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Finn Krogstad has been shared in 38 public circles

AuthorFollowersDateUsers in CircleCommentsReshares+1Links
Dina Tika0Here is a group of Active Engagers, Circle Sharers, Awesome Plus Oners, and Cool People on Google Plus!   Circle Sharing is an awesome way to increase your followers and active engagers on your profile. Some of my favorite people that I've met here on Google + through Circle Sharing.    Want to be in the next Circle of Awesomeness? Follow the Steps Below!  ☛ Add the circle ☛ Share in the Public ☛ Plus 1 the Post. ☛ Comment. 2014-06-10 05:52:43484102
AyJay Schibig48,590ECLECTIC CIRCLE  2.9.14Welcome to  the latest edition of my  Eclectic Circle of Active G Plussers!   Share to be included in the next edition.See  all of my Curated Circles on my Circle Sharing Page  +Circle Energy    and also my Circle Sharing and More Community https://plus.google.com/communities/110688741176520942310#circleoftheday   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlesharingforthepeopleplc   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles     #sharedcircleoftheday   #sharedcircleday   #publiccirclesproject #publiccircles   #publicsharedcircles     #sharedpublicircles     #circle #circles   #circlemeup     #awesomepeople   #awesomecircle #circleme   #sharedpoint   #sharewithyou   #ShareYourCircle2014-02-09 08:08:10450383760
AyJay Schibig45,265ECLECTIC CIRCLE  1.18.14Welcome to  the latest edition of my  Eclectic Circle of Active G Plussers!  Please Share.  See  all of my Curated Circles on my Circle Sharing Page  +Circle Energy   and also my Circle Sharing and More Community https://plus.google.com/communities/110688741176520942310#circleoftheday   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlesharingforthepeopleplc   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles     #sharedcircleoftheday   #sharedcircleday   #publiccirclesproject #publiccircles   #publicsharedcircles     #sharedpublicircles     #circle #circles   #circlemeup     #awesomepeople   #awesomecircle #circleme   #sharedpoint   #sharewithyou   #ShareYourCircle2014-01-19 03:47:51436433552
Vladimir Samsonov22,588Good morning/evening to all. You'll love this circle. Photographers, artists and other interesting people!Вам понравится этот круг, добавьте его себе. Фотографы, художники и другие интересные люди!Это социальный круг #ForFriends #photo #EarthMyMother2013-11-30 16:08:56453392475
AyJay Schibig36,218ECLECTIC CIRCLE 11.22.13Welcome to  the latest edition of my  Eclectic Circle of Active G Plussers!  Please Add and Share.  See  all of my Curated Circles on my Circle Sharing Page  +Circle Energy   and also my Circle Sharing and More Community https://plus.google.com/communities/110688741176520942310#circleoftheday   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlesharingforthepeopleplc   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles     #sharedcircleoftheday   #sharedcircleday   #publiccirclesproject #publiccircles   #publicsharedcircles     #sharedpublicircles     #circle #circles   #circlemeup     #awesomepeople   #awesomecircle #circleme   #sharedpoint   #sharewithyou   #ShareYourCircle2013-11-23 00:04:37474261836
AyJay Schibig30,988ECLECTIC CIRCLE 10.7.13Welcome to  the latest edition of my  Eclectic Circle of Active G Plussers!  Please Add and Share.  See  all of my Curated Circles on my Circle Sharing Page  +Circle Energy  and also my Circle Sharing and More Community https://plus.google.com/communities/110688741176520942310#circleoftheday   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlesharingforthepeopleplc   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles     #sharedcircleoftheday   #sharedcircleday   #publiccirclesproject #publiccircles   #publicsharedcircles     #sharedpublicircles     #circle #circles   #circlemeup     #awesomepeople   #awesomecircle #circleme   #sharedpoint   #sharewithyou   #ShareYourCircle2013-10-08 05:45:26435525466
AyJay Schibig26,629ECLECTIC CIRCLE 8.26.13Welcome to  the latest edition of my  Eclectic Circle of Active G Plussers!  Please Add and Share.  Find more Circles on my Blog Pagehttp://ayjay.blogspot.com/2013/05/my-google-plus-circles.htmlFind even more Circles at the Share Your Circles Communityhttps://plus.google.com/communities/111717900880304204954#circleoftheday   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlesharingforthepeopleplc   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday   #sharedcircleday   #publiccirclesproject   #publiccircles   #publicsharedcircles   #sharedpublicircles   #circle   #circles   #circlemeup   #awesomepeople   #awesomecircle   #circleme   #sharedpoint   #sharewithyou     #ShareYourCircle2013-08-26 19:21:51425412347
AyJay Schibig23,359ECLECTIC CIRCLE 7.30.13Welcome to  the latest edition of my  Eclectic Circle of  Active G Plussers!  Please Add and Share.  Also see  my other curated Circles athttp://ayjay.blogspot.com/2013/05/my-google-plus-circles.htmlShared with:#circleoftheday   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlesharingforthepeopleplc   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday   #sharedcircleday   #publiccirclesproject   #publiccircles   #publicsharedcircles   #sharedpublicircles   #circle   #circles   #circlemeup   #awesomepeople   #awesomecircle   #circleme   #sharedpoint   #sharewithyou     #ShareYourCircle   #ayjayscircles  2013-07-31 00:24:53398958
Kay Bo2,114This is my "Artecjo-Circle" These people keep me updated in regards to Ar t, tec hnics and jo kes.I included myself, even though I am not funny at all. #circleshare   #circleshit   #circle   #circlecirclecircle   #sharedcircles   2013-07-09 22:32:47228104
AyJay Schibig20,831ECLECTIC CIRCLE 7.1.13Feel free to add  and re-share. this  Eclectic Circle of  Active G Plussers!  All have posted in the past 60 days.Also see  my other curated Circles at http://ayjay.blogspot.com/2013/05/my-google-plus-circles.htmlShared with:#circleoftheday   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlesharingforthepeopleplc   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday   #sharedcircleday   #publiccirclesproject   #publiccircles   #publicsharedcircles   #sharedpublicircles   #circle   #circles   #circlemeup   #awesomepeople   #awesomecircle   #circleme   #sharedpoint   #sharewithyou     #ShareYourCircle   #ayjayscircles  2013-07-01 23:57:1535281112
AyJay Schibig19,119ECLECTIC CIRCLE 6.5.13Feel free to add  and re-share. this  Eclectic Circle of  Active G Plussers! Also see  my other curated Circles at http://ayjay.blogspot.com/2013/05/my-google-plus-circles.htmlShared with:#circleoftheday   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlesharingforthepeopleplc   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday   #sharedcircleday   #publiccirclesproject   #publiccircles   #publicsharedcircles   #sharedpublicircles   #circle   #circles   #circlemeup   #awesomepeople   #awesomecircle   #circleme   #sharedpoint   #sharewithyou     #ShareYourCircle2013-06-05 23:40:26354518
AyJay Schibig18,094ECLECTIC CIRCLEFeel free to add  and re-share. this  Eclectic Circle of  Active G Plussers! Also see  my other curated Circles at http://ayjay.blogspot.com/2013/05/my-google-plus-circles.htmlShared with:#circleoftheday   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlesharingforthepeopleplc   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday   #sharedcircleday   #publiccirclesproject   #publiccircles   #publicsharedcircles   #sharedpublicircles   #circle   #circles   #circlemeup   #awesomepeople   #awesomecircle   #circleme   #sharedpoint   #sharewithyou     #ShareYourCircle2013-05-12 07:44:11334305
AyJay Schibig16,440ECLECTIC CIRCLEFeel free to add  and re-share. this  Eclectic Circle of  G Plussers! Circles I am curating:21ST CENTURY PHOTOGRAPHERS (1&2), ALL KINDS, DISCOVERY, FULL CIRCLE,SOCIAL, ECLECTIC,ENGAGERS, AWESOME, NEW HORIZONS and BOOST#circleoftheday   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlesharingforthepeopleplc   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday   #sharedcircleday   #publiccirclesproject   #publiccircles   #publicsharedcircles  #sharedpublicircles   #circle   #circles   #circlemeup  #awesomepeople   #awesomecircle   #circleme   #sharedpoint   #sharewithyou     #ShareYourCircle2013-04-13 06:43:023024213
La Bottega di Mangiar Tipico0This is a circle of Cool People that would like to be circulated in order to discover new people with similar interests and to gain more followers.If you would like to be included in the next circle please follow these steps: 1. Follow me (this is needed in order for me to add you to the circle) 2. +1 This post 3. Leave a comment 4. Share the circle publicly...#sharedcircle #publiccircles #topcommenters #circlesharing #followfriday #circleshare #circleoftheday #circleshared #followback #circleback #circlebackteam #circlebackfriday #teamcircleback #rrcircle #rrsharedcircle #circlesharing   #circleshare   #circles   #circleoftheday   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircles   #share   #sharedcircleoftheday   #sharewithyou   #circlefriday   #circlethursday   #followfriday   #follow   #followme   #followers   #followback  #coolpeople #circleshare #sharedcircles 2013-04-05 20:29:3546571620
AyJay Schibig15,217ECLECTIC CIRCLEFeel free to add  and re-share. this  Eclectic Circle of  G Plussers! Circles I am curating:21ST CENTURY PHOTOGRAPHERS (1&2), ALL KINDS, DISCOVERY, FULL CIRCLE,SOCIAL, ECLECTIC,ENGAGERS, AWESOME, NEW HORIZONS and BOOST#circleoftheday   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlesharingforthepeopleplc   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday   #sharedcircleday   #publiccirclesproject   #publiccircles   #publicsharedcircles  #sharedpublicircles   #circle   #circles   #circlemeup  #awesomepeople   #awesomecircle   #circleme   #sharedpoint   #sharewithyou     #ShareYourCircle2013-03-02 11:23:44245206
Chris Row2,960Here is a shared Circle for all you new G+ers , Some engaging people who love to post and follow back. give it a shot, also do not forget to +1 me and repost this to your timeline. have a good hump day.   #sharedcircles   #circleshare   #circleoftheday   #circles  2013-02-27 16:23:0345571010
