parts (coming from 500 global suppliers), many of which are made with new materials designed specifically to be lightweight. The twin engines are from GE Aviation, the GE90 engine — exclusively built for the 777. Both Boeing and GE Aviation worked closely together in designing the 777’s engines. Bill Millhaem, general manager of the GE90/9X Program at GE Aviation, stated, “Prior to its introduction, twin-engine airplanes were not viewed as a viable option for long-haul travel. Yet the proven performance and reliability of the GE90-powered Boeing 777 aircraft altered this mindset and made the engine-aircraft combination among the most successful long-range, wide-body offering in service today.”

The 777 airliner from Boeing is built in the largest building on Earth (Disneyland could fit inside), at 11 stories high (at that level, clouds have been known to form inside the building). Each major plane that Boeing builds has its own section of the building — 747, 767, 777, 787.

The 777 line includes 6 airplanes — 5 passenger models and a freighter model, each designed to enhance efficiency for the number of miles traveled and weight carried.

YouTube videos:
•Boeing 777 First Flight June 12, 1994 (length 06:40) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8erXQGgr7VE
•Boeing’s 777 Flex Track: Robots on Track (length 02:16). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ToRVNS_kuXo
•Boeing 777 Team: Flown by the world’s elite airlines (04:10). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pXdwGe0_ti4
•Boeing 777 team: Precision Craftsmanship (length 07:20). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ToRVNS_kuXo
•1,000 777s & Proud: It’s all in a tail number. (length 02:06). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DaH3hPN-Jvc
•Great Planes: Boeing 747 and 777 National Geographic documentary (length 45:56; 777 at )https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=47Olsz3njRA

Web sources:
•https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boeing_777
•http://www.boeing.com/history/products/777.page

Book sources:
• Boeing 777: Jetliner for a New Century by Philip Birtles. http://amzn.to/1HzrGTq
• Boeing 777: The Technological Marvel by Guy Norris. http://amzn.to/1MvGQsa

Image credits (top to bottom, left to right):
•Boeing 777 in flight. Source: Boeing
•Boeing 777 in flight. Source: Boeing
•Boeing 777 in flight. Source: Boeing
•Cockpit of Boeing 777. By Bill Abbott [CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ABoeing_777-200ER_cockpit.jpg
•Cockpit of Boeing 777. http://becuo.com/boeing-777-cockpit-layout 

#history   #history -tech #Boeing  #777___

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2015-06-20 05:57:29 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 2 +1s)Open 

Today in History: For first time in history, asteroidal sample returned to Earth, 2010
On June 13, 2010 — 5 years ago today — for the first time in history, a spacecraft, the Japanese-made “Hayabusa,” which had rendezvoused with an asteroid and had scooped samples of the asteroid’s soil, returned to Earth with these samples. Hayabusa was launched on May 3, 2003 and rendezvoused with Earth-asteroid, named “25143 Itokawa,” in mid-September, 2005. This target asteroid was named after Hideo Itokawa, who was a pioneer of Japanese aerospace research and has been called “the father of Japanese space development.” The spacecraft, “Hayabusa,” literally translates to “Peregrine Falcon,” a high-speed diving, bird of prey (also known as a “duck hawk” in North America).

The Hayabusa space mission to target asteroid 25143 Itokawa achieved a number of significantmilestones:
(1) the firs... more »

Today in History: For first time in history, asteroidal sample returned to Earth, 2010
On June 13, 2010 — 5 years ago today — for the first time in history, a spacecraft, the Japanese-made “Hayabusa,” which had rendezvoused with an asteroid and had scooped samples of the asteroid’s soil, returned to Earth with these samples. Hayabusa was launched on May 3, 2003 and rendezvoused with Earth-asteroid, named “25143 Itokawa,” in mid-September, 2005. This target asteroid was named after Hideo Itokawa, who was a pioneer of Japanese aerospace research and has been called “the father of Japanese space development.” The spacecraft, “Hayabusa,” literally translates to “Peregrine Falcon,” a high-speed diving, bird of prey (also known as a “duck hawk” in North America).

The Hayabusa space mission to target asteroid 25143 Itokawa achieved a number of significant milestones:
(1) the first spacecraft to achieve successful implementation of microwave discharge ion engines;
(2) the first spacecraft to operate successfully with ion engines for more than 1,000 hours;
(3) the first spacecraft with ion engines to be given a gravity assist;
(4) the first non-NASA spacecraft using autonomous navigation to rendezvous with an asteroid;
(5) the first non-NASA spacecraft to touchdown on an asteroid and take a sample collection;
(6) the first non-NASA spacecraft to gain experience with deep space communication and its effects;
(7) the first non-NASA spacecraft to observe close movement on objects with low gravity;
(8) the first spacecraft to return from an asteroid to Earth;
(9) the first spacecraft to return a sample collection from an asteroid to Earth.

YouTube videos:
•Rotation of Asteroid Itokawa (length 00:11). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0cnIGdrrM6I
•Japan launches Hayabusa 2: spacecraft will blast hole in asteroid and collect samples (length 01:23). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x7s9LRkLrTk

Web sources:
•https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hayabusa
•https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/25143_Itokawa
•https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hideo_Itokawa
•http://global.jaxa.jp/article/special/hayabusa_sp3/p3_e.html
•http://nmp.jpl.nasa.gov/ds1/tech/ionpropfaq.html
•http://www.spacefellowship.com/news/art15535/hard-luck-hayabusa-in-more-trouble.html
•https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_minor_planets_and_comets_visited_by_spacecraft

Book sources:
• Asteroids: Relics of Ancient Time by Michael K. Shepard. http://amzn.to/1f8CJI2
• Near-Earth Objects: Finding Them Before They Find Us by Donald K. Yeomans. http://amzn.to/1ScWwED

Image credits (top to bottom, left to right):
•Asteroid 25143 Itokawa taken by Hayabusa Asteroid Probe. 
•Hideo Itokawa, the father of Japanese space development, appears with “baby rocket” he developed. http://global.jaxa.jp/article/interview/2013/vol77/index_e.html
•Artist’s depiction of Hayabusa spacecraft hovering just above asteroid 25143 Itokawa’s surface. http://deepspaceindustries.com/deep-space-industries-congratulates-jaxa-on-the-successful-launch-of-hayabusa-2/
•Hayabusa Asteroid Probe return capsule after landing in Australia. http://www.space.com/20-hayabusa-returns-earth.html

#history #history -tech #asteroid #Hayabusa #25143Itokawa #Itokawa___

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2015-06-20 05:56:20 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 2 +1s)Open 

Today in History: UNIVAC — World’s first general purpose, commercially produced, electronic digital computer — was dedicated, 1951
On June 14, 1951 — 64 years ago today — the United States Census Bureau dedicated the world’s first “general purpose” commercially-produced electronic digital computer, the UNIVAC I, which stood for UNIV ersal A utomatic C omputer. 

The computer model, of which 46 were made, became famous for correctly predicting the presidential election outcome in 1952. In fact, the computer correctly predicted an Eisenhower landslide victory with only a tiny percentage of the votes actually counted; but because traditional pollsters almost universally predicted victory for Adlai Stevenson, CBS withheld the computer’s prediction until later in the evening. At 8:30 PM, the computer was predicting the electoral college vote —Eisenhower 438, Stev... more »

Today in History: UNIVAC — World’s first general purpose, commercially produced, electronic digital computer — was dedicated, 1951
On June 14, 1951 — 64 years ago today — the United States Census Bureau dedicated the world’s first “general purpose” commercially-produced electronic digital computer, the UNIVAC I, which stood for UNIV ersal A utomatic C omputer. 

The computer model, of which 46 were made, became famous for correctly predicting the presidential election outcome in 1952. In fact, the computer correctly predicted an Eisenhower landslide victory with only a tiny percentage of the votes actually counted; but because traditional pollsters almost universally predicted victory for Adlai Stevenson, CBS withheld the computer’s prediction until later in the evening. At 8:30 PM, the computer was predicting the electoral college vote — Eisenhower 438, Stevenson 93. The actual count ended up as Eisenhower 442, Stevenson 89. CBS, using the computer data, was the first network to call the election. By the next presidential election in 1956, the other two major networks were also using computers on election night.

The UNIVAC was designed by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly, and it was manufactured by the Remington Rand company. The computer weighed 29,000 pounds and could process about 1,905 operations per second using a 2.25 Mhz clock. The machine was 25 feet in width by 50 feet in length, used 5,600 vacuum tubes, 18,000 crystal diodes, and 300 relays; it had an internal storage capacity of 12,000 characters. Each of the original UNIVACs came with 10 magnetic tape drives — all compatible. 

YouTube videos:
•Remington-Rand Presents the UNIVAC (length 17:31). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j2fURxbdIZs
•UNIVAC — Then and Now (length 13:17). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h4wQJfdhOlU
•History of the Computer — Documentary (length 48:07). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VPDy2y4AjSo

Vimeo Video:
http://vimeo.com/52980654

Web sources:
•http://www.computerhistory.org/timeline/?year=1951
•http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/univac-computer-dedicated
•http://motherboard.vice.com/blog/the-u-s-census-bureau-first-dedicated-univac-61-years-ago-today
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UNIVAC
•http://www.computermuseum.li/Testpage/UNIVAC-FAQ.htm
•http://bitscolumn.blogspot.com/2013/10/computer-projected-1952-presidential.html
•http://edn.com/electronics-blogs/edn-moments/4423752/UNIVAC-predicts-election-results--November-4--1952
•http://www.historyfactory.com/2012/11/06/presidential-elections-and-a-brief-history-of-emerging-technologies/
•http://www.cnn.com/TECH/computing/9904/30/1952.idg/
•http://www.ideastream.org/news/npr/163951263
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._Presper_Eckert
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Mauchly
•http://www.thocp.net/hardware/univac.htm

Book sources:
• A Few Good Men from Univac by David E. Lundstrom [History of Computing]. http://amzn.to/1SenThn
• Computing: A Concise History by Paul E. Ceruzzi [The MIT Press Essential Knowledge Series]. http://amzn.to/1BeJQZl
* UNIVAC: Webster’s Timeline History, 1941-2002 by Icon Group International. http://amzn.to/1cTVIEu

Image credits (top to bottom, left to right):
•Remington Rand’s Harold E. Sweeney (left) and J. Presper Eckert (middle right) demonstrate UNIVAC for CBS’s Walter Cronkite (right). http://www.edn.com/electronics-blogs/edn-moments/4423752/UNIVAC-predicts-election-results--November-4--1952
•Creators of the UNIVAC — J. Presper Eckert (left) and John Mauchly (right). http://www.thocp.net/hardware/univac.htm
•UNIVAC at the U.S. Census Bureau with 10 magnetic tape drives. http://www.thocp.net/hardware/univac.htm

Additional Events in Technology History on June 14:
•The European Space Research Organization (later the European Space Agency, ESA) was established in Paris, France.
•NASA launched Mariner 5 to explore Venus.

#history #history -tech #UNIVAC #RemingtonRand___

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2015-06-20 05:55:59 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 2 +1s)Open 

Today in History: First Non-Stop West-to-East Trans-Atlantic Airplane Crossing, 1919
On June 15, 1919 — 96 years ago today — two British aviators, John Alcock and Arthur Whitten Brown, made the first successful non-stop crossing of the Atlantic Ocean from St. Johns, Newfoundland, to Clifden, Ireland. The flight lasted about 16 hours, traveling 1,890 miles (3,040 km) at an average speed of 115 mph (185 kph). The London-based newspaper, Daily Mail, awarded both pilots a 10,000 pound prize for their achievement, and King George V knighted the men. [Three weeks earlier, a U.S. Navy flying boat, capable of landing on water, had crossed the Atlantic, but it had taken 19 days in short hops for a total of over 57 hours in the air. Also, Charles Lindbergh, on May 20-21, 1927, was the first solo pilot to cross the Atlantic Ocean non-stop, and his flight was from New York’s Long Island to Paris,almos... more »

Today in History: First Non-Stop West-to-East Trans-Atlantic Airplane Crossing, 1919
On June 15, 1919 — 96 years ago today — two British aviators, John Alcock and Arthur Whitten Brown, made the first successful non-stop crossing of the Atlantic Ocean from St. Johns, Newfoundland, to Clifden, Ireland. The flight lasted about 16 hours, traveling 1,890 miles (3,040 km) at an average speed of 115 mph (185 kph). The London-based newspaper, Daily Mail, awarded both pilots a 10,000 pound prize for their achievement, and King George V knighted the men. [Three weeks earlier, a U.S. Navy flying boat, capable of landing on water, had crossed the Atlantic, but it had taken 19 days in short hops for a total of over 57 hours in the air. Also, Charles Lindbergh, on May 20-21, 1927, was the first solo pilot to cross the Atlantic Ocean non-stop, and his flight was from New York’s Long Island to Paris, almost double the distance of the Alcock-Brown flight.]

Interestingly, both Alcock and Brown had fought in World War I and both had been prisoners of war — Alcock in Turkey and Brown in Germany. Alcock’s plane engines failed over the Gulf of Xeros, and he was taken prisoner by Turkish forces. Brown’s plane was shot down over France, and he was taken prisoner by German forces.

YouTube videos:
•Vickers Vimy Replica flying to Brooklands Museum from Ireland, 15 June 2009 (length 06:40). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0PFH6e6sArE

Web Sources:
•https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transatlantic_flight_of_Alcock_and_Brown
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Alcock_(aviator)
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Whitten_Brown
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vickers_Vimy
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Lindbergh
•http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0004537.html
•https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_firsts_in_aviation

Book sources:
• Yesterday We Were in America: Alcock and Brown, First to Fly the Atlantic Non-Stop by Brendan Lynch. http://amzn.to/1G4VC4q
• Alcock and Brown and the Boy in the Middle by George Morgan. http://amzn.to/1G4WOoi

Image credits (top to bottom, left to right):
•Daily Mail Prize Post for “The Trans-Atlantic Air Race 1919.” http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-2035458/DOWNTON-ABBEY-SPECIAL-While-men-away-war-women-left--stairs--independence-new-opportunities.html
•Map of Transatlantic flight path of Alcock and Brown from St. John’s Newfoundland to Clifden, Ireland. http://www.3dhistory.co.uk/fact-sheet/055-vickers-vimy-alcock-brown.php
•Twin-engined “Vimy,” flown by Alcock and Brown on their Trans-Atlantic flight. http://aircraft-anon.livejournal.com/ 
•The take-off of the record-breaking Trans-Atlantic first-crossing by Alcock and Brown in their “Vimy” aircraft. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transatlantic_flight_of_Alcock_and_Brown#mediaviewer/File:Alcockandbrown_takeoff1919.jpg
•The crash-landing of the record-breaking Trans-Atlantic first-crossing by Alcock and Brown in their “Vimy” aircraft. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transatlantic_flight_of_Alcock_and_Brown#mediaviewer/File:Alcock-Brown-Clifden.jpg

Additional Events in Technology History on June 15:
•Elizabeth “Bessie” Coleman became the first African-American female pilot to hold an international pilot license.___

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2015-06-20 05:55:48 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 1 +1s)Open 

Today in History: First Woman Flew in Space, 1963
On June 16, 1963 — 52 years ago today — Cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova became the first woman to travel in space aboard Vostok 6, which orbited the earth 48 times over almost 3 days. At this point in the “space race,” the United States was still behind the Soviet Union. The U.S.’s longest mission was 22 orbits, and it had not performed 2 missions simultaneously. Cosmonaut Tereshkova’s mission was the Soviet’s second twin mission, involving Vostok 5 and Vostok 6. (The Vostok 5 was a solo mission of 82 orbits — to this day a record for solo space flight — and lasted nearly 5 days.)

Col. Gen. Nikolay Kamanin of the Soviet Union made the following statement about why the Soviet space program needed to recruit and fly women in space: “We need young, strong girls in good shape so we can train them for the flight within 5to 6 months. The... more »

Today in History: First Woman Flew in Space, 1963
On June 16, 1963 — 52 years ago today — Cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova became the first woman to travel in space aboard Vostok 6, which orbited the earth 48 times over almost 3 days. At this point in the “space race,” the United States was still behind the Soviet Union. The U.S.’s longest mission was 22 orbits, and it had not performed 2 missions simultaneously. Cosmonaut Tereshkova’s mission was the Soviet’s second twin mission, involving Vostok 5 and Vostok 6. (The Vostok 5 was a solo mission of 82 orbits — to this day a record for solo space flight — and lasted nearly 5 days.)

Col. Gen. Nikolay Kamanin of the Soviet Union made the following statement about why the Soviet space program needed to recruit and fly women in space: “We need young, strong girls in good shape so we can train them for the flight within 5 to 6 months. The main reason for such rapid training is to leave the Americans behind.” The U.S. v. U.S.S.R. space race was real.

YouTube videos:
•The First Woman in Space — Valentina Tereshkovsa (by It’s History; length 07:28). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T2NOXOhghSc
•The First Woman in Space: Valentina Tereshkova — It Happened in Space #6 (by Scientific American Lab; length 03:05). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZxDnIrA4wdI
•First woman in space — Valentina Tereshkova — true hero who saves my life (by usarussia; length 27:57). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V4rN9kge3rg

Web sources:
•http://www.space.com/21562-women-space-history-anniversary.html?cmpid=514639
•http://www.space.com/16143-women-space-firsts-gallery.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valentina_Tereshkova
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vostok_6
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vostok_5
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valery_Bykovsky
•http://www.space.com/21577-valentina-tereshkova-mission-patch.html
•http://www.space.com/21558-valentina-tereshkova-first-woman-space-infographic.html
•http://www.braeunig.us/space/manned.htm

Book sources: [coming soon]

Image credits: [coming soon]

#history #history -tech #womaninspace #cosmonauts___

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2015-06-20 05:55:21 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 1 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Home-Schooled, Media-Technology Visionary, Ted Nelson, was born, 1937
On June 17, 1937 — 78 years ago today — Ted Nelson was born in Chicago, Illinois. In 1960, Ted founded “Project Xanadu” aimed at creating a computer network that was easy to use. His network vision involved the concepts of “hypertext” and “hypermedia” — terms that Ted is credited with coining. Ted has explained, usually humorously and emotionally while manifesting excruciating frustration over how the web has turned out, that “some aspects” of his vision have been fulfilled by Tim Berners-Lee’s world wide web. But Jaron Lanier, a virtual reality pioneer, describes a key difference between the Nelson vision and the Berners-Lee web reality:[Nelson’s] network links were two-way instead of one-way. In a network with two-way links, each node knows what other nodes are linked to it.Two-way linking would pre... more »

Today in History: Home-Schooled, Media-Technology Visionary, Ted Nelson, was born, 1937
On June 17, 1937 — 78 years ago today — Ted Nelson was born in Chicago, Illinois. In 1960, Ted founded “Project Xanadu” aimed at creating a computer network that was easy to use. His network vision involved the concepts of “hypertext” and “hypermedia” — terms that Ted is credited with coining. Ted has explained, usually humorously and emotionally while manifesting excruciating frustration over how the web has turned out, that “some aspects” of his vision have been fulfilled by Tim Berners-Lee’s world wide web. But Jaron Lanier, a virtual reality pioneer, describes a key difference between the Nelson vision and the Berners-Lee web reality:[Nelson’s] network links were two-way instead of one-way. In a network with two-way links, each node knows what other nodes are linked to it. Two-way linking would preserve context. It’s a small simple change in how online information should be stored that couldn’t have vaster implications for culture and economy. 

