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Xabier Ostale has been at 1 events

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Shaun Burks (Stryse)631Good food.  Good peeps.  My birthday.   Birthday Brunch with Stryse2014-03-09 11:30:002  

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Most comments: 21

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2015-08-31 19:16:06 (21 comments, 0 reshares, 9 +1s)Open 

Googleglassing again!!! The new of the newest crap to keep an eye on your intimacy. Food for popinjays and posh hipsters.
Google OnHub review—Google’s smart home Trojan horse is a $200 leap of faith

Most reshares: 4

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2015-07-28 16:36:59 (4 comments, 4 reshares, 8 +1s)Open 

The corrupt Spanish government is also supporting fracking.
Energy Storage Is The Real Target Of Spain's New Tax On The Sun
"To add insult to injury, the proposed legislation also says that anyone who violates the self-consumption rules would be subject to fines of as much as $68 million. To put this in perspective, the $68 million fine is double the size of the maximum fine allowed for leaking radioactive nuclear waste, according to an analysis by PV Tech."
"For the past five years, the Spanish government has aggressively rolled back subsidies for renewable energy technologies. The impact has been especially adverse for the solar power industry."

Most plusones: 33

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2015-08-05 08:08:22 (6 comments, 1 reshares, 33 +1s)Open 

Latest 50 posts

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2015-09-03 03:19:40 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 9 +1s)Open 

Criminal Procedure in Ancient Greece and the Trial of Socrates (399 BC)
- Initiation of criminal proceedings, the preliminary hearing (anakrisis), and the trial.

Criminal Procedure in Ancient Greece and the Trial of Socrates (399 BC)
- Initiation of criminal proceedings, the preliminary hearing (anakrisis), and the trial.___

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2015-09-01 05:09:27 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 12 +1s)Open 

A popular revolt for the vote that led to the first Reform Act.
Bristol Riots of 1831
http://www.brh.org.uk/articles/1831.html
"The three days of rioting that occurred in October 1831 in Bristol were certainly a case in point. The events are usually portrayed as the actions of a drunken, debauched mob with no rhyme or reason and necessarily put down violently by the authorities with undisclosed numbers of casualties. There is considerable written evidence of that describes the 'horrific' events from the point of view of the local media and ruling classes but apart from the dubious legitimacy of court case records (where four supposed 'rioters' were hanged and 88 transported or imprisoned), there are no accounts from the rioters."
"As was pointed out by Tristram Hunt recently in the Guardian in a series of articles looking at the most 'over looked... more »

A popular revolt for the vote that led to the first Reform Act.
Bristol Riots of 1831
http://www.brh.org.uk/articles/1831.html
"The three days of rioting that occurred in October 1831 in Bristol were certainly a case in point. The events are usually portrayed as the actions of a drunken, debauched mob with no rhyme or reason and necessarily put down violently by the authorities with undisclosed numbers of casualties. There is considerable written evidence of that describes the 'horrific' events from the point of view of the local media and ruling classes but apart from the dubious legitimacy of court case records (where four supposed 'rioters' were hanged and 88 transported or imprisoned), there are no accounts from the rioters."
"As was pointed out by Tristram Hunt recently in the Guardian in a series of articles looking at the most 'over looked moments in British radical history', the 1831 riots in Bristol have not entered the left wing/liberal 'hall of fame'. In my opinion, there are some key reasons for this. In 1819, twelve years before the events in Bristol, in Manchester at Peterloo, a massacre of reform protesters occurred. This event is well known, extensively researched and commemorated. All the boxes are ticked. The protesters at Peterloo had a clearly defined political aim within the context of parliamentary reform, they were organised in a conventional manner and were peaceful. In contrast, the crowd in Bristol went violently on the offensive, they were not organised in a manner that was understood by the left (to this day I would argue) and had clearly broken out of the confines of conventional politics."

Tristam Hunt's article:
http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2006/aug/21/britishidentity___

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2015-08-31 19:16:06 (21 comments, 0 reshares, 9 +1s)Open 

Googleglassing again!!! The new of the newest crap to keep an eye on your intimacy. Food for popinjays and posh hipsters.
Google OnHub review—Google’s smart home Trojan horse is a $200 leap of faith

Googleglassing again!!! The new of the newest crap to keep an eye on your intimacy. Food for popinjays and posh hipsters.
Google OnHub review—Google’s smart home Trojan horse is a $200 leap of faith___

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2015-08-31 05:54:15 (1 comments, 1 reshares, 13 +1s)Open 

Via +John Hardy didn't vote for Abbott 
The Middle East Conundrum
Many recipes have been tried with very nasty results. None of the political trends seem to have delivered long-term stabilizing results. And everybody: from corporation's conservatives to religious bigots, from oil bloodthirsty bastards to separatists, from secular tyrannies to tribal Islamism, from militarist approaches to charities' interests, from soviet secularism to specialists of blaming, all seem to lead to a never-ending cycle of nightmarish mess.
In the meanwhile both internal and external influence add to an already complex system a new level of uncertainty.
One thing is particularly remarkable: everyone has a recipe and an opinion. 