Kay Bo1,872This is a public circle of people/pages that is designed to circulate in order to discover new People and Google+ Pages. Please consider adding it. Also, you might even want to get included in the next update to this circle. If so, then simply follow these steps below.1. Add2. Re-Share This Post Publicly. (Press Share Button Next To +1 Button)3, [[New Comers / Option]] Comment on +Post, "Add Me Please".4. [[Option]] Press +1 Button and Comment. (For Improving "Relevance")#circleshare  Have fun!2013-02-05 17:10:10148223
Rob Salzman18,074This circle is the second of four containing people who've commented on content I share.  They make my stream come alive with compelling, interesting discussions.  If you want your stream to be active, you won't do better then including them.   Fair warning:  Some of these people are willing to take a stand that may be different then those I'd take.  :)2013-02-01 18:23:30500537
AyJay Schibig13,588ECLECTIC CIRCLEFeel free to add  and re-share. this  Eclectic Circle of  G Plussers! #circleoftheday   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlesharingforthepeopleplc   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday   #sharedcircleday   #publiccirclesproject   #publiccircles   #publicsharedcircles  #sharedpublicircles   #circle   #circles   #circlemeup  #awesomepeople   #awesomecircle   #circleme   #sharedpoint   #sharewithyou 2013-01-10 07:15:50257003
Chris Row2,274Here is a cool Circle I have not Shared a circle recently so here you go. pass it on, share it, add, 2013-01-09 20:23:064828410
AyJay Schibig12,717ECLECTIC CIRCLEFeel free to add  and re-share. this  Eclectic Circle of  G Plussers! #circleoftheday   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlesharingforthepeopleplc   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday   #sharedcircleday   #publiccirclesproject   #publiccircles   #publicsharedcircles  #sharedpublicircles   #circle   #circles   #circlemeup  #awesomepeople   #awesomecircle   #circleme   #sharedpoint   #sharewithyou 2012-12-21 06:26:433277010
Daniel Harrington26,898SuperCircle - Engaging and Interactive - Thanks for sharing! #sharedcircles   #circlesharing   #publiccircles   #circleoftheday  2012-12-20 14:58:02478547
matt vovakiss0Appreciation Circle!My collection of #active G+ #users . To be a part of this #circle you need to plus 1, comment, or #share one of my posts. You want to be in the next one? Plus1, one of my posts and keep me in a circle. My #best #friends on G+, I #thankyou . #circleshare #circlesharing #circles #circleoftheday #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #sharepubliccircle #top #topcircles   #bestsharedcircle #maximpact #activeusers  2012-12-18 16:13:19368323241
matt vovakiss6,543Maximum SHARE! #1I pulled 499 #random #people from my #circles . All #awesome people, they have to be... I have them #circled , :D Please Add and #reshare . #circleshare #circlesharing #circles #circleoftheday #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #sharepubliccircle #maximpact  2012-12-15 18:52:13500192928
AyJay Schibig12,080ECLECTIC CIRCLEFeel free to add  and re-share. this  Eclectic Circle of  G Plussers! #circleoftheday   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlesharingforthepeopleplc   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday   #sharedcircleday   #publiccirclesproject   #publiccircles   #publicsharedcircles  #sharedpublicircles   #circle   #circles   #circlemeup  #awesomepeople   #awesomecircle   #circleme   #sharedpoint   #sharewithyou 2012-12-12 04:23:1442210216
Zbynek Kysela1,918BEST SHARED CIRCLE - Share, share, share!===================================HOW TO BE PART OF IT: 1) Add this circle to your circles -> Add circle2) Share added circle with option "include yourself in shared circle". Done. You're welcome :) ZbynekMy entire social presence:*****************************http://xeeme.com/bouchac*****************************2012-12-07 20:33:1441920625
matt vovakiss0#experimental #appreciation #circle About 230 people got in this circle as I used to do it; by #plus 1'ing, #commenting , or #interacting with me. I topped the circle off with 70 of the #most #relevant #googleplus #users from my circle #page . #All these #people are worth #following , #great #friends with #interesting #posts . I #hope #you can #enjoy this #circleshare and the #people in it as #much as I do. #love   #peace and #happiness .2012-12-04 20:58:06300172629
Kurt Smith14,400Thought Provokers Circle Share - Who's Made You Think Lately?Who's Made You Think Lately? Are they in this circle? For me, +Dede Craig King had me really going last Monday, +Lacerant Plainer always gets me thinking, and just a few days ago it was +Randy Hilarski.Here's latest round of the Thought Provokers Circle. This is an #awesomesauce  circle of great plussers who will make you think (we're all trying anyway). The cool thing about this circle is that you had to be recommended by someone else to get in.Add & Reshare so others can discover these awesome people to follow. Current members please update your circle. If you'd like to join in, please suggest 3-5 people and tell why they make you think. #circleshare   #circles   #circlesharing   #circleoftheday   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday   #sharepubliccircle   #publiccircle   #publicsharedcircles  2012-12-04 15:53:26287653061
Chris Row1,438its that time again. here is a Circle of Cool active people on G+ add it, share it, enjoy it.* If you are new to G+ than add this Circle to make your timeline more active.  #sharedcircles   #sharedcircle   #followers   #friends  2012-12-03 16:10:06454136
Brunner Nathan325Some people that comment and follow back.Don't forget to give a share and a plus one.#circleshare #sharedcircles #sharedcircle #sharedpubliccircles #circlesharing #publiccircle #circles2012-11-29 18:03:5327516419
Rob Salzman13,731This circle is two of three which contains the people who've engage with me.  They add so much to my google+ experience.   If you want to follow people who engage, who comment, plus, and share your posts - this group is for you!2012-11-09 19:41:49497367
Kurt Smith6,542Thought Provokers Circle Share -- Plussers Who 'Make You Go Hmm...'Next round of the Thought Provokers Circle. An amazing circle of great plussers who will make you think, well maybe. Here's some of the people and wisdom inside:"And a few of us that make you go "HUH???" from +Bearman Cartoons. " Ummmm.... I suddenly feel like I'm back in grade school again and the entire class is giving me the look... You're going to get your arse kicked at recess!!!! said +Frank Garufi Jr.. Check out and discover some new people - I've met +Dede Craig King, +Susanne Ramharter, +MommyLovesTech.Add & Reshare so others can discover these awesome people to follow. Current members please update your circle. If you'd like to join in, please suggest 3-5 people and why they make you think.#circles   #circle   #circleshare   #circleoftheday   #circlesharing   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday   #publiccircles   #publicsharedcircles  +Full Circle +Circles +CIRCLES on Google+ 2012-10-31 14:11:37275922881
Kurt Smith4,603Thought Provokers Circle -- Plussers Who 'Make You Go Hmm...'Round 2 of the Thought Provokers Circle. An amazing circle of great plussers who will make you think! New additions include +Thomas Power, +Bobbi Jo Woods and dozens of others.Add & Reshare so others can discover these awesome people to follow. If you'd like to join in, please suggest 3-5 people and why they make you think.#circles   #circle   #circleshare   #circleoftheday   #circlesharing   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday   #publiccircles   #publicsharedcircles   +Full Circle +Circles +CIRCLES on Google+ 2012-10-17 13:52:172561193675
matt vovakiss6,397#AWESOME people dude. :p2012-08-20 04:19:13191803
Shaun Whelden5,005My Top 10% of FollowersI just reached 5000 followers today!  Every time I hit a thousand marker, I celebrate by sharing a circle of my top 1% of followers.  Since 5000 is such a significant marker, I've decided to share not just one.... but three circles!  I will be sharing my top 10% of followers, my top 1% of followers and my top 0.1% of followers.To minimize butthurtedness, and maximize time efficiency, I am letting Google+ choose these circles for me.  My procedure is this:On a computer (because you can't manage circles on a mobile device), I go to Circles.  Then I click the "Have you in circles" button towards the top.  I sort the results by relevance.  Then I go through and remove a handful of people that are personal friends of mine who joined G+ a long time ago and never bothered to log in again.Something weird that I noticed:  the people towards the top of the list after I sorted it by relevance did not change from one sort to the next.  But people lower down on the list changed dramatically from one second to the next.  Very strange.  Also, for some weird reason, a brand page +Famous Footwear that I just added yesterday, and which just added me back today, is in my top 500.  One of my best friends, +Leonard Harris, did not make the top 500 list even though we regularly interact on each others' posts.  So the algorithm that Google uses to determine relevance is somewhat perplexing.  I mean, a lot of the people on this list clearly belong here..... but some are a total mystery.  And some people who should have made the list did not.Lastly, please note that my Top 500 Followers is a different list from my To 500 People I'm Following.  Think about it.  The lists are similar, but not identical.  This list is my Top 500 Followers as of today (8/14/2012) #sharedcircles   #circleshare   #circles  #circle2012-08-15 00:01:3650113210
John Doe1,398Infinite Circle... it is forever growing and full of #awesome  people2012-06-15 17:22:25500437
Angela Estrada5,066I reached over 5000 followers last night ....So its time for a circle share. ;)My Top 500I follow only 578 people...so if you were left out..I don't know who you are and you may be removed soon.  I did leave out a couple of my favorites..because I feel they would of not of wanted to be shared. ;)ENJOY2012-06-14 13:11:2750118717
James S. Robbins3,707A circle of other shared circles of people who get shared in circles2012-02-21 21:23:56446806