Ted Nelson wrote one of the first books, if not the first book, on the personal computer revolution, Computer Lib/Dream Machines in 1974. The book was subtitled, “You can and must understand computers NOW.” Howard Rheingold called this book “the best-selling underground manifesto of the microcomputer revolution.” Stephen Levy described the book as “the epic of the computer revolution, the bible of the hacker dream.” Since that time, Ted has developed relationships with over 100 collaborators and has worked over 4 decades on building Project Xanadu. Project Xanadu recently claims (2014) to have available a working copy of “OpenXanadu” — http://www.xanadu.net/#deliverable. Ted and his collaborators feel that the World Wide Web mimics paper too much and “trivialises our original hypertext model with one-way ever-breaking links and no management of version or contents.” The Xanadu model of the web allowed for “micropayments” to pay authors for their original text.

Interestingly, Ted Nelson is credited with originating these words:
• hypertext
• hypermedia
• docuverse
• transclusion
• virtuality
• intertwingularity [one of my favorite words]
• teledildonics 

YouTube videos:
•Living the Dreams: A Conversation with Ted Nelson (length 01:27:57). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GuU-Urb9AOQ
•Leo Laporte’s Triangulation 164: Ted Nelson (length 48:40). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wONP6hc4ykk
•Future of Text2013: Ted Nelson Future of Text 2013 : Ted Nelson (Note Vint Cerf, Google SVP and Chief Internet Evangelist, co-founder of the internet, in the front row of this presentation to a small audience.)
•Alan Kay’s tribute to Ted Nelson at “Intertwingled” Fest (length 17:33). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AnrlSqtpOkw

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ted_Nelson
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_Xanadu
•http://www.xanadu.net/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypertext
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypermedia
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Docuverse
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transclusion
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtuality_(software_design)
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intertwingularity
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teledildonics

Book sources:
• Computer Lib: You Can and Must Understand Computers Now by Theodor H. Nelson. http://amzn.to/1GY0AXo
• Geeks Bearing Gifts by Ted Nelson. http://amzn.to/1R7mdUE
• An Autobiography of Ted Nelson: Possiplex — Movies, Intellect, Creative Control — My Computer Life and the Fight for Civilization by Ted Nelson.

Image Credits (top to bottom, left to right)
•Ted Nelson in a Google+ hangout from his houseboat in Sausalito, California.
•Google Maps satellite view of Sausalito, CA — showing its proximity to San Francisco and Silicon Valley.
•Cover of Ted Nelson’s first book on the personal computer revolution. 
•Words that Ted Nelson is credited with coining: docuverse, transclusion, intertwingularity, teledildonics, virtuality.
•Ted Nelson speaking at the Tech Museum of Innovation in 2011. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ted_Nelson#mediaviewer/File:Ted_Nelson_cropped.jpg
•Google Maps photo of Sausalito, CA from the slopes of Mount Tamalpais.

#history #history -tech #hypertext #xanadu #TedNelson___

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2015-06-20 05:54:58 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 1 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Sally Ride became first U.S. woman to ride into space, 1983
On June 18, 1983 — 32 years ago today — Sally Ride became the first U.S. woman (preceded by 2 Soviet women) and, later it was revealed, the first lesbian to travel in space on the Challenger Space Shuttle (STS-7). On her mission of the second flight of Space Shuttle Challenger (which, on a later flight in 1986, disintegrated soon after launch), Sally became the first woman to use the robotic arm in space (which she helped to develop), and also the first astronaut to retrieve a satellite.

Sally beat out 1,000 other applicants for a spot in the NASA astronaut program; she double-majored in Physics and English at Stanford University as an undergraduate, and she then pursued an M.S. in Physics and earned a Ph.D. in Physics in 1978. On July 23, 2012, Sally died after a 17-month-long battle with pancreaticcan... more »

Today in History: Sally Ride became first U.S. woman to ride into space, 1983
On June 18, 1983 — 32 years ago today — Sally Ride became the first U.S. woman (preceded by 2 Soviet women) and, later it was revealed, the first lesbian to travel in space on the Challenger Space Shuttle (STS-7). On her mission of the second flight of Space Shuttle Challenger (which, on a later flight in 1986, disintegrated soon after launch), Sally became the first woman to use the robotic arm in space (which she helped to develop), and also the first astronaut to retrieve a satellite.

Sally beat out 1,000 other applicants for a spot in the NASA astronaut program; she double-majored in Physics and English at Stanford University as an undergraduate, and she then pursued an M.S. in Physics and earned a Ph.D. in Physics in 1978. On July 23, 2012, Sally died after a 17-month-long battle with pancreatic cancer at age 61, and her obituary revealed, “Dr. Ride is survived by her partner of 27 years, Tam O’Shaughnessy…. Dr. O’Shaughnessy is chief operating officer of Dr. Ride’s company.” Sally had started her company, “Sally Ride Science,” to create educational programs and products

YouTube videos:
•Sally Ride: Mini Biography (Bio; length 03:00). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RD6vzRd0rhY
•Sally Ride Remembers Her Shuttle Flight (length 01:40). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wojiv4AhD4g
•An Interview with Sally Ride (PBS Nova; length 15:46). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yb6vw9AmiLs
•Reach for the Stars with Sally Ride (University of California Television; length 59:35). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cl1FJBMt8f8
•Sally Ride: America’s First Woman in Space, June 18, 1983 (length 07:17). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B49eI_IaUlM
•History in Five: Sally Ride, America’s First Woman in Space (Simon & Schuster; length 07:13). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jwu-zSdNiLI
•Sally Ride: America’s First Woman in Space (length 01:04:38). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_GzQcb6lnwA

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sally_Ride
•https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-7
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_shuttle_Challenger
•http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/24/science/space/sally-ride-trailblazing-astronaut-dies-at-61.html?pagewanted=all
•http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/recommended-the-real-sally-ride-astronaut-science-champion-and-lesbian/
•http://blogs.browardpalmbeach.com/pulp/2012/07/former_astronaut_sally_ride_re.php
•http://www.houstonchronicle.com/life/books/article/Sally-Ride-biographer-lifts-the-lid-on-a-private-5551228.php

Book sources:
• Exploring Our Solar System by Sally Ride. http://amzn.to/1SsQMq9

Image credits (left to right, top to bottom):
•Launch of Space Shuttle Challenger (STS-7) with first U.S. woman astronaut, Sally Ride, aboard. NASA https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AChallenger_launch_on_STS-7.jpg
•Sally Kristen Ride. first U.S. female astronaut. NASA https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ride-s.jpg
•Sally Ride on Challenger’s middeck. NASA https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ARide_on_the_Middeck_-_GPN-2000-001081.jpg
•Tam Elizabeth O’Shaughnessy, Sally Ride’s long-term partner, as she accepted the 2013 Presidential Medal of Freedom for Sally Ride. Photo by Patsy Lynch. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/9/99/OShaughnessy-accepting-medal-for-Sally-Ride.jpg
•High-angle view of the shuttle liftoff, showing a number of large cumulus clouds, was photographed with a handheld 70mm camera by astronaut John W. Young, who piloted the Shuttle Training Aircraft (STA) for weather monitoring at launch and landing sites for STS missions. NASA
•People Magazine cover, June 20, 1983: “O What a Ride” https://www.flickr.com/photos/mrdanbeaumont/10830265253

#history #history-tech #NASA #womeninspace #SallyKRide___

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2015-06-20 05:54:47 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

Today in History: First “Nickelodeon” Opened, 1905
On June 19, 1905 — 110 years ago today — over 400 people cycled through a 96-seat storefront theater at 433-435 Smithfield Street in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, which was the world’s first such highly successful theater to be called a “nickelodeon.” The nickelodeon was a neighborhood mini-movie theater, named for the price of admission, 5¢, and the Greek word for “roofed theatre,” odeion.  Film historian Charles Musser asserts: “It is not too much to say that modern cinema began with the nickelodeons.”

Flourishing for about a decade between 1905 and 1915, nickelodeons helped to shape the leisure-time habits of many Americans. By 1908 in the U.S., there were about 8,000 nickelodeons — most of them small converted stores — that were running continuous short films from morning to midnight. As longer films becamemore common, larger and mor... more »

Today in History: First “Nickelodeon” Opened, 1905
On June 19, 1905 — 110 years ago today — over 400 people cycled through a 96-seat storefront theater at 433-435 Smithfield Street in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, which was the world’s first such highly successful theater to be called a “nickelodeon.” The nickelodeon was a neighborhood mini-movie theater, named for the price of admission, 5¢, and the Greek word for “roofed theatre,” odeion.  Film historian Charles Musser asserts: “It is not too much to say that modern cinema began with the nickelodeons.”

Flourishing for about a decade between 1905 and 1915, nickelodeons helped to shape the leisure-time habits of many Americans. By 1908 in the U.S., there were about 8,000 nickelodeons — most of them small converted stores — that were running continuous short films from morning to midnight. As longer films became more common, larger and more comfortably furnished motion picture theatres replaced the smaller nickelodeons.

YouTube videos:
•The Nickelodeon: A Brief History from 1900 to 1914 (length 02:58). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6gsPtot_d7Y
•Nickelodeon City: The Origins of the Movie Industry (academic lecture by author of Nickelodeon City; length 55:49). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n2drbmJC_9s 

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nickelodeon_(movie_theater)
•http://www.clpgh.org/exhibit/neighborhoods/downtown/down_n71.html
•http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/first-nickelodeon-opens
•http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/edhtml/edfict.html
•http://pabook.libraries.psu.edu/palitmap/Nickelodeon.html
•http://www.automatedtrader.net/articles/125/143543/from-nickelodeons-to-netflix
•http://cinematreasures.org/theaters/17567
•http://www.post-gazette.com/ae/movies/2005/06/19/You-saw-it-here-first-Pittsburgh-s-Nickelodeon-introduced-the-moving-picture-theater-to-the-masses-in-1905/stories/200506190169

Book sources:
• _ Nickelodeon City: Pittsburgh at the Movies, 1905-1929_ by Michael Aronson. http://amzn.to/1RhVZic

Image credits (top to bottom, left to right):
•The first nickelodeon, located in Pittsburgh, PA, owned by Harry Davis. https://twitter.com/historycenter/status/479652516750454785
•A plaque at 433 Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, PA, which states: “This tablet marks the site on which the Hon. John P. Harris in June 1905 opened the world’s first all motion picture theatre and coined the name nickelodeon. This was the beginning of the motion picture theatre industry.” Source: Allegheny County: A Sesquicentennial Review http://pabook.libraries.psu.edu/palitmap/NickelodeonPlaque.jpg
•Interior of a nickelodeon theater. From Moving Picture World, November 30, 1907. http://pabook.libraries.psu.edu/palitmap/Nickelodeon.html
•A photo of John P. Harris, the owner of the first nickelodeon.___

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2015-06-08 16:30:03 (3 comments, 0 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

Today in History: U.S. Missile Mail Experiment Performed, 1959
On June 8, 1959 — 56 years ago today — the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) and the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) collaborated in the first substantial experiment to carry mail by missiles in the United States. The Navy diesel-powered submarine U.S.S. Barbero, off the coast of Florida, launched a Regulus I missile containing about 3,000 letters to a U.S. Navy facility at Mayport, Florida, about 100 miles away.

While such mail attempts had been tried before by other individuals in other countries, and even in the United States, never before had the U.S. Postmaster General worked closely with the DOD to coordinate such an experiment involving so many pieces of mail. The DOD probably agreed to cooperate with the USPS, because it was interested in demonstrating the accuracy of its intercontinental ballistic missiles (to beuse... more »

Today in History: U.S. Missile Mail Experiment Performed, 1959
On June 8, 1959 — 56 years ago today — the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) and the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) collaborated in the first substantial experiment to carry mail by missiles in the United States. The Navy diesel-powered submarine U.S.S. Barbero, off the coast of Florida, launched a Regulus I missile containing about 3,000 letters to a U.S. Navy facility at Mayport, Florida, about 100 miles away.

While such mail attempts had been tried before by other individuals in other countries, and even in the United States, never before had the U.S. Postmaster General worked closely with the DOD to coordinate such an experiment involving so many pieces of mail. The DOD probably agreed to cooperate with the USPS, because it was interested in demonstrating the accuracy of its intercontinental ballistic missiles (to be used to deliver nuclear warheads in the event of a nuclear war). Postmaster General Arthur Summerfield, a visionary entrepreneur, saw missile mail as a way to demonstrate the peaceful uses of missile technology and to eventually improve the efficiency of USPS operations. The big obstacle, of course, was that missile mail was just too expensive, as the Regulus I missile was about $2 million (in today’s inflation adjusted dollars), and reusability was not considered an option at the time. In fact, no other experiments of missile mail were attempted by the USPS after this June 8 experiment.

With the changing of presidential administrations in 1961, as President Kennedy replaced President Eisenhower, a new postmaster general was named. Kennedy’s postmaster general, J. Edward Day, canceled the missile mail program in his effort to reduce postal service costs.

YouTube videos:
•Mail by Missile by Smithsonian National Postal Museum (length 12:05). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ShZJWwKT3ts

Web sources:
•http://www.cbsnews.com/news/almanac-mail-by-missile/ [video included]
•http://postalmuseum.si.edu/airmail/historicplanes/unusual/historicplanes_unusual_missile.html
•http://www.airspacemag.com/daily-planet/department-of-what-were-they-thinking-25283814/?no-ist
•http://homesteadbound.hubpages.com/hub/Missile-Mail
•http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/May-June-08/On-this-Day--U-S--Postal-Service-Attempts--Missile-Mail--for-First-and-Last-Time.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Barbero_%28SS-317%29
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rocket_mail
•http://blog.modernmechanix.com/mail-via-rocket/
•http://millercenter.org/president/eisenhower/essays/cabinet/577
•http://modernnotion.com/the-time-u-s-mail-was-delivered-via-cruise-missile/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._Edward_Day
•http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/regulus1.htm

Book sources:
Please let me know if you know of any books written about this subject.
• 1959: The Year Everything Changed by Fred Kaplan. http://amzn.to/1IwlGMA

Image credits (left to right, top to bottom):
•Regulus I mail missile fired from the U.S.S. Barbero 100 miles off the coast of Florida with about 3,000 pieces of mail, June 8, 1959. http://postalmuseum.si.edu/collections/object-spotlight/regulus-mail.html
•Regulus I mail missile landing with a drag parachute at Mayport Naval Center in Mayport, Florida. http://postalmuseum.si.edu/collections/object-spotlight/regulus-mail.html
•U.S. Postmaster General Arthur Summerfield (center) removing mail from the Regulus I at the Mayport Naval Center in Mayport Florida, June 8, 1959. http://postalmuseum.si.edu/collections/object-spotlight/regulus-mail.html
•U.S. Postmaster General Arthur Summerfield smiling, possibly about his prediction in the quotation above him. Frame from http://www.cbsnews.com/news/almanac-mail-by-missile/.
•President Dwight Eisenhower (left) receiving missile mail with U.S. Postmaster General Arthur Summerfield looking on. http://postalmuseum.si.edu/collections/object-spotlight/regulus-mail.html
•U.S. Postmaster General James Edward Day next to his quotation about terminating the missile mail program. http://img.webme.com/pic/j/john-f-kennedy/j-edward-day.png

#history #history-tech #mail #USPS #missilemail___

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2015-06-07 12:22:21 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

Today in History: First successful docking of a spacecraft with a space station took place, 1971
On June 7, 1971 — 44 years ago today — the first successful docking of a spacecraft with an orbiting space station took place: The Soviet Union’s Soyuz 11 cosmonaut-carrying spacecraft docked with the Soviet Union’s first space station, Salyut 1. The Soviet Union’s Soyuz 10 had previously “soft-docked,” but cosmonauts had not been able to enter the space station because they had “latching issues.” The Soyuz 11 mission progressed nearly flawlessly from launch to landing. The crew spent 23 days, 18 hours, and 21 minutes in space; 22 days docked to the space station — setting a space endurance record that would hold for 2 years until the U.S. Apollo-Skylab 2 mission in May-June 1973. The crew was on television in the Soviet Union 5 times; and they even voted while in space.
The Soviet recove... more »

Today in History: First successful docking of a spacecraft with a space station took place, 1971
On June 7, 1971 — 44 years ago today — the first successful docking of a spacecraft with an orbiting space station took place: The Soviet Union’s Soyuz 11 cosmonaut-carrying spacecraft docked with the Soviet Union’s first space station, Salyut 1. The Soviet Union’s Soyuz 10 had previously “soft-docked,” but cosmonauts had not been able to enter the space station because they had “latching issues.” The Soyuz 11 mission progressed nearly flawlessly from launch to landing. The crew spent 23 days, 18 hours, and 21 minutes in space; 22 days docked to the space station — setting a space endurance record that would hold for 2 years until the U.S. Apollo-Skylab 2 mission in May-June 1973. The crew was on television in the Soviet Union 5 times; and they even voted while in space.

The Soviet recovery crew was shocked to find dead cosmonauts (although they tried mouth-to-mouth resuscitation techniques on the crew). It was soon determined, oddly enough, by a joint U.S.-U.S.S.R. investigation team that the crew’s deaths, by heart attacks, occurred because their cabin accidentally and rapidly depressurized as the result of a faulty valve just after their re-entry retrorockets had fired. The U.S. became involved in this incident, because U.S. President Nixon’s policy of detente with the Soviet Union had led to space cooperation between the U.S. and U.S.S.R. for a joint Apollo-Soyuz docking mission, and such issues would have to be resolved to the satisfaction of both nations’ scientists. These were the relatively early days of spaceflight and the Soyuz 11’s record-breaking stay in space was even considered as a possible cause for the crew’s deaths — some speculated that humans could not stay alive in a weightless environment longer than 22 days. But the cosmonauts’ health was excellent throughout their flight until the rapid accidental depressurization — a problem that could be addressed and solved.  

YouTube videos:
•Salyut 1 (amateur but informative; length 08:40). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HPvdrwunT_k
•Salyut 1 First Space Station Launch atop Proton rocket (length 01:04). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PjWo1nmKHXg
•Soyuz 11 attempt to revive cosmonauts after capsule landed (length 00:17). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DdhwbvKMe3I
•Soyuz 11 (dramatic re-enactment of fatal re-entry; length 04:05).https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wBXG46oQ58Y 

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soyuz_programme
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salyut_1
•http://www.space.com/16773-first-space-station-salyut-1.html
•http://www.spacefacts.de/mission/english/soyuz-11.htm
•http://www.timelines.ws/countries/NORWAY.HTML
•http://www.armaghplanet.com/blog/soyuz-11-the-truth-about-the-salyut-1-space-disaster.html

Book sources:
• Salyut—The First Space Station: Triumph and Tragedy by Grujica S. Ivanovich. http://amzn.to/1KUs1SB
• Soyuz: A Universal Spacecraft by Rex Hall and David Shayler. http://amzn.to/1G36BOO
• The Soviet Space Race with Apollo by Asif A. Siddiqi. http://amzn.to/1RUb3oi 

Image credits (top to bottom, left to right):
•Depiction of the Salyut Space Station 1 (in front, on left) docked with the Soyuz 11 spacecraft (in rear, on right). http://www.ninfinger.org/models/pix/snsalyut1b.jpg
•Soyuz 11 crew — Georgi Dobrovolski, Vladislav Volkov, and Viktor Patsayev — in pre-flight training. http://www.spacesafetymagazine.com/space-disasters/soyuz-11/crew-home-misfortunes-soyuz-11/
•Frame from raw video of recovery crew trying to revive cosmonauts after their spacecraft had successfully landed at the end of a near perfect mission. http://www.spacefacts.de/graph/drawing/large/english/soyuz-11.htm
•Soyuz 11 crew on a 1971 U.S.S.R. commemorative stamp. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AThe_Soviet_Union_1971_CPA_4060_stamp_(Cosmonauts_Georgy_Dobrovolsky%2C_Vladislav_Volkov_and_Viktor_Patsayev).jpg
•The funeral for Soyuz 11 cosmonauts. http://www.spacesafetymagazine.com/space-disasters/soyuz-11/crew-home-misfortunes-soyuz-11/

Additional Events in Technology History on June 7:
•Alan Turing committed suicide, 1954.

#history #history -tech #Soyuz11 #Salyut #spacestation #docking___

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2015-06-07 12:22:04 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 8 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Alan Turing Died
On June 7, 1954 — 61 years ago today — Alan Turing died. Turing was the first computational biologist, an inventor of the fundamental concepts of the modern computer, the father of what would become the field of artificial intelligence, and a modern philosopher of the mind. Not only was Turing a brilliant thinker and creative genius, but he was also responsible for helping to do the pragmatic and painstaking work of breaking the German secret military communications codes that enabled the Allies to defeat the Nazi army in many crucial engagements. Some historians have estimated that the work of Turing and his collaborators at the British decoding facility shortened World War II by as many as 2 to 4 years.

Many say Turing committed suicide at age 41; some say he was poisoned by the British secret service; his mother believed he did not commitsui... more »

Today in History: Alan Turing Died
On June 7, 1954 — 61 years ago today — Alan Turing died. Turing was the first computational biologist, an inventor of the fundamental concepts of the modern computer, the father of what would become the field of artificial intelligence, and a modern philosopher of the mind. Not only was Turing a brilliant thinker and creative genius, but he was also responsible for helping to do the pragmatic and painstaking work of breaking the German secret military communications codes that enabled the Allies to defeat the Nazi army in many crucial engagements. Some historians have estimated that the work of Turing and his collaborators at the British decoding facility shortened World War II by as many as 2 to 4 years.

Many say Turing committed suicide at age 41; some say he was poisoned by the British secret service; his mother believed he did not commit suicide. What is indisputable is that, prior to his premature death, the British judicial system had found Turing guilty on 3 counts of “gross indecency contrary to Section II of the Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1885” — bluntly, for being gay in a society in which it was illegal to be gay. Turing was given a choice by the British Court to be imprisoned or to submit to chemical castration. Turing chose the latter and his prescribed hormone pills caused him to grow breasts and made him impotent. The estrogen used on Turing may have also acted as a cerebral depressant.

Whatever the cause of his death, Turing died after he ate a cyanide-laced apple.

In 2009, British Prime Minister Gordon Brown issued a formal apology for the “appalling” treatment that Turing had endured, but the British government refused to issue a pardon for Turing’s conviction. Nonetheless, the government released a “Turing-themed” stamp. Turing has been honored countless times since his death with the naming of streets, buildings, libraries, et al. In August 2014, Queen Elizabeth, acting in accordance with the British government’s “royal prerogative of mercy,” announced an official pardon for Turing (only the 4th time the Queen has acted this way since World War II). 

One of the most enduring tributes to Turing is from the Association for Computing Machinery, which has been annually honoring computer scientists and engineers who have made “major contributions of lasting importance to computing” with the A.M. Turing Award. In 2014, Google announced that it would contribute $1 million for the honorees of the Turing Award — making this award comparable to a “Nobel Prize of computing.”

YouTube videos:
•Pioneer of the Information Age (length 01:36:38). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p7Lv9GxigYU
•The Death of Alan Turing (length 09:58). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g7_WzNzHwJY
•The Imitation Game—New Benedict Cumberbatch Featurette (length 02:39). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zPCYAKplR7c
•Breaking the Code: Biography of Alan Turing (BBC, 1996; length 01:30:46). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S23yie-779k


Web sources:
•http://www.computerhistory.org/tdih/June/7/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alan_Turing
•http://www.biography.com/people/alan-turing-9512017
•http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/11/29/the-castration-of-alan-turing-britain-s-code-breaking-wwii-hero.html
•http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/03/10-000-people-sign-petition-to-honor-alan-turing-by-putting-him-on-the-163-10-note/254988/
•http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/12/stephen-hawking-calls-for-alan-turings-pardon/266438/
•http://www.irishexaminer.com/examviral/real-life/14-facts-you-need-to-know-about-alan-turing-290627.html
•http://mashable.com/2014/11/14/google-turing-award-nobel/
•http://www.turing.org.uk/scrapbook/early.html
•http://deadline.com/2015/02/alan-turings-family-speaks-for-first-time-about-best-picture-nominee-imitation-game-video-1201367105/
•http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-27701207

Book sources:
• Alan M. Turing: Centenary Edition by Sara Turing. http://amzn.to/1Qfcal4
• Turing: Pioneer of the Information Age by Jack Copeland. http://amzn.to/1cEsLfy
• The Secret Lives of Codebreakers: The Men and Women Who Cracked the Enigma Code at Bletchley Park by Sinclair McKay. http://amzn.to/1Im72o8

Image credits (left to right, top to bottom):
•Alan Turing at age 16. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AAlan_Turing_Aged_16.jpg
•A statue of Alan Turing made of thousands of pieces of slate from North Wales, where Alan Turing enjoyed vacationing in his childhood. The statue was created by sculptor Stephen Kettle and its 3,000 pounds of slate sit at Bletchley Park in Buckinghamshire, England, where Turing and a small team cracked the German communications code during World War II. By Antoine Taveneaux (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ATuring-statue-Bletchley_05.jpg 
•A plaque in Sackville Park, Manchester, a city where Turing worked toward the end of his life. By User Lmno on en.wikipedia (Photograph taken by Lmno) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ASackville_Park_Turing_plaque.jpg
•A plaque marking Alan Turing’s home in Wilmslow, Cheshire. By Joseph Birr-Pixton from en.wikipedia (en.wikipedia) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ATuring_Plaque.jpg

Additional Events in Technology History on June 7:
•First successful docking of a spacecraft with a space station took place, 1971. https://plus.google.com/+BradAcker/posts/V9PR3TG2Ygd

#history #history-tech #Turing #gay #suicide #injustice___

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2015-06-06 11:59:50 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

Today in History: The European Space Agency launched the Mars Express
On June 2, 2003 — 13 years ago today — the ESP (European Space Agency) launched its first mission to another planet, the “Mars Express” to Mars. It was called the “Mars Express,” because it took half the time to build as other comparable planetary spacecraft (5 years vs. 10 years). At the time of its launch and insertion into a Mars orbit, the Mars Express performed the most detailed and comprehensive exploration of Mars in history. The ESA lost contact with the Lander, the “Beagle 2” (named after the ship on which Charles Darwin traveled around the world as he formulated his ideas about evolution), after it deployed from the orbiter and landed.

Despite the unsuccessful attempt with the Lander, the Mars Express Orbiter has been a sensational success — far outlasting its expected 2 Martian yearlifetime. Since e... more »

Today in History: The European Space Agency launched the Mars Express
On June 2, 2003 — 13 years ago today — the ESP (European Space Agency) launched its first mission to another planet, the “Mars Express” to Mars. It was called the “Mars Express,” because it took half the time to build as other comparable planetary spacecraft (5 years vs. 10 years). At the time of its launch and insertion into a Mars orbit, the Mars Express performed the most detailed and comprehensive exploration of Mars in history. The ESA lost contact with the Lander, the “Beagle 2” (named after the ship on which Charles Darwin traveled around the world as he formulated his ideas about evolution), after it deployed from the orbiter and landed.

Despite the unsuccessful attempt with the Lander, the Mars Express Orbiter has been a sensational success — far outlasting its expected 2 Martian year lifetime. Since early 2004, the Mars Express Orbiter has been conducting scientific research, including:
• high-resolution imaging and mineralogical mapping of the Martian surface;
• precisely determining the atmospheric circulation and composition of Mars;
• radar sounding of the Martian subsurface structure down to the permafrost;
• observing the interaction of the Martian atmosphere with the Solar System’s interplanetary medium.

Among its many achievements, the Mars Express:
• spotted water ice and carbon dioxide at the Martian South Pole;
• found methane in the Martian atmosphere;
• made higher resolution images of the so-called “Face on Mars” to show there really is no face;
• discovered underground water-ice deposits;
• showed mineralogical data to indicate the presence of liquid water throughout Martian history;
• made close-up studies of Phobos, the larger of Mars’s 2 moons.

YouTube videos:
•Celebrating 10 years of Mars Express Discoveries (from June 3, 2013 webcast; length 01:37:54). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jV6L71UVrXk
•Found: Mars Orbiter Locates Beagle 2 Lander from NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (length 01:13). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t4LLIJ_z0fQ
•Mars Express - live report from the operations team at the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany (Google+ hangout; length 47:28). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z1iyxouD38g

Web sources:
•http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Science/Mars_Express/
•http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Science/Mars_Express/Frequently_asked_questions2
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mars_Express
•http://spider.seds.org/spider/Mars/marsexpr.html
•http://science.nasa.gov/missions/mars-express/
•https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/missions/profile.cfm?MCode=MarsExpress
•http://mars.nasa.gov/express/
•http://www.nasa.gov/jpl/lost-2003-mars-lander-found-by-mars-reconnaissance-orbiter/#.VWxSnWRVhBc
•http://scitechdaily.com/images-from-esas-mars-express-reveals-the-features-of-ladon-basin/
•http://www.space.com/18206-mars-express.html
•http://www.space.com/17191-face-on-mars.html
•http://www.beagle2.com/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beagle_2

Book sources:
• Europe’s Quest for the Universe by Lodewijk Woltjer. http://amzn.to/1BCoEHy
• Water and the Search for Life on Mars by David M. Harland. http://amzn.to/1KHvyDM

Image credits (left to right, top to bottom):
•Mars Express launch, June 2, 2003, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. http://mars.nasa.gov/express/gallery/spacecraft/8N2G4306.html
•Mars Express spacecraft (Lander Beagle 2 is inside the core box) - illustration. By NASA/JPL/Corby Waste [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AMars-express-volcanoes-sm.jpg
•Mars Express Lander, “Beagle 2,” designed to unfold like a picket watch when on the surface of Mars. http://uanews.org/story/years-later-hirise-camera-confirms-the-beagle-has-landed
•Mars Express Mission Highlights. European Space Agency. Please see for more readable size: http://blogs.esa.int/mex/files/2013/06/Mars-Express-10-year-highlights.png

Additional Events in Technology History on June 2:
•NASA’s “Surveyor 1” soft-landed on Moon. https://plus.google.com/+BradAcker/posts/UQbBzU537PB

#history #history-tech #ESA #Mars #MarsExpress___

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2015-06-06 11:57:09 (1 comments, 1 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

 
Today in History: First U.S. Astronaut Walked in Space, 1965
On June 3, 1965 — 50 years ago today — NASA’s Astronaut Ed White made the first American space walk or “EVA” (for “Extra-Vehicular Activity,” as it was referred to by NASA) in the Gemini Program (Gemini 4). At this point, it could be argued that the Soviet Union was still ahead of the U.S. in space exploration (and the race to land a man on the Moon) as the Soviet Union’s cosmonaut Alexey Leonov had already “walked in space” over a year earlier on March 18, 1965.

Interestingly, it may have been this “space walking” aspect of the race to the Moon that marked the turning point in the U.S. vs. Soviet lead. The Soviet space walk, although not reported at the time (at the height of the Cold War), caused life-threatening problems for Cosmonaut Leonov. His spacesuit ballooned from its internalpressure against the vac... more »

 
Today in History: First U.S. Astronaut Walked in Space, 1965
On June 3, 1965 — 50 years ago today — NASA’s Astronaut Ed White made the first American space walk or “EVA” (for “Extra-Vehicular Activity,” as it was referred to by NASA) in the Gemini Program (Gemini 4). At this point, it could be argued that the Soviet Union was still ahead of the U.S. in space exploration (and the race to land a man on the Moon) as the Soviet Union’s cosmonaut Alexey Leonov had already “walked in space” over a year earlier on March 18, 1965.

Interestingly, it may have been this “space walking” aspect of the race to the Moon that marked the turning point in the U.S. vs. Soviet lead. The Soviet space walk, although not reported at the time (at the height of the Cold War), caused life-threatening problems for Cosmonaut Leonov. His spacesuit ballooned from its internal pressure against the vacuum of space, and it stiffened so much that Leonov could not activate his chest-mounted camera. Then upon re-entering his capsule via an inflatable cloth airlock, the inflated suit caused Leonov to get stuck and his temperature to rise by 3.2°F. Moreover, to get unstuck, it was necessary to reduce the pressure in the suit — exposing Leonov to decompression sickness. It took another 4 years before the Soviets would try a space walk again. In the meantime, NASA was just about fully prepared to land men on the moon — however, not before it also encountered another major obstacle.

Astronaut Ed White (the space walker celebrated today) died during prelaunch testing for the first manned Apollo mission when fire erupted in the Apollo 1 command module. An investigation later concluded that “a wide range of lethal design and construction flaws” in the first Apollo Command Module were responsible for the fire, and manned Apollo flights were suspended for almost 2 years (20 months) immediately following this tragedy.

YouTube videos:
•Four Days of Gemini 4 — 1965 NASA Space Program Educational Documentary (length 27:41). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lnk1reCu0HU
•1965 Gemini 4 NASA (length 09:33). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CwQPaoYZgp0
•NASAFlix — Project Gemini — Bridge to the Moon (length 51:01). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XjM0UM-Mmhk
•Projects Mercury, Gemini & Apollo Overview — NASA Educational Documentary (length 12:30). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QiJ_KFVHzA0

Web sources:
•http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0603.html#article
•http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/gemini_4_eva.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gemini_4
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extra-vehicular_activity
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Higgins_White
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexey_Leonov
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_1

Book sources:
• _Project Gemini: A Technical Summary and Report — Extraordinary Detail of the Spacecraft, Test Program, Flight Performance, Systems, Mission Planning … of America’s Second Manned Program. http://amzn.to/1dKT6dA
• How NASA Learned to Fly in Space: An Exciting Account of the Gemini Missions by David M. Harland. http://amzn.to/1dKToku
• NASA Gemini 1965-1966 (All Missions, All Models): Owners’ Workshop Manual by David Woods. http://amzn.to/1dKTGYR

Image credits (left to right, top to bottom):
•Astronaut Edward White during his spacewalk on the Gemini 4 mission. By NASA / James McDivitt (Great Images in NASA Description) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AEdWhiteFirstAmericanSpacewalker.1965.ws.jpg
•Astronaut Edward White during his spacewalk on the Gemini 4 mission. White is carrying a Hand-Held Self-Maneuvering Unit (HHSMU) that helps to move him around in the weightless environment of space. By NASA (Great Images in NASA Description) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AEd_White_performs_first_U.S._spacewalk_-_GPN-2006-000025.jpg
•Astronaut Ed White “hoverig” in the weightlessness of space. White is attached to the Gemini 4 command capsule by both an “umbilical” cord (with life support systems) and a tether. http://www.wired.com/2009/05/humans-in-space-10-amazing-spacewalk-photos/

#history #history-tech #Gemini4  #spacewalk___

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2015-06-06 11:56:36 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Massive Invasion of Normandy, France was launched by Allies, 1944
On June 6, 1944 — 71 years ago today — 160,000 Allied troops landed along a 50-mile stretch of Nazi heavily-fortified French coastline. Supporting this unprecedented amphibious assault by men were more than 5,000 ships and 11,000 aircraft in the most intricately planned and highly coordinated military attack in history. Most World War II analysts concur that “D-Day” (D-Day is a military term for the day of a planned attack) was an epic event that ensured the eventual defeat of the Axis powers (mainly the aggressor nations of Germany, Italy, and Japan). Never before had so much technology been assembled to target an enemy at precisely the same time in numerous directions, by air, sea, and land.

YouTube videos:
•Operation Overlord & Neptune (D-Day Documentary; length 01:27:19).https://w... more »

Today in History: Massive Invasion of Normandy, France was launched by Allies, 1944
On June 6, 1944 — 71 years ago today — 160,000 Allied troops landed along a 50-mile stretch of Nazi heavily-fortified French coastline. Supporting this unprecedented amphibious assault by men were more than 5,000 ships and 11,000 aircraft in the most intricately planned and highly coordinated military attack in history. Most World War II analysts concur that “D-Day” (D-Day is a military term for the day of a planned attack) was an epic event that ensured the eventual defeat of the Axis powers (mainly the aggressor nations of Germany, Italy, and Japan). Never before had so much technology been assembled to target an enemy at precisely the same time in numerous directions, by air, sea, and land.

YouTube videos:
•Operation Overlord & Neptune (D-Day Documentary; length 01:27:19). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dIjmOcp_xhQ
•D-Day (American Experience, PBS; length 55:24). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Qom9HlCW78
•World War II Documentary: The Final Battle 1944-45, D-Day and E-Day, The End of World War II (length 43:58).
•World War II by the History Channel (length 01:28:11).

Web sources:
•http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/d-day
•http://www.army.mil/d-day/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Normandy_landings
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_powers

Book sources:
• The Longest Day: The Classic Epic of D-Day, June 6, 1944 by Cornelius Ryan. http://amzn.to/1djFe97
• D-Day: The Battle for Normandy by Antony Beevor. http://amzn.to/1RPR3Dx

Image credits (top to bottom, left to right)
•Map showing the various directions of attack on D-Day, June 6, 1944. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AAllied_Invasion_Force.jpg
•Photo showing Allied soldiers and military transport equipment and supplies being deployed from ships during the Normandy landings, June 1944. http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2010/06/remembering_d-day_66_years_ago.html
•Photo showing Allied paratroopers descending from gliders behind the German enemy line that was defending the Allied coastal assault, June 1944. U.S. National Archives.

#history #history-tech #war #D-Day ___

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2015-06-05 15:46:47 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Mars Rover “Opportunity” Escaped from Sand Trap
On June 4, 2005 — 10 years ago today — the Mars rover “Opportunity,” which had been stuck in deep sand since April 25, 2005, finally accelerated itself out of the trap. [More description of situation and impact - coming later today.]