Activity

Average numbers for the latest posts (max. 50 posts, posted within the last 4 weeks)

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Top posts in the last 50 posts

Most comments: 16

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2014-11-25 18:37:51 (16 comments, 0 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

Certainly this case deserves a public Jury Trial.

#ferguson   #handsupdontshoot   #missouri   #justice  

Most reshares: 9

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2014-11-24 22:18:21 (0 comments, 9 reshares, 28 +1s)Open 

Most plusones: 28

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2014-11-24 22:18:21 (0 comments, 9 reshares, 28 +1s)Open 

Latest 50 posts

2014-11-26 02:39:08 (1 comments, 0 reshares, 2 +1s)Open 

...police cars were seen driving past some of the stores being looted and did not respond. ...

Two store owners, standing outside their business holding guns, told Fox2Now.com that when they called 911, they were sent from one police agency to another, and got no response.

One of the owners, with a large black gun resting on his shoulder, told the station that police were lined up blocks from the looting, and did not engage looters making off with large boxes from these stores.

"There's no police," he said. "We trusted the police to keep it peaceful; they didn't do their job."

...police cars were seen driving past some of the stores being looted and did not respond. ...

Two store owners, standing outside their business holding guns, told Fox2Now.com that when they called 911, they were sent from one police agency to another, and got no response.

One of the owners, with a large black gun resting on his shoulder, told the station that police were lined up blocks from the looting, and did not engage looters making off with large boxes from these stores.

"There's no police," he said. "We trusted the police to keep it peaceful; they didn't do their job."___

2014-11-25 23:42:50 (4 comments, 0 reshares, 6 +1s)Open 

Ferguson PD + State Police + National Guard + 6 month to prepare
And nobody thought to deploy some cops to stop looters?  
Stopping protests was so much more important?

Ferguson PD + State Police + National Guard + 6 month to prepare
And nobody thought to deploy some cops to stop looters?  
Stopping protests was so much more important?___

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2014-11-25 18:40:52 (4 comments, 0 reshares, 12 +1s)Open 

#Ferguson ...

#Ferguson ...___

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2014-11-25 18:37:51 (16 comments, 0 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

I had not seen this photo before.

Certainly this case deserves a public Jury Trial.

#ferguson   #handsupdontshoot   #missouri   #justice  ___I had not seen this photo before.

2014-11-25 17:56:09 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 1 +1s)Open 

Thanksgiving was created by government decree.
Black Friday was created by the free market.

If you don't want to obey government decree, then consider celebrating the Feast of Black Friday Eve instead.  

Thanksgiving was created by government decree.
Black Friday was created by the free market.

If you don't want to obey government decree, then consider celebrating the Feast of Black Friday Eve instead.  ___

2014-11-25 16:35:47 (2 comments, 0 reshares, 2 +1s)Open 

Prosecutorial Discretion:  help me out here 
If cops are not obliged to arrest all law breakers, and prosecutors are not obliged to charge and try all law breakers (in fact they have never had resources for all law breakers) then they are always deciding who gets prosecuted and who does not.  How is this morally different from Obama deciding to enforce some laws and not others? 

Yes I realize that that there is a technical difference in that the law breaker knows in advance that he will not be prosecuted, but how is that any different than a speeder knowing that he will not be ticketed for going 2mph over the speed limit?  Or a well connected person knowing that he will just get a warning for minor offenses?  Are people really getting bent over such a minor change in how the law is enforced?

Prosecutorial Discretion:  help me out here 
If cops are not obliged to arrest all law breakers, and prosecutors are not obliged to charge and try all law breakers (in fact they have never had resources for all law breakers) then they are always deciding who gets prosecuted and who does not.  How is this morally different from Obama deciding to enforce some laws and not others? 