YouTube videos:
•PBS Space Documentary — Welcome to Mars (follows the Mars rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, from the second they crash land on Mars to many months into their ongoing missions; length 55:27). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4HjEqz-zPag
•Mars Rover: Opportunity (length 04:56). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_5sChMVz8v4
•The Curious Life of a Mars Rover — National Geographic Live (Mars rovers, Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity; length 25:20). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7zpojhD4hpI

Web sources:•http://mars.nasa.g... more »

Today in History: Mars Rover “Opportunity” Escaped from Sand Trap
On June 4, 2005 — 10 years ago today — the Mars rover “Opportunity,” which had been stuck in deep sand since April 25, 2005, finally accelerated itself out of the trap. [More description of situation and impact - coming later today.]

YouTube videos:
•PBS Space Documentary — Welcome to Mars (follows the Mars rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, from the second they crash land on Mars to many months into their ongoing missions; length 55:27). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4HjEqz-zPag
•Mars Rover: Opportunity (length 04:56). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_5sChMVz8v4
•The Curious Life of a Mars Rover — National Geographic Live (Mars rovers, Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity; length 25:20). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7zpojhD4hpI

Web sources:
•http://mars.nasa.gov/mer/newsroom/pressreleases/20050606a.html
•http://www.space.com/1019-opportunity-mars-rover-stuck-sand.html
•http://www.space.com/28353-mars-rover-opportunity-11-year-anniversary.html
•http://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2014/01/ten-years-opportunitys-unparalleled-time-mission-mars/
•http://www.universetoday.com/10549/opportunity-still-working-itself-free-from-the-sand/
•http://www.space.com/12404-mars-explored-landers-rovers-1971.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opportunity_%28rover%29
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mars_Exploration_Rover

Book sources:
• Roving Mars: Spirit, Opportunity, and Exploration of the Red Planet by Steve Squyres (who conceived the mission). http://amzn.to/1EWWWp3
• The Mighty Mars Rovers: The Incredible Adventures of Spirit and Opportunity by Elizabeth Rusch. http://amzn.to/1H1maJ5
• _ Mars Rovers: A Chronology of Success_ by Alton Saunders. http://amzn.to/1EXjypt

Image credits (left to right, top to bottom):
•Artist’s rendering of the Mars rover Opportunity on the surface of Mars. NASA
•Mars rover Opportunity using its camera to take a photo of the rover’s extended arm on August 23, 2011. NASA
•View from the Mars rover Opportunity from the western rim of the Endeavour Crater. NASA
•Launch of Mars Spacecraft carrying “Opportunity” rover (then known as MER-B, Mars Exploration Rover-B). By NASA [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AMer-b-final-launch.jpg
•Mars rover Opportunity’s course across the surface of Mars since January 2004. NASA

#history #history -tech #Mars #rovers #Opportunity___

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2015-06-05 15:45:29 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

Today in History: first space shuttle mission dedicated to medical research and
3 women in space simultaneously first time in history, 1991
On June 5, 1991 — 24 years ago today — Space Shuttle Columbia was launched as the first shuttle mission to be dedicated solely to medical science. The mission also included 3 women for the first time in history — Milli-Hughes Fulford (payload specialist), M. Rhea Seddon (mission specialist), and Tamara E. Jernigan (mission specialist).

The mission featured the most detailed and interrelated physiological measurements in space since the U.S. 1973-1974 Skylab space station missions. Subjects examined included humans, 30 rodents, and thousands of tiny jellyfish. Six human body systems were investigated:

(1) heart, lungs, and blood vessels 
(2) kidneys and hormone-secreting organs and glands
(3) blood
(4)immune... more »

Today in History: first space shuttle mission dedicated to medical research and
3 women in space simultaneously first time in history, 1991
On June 5, 1991 — 24 years ago today — Space Shuttle Columbia was launched as the first shuttle mission to be dedicated solely to medical science. The mission also included 3 women for the first time in history — Milli-Hughes Fulford (payload specialist), M. Rhea Seddon (mission specialist), and Tamara E. Jernigan (mission specialist).

The mission featured the most detailed and interrelated physiological measurements in space since the U.S. 1973-1974 Skylab space station missions. Subjects examined included humans, 30 rodents, and thousands of tiny jellyfish. Six human body systems were investigated:

(1) heart, lungs, and blood vessels 
(2) kidneys and hormone-secreting organs and glands
(3) blood
(4) immune system
(5) muscles and bones
(6) brains and nerves, eyes, and the inner ear

This mission, designated as STS-40 by NASA, was the 11th launch of the Space Shuttle Columbia and the 41st launch in the space shuttle program (see List of Space Shuttle missions to understand why STS-40 was the 41st mission — http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Space_Shuttle_missions).

YouTube videos:
•STS-40 Launch & Landing, Columbia (length 05:46).

Web sources:
•http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-40.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_Shuttle_Columbia
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-40
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_female_astronauts
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamara_E._Jernigan
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_Rhea_Seddon
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Millie_Hughes-Fulford
•http://history.nasa.gov/women.html
•http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/06/16/50-years-women-space-soviet-tereshkova_n_3442856.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Space_Shuttle_missions

Book sources:
• Celebrating 30 Years of the Space Shuttle Program by NASA. http://amzn.to/1G9t26c
• Columbia: The First Space Shuttle by Heather Feldman. http://amzn.to/1JoKW7I

Image credits:
•STS-40 Launch on June 5, 1991. 
•7-member crew of STS-40: In the front row from left to right are F. Drew Gaffney, payload specialist; Milli-Hughes Fulford, payload specialist; M. Rhea Seddon, mission specialist; and James P. Bagian, mission specialist. In the rear, left to right, are Bryan D. O'Connor, commander; Tamara E. Jernigan, mission specialist; and Sidney M. Gutierrez, pilot.

#history #history -tech #STS -40 #womeninspace___

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2015-06-01 12:17:50 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Napster was launched, 1999
On June 1, 1999 — 16 years ago today — the music file-sharing service, Napster, was officially launched. Recording industry absolute control over distribution of music would never be the same again. A revolution had been sparked — allowing users to access the music they wanted to listen to when they wanted to listen to it, at the lowest possible cost.

The co-founders of Napster, Shawn Fanning and Sean Parker had met over the Internet when Fanning was 14 years old and Parker was 15. Just 2 years later, they wrote the Napster software and shared it with other Internet users. To begin an official business on this day in 1999, Parker raised the initial $50,000, because he was older (haha). By June, 2000, Napster had grown from tens of thousands of users in the late 1990s to tens of millions of users — one of the fastest growingbusines... more »

Today in History: Napster was launched, 1999
On June 1, 1999 — 16 years ago today — the music file-sharing service, Napster, was officially launched. Recording industry absolute control over distribution of music would never be the same again. A revolution had been sparked — allowing users to access the music they wanted to listen to when they wanted to listen to it, at the lowest possible cost.

The co-founders of Napster, Shawn Fanning and Sean Parker had met over the Internet when Fanning was 14 years old and Parker was 15. Just 2 years later, they wrote the Napster software and shared it with other Internet users. To begin an official business on this day in 1999, Parker raised the initial $50,000, because he was older (haha). By June, 2000, Napster had grown from tens of thousands of users in the late 1990s to tens of millions of users — one of the fastest growing businesses in history. 

The service was used primarily by college students who had access to high-speed Internet connections. For home users, the typical download speeds in 1999-2000 required about 10 minutes of time just to download one song. Music industry lawyers began to sue individual users for stealing songs; the band Metallica brought its own suit against Napster for taking away the artist’s choice to control how music would be distributed. Courts ultimately forced Napster to shut down its file-sharing business, but its about 60-million user base, computing assets (essentially servers), and brand name were sold to Roxio in 2003. Best Buy acquired whatever was the core of Napster in September, 2008, and Rhapsody acquired the brand Napster and its remaining assets from Best Buy in late 2011.

Apple and Steve Jobs recognized the opportunity that Napster had surfaced — people want to listen to music they want, when they want it. Jobs worked with recording companies and developed a user paying model for music access, one in which a user only had to pay about $1 to own one song. That model became the dominant music distribution model for about a decade; now the model is changing to one in which consumers stream the music they want whenever they want it and either pay for it through a subscription (generally about $10 per month) or through an advertising based service (the old radio music monetization models).

YouTube videos:
•Napster Documentary: Culture of Free by the New York Times (12:28). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CKrdsGdLVQ8
•Dave Grohl Great Speech on Music Downloading and Napster (year 2001; 02:09). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yy45qY9c49k
•Lars Ulrich: “Napster f*cked with us, we f*ck with them” by Huffington Post Live (length 04:26). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6r6wn47_Vqs

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napster
•http://www.businessweek.com/2000/00_33/b3694003.htm
•http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/06/06/15-years-after-napster-how-the-music-service-changed-the-industry.html
•https://www.billboard.com/biz/articles/news/digital-and-mobile/6106395/napster-would-be-15-a-timeline-of-digital-disruption
•http://content.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,101597,00.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shawn_Fanning
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sean_Parker

Book sources:
• All the Rave: The Rise and Fall of Shawn Fanning’s Napster by Joseph Menn. http://amzn.to/1SKVlNR
• Appetite for Self Destruction: The Spectacular Crash of the Record Industry in the Digital Age by Steve Knopper. http://amzn.to/1EKGOHd
• Sonic Boom: Napster, MP3, and the New Pioneers of Music by John Alderman. http://amzn.to/1FVnBaV

Image credits (top to bottom, left to right):
•Shawn Fanning and Sean Parker, around year 2000 (frame from Downloaded). 
•Chart showing possible effect of Napster on music industry album sales. http://www.abc.net.au/technology/articles/2012/05/24/3510494.htm
•10 years of iTunes growth (in millions of songs downloaded). http://everystevejobsvideo.com/itunes-music-store-introduction-apple-special-event-2003/
•Recorded music sales by Total, Physical, Digital from 2001 to 2012. http://musicmlan.blogspot.com/2012/09/recorded-music-sales-actual-and-forecast.html
•Proportion of Total U.S. Music Industry Revenues from Streaming (2009 to 2014). Source: RIAA. http://www.chinesedishes.tk/archives/19277

#history #history-tech #music #digitalmusic #Napster___

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2015-05-31 12:15:42 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 5 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Trans Alaska Pipeline System was completed, 1977
On May 30, 1977 — 38 years ago today — the 800-mile long Trans Alaska Pipeline System was completed. The completion of the pipeline was the biggest, most expensive, private project in U.S. history — one of the largest human endeavors ever attempted. Oil was first discovered in Prudhoe Bay on the North Slope of Alaska in 1968. Immediately, oil companies began to conceptualize the most efficient ways to move the crude oil to market. The frozen waters of the Arctic were not conducive to oil tanker shipping. A number of imaginative solutions were considered: Supertanker submarines, supertanker airplanes, and a long oil pipeline — to span the entire north-south width of Alaska — evolved as the most practical solution.

As soon as the oil companies made these oil line plans public, environmental groups protested andraised ma... more »

Today in History: Trans Alaska Pipeline System was completed, 1977
On May 30, 1977 — 38 years ago today — the 800-mile long Trans Alaska Pipeline System was completed. The completion of the pipeline was the biggest, most expensive, private project in U.S. history — one of the largest human endeavors ever attempted. Oil was first discovered in Prudhoe Bay on the North Slope of Alaska in 1968. Immediately, oil companies began to conceptualize the most efficient ways to move the crude oil to market. The frozen waters of the Arctic were not conducive to oil tanker shipping. A number of imaginative solutions were considered: Supertanker submarines, supertanker airplanes, and a long oil pipeline — to span the entire north-south width of Alaska — evolved as the most practical solution.

As soon as the oil companies made these oil line plans public, environmental groups protested and raised many concerns about safety issues and disruptions of natural habitats. Congress passed new environmental protection laws that gave environmental groups more power to sue and stop the unfolding of the oil line, which these groups proceeded to do. The oil companies worked with the environmental groups as best as they could, given their focus on profitability. When the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) announced an oil embargo against the U.S. for siding with Israel during the Yom Kippur War (October 6-25, 1973), U.S. gasoline prices soared and gasoline shortages were common. Political pressure became intense for the U.S. to act to reduce its dependency on foreign oil. Leveraging popular opinion as a result of the gasoline crisis, the oil companies lobbied Congress to pass a law that would allow for the construction of the oil pipeline with no interference from the courts to delay or stop it due to environmental group suits. Prior to the oil embargo, a highly divided Congress passed a bill that endorsed the Trans Alaska Oil Pipeline law with the Senate vote tied at 49-49. Vice President Spiro Agnew made the crucial vote to proceed with the law and oil line. However, after the oil embargo’s effects began to hurt the U.S. economy, Congress passed a law that dramatically streamlined the construction of the oil pipeline by removing virtually all political and judicial obstacles. Construction began on March 27, 1975, and was completed just over 2 years later on this day in May, 1977.

YouTube videos:
•Trans Alaska Oil Pipeline Tour (length 04:30). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_OrAmGOFOEk
•Building the Trans Alaska Pipeline System (length 55:25). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ktn7Wpqvnys

Web sources:
•http://www.alyeska-pipe.com/TAPS/PipelineFacts
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trans-Alaska_Pipeline_System

Book sources/references:
• Amazing Pipeline Stories: How Building the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Transformed Life in America’s Last Frontier by Dermot Cole. http://amzn.to/1GbKNnn
• 800 Miles to Valdez: Building of the Alaska Pipeline by James P. Roscow. http://amzn.to/1QhuUeH
• The Great Alaska Pipeline by Stan Cohen. http://amzn.to/1Ryu4wq
• Trans-Alaskan Pipeline Controversy: Technology, Conservation, and the Frontier by Peter Coates. http://amzn.to/1PUQ1II

Image credits (left to right, top to bottom):
•Trans Alaska Oil Pipeline route from Prudhoe Bay to . By Flominator [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) or CC BY-SA 2.5-2.0-1.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5-2.0-1.0)], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ATrans_alaska_international.jpg
•Trans Alaska Oil Pipeline with Denali National Park in background. http://www.alaska-in-pictures.com/alaska-oil-pipeline-3339-pictures.htm
•A caribou walks next to a section of the pipeline, north of the Brooks Range. Stan Shebs [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or CC BY-SA 2.5 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5)], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AAlaska_Pipeline_and_caribou.jpg
•Trans Alaska Oil Pipeline engineered to cross earthquake zones, resting on sliders (rather than rigid pillar supports). By U.S. Geological Survey employee [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ATrans_Alaska_Pipeline_Denali_fault_shift.jpg
•The Trans Alaska Oil Pipeline crossing the Tanana River. By Frank K. from Anchorage, Alaska, USA [CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ATrans-Alaska_Pipeline_over_Tanana_River.jpg
•A retired pipeline inspection gauge (informally called “the pig”) used to clean the inside of the oil pipeline. By Harvey Barrison (originally posted to Flickr as Picture 026) [CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3APipelinePIG.jpg
•The Valdez terminal for the Trans Alaska Oil Pipeline. By Joint Pipeline Office (http://www.jpo.doi.gov/Photo%20Gallery/index.htm) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AValdez_Marine_Terminal.jpg

#history #history-tech #oil #TransAlaska #PrudhoeBay #Valdez___

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2015-05-31 12:15:15 (1 comments, 0 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Trans Alaska Pipeline System was completed, 1977
On May 30, 1977 — 38 years ago today — the 800-mile long Trans Alaska Pipeline System was completed. The completion of the pipeline was the biggest, most expensive, private project in U.S. history — one of the largest human endeavors ever attempted. Oil was first discovered in Prudhoe Bay on the North Slope of Alaska in 1968. Immediately, oil companies began to conceptualize the most efficient ways to move the crude oil to market. The frozen waters of the Arctic were not conducive to oil tanker shipping. A number of imaginative solutions were considered: Supertanker submarines, supertanker airplanes, and a long oil pipeline — to span the entire north-south width of Alaska — evolved as the most practical solution.

As soon as the oil companies made these oil line plans public, environmental groups protested andraised ma... more »

Today in History: Trans Alaska Pipeline System was completed, 1977
On May 30, 1977 — 38 years ago today — the 800-mile long Trans Alaska Pipeline System was completed. The completion of the pipeline was the biggest, most expensive, private project in U.S. history — one of the largest human endeavors ever attempted. Oil was first discovered in Prudhoe Bay on the North Slope of Alaska in 1968. Immediately, oil companies began to conceptualize the most efficient ways to move the crude oil to market. The frozen waters of the Arctic were not conducive to oil tanker shipping. A number of imaginative solutions were considered: Supertanker submarines, supertanker airplanes, and a long oil pipeline — to span the entire north-south width of Alaska — evolved as the most practical solution.

As soon as the oil companies made these oil line plans public, environmental groups protested and raised many concerns about safety issues and disruptions of natural habitats. Congress passed new environmental protection laws that gave environmental groups more power to sue and stop the unfolding of the oil line, which these groups proceeded to do. The oil companies worked with the environmental groups as best as they could, given their focus on profitability. When the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) announced an oil embargo against the U.S. for siding with Israel during the Yom Kippur War (October 6-25, 1973), U.S. gasoline prices soared and gasoline shortages were common. Political pressure became intense for the U.S. to act to reduce its dependency on foreign oil. Leveraging popular opinion as a result of the gasoline crisis, the oil companies lobbied Congress to pass a law that would allow for the construction of the oil pipeline with no interference from the courts to delay or stop it due to environmental group suits. Prior to the oil embargo, a highly divided Congress passed a bill that endorsed the Trans Alaska Oil Pipeline law with the Senate vote tied at 49-49. Vice President Spiro Agnew made the crucial vote to proceed with the law and oil line. However, after the oil embargo’s effects began to hurt the U.S. economy, Congress passed a law that dramatically streamlined the construction of the oil pipeline by removing virtually all political and judicial obstacles. Construction began on March 27, 1975, and was completed just over 2 years later on this day in May, 1977.

YouTube videos:
•Trans Alaska Oil Pipeline Tour (length 04:30). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_OrAmGOFOEk
•Building the Trans Alaska Pipeline System (length 55:25). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ktn7Wpqvnys

Web sources:
•http://www.alyeska-pipe.com/TAPS/PipelineFacts
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trans-Alaska_Pipeline_System

Book sources/references:
• Amazing Pipeline Stories: How Building the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Transformed Life in America’s Last Frontier by Dermot Cole. http://amzn.to/1GbKNnn
• 800 Miles to Valdez: Building of the Alaska Pipeline by James P. Roscow. http://amzn.to/1QhuUeH
• The Great Alaska Pipeline by Stan Cohen. http://amzn.to/1Ryu4wq
• Trans-Alaskan Pipeline Controversy: Technology, Conservation, and the Frontier by Peter Coates. http://amzn.to/1PUQ1II

Image credits (left to right, top to bottom):
•Trans Alaska Oil Pipeline route from Prudhoe Bay to . By Flominator [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) or CC BY-SA 2.5-2.0-1.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5-2.0-1.0)], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ATrans_alaska_international.jpg
•Trans Alaska Oil Pipeline with Denali National Park in background. http://www.alaska-in-pictures.com/alaska-oil-pipeline-3339-pictures.htm
•A caribou walks next to a section of the pipeline, north of the Brooks Range. Stan Shebs [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or CC BY-SA 2.5 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5)], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AAlaska_Pipeline_and_caribou.jpg
•Trans Alaska Oil Pipeline engineered to cross earthquake zones, resting on sliders (rather than rigid pillar supports). By U.S. Geological Survey employee [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ATrans_Alaska_Pipeline_Denali_fault_shift.jpg
•The Trans Alaska Oil Pipeline crossing the Tanana River. By Frank K. from Anchorage, Alaska, USA [CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ATrans-Alaska_Pipeline_over_Tanana_River.jpg
•A retired pipeline inspection gauge (informally called “the pig”) used to clean the inside of the oil pipeline. By Harvey Barrison (originally posted to Flickr as Picture 026) [CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3APipelinePIG.jpg
•The Valdez terminal for the Trans Alaska Oil Pipeline. By Joint Pipeline Office (http://www.jpo.doi.gov/Photo%20Gallery/index.htm) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AValdez_Marine_Terminal.jpg

#history #history-tech #oil #TransAlaska #PrudhoeBay #Valdez___

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2015-05-30 13:23:28 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 7 +1s)Open 

Today in History: First spacecraft to orbit another planet was launched, 1971
On May 30, 1971 — 45 years ago today — NASA launched Mariner 9, which, after its 5-½ months journey to Mars, would become the first human-made spacecraft to orbit another planet. When Mariner 9 was inserted into a Mars orbit in mid-November, 1971, and it started sending back data, NASA scientists were surprised to find that Mars was undergoing a dust storm, “the largest [such] storm ever observed.” So NASA officials turned off Mariner 9’s imaging instruments for a couple of months to allow the dust storm to pass.

After almost a year in Martian orbit, Mariner 9 had transmitted 7,329 images — covering 85% of the Martian surface. The 3 previous U.S. flyby missions of Mars combined did not return even 1,000 images. Mariner 9’s images revealed massive extinct volcanoes, craters, canyons, riverbeds, and evid... more »

Today in History: First spacecraft to orbit another planet was launched, 1971
On May 30, 1971 — 45 years ago today — NASA launched Mariner 9, which, after its 5-½ months journey to Mars, would become the first human-made spacecraft to orbit another planet. When Mariner 9 was inserted into a Mars orbit in mid-November, 1971, and it started sending back data, NASA scientists were surprised to find that Mars was undergoing a dust storm, “the largest [such] storm ever observed.” So NASA officials turned off Mariner 9’s imaging instruments for a couple of months to allow the dust storm to pass.

After almost a year in Martian orbit, Mariner 9 had transmitted 7,329 images — covering 85% of the Martian surface. The 3 previous U.S. flyby missions of Mars combined did not return even 1,000 images. Mariner 9’s images revealed massive extinct volcanoes, craters, canyons, river beds, and evidence of wind and water erosion.

NASA created the Mariner Program in order to explore the solar system’s inner planets and Earth’s immediate neighbors  — Mars, Venus, and Mercury. Between the years 1962 and 1973, a total of 10 Mariner spacecraft were launched:

1. Mariner 1 (launched July 22, 1962) — aimed toward Venus, but destroyed about 5 minutes after liftoff when the launch rocket went off course.
2. Mariner 2 (launched August 27, 1962) — became the first human-made spacecraft to flyby another planet, Venus; it now orbits the sun.
3. Mariner 3 (launched November 5, 1964) — aimed toward Mars, but shielding to protect its instruments during launch failed to jettison and it was consequently unable to attain the necessary Mars trajectory; it now orbits the sun. 
4. Mariner 4 (launched November 28, 1964) — became the first successful human-made spacecraft to flyby Mars and the first to glimpse Mars at relatively close range.
5. Mariner 5 (launched June 14, 1967) — conducted a Venus flyby, collected new information about the planet; it now orbits the sun.
6. Mariner 6 (launched February 24, 1969) — conducted a Mars flyby, returned 75 images; it now orbits the sun.
7. Mariner 7 (launched March 27, 1969) — a sister ship to Mariner 6, conducted a Mars flyby, returned 126 images; it now orbits the sun.
8. Mariner 8 (launched May 8, 1971) — a sister ship to Mariner 9 (like Mariner 6 and 7), but it failed to reach Earth orbit and it was destroyed.
9. Mariner 9 (launched May 30, 1971) — became the first artificial satellite of Mars, returned a total of 7,329 images; it is expected to remain in Mars orbit until the 2020s.
10. Mariner 10 (launched November 3, 1973) — became the first human-made spacecraft to use a “gravity-assist trajectory,” using the gravitational influence of Venus to be flung on a slightly different course toward Mercury; it photographed Mercury close-up; it now orbits the sun.

The planned Mariner 11 and Mariner 12 missions, as a result of U.S. Congressional budget cuts, became part of the Voyager Program to study Jupiter and Saturn.

YouTube videos:
•NASA JPL Mariner 9 Mars Exploration (length 28:45). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JTNyoUj4mBI
•Space Exploration to Mars — NOVA Science Now (length 52:54). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-m_al2Sy2Rg

Web sources:
•http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/masterCatalog.do?sc=1971-051A
•http://www.whiteeagleaerospace.com/mariner-9-heads-for-mars/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mariner_9
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mariner_program
•http://www.planetary.org/explore/space-topics/space-missions/missions-to-mars.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_missions_to_Mars
•http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/atlas/valles-marineris.html

Book sources:
• Mars as Viewed by Mariner 9 by NASA Mariner 9 Television Team and NASA Planetology Program Investigators. http://amzn.to/1ADO6kJ
• The New Mars: The Discoveries of Mariner 9 by William K. Hartmann and Odell Raper. http://amzn.to/1ADOj7w
• Destination Mars: New Explorations of the Red Planet by Rod Pyle. http://amzn.to/1EFsjo2
• Why Mars by W. Henry Lambright. http://amzn.to/1QgLDia

Image credits (left to right, top to bottom):
•Mariner 9 Launch, May 30, 1971. http://www.nirgal.net/graphics/mariner9_launch.jpg
•The Mariner 9 spacecraft. NASA
•Mars, showing canyons that run across the Martian surface: (1) the Valles Marineris (at center) — a 2,500 mile-long, 120 mile wide, and up to 23,000 feet deep rift running across the equator of Mars — and (2) the Echus Chasma — a 65 mile-long canyon running vertically from Valles Marineris toward the north. NASA: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AMars_Valles_Marineris.jpeg

#history #history-tech #Mariner #Mars___

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2015-05-29 03:12:08 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 6 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Space Shuttle Discovery completed first docking with ISS
On May 29, 1999 — 16 years ago today — Space Shuttle Discovery (Space Shuttle Mission STS-96) became the first space shuttle to dock with the International Space Station. Discovery carried the space station’s “Skyhab” (short for “Sky Habitation”) Module in its cargo bay, along with miscellaneous cargo to outfit the space station. The docking lasted 5-¾ days.

YouTube videos:
•First International Space Station Supply Flight: Space Shuttle STS-96 Discovery ISS, pt 1, 1999. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fVRBjU0S_Nw
•First International Space Station Supply Flight: Space Shuttle STS-96 Discovery ISS, pt 2, 1999. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i-9wlWu4LyU

Web sources:
•http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-96.html•http://en.wikiped... more »

Today in History: Space Shuttle Discovery completed first docking with ISS
On May 29, 1999 — 16 years ago today — Space Shuttle Discovery (Space Shuttle Mission STS-96) became the first space shuttle to dock with the International Space Station. Discovery carried the space station’s “Skyhab” (short for “Sky Habitation”) Module in its cargo bay, along with miscellaneous cargo to outfit the space station. The docking lasted 5-¾ days.

YouTube videos:
•First International Space Station Supply Flight: Space Shuttle STS-96 Discovery ISS, pt 1, 1999. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fVRBjU0S_Nw
•First International Space Station Supply Flight: Space Shuttle STS-96 Discovery ISS, pt 2, 1999. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i-9wlWu4LyU

Web sources:
•http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-96.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-96
•https://airandspace.si.edu/explore-and-learn/topics/discovery/about.cfm
•http://www.edn.com/electronics-blogs/edn-moments/4373970/Discovery-docks-with-International-Space-Station--May-29--1999-EDN

Book sources:
• Discovery: Champion of the Space Shuttle Fleet (Smithsonian Series) by Valerie Neal. http://amzn.to/1AAfU9G
• Space Shuttle: The History of Developing the National Space Transportation System by Dennis R. Jenkins. http://amzn.to/1cleR1V

Image credits (left to right, top to bottom):
•Discovery Launch. NASA
•Discovery soaring toward space. NASA
•Discovery’s flight deck. http://www.spaceflightnow.com/shuttle/sts133/110624safing/
•Discovery’s crew: Astronaut Kent V. Rominger, mission commander, is at left on the front row. Astronaut Rick D. Husband, right, is pilot. The mission specialists are Ellen Ochoa (front center) and, from the left on the back row, Daniel T. Barry, Julie Payette, Valeriy I. Tokarev, and Tamara Jernigan. Payette represents the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) and Tokarev is with the Russian Space Agency (RSA). The crew performed the first station docking and became the first visitors to the new International Space Station since its launch and start of orbital assembly last year. NASA: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ASTS-96_crew.jpg
•Space Shuttle Discovery docked with the International Space Station. NASA
•Night landing of Space Shuttle Discovery returning from the 9-¾ day mission. NASA


#history #history-tech #spaceshuttle #Discovery #ISS #spacestation #docking___

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2015-05-28 14:06:05 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 2 +1s)Open 

Today in History: First Animals Launched into Space to Survive Mission
On May 28, 1959 — 56 years ago today — two monkeys became the first to return safely to Earth after traveling in space. A rhesus monkey, “Able,” and a squirrel monkey, “Miss Baker,” flew to a height of 360 miles (580 kilometers) aboard a Jupiter rocket in a suborbital mission. The entire flight lasted about 15 minutes and ended up 1,700 miles down-range from the launch site at Cape Canaveral, Florida. The monkeys experienced weightlessness for about 9 minutes. The monkeys’ capsule landed in the ocean and was retrieved by a U.S. Navy vessel. 

YouTube videos:
•Abel and Baker Jupiter Missile Flight: “Space Monkeys Meet the Press” by Universal Newsreel (length 02:08). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hZOATIWNIsM

Web sources:•http://en.wikiped... more »

Today in History: First Animals Launched into Space to Survive Mission
On May 28, 1959 — 56 years ago today — two monkeys became the first to return safely to Earth after traveling in space. A rhesus monkey, “Able,” and a squirrel monkey, “Miss Baker,” flew to a height of 360 miles (580 kilometers) aboard a Jupiter rocket in a suborbital mission. The entire flight lasted about 15 minutes and ended up 1,700 miles down-range from the launch site at Cape Canaveral, Florida. The monkeys experienced weightlessness for about 9 minutes. The monkeys’ capsule landed in the ocean and was retrieved by a U.S. Navy vessel. 

YouTube videos:
•Abel and Baker Jupiter Missile Flight: “Space Monkeys Meet the Press” by Universal Newsreel (length 02:08). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hZOATIWNIsM

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monkeys_and_apes_in_space
•http://articles.latimes.com/2013/jul/27/science/la-sci-sn-space-monkeys-the-humanizing-of-abel-and-baker-20130726
•http://airandspace.si.edu/collections/artifact.cfm?object=nasm_A19840869000
•http://www.universetoday.com/31531/50th-anniversary-of-historic-space-monkey-flight/

Book sources:
• Animals in Space: From Research Rockets to the Space Shuttle by Colin Burgess. http://amzn.to/1BpQcjl

Image credits (from left to right, top to bottom):
•Jupiter rocket lifting off with monkey Able and Miss Baker aboard, May 29, 1959. NASA
•Front page headlines announcing the successful monkey space flight.
•Monkey Able being prepared for launch. NASA
•Monkey “Miss Baker” in her space “suit.” NASA
•Monkeys Able and Miss Baker. NASA
•Navy personnel helping Abel out of his space capsule after retrieving it from the Atlantic Ocean, about 1,700 miles down-range from the launch spot at Cape Canaveral. NASA
•Monkey Abel and Miss Baker at their NASA news conference following their successful flight. NASA


#history #history -tech #spacemonkeys #Able #MissBaker___

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2015-05-27 06:25:03 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 1 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Apollo 10 splashed down in Pacific, 1969
On May 26, 1969 — 46 years ago today — Apollo 10, the mission immediately before the lunar landing mission, flew to the moon with the Lunar Module (for the first time) and practiced separation and docking maneuvers in lunar orbit, and then flew back to Earth and splashed down in the Pacific Ocean safely. The bold goal set by President Kennedy yesterday in 1961 — only 8 years earlier — was now within reach.

One mission before, Apollo 8, had orbited the Moon without the Lunar Module. (Apollo 9 was an Earth orbital flight only.) Apollo 10 brought the Lunar Module along and practiced undocking it from the Command Module and descending to within 14 kilometers (about 47,000 feet) of the lunar surface, and then practiced rendezvousing and docking with the Command Module. At the lowest altitude above the Moon, the Lunar Moduletook ph... more »

Today in History: Apollo 10 splashed down in Pacific, 1969
On May 26, 1969 — 46 years ago today — Apollo 10, the mission immediately before the lunar landing mission, flew to the moon with the Lunar Module (for the first time) and practiced separation and docking maneuvers in lunar orbit, and then flew back to Earth and splashed down in the Pacific Ocean safely. The bold goal set by President Kennedy yesterday in 1961 — only 8 years earlier — was now within reach.

One mission before, Apollo 8, had orbited the Moon without the Lunar Module. (Apollo 9 was an Earth orbital flight only.) Apollo 10 brought the Lunar Module along and practiced undocking it from the Command Module and descending to within 14 kilometers (about 47,000 feet) of the lunar surface, and then practiced rendezvousing and docking with the Command Module. At the lowest altitude above the Moon, the Lunar Module took photographs of the planned potential landing spots for the Apollo 11 mission to ensure that a safe landing would be possible.

YouTube videos:
•Launch of Apollo 10 (CBS/Walter Cronkite). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=610MIiMdlBA
•Apollo 10: To Sort Out the Unknowns — 1969 NASA Project Apollo Moon Landing Rehearsal Flight. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m73j38PjXR0

Comprehensive Coverage of Apollo 10 Mission (not fully complete yet)
•Apollo 10 (full mission 01; length 01:08:00) – shows how the Saturn missile is moved from the Vertical Assembly Building to the Launch Pad. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ndltk2FoJLI&index=1&list=PLC1yaZz2qeGoIkfaRLC7HcYrSVAb_L9yh
•Apollo 10 (full mission 02; length 01:10:31) — covers the first orbit of Apollo 10 as it prepares for Trans Lunar Insertion (TLI) rocket burn. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nvn_yagvbA8
•Apollo 10 (full mission 03; length 01:22:32) — TLI. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bvb7xpwPZBM
•Apollo 10 (full mission 04; length 56:11) — extraction of the Lunar Module (LM) from the Saturn rocket and first transmission of the Earth in color from Apollo 10. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NzdS4tLo6g8
•Apollo 10 (full mission 05; length 01:50:48) — starts at 5 hours, 38 minutes into mission, 25,033 miles from Earth, 12,157 feet per second velocity. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1EobJrQi_qQ
•Apollo 10 (full mission 06; length 56:09) — starts at 20 hours, 1 minute into mission, 89,499 miles from Earth, 5,914 feet per second velocity. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JUjfGuLDUsc
•Apollo 10 (full mission 07; length 55:40) — “Fly Me to the Moon”/Frank Sinatra moment included. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UJDMoDYPbL8
•Apollo 10 (full mission 08; length 01:21:55) — 28 hours, 20 minutes into mission. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FmSw_nvhRKk
•Apollo 10 (full mission 09; length 01:05:33) — 43 hours, 34 minutes into mission. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qLvHxbaS46A
•Apollo 10 (full mission 10; length 01:02:38). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pwnH-ezgrfo
•Apollo 10 (full mission 11; length 52:22) — crew and ground control discuss abort scenarios in case of loss of radio communication. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PqxpfN-xLec
•Apollo 10 (full mission 12; length 55:23). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0CH6NMxCNxc
•Apollo 10 (full mission 13; length 01:33:30). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FNdy3sCYSYk
*Apollo 10 (full mission 14; length 56:20). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jtu3OVb2GzU
•Apollo 10 (full mission 15; length 01:35:37). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o21PgvzM1i0
•Apollo 10 (full mission 16; length 01:29:44). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v7JgV_HostE
•Apollo 10 (full mission 17 length 01:42:28). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C47qt0Sg-qQ
•Apollo 10 (full mission 18; length 01:48:00). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9i4jewLysrE
•Apollo 10 (full mission 19; length 01:11:46) — Lunar Module undocks and practices detached maneuvers in orbit around Moon. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7aEETLqpWL4
•Apollo 10 (full mission 20; length 01:05:24). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K-AAp4wtAxA
•Apollo 10 (full mission 21; length 02:01:54). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3raT7Ib5R-U
•Apollo 10 (full mission 22; length 01:24:44). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q1n97xly1cA
•Apollo 10 (full mission 23; length 01:20:57). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Lh9kY9PHbo
•Apollo 10 (full mission 24; length 01:22:14). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vZDWnxLFf0k
•Apollo 10 (full mission 25; length 01:09:26). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zSuT2yv7gk4
•Apollo 10 (full mission 26; length 58:25). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZPjltcxNpyg
•Apollo 10 (full mission 27; length 01:26:55). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FMbuQ9KJOpk
•Apollo 10 (full mission 28; length 52:01). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Oc10yx74OhE
•Apollo 10 (full mission 29; unedited; length 01:17:57). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TnMjLL7zBR8
•Apollo 10 (full mission 29A; length 01:14:16). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R60N13pdOJQ
•Apollo 10 (full mission 30; length 19:14). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZcbetQU6drg

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_10
•http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/missions/apollo/apollo_10/overview/
•http://history.nasa.gov/ap10fj/as10-day1-pt1.htm
•http://airandspace.si.edu/explore-and-learn/topics/apollo/apollo-program/orbital-missions/apollo10.cfm

Book sources:
• Apollo 10: The NASA Mission Reports, edited by Robert Godwin, NASA. http://amzn.to/1eqLgpp
• Failure is Not an Option: Mission Control from Mercury to Apollo 13 and Beyond by Gene Kranz. http://amzn.to/1FxFWcT
• NASA’s Moon Program: Paving the Way for Apollo 11 by David M. Harland. http://amzn.to/1Sy37KM

DVD sources:
• Apollo 10: The Dress Rehearsal — The Complete TV and Onboard Film. http://amzn.to/1AupOd5
• The Race to the Moon by the History Channel. http://amzn.to/1ITsWlB

Memorabilia:
•Apollo 10 - Dragon Models. http://amzn.to/1cWUMQb

Image credits (left to right, top to bottom):
•Apollo 10 Lift-off. NASA
•Apollo 10 racing into space. NASA
•View of Command Service Module “Charlie Brown” from Lunar Module “Snoopy” following separation in lunar orbit prior to solo operations. Craters 207 and 275 visible. NASA Photos. See http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/alsj/a410/AS10-27-3872HR.jpg
•View of Lunar Module “Snoppy” from Command Module “Charlie Brown.” NASA
•Apollo 10 Splashdown. NASA. http://www.americaspace.com/?attachment_id=19808
•Apollo 10 crew practicing splashdowns in the Gulf of Mexico. Crew from left to right: Eugene A. Cernan, Lunar Module Pilot; John W. Young, Command Module Pilot; Thomas P. Stafford, Mission Commander. NASA

#history #history -tech #Apollo #Apollo10___

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2015-05-27 06:24:34 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 5 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Golden Gate Bridge Opened
On May 27, 1937 — 78 years ago today — the majestic Golden Gate Bridge, linking San Francisco to Marin County, opened to pedestrian traffic. The next day, it opened to vehicular traffic. At the time the Gold Gate Suspension Bridge was finished, it was by far the biggest suspension bridge in the world. The total length of the bridge is 1.7 miles, and the main suspension span between the two towers is 4,200 feet (1,280 meters) — the longest suspension bridge main span from 1937-1964.