Yes I realize that that there is a technical difference in that the law breaker knows in advance that he will not be prosecuted, but how is that any different than a speeder knowing that he will not be ticketed for going 2mph over the speed limit?  Or a well connected person knowing that he will just get a warning for minor offenses?  Are people really getting bent over such a minor change in how the law is enforced?___

2014-11-25 07:27:09 (1 comments, 0 reshares, 1 +1s)Open 

Obamacare was supposed to reduce medical costs, but the government requires special permits before doctors or hospitals are allowed to compete with each other.  

Obamacare was supposed to reduce medical costs, but the government requires special permits before doctors or hospitals are allowed to compete with each other.  ___

2014-11-25 06:54:28 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

Why can't the people of Ferguson be more like the rest of America?  If somebody flew a plane into an American building you wouldn't see us blowing things up and killing people.  

Why can't the people of Ferguson be more like the rest of America?  If somebody flew a plane into an American building you wouldn't see us blowing things up and killing people.  ___

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2014-11-25 06:24:56 (10 comments, 2 reshares, 6 +1s)Open 

#Ferguson ...

#Ferguson ...___

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2014-11-25 05:19:50 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 6 +1s)Open 

#quoteoftheday   #lysanderspooner  

#quoteoftheday   #lysanderspooner  ___

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2014-11-25 05:03:21 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

One sometimes forgets just how many people Portland PD has shot.

One sometimes forgets just how many people Portland PD has shot.___

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2014-11-25 02:46:08 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

Sometimes it's good to hear the perspectives of those who have not had all the advantages that I have had.  

Trigger warning, indeed :)  Dude got threatened with dismissal from his other writing job for this.___Sometimes it's good to hear the perspectives of those who have not had all the advantages that I have had.  

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2014-11-25 02:13:36 (2 comments, 0 reshares, 20 +1s)Open 

...

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2014-11-24 22:18:21 (0 comments, 9 reshares, 28 +1s)Open 

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2014-11-24 20:39:29 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 6 +1s)Open 

Little pussies grow up into big pussies, and no one likes those. 

Little pussies grow up into big pussies, and no one likes those. ___

2014-11-23 19:02:53 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 5 +1s)Open 

There's nothing new in government taking children away from their parents.  They have been doing it for decades.  

There's nothing new in government taking children away from their parents.  They have been doing it for decades.  ___

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2014-11-22 23:57:30 (6 comments, 0 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

If regular people were allowed to carry guns, just imagine how often they would be accidentally shooting each other.  

If regular people were allowed to carry guns, just imagine how often they would be accidentally shooting each other.  ___

2014-11-22 06:12:53 (4 comments, 0 reshares, 2 +1s)Open 

A law against X is not intended to prevent or reduce X (see Drug War). If so, then anyone observed doing X would be arrested, charged, tried and imprisoned. The fact that the well connected are let go just shows that it was just intended as a tool for threatening the malcontents. Public whipping of uppity slaves is no longer acceptable, but caging those who refuse to do as they are told is acceptable in the modern world.  

A law against X is not intended to prevent or reduce X (see Drug War). If so, then anyone observed doing X would be arrested, charged, tried and imprisoned. The fact that the well connected are let go just shows that it was just intended as a tool for threatening the malcontents. Public whipping of uppity slaves is no longer acceptable, but caging those who refuse to do as they are told is acceptable in the modern world.  ___

2014-11-22 02:42:25 (1 comments, 0 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

Think, for a moment, about lignin itself.

It's this complex structural biopolymer made by trees. It's what makes trees woody. And it's totally, transcendently worthless to everything else on earth. There's a tremendous amount of stored energy there -- this being why wood burns -- and nothing can get at it. Millennium after millennium, the accumulation of woody debris starves the atmosphere of carbon dioxide and poisons all of the earth's fresh water. Insofar as anything living has the capacity to suffer, everything is.
 
Eventually, bracket fungus figures out a way to break down lignin. In a matter of a few hundred thousand years, the quantity of atmospheric carbon dioxide triples, and the amount of atmospheric oxygen plummets. The giant insects that dominate the Earth begin to die. Temperatures rise. The oceans acidify. Almost everything dies.

Go back... more »

Think, for a moment, about lignin itself.

It's this complex structural biopolymer made by trees. It's what makes trees woody. And it's totally, transcendently worthless to everything else on earth. There's a tremendous amount of stored energy there -- this being why wood burns -- and nothing can get at it. Millennium after millennium, the accumulation of woody debris starves the atmosphere of carbon dioxide and poisons all of the earth's fresh water. Insofar as anything living has the capacity to suffer, everything is.
 
Eventually, bracket fungus figures out a way to break down lignin. In a matter of a few hundred thousand years, the quantity of atmospheric carbon dioxide triples, and the amount of atmospheric oxygen plummets. The giant insects that dominate the Earth begin to die. Temperatures rise. The oceans acidify. Almost everything dies.

Go back further, and disruptive species become increasingly catastrophic. For instance, when cyanobacteria discovered photosynthesis and produced oxygen as a byproduct, nothing respirated. These huge mats of bacteria were producing a waste product more toxic than chlorine gas. And it destroyed almost all life on earth, down to the microbiome, not that there was anything other than a microbiome. The ground corroded, crumbled, washed into the sea.

And then life, by chance, stumbled on a way to use this horrifyingly toxic gas to ride a more efficient biochemical gradient. And that's all there is to it.

In expending all of the Earth's stored carbon, we're acting just like bracket fungus, or cyanobacteria, or the first cycads. We've found a clever chemical trick and are riding the entropic gradient as long as we can, because, at worst, it temporarily relieves suffering, and at best, it gives us more degrees of freedom to someday not act just like bracket fungus.

This is a low bar -- to not be literally as dumb as a mushroom. But the biological incentives of disruptive species, us included, make environmental catastrophe difficult to avert. The dimensions in which disruptive biology is unsustainable will eventually place a burden on biodiversity system-wide.___

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2014-11-22 01:18:42 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 0 +1s)Open 

Against Method
Paul Feyeraband

Introduction to the Chinese Edition

Concrete developments (such as the overthrow of steady state cosmology and the discovery of the structure of DNA) have distinct features and we can often explain why and how these features led to success. But not every discovery can be accounted for in the same manner, and procedures that paid off in the past may create havoc when imposed on the future. Successful research does not obey general standards; it relies now on one trick, now on another; the moves that advance it and the standards that define what counts as an advance are not always known to the movers.

[...]

The success of 'science' cannot be used as an argument for treating as yet unsolved problems in a standardized way.

Preface to the Third Edition

Philosophers, philosophers of biology... more »

Against Method
Paul Feyeraband

Introduction to the Chinese Edition

Concrete developments (such as the overthrow of steady state cosmology and the discovery of the structure of DNA) have distinct features and we can often explain why and how these features led to success. But not every discovery can be accounted for in the same manner, and procedures that paid off in the past may create havoc when imposed on the future. Successful research does not obey general standards; it relies now on one trick, now on another; the moves that advance it and the standards that define what counts as an advance are not always known to the movers.

[...]

The success of 'science' cannot be used as an argument for treating as yet unsolved problems in a standardized way.

Preface to the Third Edition

Philosophers, philosophers of biology especially, suspected for some time that there is not one entity 'science' with clearly defined principles but that science contains a great variety of (high-level theoretical, phenomenological, experimental) approaches and that even a particular science such as physics is but a scattered collection of subjects (elasticity, hydrodynamics, rheology, thermodynamics, etc., etc.) each one containing contrary tendencies.

Introduction

Science is an essentially anarchic enterprise: theoretical anarchism is more humanitarian and more likely to encourage progress than its law-and-order alternatives.

1

Science is never a completed process, therefore it is always 'before' the event. Hence simplicity, elegance or consistency are never necessary conditions of (scientific) practice.

[...]

Now if there are events, not necessarily arguments, which cause us to adopt new standards, including new and more complex forms of argumentation, is it then not up to the defenders of the status quo to provide, not just counter-arguments, but also contrary causes? ('Virtue without terror is ineffective,' says Robespierre.) And if the old forms of argumentation turn out to be too weak a cause, must not these defenders either give up or resort to stronger and more 'irrational' means? [...] Even the most puritanical rationalist will then be forced to stop reasoning and to use propaganda and coercion, no because some of his reasons have ceased to be valid, but because the psychological conditions which make them effective, and capable of influencing others, have disappeared.

2

Evidence that might refute a theory can often be unearthed only with the help of an incompatible alternative: the advice [...] to use alternatives only when refutations have already discredited the orthodox theory puts the cart before the horse.

[...]

There is not a single interesting theory that agrees with all the known facts in its domain. The question is, therefore, not whether counterinductive theories should be admitted into science; the question is, rather, whether the existing discrepancies between theory and fact should be increased, or diminished, or what else should be done with them.

[...]

We need a dream-world in order to discover the features of the real world we think we inhabit.

3

The consistency condition which demands that new hypotheses agree with accepted theories is unreasonable because it preserves the older theory, and not the better theory.

[...]

It is worthwhile repeating the reasonable core of this argument. Theories should not be changed unless there are pressing reasons for doing so. [...] And so it is — provided facts exist, and are available independently of whether or not one considers alternatives to the theory to be tested.

[...]

The invention and articulation of alternatives may have to precede the production of refuting facts.

[...]

[Quoting Mill:] "[Debates and reasoning are features] belonging to periods of transition, when old notions and feelings have been unsettled and no new doctrines have yet succeeded to their ascendancy. [...] But this state of things is necessarily transitory: some particular body of doctrine in time rallies the majority round it, organizes social institutions and modes of action conformably to itself, education impresses this new creed upon the new generation without the mental processes that have led to it and by degrees it acquires the very same power of compression, so long exercised by the creeds of which it had taken the place."

5

Newton's theory of gravitation was beset, from the very beginning, by difficulties serious enough to provide material for refutation.

[...]

Barrow mentions the qualitative difficulties, adding that he will not abandon the theory. This is not the usual procedure. The usual procedure is to forget the difficulties, never to talk about them, and to proceed as if the theory were without fault.

[...]

The problem reappears in the quantum theory, though it is here partially covered up by 'renormalization.' This procedure consists in crossing out the results of certain calculations and replacing them by a description of what is actually observed. Thus one admits, implicitly, that the theory is in trouble while formulating it in a manner suggesting that a new principle has been discovered.

[...]

Ad hoc approximations abound in modern mathematical physics. [...] We are not concerned with the reasons for this fact, we are only concerned with its consequences: ad hoc approximations conceal, and even eliminate, qualitative difficulties. They create a false impression of the excellence of our science.

6

[Quoting Kant:] "But where common sense believes that rationalizing sophists have the intention of shaking the very fundament of the commonweal, then it would seem to be not only reasonable, but permissible, and even praiseworthy to aid the good cause with sham reasons rather than leaving the advantage to the ... opponent. [...] However, I would think that there is nothing that goes less well together with the intention of asserting a good cause than subterfuge, conceit and deception. If one could take only this much for granted, then the battle of speculative reason ... would have been concluded long ago, or would soon come to an end. Thus the purity of a cause often stands in the inverse proportion to its truth..."

[...]

Theories are tested, and possibly refuted, by facts. Facts contain ideological components, older views which have vanished from sight or were perhaps never formulated in an explicit manner. Such components are highly suspicious. First, because of their age and obscure origin: we do not know why and how they were introduced; secondly, because their very nature protects them, and always has protected them, from critical examination.

8

Galileo's circular law is not the right dynamics. It fits neither the epicycles which still occur in Copernicus, nor Kepler's ellipses. In fact, it is refuted by both. Still, Galileo regards it as an essential ingredient of the Copernican point of view and tries to remove bodies, such as comets, whose motion quite obviously is not circular, from interplanetary space.

[...]

The so-called scientific revolution led to astounding discoveries and considerably extended our knowledge of physics, physiology, and astronomy. This was achieved by pushing aside and regarding as irrelevant, and often as non-existent, those facts which had supported the older philosophy. Thus the evidence for witchcraft, demonic possession, the existence of the devil, etc., was disregarded together with the 'superstitions' it once confirmed.

[...]

[Quoting Galileo:] "With reason as his guide he [Copernicus] resolutely continued to affirm what sensible experience seemed to contradict. [...] I cannot get over my amazement ... that he was constantly willing to persist in saying that Venus might go around the sun and might be more than six times as far from us at one time as at another, and still look always equal, when it should have appeared forty times larger."

[...]

Kepler, the most knowledgeable and most lovable of Galileo's contemporaries, gives a clear account of the reasons why, despite his superior knowledge of optical matters, he 'refrained from attempting to construct the device'. 'You, however,' he addresses Galileo, 'deserve my praise. Putting aside all misgivings you turned directly to visual experimentation'. It remains to add that Galileo, due to his lack of knowledge in optics, had not 'misgivings' to overcome: 'Galileo... was totally ignorant of the science of optics, and it is not too bold to assume that this was a most happy accident both for him and for humanity at large.' [Ronchi]

9

On 24 and 25 April 1610, Galileo had taken his telescope to the house of his opponent, Magini, in Bologna to demonstrate it to twenty-four professors of all faculties. [...] Magini wrote to Kepler on 26 May: 'He has achieved nothing, for more than twenty learned men were present; yet nobody has seen the new planets distinctly ['nemo perfect vidit']; he will hardly be able to keep them.' A few months later (in a letter signed by Ruffini) he repeats: 'Only some with sharp vision were convinced to some extent.'

11

Almost everyone takes it for granted that precise observations, clear principles and well-confirmed theories are already decisive; that they can and must be used here and now to either eliminate the suggested hypothesis, or to make it acceptable, or perhaps even to prove it.

Such a procedure makes sense only if we can assume that the elements of our knowledge — the theories, the observations, the principles of our arguments — are timeless entities which share the same degree of perfection, are all equally accessible, and are related to each other in a way that is independent of the events that produced them.

[...]

Bacon repeatedly comments on the 'dullness, incompetency and errors of the senses' and permits them only to 'judge... the experiment' while it is the experiment that functions as a judge 'of nature and the thing itself'. Thus when Bacon speaks of the 'unprejudiced senses' he does not mean sense-data, or immediate impressions, but reactions of a sense organ that has been rebuilt in order to mirror nature in the right way.

[...]

It is clear that allegiance to the new ideas will have to be brought about by means other than arguments. It will have to be brought about by irrational means such as propaganda, emotion, ad hoc hypotheses, and appeal to prejudices of all kinds. We need these 'irrational means' in order to uphold what is nothing but a blind faith until we have found the auxiliary science, the facts, the arguments that turn the faith into sound 'knowledge'.

12

Concepts have not only a logical content; they also have associations, they give rise to emotions, they are connected with images.

13

A modern scientist really has no choice in this matter. He cannot cling to his own very strict standards and at the same time praise Galileo for defending Copernicus. He must either agree with the first part of the judgement of the Church experts, or admit that standards, facts and laws never decide a case and that an unfounded, opaque and incoherent doctrine can be presented as a fundamental truth. [...] The situation becomes even more complex when we consider that the Copernicans changed not only views, but also standards for judging views.

[...]

Heresy, defined in a wide sense, meant a deviation from actions, attitudes and ideas that guarantee a well-rounded and sanctified life. Such a deviation might be, and occasionally was, encouraged by scientific research. [...] Scientific results and the scientific ethos (if there is such a thing) are simply too thin a foundation for a life worth living.

[...]