YouTube videos:
•Golden Gate Bridge by Suspension Bridges Channel (length 43:12). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lyFVxRn7zzQ
•Golden Gate Bridge (GoPro Hero 4 on DJI Phanton 2 Drone; length 06:56). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qSQDRY7NRgs
*Building the Golden Gate Bridge — Educational Documentary (length 26:10).https://www... more »

Today in History: Golden Gate Bridge Opened
On May 27, 1937 — 78 years ago today — the majestic Golden Gate Bridge, linking San Francisco to Marin County, opened to pedestrian traffic. The next day, it opened to vehicular traffic. At the time the Gold Gate Suspension Bridge was finished, it was by far the biggest suspension bridge in the world. The total length of the bridge is 1.7 miles, and the main suspension span between the two towers is 4,200 feet (1,280 meters) — the longest suspension bridge main span from 1937-1964.

YouTube videos:
•Golden Gate Bridge by Suspension Bridges Channel (length 43:12). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lyFVxRn7zzQ
•Golden Gate Bridge (GoPro Hero 4 on DJI Phanton 2 Drone; length 06:56). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qSQDRY7NRgs
*Building the Golden Gate Bridge — Educational Documentary (length 26:10). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jvmqbQ0SI6o
•Golden Gate Bridge — American Experience, PBS Documentary (length 54:56). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iIWR4A_rf2A

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_Gate_Bridge
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_longest_suspension_bridge_spans
•http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/biography/goldengate-workers/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Strauss_%28engineer%29
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Alton_Ellis

Book sources:
• The Golden Gate: San Francisco’s Celebrated Bridge by Peter Beren. http://amzn.to/1FCpM1K
• Golden Gate Bridge: History and Design of an Icon by Donald MacDonald. http://amzn.to/1Bo7L3e
• Spanning the Gate: The Golden Gate Bridge by Stephen Cassady. http://amzn.to/1Bo7VaN
• The Gate: The True Story of the Design and Construction of the Golden Gate Bridge by John Van Der Zee. http://amzn.to/1GCav2U

Image credits:
•http://magazine.uc.edu/famousalumni/designers/strauss.html

#history #history-tech #bridges #suspensionbridges #GoldenGate___

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2015-05-25 14:27:02 (1 comments, 0 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Moon Landing Goal Announced
On May 25, 1961 — 54 years ago today — President John F. Kennedy announced his goal of landing a man on the Moon by the end of the 1960s and returning him safely to Earth. The U.S. met that goal when Neil Armstrong set foot on the Moon in July, 1969, and returned safely to Earth.

Background: The old Soviet Union became the first nation to send a man into space: On April 12, 1961, Yuri Gagarin orbited the earth inVostok 1. Less than a month later, the U.S. sent a man into space for just a few minutes in a sub-orbital flight: On May 5, Alan Shepard piloted Freedom 7 into a sub-orbital flight that splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean. At this point, the Soviet Union was clearly ahead in what was becoming a "space race" between the two global super-powers. Before long, the U.S. had become the leading pioneer in space, butbud... more »

Today in History: Moon Landing Goal Announced
On May 25, 1961 — 54 years ago today — President John F. Kennedy announced his goal of landing a man on the Moon by the end of the 1960s and returning him safely to Earth. The U.S. met that goal when Neil Armstrong set foot on the Moon in July, 1969, and returned safely to Earth.

Background: The old Soviet Union became the first nation to send a man into space: On April 12, 1961, Yuri Gagarin orbited the earth inVostok 1. Less than a month later, the U.S. sent a man into space for just a few minutes in a sub-orbital flight: On May 5, Alan Shepard piloted Freedom 7 into a sub-orbital flight that splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean. At this point, the Soviet Union was clearly ahead in what was becoming a "space race" between the two global super-powers. Before long, the U.S. had become the leading pioneer in space, but budgetary restraints are now impeding U.S. leadership in space exploration.

YouTube videos:
•John F. Kennedy “Landing a Man on the Moon” Address to Congress, May 25, 1961 (length 03:46). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TUXuV7XbZvU

Web sources:
• http://history.nasa.gov/moondec.html
• http://www.space.com/11772-president-kennedy-historic-speech-moon-space.html
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercury_Seven
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neil_Armstrong

Book sources:
• Failure is Not an Option: Mission Control from Mercury to Apollo 13 and Beyond by Gene Kranz. http://amzn.to/1FxFWcT
• NASA’s Moon Program: Paving the Way for Apollo 11 by David M. Harland. http://amzn.to/1Sy37KM

DVD sources:
• The Race to the Moon by the History Channel. http://amzn.to/1ITsWlB

Image credits:
•John F. Kennedy addressing Congress, May 15, 1961, and bolding putting forth the goal of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to Earth before the end of the decade.
•The moon landing program was composed on 3 projects: (1) Mercury (single manned flights), (2) Gemini (2-manned flights), and finally Apollo (3 manned flights using the spacecraft that would be required for the moon landing). NASA drawings and my text overlays.

#history #Kennedy #moon___

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2015-05-25 10:48:44 (0 comments, 2 reshares, 5 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Moon Landing Goal Announced
On May 25, 1961 — 54 years ago today — President John F. Kennedy announced his goal of landing a man on the Moon by the end of the 1960s and returning him safely to Earth. The U.S. met that goal when Neil Armstrong set foot on the Moon in July, 1969, and returned safely to Earth.

Background: The old Soviet Union became the first nation to send a man into space: On April 12, 1961, Yuri Gagarin orbited the earth inVostok 1. Less than a month later, the U.S. sent a man into space for just a few minutes in a sub-orbital flight: On May 5, Alan Shepard piloted Freedom 7 into a sub-orbital flight that splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean. At this point, the Soviet Union was clearly ahead in what was becoming a "space race" between the two global super-powers. Before long, the U.S. had become the leading pioneer in space, butbud... more »

Today in History: Moon Landing Goal Announced
On May 25, 1961 — 54 years ago today — President John F. Kennedy announced his goal of landing a man on the Moon by the end of the 1960s and returning him safely to Earth. The U.S. met that goal when Neil Armstrong set foot on the Moon in July, 1969, and returned safely to Earth.

Background: The old Soviet Union became the first nation to send a man into space: On April 12, 1961, Yuri Gagarin orbited the earth inVostok 1. Less than a month later, the U.S. sent a man into space for just a few minutes in a sub-orbital flight: On May 5, Alan Shepard piloted Freedom 7 into a sub-orbital flight that splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean. At this point, the Soviet Union was clearly ahead in what was becoming a "space race" between the two global super-powers. Before long, the U.S. had become the leading pioneer in space, but budgetary restraints are now impeding U.S. leadership in space exploration.

YouTube videos:
•John F. Kennedy “Landing a Man on the Moon” Address to Congress, May 25, 1961 (length 03:46). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TUXuV7XbZvU

Web sources:
• http://history.nasa.gov/moondec.html
• http://www.space.com/11772-president-kennedy-historic-speech-moon-space.html
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercury_Seven
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neil_Armstrong

Book sources:
• Failure is Not an Option: Mission Control from Mercury to Apollo 13 and Beyond by Gene Kranz. http://amzn.to/1FxFWcT
• NASA’s Moon Program: Paving the Way for Apollo 11 by David M. Harland. http://amzn.to/1Sy37KM

DVD sources:
• The Race to the Moon by the History Channel. http://amzn.to/1ITsWlB

Image credits:
•John F. Kennedy addressing Congress, May 15, 1961, and bolding putting forth the goal of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to Earth before the end of the decade.
•The moon landing program was composed on 3 projects: (1) Mercury (single manned flights), (2) Gemini (2-manned flights), and finally Apollo (3 manned flights using the spacecraft that would be required for the moon landing). NASA drawings and my text overlays.

#history #Kennedy #moon___

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2015-05-24 13:57:43 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 5 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Samuel Morse Sent Telegraph Message over First Telegraph Line
On May 24, 1844 — 171 years ago today — long-distance communication was revolutionized and the telecommunications industry was born when Samuel Morse sent words from the Bible (Numbers 23:23), “What hath God wrought,” from the U.S. Capitol basement to Baltimore, Maryland — officially opening the first telegraph line from Washington, D.C. to Baltimore, a distance of about 38 miles. Before this invention, communications (primarily letters) took days or even months to arrive at their destination.

Interestingly, Morse became passionate about developing a way to communicate messages quickly because he had been unable to return home swiftly enough after learning too slowly that his wife was sick and then died. 

YouTube videos:
•Samuel Morse, Portrait in a Minute by National PortraitGallery, Smi... more »

Today in History: Samuel Morse Sent Telegraph Message over First Telegraph Line
On May 24, 1844 — 171 years ago today — long-distance communication was revolutionized and the telecommunications industry was born when Samuel Morse sent words from the Bible (Numbers 23:23), “What hath God wrought,” from the U.S. Capitol basement to Baltimore, Maryland — officially opening the first telegraph line from Washington, D.C. to Baltimore, a distance of about 38 miles. Before this invention, communications (primarily letters) took days or even months to arrive at their destination.

Interestingly, Morse became passionate about developing a way to communicate messages quickly because he had been unable to return home swiftly enough after learning too slowly that his wife was sick and then died. 

YouTube videos:
•Samuel Morse, Portrait in a Minute by National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution (length 02:58). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h2IAh3uIGcc
•Samuel Morse’s Flash of Genius Born of Grief by American Heroes Channel (length 02:46). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UwIUbQE7oto

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Morse
•http://archive.constantcontact.com/fs087/1108762609255/archive/1109675366464.html
•http://inventors.about.com/od/tstartinventions/a/telegraph.htm
•http://inventors.about.com/od/indrevolution/a/telegraph.htm
•http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/sfbmhtml/sfbmhighlights01.html
•http://www.personal.psu.edu/jtk187/art2/telegraph.htm
•http://www.history.com/topics/inventions/telegraph

Book sources:
• The Telegraph in America, 1832-1920 (Johns Hopkins Studies in the History of Technology) by David Hochfelder. http://amzn.to/1HBh5s0
• Samuel Morse and the Telegraph (Inventions and Discovery) by David Seidman. http://amzn.to/1HoPzbX

Image credits:
Samuel Morse, about 1850, with an early type of telegraph printing receiver. Smithsonian Libraries.

#history, #history-tech #Morse #telegraph___

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2015-05-23 13:18:46 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 6 +1s)Open 

Today in History: First Successful Reattachment of a Human Limb
On May 23, 1962 — 53 years ago today — a team of 12 doctors performed the first successful reattachment of a severed human limb. While doctors had previously attached a partly severed limb, no doctors had ever before performed a complete reimplantation. In this first successful case, a 12-year-old boy, Everett Knowles, had his arm torn off by a stone bridge abutment as he was attempting to catch a ride on a freight train in Somerville, MA. The boy held his right severed arm by his left hand and walked away from the accident scene for help. Police were called, and he was immediately raced across the Charles River to the Massachusetts General Hospital. Dr. Ronald Malt, the 30-year-old chief surgical resident, made a decision that the youthful boy with his “perfectly” severed limb was an ideal candidate for a completereimpla... more »

Today in History: First Successful Reattachment of a Human Limb
On May 23, 1962 — 53 years ago today — a team of 12 doctors performed the first successful reattachment of a severed human limb. While doctors had previously attached a partly severed limb, no doctors had ever before performed a complete reimplantation. In this first successful case, a 12-year-old boy, Everett Knowles, had his arm torn off by a stone bridge abutment as he was attempting to catch a ride on a freight train in Somerville, MA. The boy held his right severed arm by his left hand and walked away from the accident scene for help. Police were called, and he was immediately raced across the Charles River to the Massachusetts General Hospital. Dr. Ronald Malt, the 30-year-old chief surgical resident, made a decision that the youthful boy with his “perfectly” severed limb was an ideal candidate for a complete reimplantation.

Dr. Malt assembled a team of experts who needed to perform a number of specialized techniques, all of which had been used before successfully, but never had all the techniques been used in combination to save an entire limb. The initial surgery lasted for hours, during which time the doctors (1) reconnected blood vessels, (2) pinned the arm bone together, and (3) grafted skin and muscle together. To everyone’s delight, the patient’s hand turned a lively pink and his pulse returned in his wrist.

The doctors held off reattaching the nerves until September when they reattached 4 major nerve trunks. In about 10 days following this nerve reattachment surgery, the patient started complaining about severe pain in his arm — and, to doctors, this was a welcome sign that surgery had been successful, given the terrible nature of the accident. In about a year after the nerve surgery, the patient’s arm and fingers were sensitive to touch and extreme temperatures and the patient could move his fingers and bend his wrist. In about 2 years, the patient was playing tennis and baseball; and after 4 years of recovery, the patient had the same use of his right arm as a natural left-handed person.

YouTube videos:
•The History of Massachusetts General Hospital (length 07:49). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CE48gVSWygk
•Michael K. Obeng, MD, F.A.C.S. Arm Reattachment Surgery (not this surgery but a subsequent arm reattachment surgery; length 01:57). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zkhFeu-bI20

Web sources:
•http://www.thesomervilletimes.com/archives/36886
•http://www.thecrimson.com/article/2002/10/15/surgeon-first-to-replant-severed-limb/
•http://www.nytimes.com/2002/10/17/us/ronald-a-malt-70-is-dead-innovator-in-reattaching-limb.html
•http://www.failurethebook.com/2010/10/08/medicine-pain-is-good-time/
•http://www.wired.com/2011/05/0523surgery-reattaches-boys-arm/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Replantation

Book references:
• Blood and Guts: A History of Surgery by Richard Hollingham. http://amzn.to/1Loapv5

Image credits:
•Top: Everett Knowles, with reattached arm. Massachusetts General archive photo.
•Bottom: Dr. Roanld Malt (standing at far left) and team of fellow doctors with patient Ronald Malt. http://www2.massgeneral.org/bicentennial/Images/300%20dpi/Red%20Knowles.jpg

#history #history -tech #surgery___

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2015-05-22 03:00:32 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Manchester Ship Canal Dedicated, 1894
On May 21,1894 — 121 years ago today — Queen Victoria dedicated the Manchester Ship Canal — a 36 mile-long (58 kilometer-long) waterway linking the inland city of Manchester, Northwestern England with the port of Liverpool on the Irish Sea. At the time, this waterway was the longest river navigation canal in the world. 

The idea to build a shipping canal from the Irish Sea to Manchester was first proposed in 1660, but it took another 200 years before the Industrial Revolution made Manchester a hub for textile manufacture. By 1871, Manchester had become “the Cottonopolis” — a city that was responsible for 32% of the global cotton production. Coal from nearby mines powered the textile plants, and a railway network brought the raw cotton imported through the port city of Liverpool to Manchester. The canal was built as amuch less ex... more »

Today in History: Manchester Ship Canal Dedicated, 1894
On May 21,1894 — 121 years ago today — Queen Victoria dedicated the Manchester Ship Canal — a 36 mile-long (58 kilometer-long) waterway linking the inland city of Manchester, Northwestern England with the port of Liverpool on the Irish Sea. At the time, this waterway was the longest river navigation canal in the world. 

The idea to build a shipping canal from the Irish Sea to Manchester was first proposed in 1660, but it took another 200 years before the Industrial Revolution made Manchester a hub for textile manufacture. By 1871, Manchester had become “the Cottonopolis” — a city that was responsible for 32% of the global cotton production. Coal from nearby mines powered the textile plants, and a railway network brought the raw cotton imported through the port city of Liverpool to Manchester. The canal was built as a much less expensive way to transport both the raw material and finished products.
 
YouTube videos:
•Manchester Ship Canal (part 1; length 08:48). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zKN5K49idEQ
•Manchester Ship Canal (part 2; length 08:08). 
•Manchester Ship Canal (part 3; length 08:48).

Web sources:
•http://www.bbc.co.uk/england/sevenwonders/north_west/ship_canal_mm/index.shtml
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cottonopolis
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_Ship_Canal
•https://books.google.com/books?id=3Y0_AAAAYAAJ&pg=PA289&lpg=PA289&dq=%22may+21%22+manchester+ship+canal&source=bl&ots=RrXdu5zveU&sig=r27_C0yFyIjqHrs1RB-jRUc-CBo&hl=en&sa=X&ei=5X9cVe7uLofvtQWLqoLYCQ&ved=0CC8Q6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=%22may%2021%22%20manchester%20ship%20canal&f=false

Book sources:
• History of the Manchester Ship Canal from its Inception to its Completion: With Personal Reminiscences by Bosdin Leech. http://amzn.to/1Hk5eZU
• Manchester’s Ship Canal: The Big Ditch by Cyril J. Wood. http://www.amazon.co.uk/Manchesters-Ship-Canal-The-Ditch/dp/075242811X
• A Hundred Years of the Manchester Ship Canal by T. Gray. 

Image credits (left to right, top to bottom):
*Queen Victoria dedicating the Manchester Shipping Canal, May 21, 1894. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AQueen_Victoria_opening_the_Manchester_Ship_Canal.jpg
•Queen Victoria. Alexander Bassano [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Queen_Victoria_by_Bassano.jpg
•Manchester Shipping Canal route from Liverpool on the Irish Sea to Manchester. Google Maps
•Overhead view of the beginning of the canal. By Parrot of Doom (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AManchester_Ship_Canal_viewed_from_the_air.jpg
•Map of the Manchester Shipping Canal Route.By Parrot of Doom (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AShip_canal_map.png

Additional Events in History on May 21:
•Lindbergh landed in Paris successfully completing the first solo transatlantic flight, 1927.
•Amelia Earhart landed in Northern Ireland successfully completing the first female solo transatlantic flight, 1932.