[The Church] did not say: what contradicts the Bible as interpreted by us must go, no matter how strong the scientific reasons in its favour. A truth supported by scientific reasoning was not pushed aside. It was used to revise the interpretation of Bible passages apparently inconsistent with it.

[...]

[Quoting Cardinal Roberto Bellarmino:] "If there were a true demonstration that the sun is at the center of the world and the earth in the third heaven, and that the sun does not circle the earth but the earth circles the sun, then one would have to proceed with great care in explaining the Scriptures that appear contrary, and say rather that we do not understand them than that what is demonstrated is false. But I will not believe that there is such a demonstration, until it is shown me."

15

A distinction which once may have had a point but which has now definitely lost it is the distinction between observational terms and theoretical terms. It is now generally admitted that this distinction is not as sharp as it was thought to be only a few decades ago. It is also admitted, in complete agreement with Neurath's original views, that both theories and observations can be abandoned: theories may be removed because of conflicting observations, observations may be removed for theoretical reasons. Finally, we have discovered that learning does not go from observation to theory but always involves both elements.

[...]

[For Popper,] the content of a theory consists in the sum total of those basic statements which contradict it; it is the class of its potential falsifiers.

[...]

The demand that the truth-content of the earlier theory as conceived while the earlier theory reigned supreme be included in the truth content of the successor is violated in either case.

[...]

There is not a single rule that remains valid under all circumstances and not a single agency to which appeal can always be made.

Appendix 1

I grant that business, religions, special professions such as science or prostitution, have a right to demand that their participants and/or practitioners conform to standards they regard as important, and that they should be able to ascertain their competence. I also admit that this implies the need for special types of education that prepare a man or woman for the corresponding 'examinations.' The standards taught need not be 'rational' or 'reasonable' in any sense, though they will usually be presented as such; it suffices that they are accepted by the groups one wants to join, be it now Science, or Big Business, or The One True Religion.

[...]

General education should prepare citizens to choose between the standards, or find their way in a society that contains groups committed to various standards, but it must under no condition bend their minds so that they conform to the standards of one particular group. The standards will be considered, they will be discussed, children will be encouraged to get proficiency in the more important subjects, but only as one gets proficiency in a game, that is, without serious commitment and without robbing the mind of its ability to play other games as well.

16

We want to discover the structure of the field of discourse, of which the records give an incomplete account. We want to learn about it without changing it in any way. In our example we are not interested in whether a perfected quantum mechanics of the future employs AB v AB ≡ A or whether an invention of our own, whether a little bit of 'reconstruction' which changes the theory so that it conforms to some preconceived principles of modern logic and readily provides the answer employs the principle. We want to know whether quantum theory as actually practised by physicists employs the principle. For it is the work of the physicists and not the work of the reconstructionists we want to examine. And this work may well be full of contradictions and lacunae. Its 'logic' (in the sense in which I am now using the term) may well be 'illogical' when judged from the point of view of a particular system of formal logic.

Putting the question in this way we realize that it may not admit of any answer. There may not exist a single theory, one 'quantum theory,' that is used in the same way by all physicists. The difference between Bohr, Dirac, Feynman and von Neumann suggests that this is more than a distant possibility. To test the possibility, i.e. to either eliminate it or to give it shape, we must examine concrete cases. Such an examination of concrete cases may then lead to the result that quantum theoreticians differ from each other as widely as do Catholics and the various types of Protestants: they may use the same texts (though even that is doubtful — just compare Dirac with von Neumann), but they sure are doing different things with them.

[...]

[For the logician,] science is axiomatics plus model theory plus correspondence rules plus observation language.

[...]

Fundamental conceptual change, on the other hand, presupposes new world-views and new languages capable of expressing them.

[...]

Arguments, theories, terms, points of view and debates can therefore be clarified in at least two different ways: (a) in the manner already described, which leads back to the familiar ideas and treats the new as a special case of things already understood, and (b) by incorporation into a language of the future, which means that one must learn to argue with unexplained terms and to use sentences for which no clear rules of usage are as yet available.

[...]

The inventor of a new world-view [...] must be able to talk nonsense until the amount of nonsense created by him and his friends is big enough to give sense to all its parts.

[...]

The True World is simple and coherent, and it can be described in a uniform way. So can every act by which its elements are comprehended: a few abstract notions replace the numerous concepts that were used in cosmology A [...] The conceptual totalitarianism that arises as a result of the slow arrival of world B has interesting consequences, not all of them desirable. Situations which made sense when tied to a particular type of cognition now become isolated, unreasonable, apparently inconsistent with other situation: we have a 'chaos of appearances'.

[...]

An archaic individual is an assemblage of limbs, connections, trunk, neck, head, (s)he is a puppet set in motion by outside forces such as enemies, social circumstances, feelings (which are described and perceived as objective agencies — see above): 'Man is an open target of a great many forces which impinge on him, and penetrate his very core'. He is an exchange station of material and spiritual, but not always objective, causes.

[...]

Suspending universal principles means suspending all facts and all concepts. Finally, let us call a discovery, or a statement, or an attitude incommensurable with the cosmos (the theory, the framework) if it suspends some of its universal principles.

[...]

Madness turns into sanity provided it is sufficiently rich and sufficiently regular to function as the basis of a new world-view. And when that happens, then we have a new problem: How can the old view be compared with the new view?

From what has been said it is obvious that we cannot compare the contents of A and B. A-facts and B-facts cannot be put side by side, not even in memory: presenting B-facts means suspending principles assumed in the construction of A-facts. All we can do is draw B-pictures of A-facts in B, or introduce B-statements of A-facts into B. We cannot use A-statements of A-facts in B.

[...]

Logicians who confine the term 'argument' to chains of reasoning involving stable and precise concepts and unambiguous terms are forced to call such connections 'irrational,' while their opponents can report the 'discovery' that science, that alleged stronghold of reason, often violates reason in a decisive way. Both are talking about chimaeras, not about science and culture as they really are. [...] Scientific concepts (and concepts, shapes, percepts, styles in general) are ambiguous in the sense that decisive events can affect their appearance, their perceived implications, and with them, the 'logic' they obey.

Appendix 2

[Feigl] pointed out that interpreting observations in terms of the theories they are observations of makes nonsense of crucial experiments; for how can an experiment decide between two theories when its interpretation already depends on these theories and when the theories themselves have no common elements, such as a common observation language?

17

Few individuals and groups are pragmatists in the sense just described and one can see why: it is very difficult to see one's own most cherished ideas in perspective, as parts of a changing and, perhaps, absurd tradition. Moreover, this inability not only exists, it is also encouraged as an attitude proper to those engaged in the study and the improvement of man, society, knowledge. Hardly any religion has ever presented itself just as something worth trying. The claim is much stronger: the religion is the truth, everything else is error and those who know it, understand it but still reject it are rotten to the core (or hopeless idiots).

[...]

The belief that some demands are 'objective' and tradition-independent — plays an important role in rationalism, which is a secularized form of the belief in the power of the word of God.

[...]

We say 'theories ought to be falsifiable and contradiction free' and not 'I want theories to be falsifiable and contradiction free' or 'scientists become very unhappy unless their theories are falsifiable and contradiction free'.

[...]

Continued insistence on the 'objectivity' of value judgments however would be as illiterate as continued insistence on the 'absolute' use of the pair 'up—down' after discovery of the spherical shape of the earth. And an argument such as 'it is one thing to utter a demand and quite a different thing to assert that a demand has been made — therefore a multiplicity of cultures does not mean relativism' has much in common with the argument that antipodes cannot exist because they would fall 'down'. Both cases rest of antediluvian concepts (and inadequate distinctions).

[...]

The wanderer uses the map to find his way but he also corrects it as he proceeds, removing old idealizations and introducing new ones. Using the map no matter what will soon get him into trouble. But it is better to have maps than to proceed without them.

[...]

What is called 'reason' and 'practice' are therefore two different types of practice.

[...]

Traditions are neither good nor bad, they simply are.

[...]

In [a guided exchange] some or all participants adopt a well-specified tradition and accept only those responses that correspond to its standards. A rational debate is a special case of a guided exchange. [...] An open exchange, on the other hand, is guided by a pragmatic philosophy. The tradition adopted by the parties is unspecified in the beginning and develops as the exchange proceeds.

[...]

The debates settling the structure of a free society are open debates not guided debates.

18

According to idealism it is rational (proper, in accordance with the will of the gods — or whatever other encouraging words are being used to befuddle the natives) to do certain things — come what may. It is rational (proper, etc.) to kill the enemies of the faith, to avoid ad hoc hypotheses, to despise the desires of the body, to remove inconsistencies, to support progressive research programmes and so on. [...] There is a version of idealism that seems to be somewhat more sophisticated but actually is not. Rationality (the law, etc.) is no longer said to be universal, but there are universally valid conditional statements asserting what is rational in what context and there are corresponding conditional rules. [...] I argue that all rules have their limits and that there is no comprehensive 'rationality', I do not argue that we should proceed without rules and standards. I also argue for a contextual account but again the contextual rules are not to replace the absolute rules, they are to supplement them. It is this relation and not any particular rule-content that characterizes the position I wish to defend.

19

[Quoting L. Prandtl's lectures, _Fundamentals of Hydro- and Aeromechanics:] "The great growth in technical achievements which began in the nineteenth century left scientific knowledge far behind. The multitudinous problems of practice could not be answered by the hydrodynamics of Euler; they could not even be discussed. This was chiefly because, starting from Euler's equations of motion the science had become more and more a purely academic analysis of the hypothetical frictionless 'ideal fluid.' This theoretical development is associated with the names of Helmholtz, Kelvin, Lamb and Rayleigh.

The analytical results obtained by means of this so called 'classical hydrodynamics' virtually do not agree at all with the practical phenomena. ... Therefore the engineers ... put their trust in a mass of empirical data collectively known as the 'science of hydraulics', a branch of knowledge which grew more and more unlike hydrodynamics."

[...]

In hydrodynamics 'physical commonsense' occasionally turned out to be less accurate than the results of rigorous proofs based on wildly unrealistic assumptions.

[...]

[Quoting C. Burbide:] "[Observations that clash with the Big Bang theory] are delayed at the refereeing stage as long as possible with the hope that the author will give up. If this does not occur and they are published the second line of defence is to ignore them. If they give rise to some comment, the best approach is to argue simply that they are hopeless wrong and then, if all else fails, an observer may be threatened with loss of telescope time until he changes his program."

[...]

[Quoting Merz:] "Though all the methods of reasoning with which we have so far become acquainted originated primarily through observation and the reflection over things natural, they have this in common that they — for the purpose of examination — remove their objects out of the position and surroundings which nature has assigned to them: that they abstract them. This process of abstraction is either literally a process of removal from one place to another, from the great work- and storehouse of nature herself to the small workroom, the laboratory of the experimenter; or — where such removal is not possible — the process is carried out merely in the realm of contemplation; one or two special properties are noted and described, whilst the number of collateral data are for the moment discarded."

[...]

What the general public seems to assume is that the achievements they read about in the educational pages of their newspapers and the threats they seem to perceive come from a single source and are produced by a uniform procedure. They know that biology is different from physics which is different from geology. But these disciplines, it is assumed, arise when 'the scientific way' is applied to different topics; the scientific way itself, however, remains the same. I have tried to argue that scientific practice is much more diverse.

[...]

A community will use science and scientists in a way that agrees with its values and aims and it will correct the scientific institutions in its midst to bring them closer to these aims.

[...]

The objection that citizens do not have the expertise to judge scientific matters overlooks that important problems often lie across the boundaries of various sciences so that scientists within these sciences don't have the needed expertise either. Moreover, doubtful cases always produce experts for the one side, experts for the other side, and experts in between. But the competence of the general public could be vastly improved by an education that exposes expert fallibility instead of acting as if it did not exist.___

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2014-11-21 18:59:03 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 6 +1s)Open 

Israel kills 13 journalists, ISIS kills 1. Where is the world's outrage? 

Both killings are wrong, but don't ignore Israel's genocide

#savegazachildren   #savegaza   #gaza   #palestine   #palestinian   #life   #freedom   #imprisonment   #israeloccupation   #humanity     #israel   #israelwarcrimes   #Israelapartheid     #apartheid #ethniccleansing   #murder   #journalist  

Israel kills 13 journalists, ISIS kills 1. Where is the world's outrage? 

Both killings are wrong, but don't ignore Israel's genocide

#savegazachildren   #savegaza   #gaza   #palestine   #palestinian   #life   #freedom   #imprisonment   #israeloccupation   #humanity     #israel   #israelwarcrimes   #Israelapartheid     #apartheid #ethniccleansing   #murder   #journalist  ___

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2014-11-21 18:35:02 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 6 +1s)Open 

___

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2014-11-21 04:24:40 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 7 +1s)Open 

___

2014-11-21 04:00:46 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 1 +1s)Open 

So the motte-and-bailey doctrine is when you make a bold, controversial statement. Then when somebody challenges you, you claim you were just making an obvious, uncontroversial statement, so you are clearly right and they are silly for challenging you. Then when the argument is over you go back to making the bold, controversial statement.
...
The motte and bailey doctrine sounds kind of stupid and hard-to-fall-for when you put it like that, but all fallacies sound that way when you’re thinking about them. More important, it draws its strength from people’s usual failure to debate specific propositions rather than vague clouds of ideas. If I’m debating “does quackery cure cancer?”, it might be easy to view that as a general case of the problem of “is quackery okay?” or “should quackery be illegal?”, and from there it’s easy to bring up the motte objection.

So the motte-and-bailey doctrine is when you make a bold, controversial statement. Then when somebody challenges you, you claim you were just making an obvious, uncontroversial statement, so you are clearly right and they are silly for challenging you. Then when the argument is over you go back to making the bold, controversial statement.
...
The motte and bailey doctrine sounds kind of stupid and hard-to-fall-for when you put it like that, but all fallacies sound that way when you’re thinking about them. More important, it draws its strength from people’s usual failure to debate specific propositions rather than vague clouds of ideas. If I’m debating “does quackery cure cancer?”, it might be easy to view that as a general case of the problem of “is quackery okay?” or “should quackery be illegal?”, and from there it’s easy to bring up the motte objection.___

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2014-11-21 03:17:53 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 2 +1s)Open 

First they shot all the dogs, and I did not speak out—
Because I did not have a dog.

First they shot all the dogs, and I did not speak out—
Because I did not have a dog.___

2014-11-19 22:52:41 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

“What’s wrong,” Frank countered, “with things being allowed to get worse?”

“What’s wrong,” Frank countered, “with things being allowed to get worse?”___

2014-11-19 20:59:52 (1 comments, 2 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

We will no longer serve as agents of the state in marriage. We will no longer sign government-provided marriage certificates. We will ask couples to seek civil marriage separately from their church-related vows and blessings. We will preside only at those weddings that seek to establish a Christian marriage in accord with the principles ­articulated and lived out from the beginning of the Church’s life. Please join us in this pledge to separate civil marriage from Christian marriage by adding your name.