#history #canal #Manchester #cottonopolis___

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2015-05-20 11:41:11 (1 comments, 0 reshares, 2 +1s)Open 

Today in History: 2 Firsts in Solo Transatlantic Flight History
Lindbergh took off on first solo transatlantic flight; 5 years later, Earhart took off on second solo transatlantic flight (first solo for a woman)

On May 20, 1927 — 88 years ago today — Charles Lindbergh climbed aboard his single engine, single seat, single wing plane, The Spirit of St. Louis, and flew from Roosevelt Field near New York City up the northeast coast of North America across the Atlantic Ocean to Le Bourget Field in Paris — becoming the first individual to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean.

Exactly five years later, on May 20, 1932 — 83 years ago today — Amelia Earhart took off from Harbour Grace, New Brunswick and landed the next day in a farm pasture at Culmore, north of Derry, Northern Ireland — becoming the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean. (In 1928, Earhartbecame the ... more »

Today in History: 2 Firsts in Solo Transatlantic Flight History
Lindbergh took off on first solo transatlantic flight; 5 years later, Earhart took off on second solo transatlantic flight (first solo for a woman)

On May 20, 1927 — 88 years ago today — Charles Lindbergh climbed aboard his single engine, single seat, single wing plane, The Spirit of St. Louis, and flew from Roosevelt Field near New York City up the northeast coast of North America across the Atlantic Ocean to Le Bourget Field in Paris — becoming the first individual to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean.

Exactly five years later, on May 20, 1932 — 83 years ago today — Amelia Earhart took off from Harbour Grace, New Brunswick and landed the next day in a farm pasture at Culmore, north of Derry, Northern Ireland — becoming the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean. (In 1928, Earhart became the first woman to fly across the Atlantic, but she was not the primary pilot and traveled with two other men.)

YouTube videos:
•Across the Atlantic: Behind the Lindbergh Legend (length 53:37). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oR1FkSasydM
•The Lindbergh Story—Full Vintage Documentary (length 48:13). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2XW_rWyTfGk
•Amelia Earhart—First Woman to Fly Solo Across the Atlantic Ocean (length 01:59). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1E33q3EW3Ew
•Amelia Earhart Departs on Solo Flight Across Atlantic, May 20, 1932 (length 02:05). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y-itPeJOyzI
•Amelia Mary Earhart Documentary (length 52:52). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hlOGX6HZ1Gg

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Lindbergh
•http://www.charleslindbergh.com/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spirit_of_St._Louis
•http://www.space.com/16677-charles-lindbergh.html
•https://dalrock.wordpress.com/2010/12/04/charles-lindbergh-and-amelia-earhart/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amelia_Earhart
•http://historys-shadow.blogspot.com/2006/05/amelia-earhart-completes-transatlantic.html
•http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/May-June-08/On-this-Day--Amelia-Earhart-Embarks-on-Solo-Atlantic-Flight.html

Book sources:
• Lindbergh by A. Scott Berg. http://amzn.to/1Hrxrkd
• Night Flight: Amelia Earhart Crosses the Atlantic by Robert Burleigh. http://amzn.to/1BaOH8A

Image Credits (left to right, top to bottom):
•Charles Lindbergh with his transatlantic plane, “The Spirit of St. Louis.” 
•Charles Lindbergh. http://www.biography.com/people/charles-lindbergh-9382609
•Google Map / Satellite View of the North American continent (left), the Northern Atlantic Ocean (center), and Europe (right). The pink arrow is Amelia Earhart’s 1932 transatlantic route; and the blue arrow is Charles Lindbergh’s 1927 transatlantic route.
•Amelia Earhart. 
•Amelia Earhart with her transatlantic plane. Associated Press photo. http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/May-June-08/On-this-Day--Amelia-Earhart-Embarks-on-Solo-Atlantic-Flight.htmYouTube videos:

#history #history-tech #transatlantic #Lindbergh #Earhart___

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2015-05-19 12:52:44 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Apple Opened Its First 2 Retail Stores, 2001
On May 19, 2001 — 14 years ago today — Apple opened its first two retail stores, located in Glendale, California and McLean, Virginia. A number of analysts at the time doubted Apple would have success with such stores. One such analyst, David Goldstein, then president of Channel Marketing, said: “I give them two years before they’re turning out the lights on a very painful and expensive mistake.” The magazine Business Week wrote, “Sorry Steve, Here’s Why Apple Stores Won’t Work.”

Although it did take a couple of years for the stores to become profitable, Apple Stores have grown to become the most successful retail stores in business history — generating more than $6,000 in sales per square foot (Tiffany, the former gold standard, generates about $3,000 sales per square foot). 

During hisentrepreneurial care... more »

Today in History: Apple Opened Its First 2 Retail Stores, 2001
On May 19, 2001 — 14 years ago today — Apple opened its first two retail stores, located in Glendale, California and McLean, Virginia. A number of analysts at the time doubted Apple would have success with such stores. One such analyst, David Goldstein, then president of Channel Marketing, said: “I give them two years before they’re turning out the lights on a very painful and expensive mistake.” The magazine Business Week wrote, “Sorry Steve, Here’s Why Apple Stores Won’t Work.”

Although it did take a couple of years for the stores to become profitable, Apple Stores have grown to become the most successful retail stores in business history — generating more than $6,000 in sales per square foot (Tiffany, the former gold standard, generates about $3,000 sales per square foot). 

During his entrepreneurial career cut short by premature death, Steve Jobs arguably revolutionized or re-imagined 7 industries: 
(1) personal computers,
(2) animated movies,
(3) music,
(4) phones,
(5) tablet computing,
(6) digital publishing, and
(7) retail stores.

Few people have had such a significant influence in so many industries, but a quick history of Jobs’s involvement in the planning and launch of the Apple retail stores shows why he had such an impact. The Apple Board was not fully behind the idea of moving into retail stores — too many computer stores were failing. But Steve was determined to launch retail stores because he felt that Apple had to develop a direct channel for communicating with consumers. In 1999, Jobs had recruited Mickey Drexler to the Board. Drexler had created the casual culture brand of the Gap stores. Drexler gave a key piece of advice to Jobs: Secretly create a prototype store near Apple headquarters, filled with products, and visit it frequently until you are comfortable with its ambience. Drexler proved to be a vital asset on the Board in generating a positive decision to go into the retail store business.

In early 2000, Jobs recruited Ron Johnson, who was Target’s vice president for merchandising. To support his developing vision for the stores and to decide if Ron Johnson was the right candidate to lead the retail store effort, Jobs and Johnson visited the Stanford Shopping Mall before stores opened and walked back and forth through the 140-store mall to understand its organization and discuss what was good and not so good. During this walk, Jobs realized that a store that had multiple entrances was a bad idea, because the consumer experience could not be gracefully directed. Jobs wanted only one public entrance for Apple Stores. Moreover, Jobs thought it was important that customers could grasp the store layout as soon as they entered. 

The conventional wisdom at the time was that it was cheaper to set up an expensive retail store off the beaten track, because people would travel extra distance for an expensive product. Jobs disagreed with this wisdom: Jobs wanted Apple Stores to be at peak “foot traffic” locations, regardless of rental cost. Moreover, he wanted the stores to be relatively big — Jobs reasoned that Apple was a bigger brand than Gap and therefore its stores should be bigger than the Gap stores. With these two basic notions, Johnson and Jobs spent months secretly building the prototype Apple retail store. When it was done, the Board visited the store and approved the concept and opening of the first few stores.

Questions:
(1) About how many times have you visited an Apple retail store?
(2) If you visit Apple retail stores, how frequently would you estimate that you have an enjoyable experience?

YouTube videos:
•Steve Jobs Introduces the Apple Store, 2001 (length 04:15). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xLTNfIaL5YI
•Apple Retail Stores – 10th Anniversary Video (length 05:51). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZtC8zvitv2Y
•Top 10 Impressive Apple Stores from around the World (length 01:35). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J7WMubnUr9w

Web sources:
•http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2001/05/21Apple-Retail-Stores-Welcome-Over-7700-People-in-First-Two-Days.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_Store
•http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/the-buzz/post/fun-facts-about-the-worlds-first-apple-store/2011/05/18/AFgP9j6G_blog.html
•http://www.macworld.com/article/1159499/applestoresinancials.html
•http://www.cultofmac.com/95409/may-2001-the-first-apple-store-opens/
•http://www.macworld.com/article/1159817/first2applestores.html
•http://www.padgadget.com/2012/11/13/apple-stores-still-the-most-profitable-retail-business/

Book sources:
• Steve Jobs by Walter Isaacson. http://amzn.to/1AbGyFZ
• Becoming Steve Jobs: The Evolution of a Reckless Upstart into a Visionary Leader by Brent Schlender and Rick Tetzeli. http://amzn.to/1B8Yhsr
• The Apple Experience: Secrets to Building Insanely Great Customer Loyalty by Carmine Gallo. http://amzn.to/1QYQl6d

Image credits (left to right, top to bottom)
•Apple Store, New York City.
•Spiral Staircase in Apple Store designed by Steve Jobs.
•Apple Store - location?
•Apple Store, Boylston Street, Boston, MA.
•Apple Store, Lincoln Park, Chicago.
•Apple Genius Bar. http://mcmillandoolittle.blogspot.com/2011/05/apple-decade-of-retail-revolution.html
•Steve Jobs behind at Apple Genius Bar in an Apple Store. http://www.financetwitter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/Steve_Jobs_Apple_Store_2002.jpg

#history #history-tech #Apple #retail___

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2015-05-17 12:03:42 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 0 +1s)Open 

Today in History: MTV Launched URGE Online Music Store, 2006
On May 17, 2006 — 9 years ago today — the URGE digital music store was opened by MTV Networks. Apple had opened its iTunes online store 3 years earlier and was experiencing rapid growth as increasing numbers of people were downloading music to their iPods and other portable music players. The market for downloaded tunes looked huge, and it was for Apple. After Apple introduced its iPhone on January 9, 2007, further consolidating Apple’s hold on the music market, URGE was losing brand recognition. Later in 2007, URGE (MTV Networks) teamed up with Rhapsody (Real Networks) and Verizon Wireless to form a new online music service, called Rhapsody America. It’s still here as just Rhapsody — http://www.rhapsody.com/ — as a streaming service that competes with a number of other streaming services, including Spotify, Rdio, GooglePlay Music ... more »

Today in History: MTV Launched URGE Online Music Store, 2006
On May 17, 2006 — 9 years ago today — the URGE digital music store was opened by MTV Networks. Apple had opened its iTunes online store 3 years earlier and was experiencing rapid growth as increasing numbers of people were downloading music to their iPods and other portable music players. The market for downloaded tunes looked huge, and it was for Apple. After Apple introduced its iPhone on January 9, 2007, further consolidating Apple’s hold on the music market, URGE was losing brand recognition. Later in 2007, URGE (MTV Networks) teamed up with Rhapsody (Real Networks) and Verizon Wireless to form a new online music service, called Rhapsody America. It’s still here as just Rhapsody — http://www.rhapsody.com/ — as a streaming service that competes with a number of other streaming services, including Spotify, Rdio, Google Play Music All Access, Deezer, Tidal, Microsoft’s Xbox Music, and soon Apple Music (iTunes’s Beats), et al.

Questions:
(1) Did you ever use the URGE digital music store?
(2) What is your favorite online music store?
(3) Do you subscribe to a streaming music service?

YouTube videos:
•Online Music Services by Arik Hesseldahl, Senior Technology Writer at Business Week (length 06:33). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xoAYQIjxaf4

Web sources:
•http://todayinsci.com/5/5_17.htm#event
•http://old.tagedonline.org/news/engineering-education-%E2%80%9Ctoday-history%E2%80%9D-blog-cern-convention-ratified
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/URGE_%28digital_music_service%29
•https://techjourney.net/mtv-urge-digital-music-service-for-windows-media-player-11-review-by-forbes/
•http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/tech/columnist/edwardbaig/2006-05-17-urge-beta_x.htm
•http://urbanhonking.com/ideasfordozens/2008/01/12/a_brief_history_of_the_music_i/
•http://praveenchoudhary.blogspot.com/2006/05/window-media-player-11-and-urge.html
•http://www.digitalmusicnews.com/permalink/2014/08/15/30-years-music-industry-change-30-seconds-less
•https://gigaom.com/2015/03/06/the-music-industrys-broken-business-could-change-in-2015/
•http://www.geek.com/news/rhapsody-urge-and-verizon-wireless-form-rhapsody-america-567702/
•https://www.apple.com/pr/library/2007/01/09Apple-Reinvents-the-Phone-with-iPhone.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhapsody_%28online_music_service%29
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Online_music_store
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_online_music_stores

Book sources and/or sources for further information about this subject:
• The Digital Solution: A Plan for Collecting and Distributing Streaming Music Royalties by David M. Ross. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1502745038/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1502745038&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=JIYF3H4WMU2ID77A

Image credits:
•Home page of URGE, the digital music service from MTV Networks. http://praveenchoudhary.blogspot.com/2006/05/window-media-player-11-and-urge.html
•10 Years of iTunes explosive growth. http://applebytecrunch.com/2014/05/23/why-beats-music/
•We Are Entering the Fourth Phases of Digital Music. http://ajournalofmusicalthings.com/entering-fourth-phase-digital-music-mean-exactly/

Additional events in history on May 17:
•ESRO 2B became the first successfully launched European Space Research Organization (ESRO) satellite.

#history #history-tech #onlinemusic___

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2015-05-16 16:17:16 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 0 +1s)Open 

Today in History: First Working Laser Made, 1960
On May 16, 1960 — 55 years ago today — the first working laser was made by physicist Theodore Maiman conducting experiments at the Hughes Research Laboratory in Malibu, California. Maiman used a solid-state pink ruby device that he developed to fire a laser. Most other scientists working to develop a laser did not believe the ruby device would work. But Mainman’s pink ruby laser emitted man’s first coherent light (light in which the rays are all the same wavelength and fully in phase). Maiman’s device was awarded U.S. patent 3,353,115 on November 14, 1967.

Of course, today’s laser and all the applications that have followed this first firing are the work of many scientists in the fields of optics and photonics over the course of history. Charles Townes with the help of Arthur Leonard Schawlow, both working at ColumbiaUniversity,... more »

Today in History: First Working Laser Made, 1960
On May 16, 1960 — 55 years ago today — the first working laser was made by physicist Theodore Maiman conducting experiments at the Hughes Research Laboratory in Malibu, California. Maiman used a solid-state pink ruby device that he developed to fire a laser. Most other scientists working to develop a laser did not believe the ruby device would work. But Mainman’s pink ruby laser emitted man’s first coherent light (light in which the rays are all the same wavelength and fully in phase). Maiman’s device was awarded U.S. patent 3,353,115 on November 14, 1967.

Of course, today’s laser and all the applications that have followed this first firing are the work of many scientists in the fields of optics and photonics over the course of history. Charles Townes with the help of Arthur Leonard Schawlow, both working at Columbia University, developed the maser, from which the laser was conceived. In 1917, Albert Einstein put forth the idea at the heart of the laser when he described the possibility of stimulated emission of radiation. Interestingly enough, Niels Bohr, one of the great quantum physicists, did not think Townes’s maser idea would ever work. Maiman developed his working laser largely based on the design that Townes had conceived. 

Gordon Gould also claimed credit for the invention of the laser. In 1957, he had his design drawings notarized at the local candy store, but he did not file a patent until after Townes and Schawlow had filed their patent. A 30-year patent war ensued that Gould finally won and he was awarded $30 million.

Question: 
Do you think laser technology has affected your life in any way? Please answer here before reading further: https://plus.google.com/+BradAcker/posts/FP8tZrMfcQ1


Laser technology is the core of many of today’s products:
• CD and DVDs
• supermarket barcode scanners 
• speed detectors used by police
• altimeters (altitude meters)
• rangefinders (devices that measure the distance from observer to target)
• surgical scalpels
• skin smoothers
• tattoo removers
• cornea shapers to reattach retinas
• fiber-optic cables used for the transmission of high-speed data

YouTube videos:
•Celebrating 50 Years of the Laser (length 40:13). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eQQeSUvgmJE
•A Brief History of Laser Light (length 04:21). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XRLRSdgvLg0
•How Lasers Work (length 03:54). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lW4Uq_2VPhE

Web sources:
•http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/284158_townes.html
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodore_Harold_Maiman
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_H._Townes
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Leonard_Schawlow
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gordon_Gould
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coherence_(physics)
•https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=8tDcbiVLAXIC&oi=fnd&pg=PT12&dq=first+laser+bounced+off+moon+1962&ots=0OgBJMPgUq&sig=h3GK-PJE001Y6FvadqMoWmnst5Q#v=onepage&q&f=false

Book sources:
• How the Laser Happened: Adventures of a Scientist by Charles H. Townes (Nobel laureate, 1964, who invented the maser, of which the laser is one example). http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B0052IQKB8/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B0052IQKB8&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=JFAZIBNHE4H33763
• Laser: The Inventor, the Nobel Laureate, and the Thirty-Year Patent War by Nick Taylor. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0595465285/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0595465285&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=N2DQLUFSNIPWCR7D

Image credits:
•Dr. Theodore Maiman with the first working laser. HRL Laboratories, LLC: http://laserfest.org/lasers/history/early.cfm

Additional events in history on May 16:
•The Soviet space probe Venera 5 landed on Venus.

#history #history -tech #laser___

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2015-05-16 15:30:45 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 1 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Einstein Received Benjamin Franklin Award, 1935
On May 15, 1935 — 80 years ago today — Albert Einstein was awarded the Benjamin Franklin Medal in recognition of his “fundamental contributions to theoretical physics; especially for his theories of relativity and his work on the photoelectric effect.” The Medal was and still is awarded by the Franklin Institute for special performance in the field of science and the arts. Oddly enough, in the ceremony that took place at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, PA, Einstein elected not to speak, stunning the host. Seriously, Time magazine reported at the time: “A throng of scientists and dignitaries was assembled to hear what the medalist had to say. Einstein genially informed the chairman that he had nothing to say, that inspiration which he had awaited until the last moment failed him. The chairman, much moreembarrass... more »

Today in History: Einstein Received Benjamin Franklin Award, 1935
On May 15, 1935 — 80 years ago today — Albert Einstein was awarded the Benjamin Franklin Medal in recognition of his “fundamental contributions to theoretical physics; especially for his theories of relativity and his work on the photoelectric effect.” The Medal was and still is awarded by the Franklin Institute for special performance in the field of science and the arts. Oddly enough, in the ceremony that took place at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, PA, Einstein elected not to speak, stunning the host. Seriously, Time magazine reported at the time: “A throng of scientists and dignitaries was assembled to hear what the medalist had to say. Einstein genially informed the chairman that he had nothing to say, that inspiration which he had awaited until the last moment failed him. The chairman, much more embarrassed than the medalist, conveyed this information to the audience.” Subsequently, Einstein sent the Franklin Institute what he had been thinking about and why he may have been unable to speak: http://prof.mkostic.com/Physics_and_Reality-Albert_Einstein.pdf. 