We will no longer serve as agents of the state in marriage. We will no longer sign government-provided marriage certificates. We will ask couples to seek civil marriage separately from their church-related vows and blessings. We will preside only at those weddings that seek to establish a Christian marriage in accord with the principles ­articulated and lived out from the beginning of the Church’s life. Please join us in this pledge to separate civil marriage from Christian marriage by adding your name.___

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2014-11-19 18:02:59 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 16 +1s)Open 

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2014-11-19 05:59:25 (2 comments, 1 reshares, 5 +1s)Open 

Dear Republicans: I know many of you are absolutely butthurt over Jonathan Gruber coming out and admitting that ObamaCare was based on lies and that Americans are too stupid to know what is best for them. I bet you are really butthurt that your boy Romney used the same guy to help create and push through RomneyCare a few years back. So Romney was your alternative to Barack Obama in 2012? ObamaCare isn't going anywhere. Republicans... you built that. http://ift.tt/1uGWGKN

Dear Republicans: I know many of you are absolutely butthurt over Jonathan Gruber coming out and admitting that ObamaCare was based on lies and that Americans are too stupid to know what is best for them. I bet you are really butthurt that your boy Romney used the same guy to help create and push through RomneyCare a few years back. So Romney was your alternative to Barack Obama in 2012? ObamaCare isn't going anywhere. Republicans... you built that. http://ift.tt/1uGWGKN___

2014-11-19 05:39:49 (1 comments, 1 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

Because so many Americans who profess to be followers of Jesus insist on seeing Muslims — all Muslims — as irredeemable enemies, they pretend that is is permissible to lie about them. This would involve a much broader practice of “taqiyya” than that taught in the Muslim religion, and among those who embrace that practice, apparently, is Larry Pratt, head of Gun Owners of America (GOA).

Because so many Americans who profess to be followers of Jesus insist on seeing Muslims — all Muslims — as irredeemable enemies, they pretend that is is permissible to lie about them. This would involve a much broader practice of “taqiyya” than that taught in the Muslim religion, and among those who embrace that practice, apparently, is Larry Pratt, head of Gun Owners of America (GOA).___

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2014-11-19 05:09:36 (4 comments, 0 reshares, 6 +1s)Open 

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2014-11-19 03:08:28 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 6 +1s)Open 

according to the United Nations, every child has the right to an education that he or she cannot refuse!  Such Orwellian doublespeak—the child’s right to be forced to spend day after day, for years, in a place that may seem to the child like prison—exemplifies perfectly our world’s lack of respect for children.

according to the United Nations, every child has the right to an education that he or she cannot refuse!  Such Orwellian doublespeak—the child’s right to be forced to spend day after day, for years, in a place that may seem to the child like prison—exemplifies perfectly our world’s lack of respect for children.___

2014-11-19 02:45:22 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

Japan is a giant case study in Austrian economics.  It's like they set out to run a quarter-century test: "let's see if mispricing of credit and forced misallocation of capital is really the cause of recessions."  So it is amazing that no one seems to want to acknowledge the results of this experiment.  Paul Krugman appears weekly in the New York Times to frequently advocate for exactly this same economic plan.

Japan is a giant case study in Austrian economics.  It's like they set out to run a quarter-century test: "let's see if mispricing of credit and forced misallocation of capital is really the cause of recessions."  So it is amazing that no one seems to want to acknowledge the results of this experiment.  Paul Krugman appears weekly in the New York Times to frequently advocate for exactly this same economic plan.___

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2014-11-19 02:04:57 (1 comments, 0 reshares, 6 +1s)Open 

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2014-11-19 00:40:47 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 7 +1s)Open 

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2014-11-19 00:07:18 (1 comments, 1 reshares, 7 +1s)Open 

hahahahaha tricked into playing!

hahahahaha tricked into playing!___

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2014-11-18 23:41:51 (0 comments, 2 reshares, 7 +1s)Open 

...

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2014-11-18 23:26:00 (0 comments, 4 reshares, 10 +1s)Open 

13th Amendment:
Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
 
Lincoln didn't free the slaves.  He just said that only government could enslave people.  

13th Amendment:
Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
 
Lincoln didn't free the slaves.  He just said that only government could enslave people.  ___

2014-11-18 23:16:44 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

Are the Brits finally getting tired of being his jailers?

Are the Brits finally getting tired of being his jailers?___

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2014-11-18 17:01:01 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

It is an open secret, at least inside the Beltway, that this legislation is being considered as a favor to billionaire casino owner, Sheldon Adelson. Mr. Adelson, who is perhaps best known for using his enormous wealth to advance a pro-war foreign policy, is now using his political influence to turn his online competitors into criminals.

It is an open secret, at least inside the Beltway, that this legislation is being considered as a favor to billionaire casino owner, Sheldon Adelson. Mr. Adelson, who is perhaps best known for using his enormous wealth to advance a pro-war foreign policy, is now using his political influence to turn his online competitors into criminals.___

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2014-11-18 04:47:23 (2 comments, 5 reshares, 15 +1s)Open 

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2014-11-17 22:10:54 (0 comments, 2 reshares, 6 +1s)Open 

Thank you!

Thank you!___

2014-11-17 21:48:22 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 1 +1s)Open 

How are you celebrating Black Friday Eve? 
Our Pilgrim forefathers invited their Native American neighbors over and filled them up with turkey, stuffing, potatoes and green beans so they would be too drowsy to be in line when the stores opened on that first Black Friday. Things may have gotten a bit rough at times, but the deals were much better back then, and the lucky shopper could still hope to pick up Manhattan for a handful of glass beads.

How are you celebrating Black Friday Eve? 
Our Pilgrim forefathers invited their Native American neighbors over and filled them up with turkey, stuffing, potatoes and green beans so they would be too drowsy to be in line when the stores opened on that first Black Friday. Things may have gotten a bit rough at times, but the deals were much better back then, and the lucky shopper could still hope to pick up Manhattan for a handful of glass beads.___

2014-11-17 05:58:38 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

People who are attracted to the idea of free markets are hoodwinked by conflationism into supporting big business, and thus becoming foot soldiers of the corporate wing of the ruling class; people who are repelled by the reality of corporatism on the ground are hoodwinked into supporting big government, and thus becoming foot soldiers of the political wing of the ruling class. Thus, thanks to the pincer-movement of right-conflationism and left-conflationism, those who seek to oppose the prevailing system end up in the ranks of its supporters – and the possibility of a radical challenge to the system as a whole is rendered effectively invisible. This is how conflationism functions.

People who are attracted to the idea of free markets are hoodwinked by conflationism into supporting big business, and thus becoming foot soldiers of the corporate wing of the ruling class; people who are repelled by the reality of corporatism on the ground are hoodwinked into supporting big government, and thus becoming foot soldiers of the political wing of the ruling class. Thus, thanks to the pincer-movement of right-conflationism and left-conflationism, those who seek to oppose the prevailing system end up in the ranks of its supporters – and the possibility of a radical challenge to the system as a whole is rendered effectively invisible. This is how conflationism functions.___

2014-11-17 04:27:42 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 5 +1s)Open 

I don't advocate for anyone to go out and kill cops. I DO advocate for everyone to defend themselves and their property from aggression and theft with whatever amount of force they have to. Including deadly force. If cops (or copsuckers) see that as calling for cops to be killed, then, obviously, they are admitting that what cops do - or are likely to do - could be seen to qualify as aggression and theft. That means someone does need to change their ways, but it isn't me.

I don't advocate for anyone to go out and kill cops. I DO advocate for everyone to defend themselves and their property from aggression and theft with whatever amount of force they have to. Including deadly force. If cops (or copsuckers) see that as calling for cops to be killed, then, obviously, they are admitting that what cops do - or are likely to do - could be seen to qualify as aggression and theft. That means someone does need to change their ways, but it isn't me.___

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2014-11-17 03:22:40 (1 comments, 0 reshares, 18 +1s)Open 

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2014-11-17 00:27:09 (1 comments, 1 reshares, 11 +1s)Open 

War is Peace
Freedom is Slavery
Ignorance is Strength


War is Peace
Freedom is Slavery
Ignorance is Strength
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