Here is the program information that the Franklin Institute provided regarding Albert Einstein and the 1935 Benjamin Franklin award:

Albert Einstein was born at Ulm, in Wurttemberg, Germany, in 1879. In his youth, his family moved to Munich and then to Italy, and Einstein received much of his early education in Switzerland. In 1896 he entered the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich to be trained as a teacher in physics and mathematics. In 1901, he gained his degree and acquired Swiss citizenship. Unable to find a teaching post, he accepted a position as technical assistant in the Swiss Patent Office. In 1905, he obtained his doctoral degree.

It was during his employment at the Patent Office that he produced much of his groundbreaking work. In 1908 he was appointed Privatdozent in Berne; in 1909 he became Professor Extraordinary at Zurich; and in 1911 Professor of Theoretical Physics at Prague, then returning to Zurich in the following year to fill a similar post. He was appointed Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Physical Institute (later the Max Planck Institute for Physics) and Professor in the University of Berlin in 1914. He became a German citizen in 1914 and remained in Berlin until 1933 when he renounced his citizenship for political reasons and emigrated to America to take the position of Professor of Theoretical Physics at Princeton. He became a United States citizen in 1940 and retired from his post in 1945.

Einstein realized the inadequacies of Newtonian mechanics and his special theory of relativity stemmed from an attempt to reconcile the laws of mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. He dealt with classical problems of statistical mechanics and problems in which they were merged with quantum theory: this led to an explanation of the Brownian movement of molecules. He investigated the thermal properties of light with a low radiation density and his observations laid the foundation of the photon theory of light.

He postulated that the correct interpretation of the special theory of relativity must also furnish a theory of gravitation. In 1916 he published his paper on the general theory of relativity. During this time he also contributed to the problems of the theory of radiation and statistical mechanics. In the 1920s, Einstein embarked on the construction of unified field theories, although he continued to work on the probabilistic interpretation of quantum theory, and he persevered with this work in America. He contributed to statistical mechanics by his development of the quantum theory of a monatomic gas and he has also accomplished valuable work in connection with atomic transition probabilities and relativistic cosmology.

Einstein was honored with the Franklin Award of The Franklin Institute in 1935. Additionally, he received honorary doctorate degrees in science, medicine, and philosophy from many European and American universities. He was awarded Fellowships or Memberships of all the leading scientific academies throughout the world.

YouTube videos:
•Albert Einstein documentary (length 01:29:52). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NyK5SG9rwWI

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_Franklin_Medal_%28Franklin_Institute%29
•http://www.einstein-website.de/z_information/honours.html#franklin
•http://prof.mkostic.com/Physics_and_Reality-Albert_Einstein.pdf
•http://www.famousscientists.org/albert-einstein/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_Institute
•http://todayinsci.com/5/5_15.htm#event
•https://www.fi.edu/franklin-institute-awards

Book sources:
• Einstein: His Life and Universe by Walter Isaacson. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B000PC0S0K/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B000PC0S0K&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=5GPHJ3SNDCPBBVBK

Image credits:
•Albert Einstein (about 1935). http://cnx.org/contents/719899b5-ff3d-479d-a6b5-530b9e84da62@2/Nuclear_Chemistry
•Benjamin Franklin portrait. Joseph-Siffrein Duplessis [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ABenFranklinDuplessis.jpg
•Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, PA. 
•Franklin Institute Award. http://tmt.org/news-center/segments-news-items-4

#history #history -tech #Einstein___

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2015-05-15 15:15:14 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Einstein Received Benjamin Franklin Award, 1935
On May 15, 1935 — 80 years ago today — Albert Einstein was awarded the Benjamin Franklin Medal in recognition of his “fundamental contributions to theoretical physics; especially for his theories of relativity and his work on the photoelectric effect.” The Medal was and still is awarded by the Franklin Institute for special performance in the field of science and the arts. Oddly enough, in the ceremony that took place at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, PA, Einstein elected not to speak, stunning the host. Seriously, Time magazine reported at the time: “A throng of scientists and dignitaries was assembled to hear what the medalist had to say. Einstein genially informed the chairman that he had nothing to say, that inspiration which he had awaited until the last moment failed him. The chairman, much moreembarrass... more »

Today in History: Einstein Received Benjamin Franklin Award, 1935
On May 15, 1935 — 80 years ago today — Albert Einstein was awarded the Benjamin Franklin Medal in recognition of his “fundamental contributions to theoretical physics; especially for his theories of relativity and his work on the photoelectric effect.” The Medal was and still is awarded by the Franklin Institute for special performance in the field of science and the arts. Oddly enough, in the ceremony that took place at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, PA, Einstein elected not to speak, stunning the host. Seriously, Time magazine reported at the time: “A throng of scientists and dignitaries was assembled to hear what the medalist had to say. Einstein genially informed the chairman that he had nothing to say, that inspiration which he had awaited until the last moment failed him. The chairman, much more embarrassed than the medalist, conveyed this information to the audience.” Subsequently, Einstein sent the Franklin Institute what he had been thinking about and why he may have been unable to speak: http://prof.mkostic.com/Physics_and_Reality-Albert_Einstein.pdf. 

Here is the program information that the Franklin Institute provided regarding Albert Einstein and the 1935 Benjamin Franklin award:

Albert Einstein was born at Ulm, in Wurttemberg, Germany, in 1879. In his youth, his family moved to Munich and then to Italy, and Einstein received much of his early education in Switzerland. In 1896 he entered the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich to be trained as a teacher in physics and mathematics. In 1901, he gained his degree and acquired Swiss citizenship. Unable to find a teaching post, he accepted a position as technical assistant in the Swiss Patent Office. In 1905, he obtained his doctoral degree.

It was during his employment at the Patent Office that he produced much of his groundbreaking work. In 1908 he was appointed Privatdozent in Berne; in 1909 he became Professor Extraordinary at Zurich; and in 1911 Professor of Theoretical Physics at Prague, then returning to Zurich in the following year to fill a similar post. He was appointed Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Physical Institute (later the Max Planck Institute for Physics) and Professor in the University of Berlin in 1914. He became a German citizen in 1914 and remained in Berlin until 1933 when he renounced his citizenship for political reasons and emigrated to America to take the position of Professor of Theoretical Physics at Princeton. He became a United States citizen in 1940 and retired from his post in 1945.

Einstein realized the inadequacies of Newtonian mechanics and his special theory of relativity stemmed from an attempt to reconcile the laws of mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. He dealt with classical problems of statistical mechanics and problems in which they were merged with quantum theory: this led to an explanation of the Brownian movement of molecules. He investigated the thermal properties of light with a low radiation density and his observations laid the foundation of the photon theory of light.

He postulated that the correct interpretation of the special theory of relativity must also furnish a theory of gravitation. In 1916 he published his paper on the general theory of relativity. During this time he also contributed to the problems of the theory of radiation and statistical mechanics. In the 1920s, Einstein embarked on the construction of unified field theories, although he continued to work on the probabilistic interpretation of quantum theory, and he persevered with this work in America. He contributed to statistical mechanics by his development of the quantum theory of a monatomic gas and he has also accomplished valuable work in connection with atomic transition probabilities and relativistic cosmology.

Einstein was honored with the Franklin Award of The Franklin Institute in 1935. Additionally, he received honorary doctorate degrees in science, medicine, and philosophy from many European and American universities. He was awarded Fellowships or Memberships of all the leading scientific academies throughout the world.

YouTube videos:
•Albert Einstein documentary (length 01:29:52). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NyK5SG9rwWI

Web sources:
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_Franklin_Medal_%28Franklin_Institute%29
•http://www.einstein-website.de/z_information/honours.html#franklin
•http://prof.mkostic.com/Physics_and_Reality-Albert_Einstein.pdf
•http://www.famousscientists.org/albert-einstein/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_Institute
•http://todayinsci.com/5/5_15.htm#event
•https://www.fi.edu/franklin-institute-awards

Book sources:
• Einstein: His Life and Universe by Walter Isaacson. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B000PC0S0K/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B000PC0S0K&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=5GPHJ3SNDCPBBVBK

Image credits:
•Albert Einstein (about 1935). http://cnx.org/contents/719899b5-ff3d-479d-a6b5-530b9e84da62@2/Nuclear_Chemistry
•Benjamin Franklin portrait. Joseph-Siffrein Duplessis [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ABenFranklinDuplessis.jpg
•Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, PA. 
•Franklin Institute Award. http://tmt.org/news-center/segments-news-items-4

#history #history -tech #Einstein___

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2015-05-14 06:21:42 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 2 +1s)Open 

Today in History: First U.S. Space Station Launched into Space, 1973
On May 14, 1973 — 41 years ago today — NASA launched the U.S.’s first space station, Skylab, which remained in orbit from 1973 to 1979. This launch was unmanned, but later 3 crews joined the station to make major repairs, conduct solar research, and perform scientific experiments.

During launch, Skylab’s micrometeoroid shield tore away from the main body of the craft, took one of the two main solar panel arrays with it, and jammed the remaining array so that it could not deploy. The first crew repaired the station by deploying a replacement heat shade and freeing the jammed solar panel array. Plans were developed to refurbish and reuse Skylab, using the new Space Shuttle to boost its orbit and repair it. Unfortunately, the Shuttle program ran into delays, and Skylab reentered Earth’s atmosphere anddisintegr... more »

Today in History: First U.S. Space Station Launched into Space, 1973
On May 14, 1973 — 41 years ago today — NASA launched the U.S.’s first space station, Skylab, which remained in orbit from 1973 to 1979. This launch was unmanned, but later 3 crews joined the station to make major repairs, conduct solar research, and perform scientific experiments.

During launch, Skylab’s micrometeoroid shield tore away from the main body of the craft, took one of the two main solar panel arrays with it, and jammed the remaining array so that it could not deploy. The first crew repaired the station by deploying a replacement heat shade and freeing the jammed solar panel array. Plans were developed to refurbish and reuse Skylab, using the new Space Shuttle to boost its orbit and repair it. Unfortunately, the Shuttle program ran into delays, and Skylab reentered Earth’s atmosphere and disintegrated in 1979 (with debris hitting Western Australia).   

Questions:
(1) How long have humans been living continuously in space (not the same humans, of course) aboard space stations?
(2) Would you live on a space station if it were possible?

YouTube videos:
•Skylab: Space Station I — 1970’s NASA Space Station (educational documentary; length 28:08). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xJb2yjtDYaY
•Skylab Disaster (length 07:47). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0WUugbcIE1I
•Skylab Falls (length 00:45). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1cDHPz1Qk2I
•Astronaut Jack Lousma Interviewed by Phil Konstantin (length 04:28). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wCl6z67AJw4

Web sources:
•http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/on-this-day/may-14/
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skylab
•https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/skylab
•http://www.space.com/24927-showering-on-skylab.html

Book sources:
• Homesteading Space: The Skylab Story by David Hitt [including Astronaut Alan Bean’s journal that he kept during his time on Skylab]. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0803224346/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0803224346&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=JK4NBMQVHVK7ON5N

Image credits:
•A close-up view of Skylab photographed against the Earth background by the Skylab 3 Command Service Module during station keeping maneuvers just before docking. NASA http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Skylab_(SL-4).jpg
•Lift-off of Skylab 1 on May 14, 1973 from Launch Pad 39A from the Kennedy Space Center. NASA: https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/s73-26911.jpg
•Astronaut Jack R. Lousma taking a bath/shower in Skylab. NASA: http://www.space.com/24927-showering-on-skylab.html 

#history #history-tech #Skylab___

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2015-05-13 06:09:52 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Sikorsky Flew First Untethered Flight of U.S. Helicopter
On May 13, 1940 — 75 years ago today — Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky flew the first untethered flight of the VS-300 helicopter that he had spent years developing.

Questions:
(1) Have you flown in a helicopter? If you have time to share the experience, please do in the comments — e.g., at a vacation spot, in the military, a ride with the President in Marine One.
(2) Do you have more fear flying in a helicopter than an airplane?

YouTube videos:
•Igor Sikorsky test flies the Vought-Sikorsky helicopter (length 00:47). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PnbKZOG2gII
•Vought-Sikorsky VS-300 (length 01:12) [not in English, but great video of helicopter]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sHxEPJ7d6Fs
•The History of the Helicopter (length 17:43).https://www... more »

Today in History: Sikorsky Flew First Untethered Flight of U.S. Helicopter
On May 13, 1940 — 75 years ago today — Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky flew the first untethered flight of the VS-300 helicopter that he had spent years developing.

Questions:
(1) Have you flown in a helicopter? If you have time to share the experience, please do in the comments — e.g., at a vacation spot, in the military, a ride with the President in Marine One.
(2) Do you have more fear flying in a helicopter than an airplane?

YouTube videos:
•Igor Sikorsky test flies the Vought-Sikorsky helicopter (length 00:47). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PnbKZOG2gII
•Vought-Sikorsky VS-300 (length 01:12) [not in English, but great video of helicopter]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sHxEPJ7d6Fs
•The History of the Helicopter (length 17:43). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6_hScNDX53Y
•Helicopter History (length 10:42). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H5Bwu8-CNsY
•Igor Sikorsky Documentary (length 19:39). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hgJy8-6SBR4
•The Century of Flight—The Helicopter Story (BBC) (length 52:03). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M1EpgrbpA40

Web sources:
•http://www.sikorskyarchives.com/VS-300_Helicopter.php
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Igor_Sikorsky
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vought-Sikorsky_VS-300
•http://www.sikorskyarchives.com/S-47.php
•http://thegraph.com/2010/12/american-exceptionalism-igor-sikorsky-and-the-practical-helicopter/

Book sources:
• Heelicopter: Pioneering with Igor Sikorsky; Based on a Personal Account by William E. Hunt by William E. Hunt. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1853107689/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1853107689&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=OZMNYKGGAFN4BUDD
• Whirlybirds: A History of the U.S. Helicopter Pioneers by Jay P. Spenser. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0295976993/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0295976993&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=XH3E2RKMASPYQQM3
• The Sikorsky Legacy by Sergei I. Sikorsky. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0738549959/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0738549959&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=S6WGNGQ5OGZQQK5K

Image credits:
•First untethered flight of the VS-300 helicopter by Igor Sikorsky. 
•Igor Sikorsky and Charles Lindbergh. Igor Sikorsky taught Lindbergh how to fly a helicopter. Nice story about it here: http://www.charleslindbergh.com/mystory/helo.asp

Additional events in history on May 13:
•Igor Sikorsky Flew First 4-Engine Airplane

#history #history-tech #helicopter #Sikorsky___

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2015-05-12 14:08:42 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 1 +1s)Open 

Today in History: Dvorak Simplified Keyboard Patented, 1936
On May 12, 1936 — 79 years ago today — a keyboard designed to increase efficiency of input was patented by Dr. August Dvorak and Dr. William Dealer. The keyboard was designed to make typing as easy and painless as possible. In tests, it was found that the average QWERTY production typist’s fingers travel about 16-20 miles a day while typing. The DSK typist’s fingers traveled only about one mile — a 16x to 20x efficiency increase. As of 2005, according to the Guiness Book of World Records, the fastest English typist used the DSK to achieve a top speed of over 200 words per minute (wpm) while averaging 150 wpm for 50 minutes. Although the Dvorak Simplified Keyboard (DSK) has failed to become a popular standard, most major operating systems (Windows, OS, Linux, Android, iOS) support DSK.

The first keyboard designs inthe 1800s... more »

Today in History: Dvorak Simplified Keyboard Patented, 1936
On May 12, 1936 — 79 years ago today — a keyboard designed to increase efficiency of input was patented by Dr. August Dvorak and Dr. William Dealer. The keyboard was designed to make typing as easy and painless as possible. In tests, it was found that the average QWERTY production typist’s fingers travel about 16-20 miles a day while typing. The DSK typist’s fingers traveled only about one mile — a 16x to 20x efficiency increase. As of 2005, according to the Guiness Book of World Records, the fastest English typist used the DSK to achieve a top speed of over 200 words per minute (wpm) while averaging 150 wpm for 50 minutes. Although the Dvorak Simplified Keyboard (DSK) has failed to become a popular standard, most major operating systems (Windows, OS, Linux, Android, iOS) support DSK.

The first keyboard designs in the 1800s seemed to accommodate the needs of the machine more than the comfortable positioning of keys for easy access by humans. Some sets of commonly used keys were distributed away from each other to prevent the keybars from jamming as they smacked against the platen. In addition, to make it easier for salespeople to type “typewriter” in demonstrations of the product, all the keys for “typewriter” were located on the top alphabetical row. Over time the keyboard design was tweaked to incorporate frequently used keys that translated morse code. What resulted from this hodgepodge evolution is what has become known as the QWERTY keyboard today (named for the first 6 letters of the top alphabetical row on the keyboard). 

Questions:
(1) Do you think that the QWERTY keyboard will be replaced by a more efficient input system (for example, finger gesturing, eye movements, and voice commands) in the future? Please see polling question:
https://plus.google.com/+BradAcker/posts/LfNVCXRRQhY

(2) Do you use the Dvorak Simplified Keyboard or are you considering a change to it (as it is supported by most major operating systems)? Please see polling question: https://plus.google.com/+BradAcker/posts/KnrVBmtPzTm

YouTube videos:
•History of the Typewriter (prepared by IBM’s Office Products Division as a marketing piece for IBM products; length 08:57). History begins at 01:30. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zdLlrV8ruC0
•Early Typewriters (length 03:38). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-n1FDu2GZ8M
•A Brief History of Type (length 10:42). Big picture look at getting print on pages. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XohCW4ecYyg

Web sources:
•http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/fact-of-fiction-the-legend-of-the-qwerty-keyboard-49863249/?no-ist
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Words_per_minute
•http://www.google.com/patents/US2040248
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dvorak_Simplified_Keyboard
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_Dvorak
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Typewriting_Behavior
•https://www.addedbytes.com/blog/dvorak-vs-qwerty/
•http://www.dvorak-keyboard.com/
•http://site.xavier.edu/polt/typewriters/tw-history.html
•https://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/modelb/modelb_informal.html
•https://books.google.com/books?id=uVHlBwAAQBAJ&pg=PA66&lpg=PA66&dq=US+No.+2,040,248&source=bl&ots=NfTyeGhuVR&sig=_bvd9swVry9IT1aZprV-ZMtbB4s&hl=en&sa=X&ei=gqpQVYHpO8PFsAWPtoHgBg&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=US%20No.%202%2C040%2C248&f=false

Book sources:
• The Typewriter: An Illustrated History by Dover Pictorial Archive Series. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0486412377/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0486412377&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=TFJAVEQB6LMBVJVB
• Antique Typewriters: From Creed to Qwerty by Michael H. Adler. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0764301322/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0764301322&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=BIKQZRSZXU6NFQ3U

Image credits:
•A modern U.S. Dvorak keyboard layout. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:KB_United_States_Dvorak.svg
•U.S. Patent No. 207,559 by C. L. Sholes for the QWERTY layout and typewriter machine. Google patents.

#history #typewriter #keyboard #Dvorak___

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