Ken Roth of +Human Rights Watch shared this extraordinarily detailed map of who currently controls what chunks of land in Syria and Iraq, as of this week.

When reading this map, pay close attention to the white cross-hatching that covers most ISIS and Iraqi territory: that indicates "sparsely populated area," i.e. open desert which is exceptionally difficult to cross individually, much less in force, and so claims of "control" over these areas are more theoretical than practical.

Also note the maps of ethnic and linguistic groups on the left; while tribal affiliation (the basic axis of alliance in this region) is more complicated than that, these lines indicate the coarsest first-order boundaries. The relative homogeneity of Iraq (having separate Sunni and Shi'ite areas) is an aftereffect of the Iraq War, and of the ethnic cleansing and mass violence which followed: prior to the war, Iraq was highly intermixed. When you hear commentators ascribe the end of this violence to the 2007 "Surge," be aware that there's a certain amount of hubris involved in that: the violence happened to stop right around the time that there were almost no remaining areas where Sunnis and Shi'ites lived together anymore, everyone having fled or been killed.

You can contrast this with Lebanon and some of the immediately adjacent parts of Syria, which remain ethnically highly mixed. This is part of what made the Syrian civil war so explosive: the existence of a stable government was what assured the safety of minority groups (since stable governments tend to frown on mass slaughter), and so everyone in those groups was highly aware that if the government fell, they would become targets of genocide, thus giving all of those groups an extremely strong incentive to fight for al-Assad. 

And in fact, the Syrian map is now significantly less mixed than the Lebanese map, even in the far southwest of the country which borders on it. A few years ago, you would have seen an extremely significant Druze population, especially near the Israeli border. (There is a significant Druze population in Syria, Lebanon, and Israel, and they frequently move across the borders; that's in fact one of the biggest sources of on-the-ground communication between the three countries. The Druze in Israel are a particularly interesting case, as they're significantly more integrated into Israeli society than the Arabs, and feelings remain generally warm on all sides there.) The replacement of that population with Sunni dominance, and likewise the end of cross-border ties between Syrian Druze and everyone else, is a consequence of the rebels taking over that area.

Of course, you shouldn't take the broad swathes of Sunnis and Shi'ites to indicate profound unity among them; that's where tribal structures start to come into play. While "hey, we're both Sunnis, let's go beat up those Shi'ites" may be a perfectly reasonable overture in a negotiation between tribes, it's no more than an overture; it's not uncommon for the response to be "screw you, Tikriti" (or any other geographical, tribal, or familial distinction which happens to be more salient to the people in that particular area) Only the Kurds have something resembling a broad alliance among themselves, born of a very different history.

If you've noticed a pattern here, it's probably that alliances are fairly complicated, and people tend to make alliances with other tribes primarily for protection against third tribes, or to beat up some third tribe. This tends to clash harshly with the profound cultural need of Americans for there to be a clear "good guy" to root for and a "bad guy" to root against. Bashar al-Assad is a bloodthirsty, violent dictator, who is also the guarantor of the safety of all the ethnoreligious minorities of Syria against genocide. The Shi'ites of Iraq were profoundly oppressed for years by the Sunnis; until they got into power, at which point they started killing people left and right.

Some outsiders respond to this by picking one group or another to paint as their "good guys" of choice, whether it be the Israelis, the Palestinians, the Kurds, or the Syrian rebels who aren't allied with ISIS. Unfortunately, this tends to run hard against the rocks of reality fairly quickly, so it only works well in the long term for those willing to stay far away from practicalities and simply produce speeches or Internet memes about the goodness of their preferred side and how horribly they're being treated. Things get far worse when outsiders try to go in and get involved more directly, whether it be by joining protest organizations or by invading with large armies: the lesson in "wait, these guys aren't particularly good at all!" tends to take a while to learn, and a lot of bodies pile up in the meantime.

But nor is this an indication that outsiders should simply stay out; isolationism doesn't work for either the Middle East or for the rest of the world. Even the suggestion that the West's only interests in the Middle East are tied to oil is flawed; if you look at a map, you'll spot that the Middle East also contains critical seaports and routes, and borders all along the soft underbelly of Asia, up until it links to China. Try as you might, if you're going to be involved in the politics of the world, the Middle East will be as important today as it was 1,000 years ago, when it was a major trade axis for the planet.

What's the solution, then? You have to learn to deal with complexity: to understand that nobody is going to wear a convenient white or black hat, that loyalties are complex and shifting, and that the simple transplant of Western ideas like "democracy" doesn't work when the thousands of years of cultural underpinnings for those are completely different; you need to translate the purpose of ideas, not their particular implementations, if you want them to have local resonance.

Welcome to the Middle East: amateur hour is now over. ___Via +John Hardy didn't vote for Abbott 
The Middle East Conundrum
Many recipes have been tried with very nasty results. None of the political trends seem to have delivered long-term stabilizing results. And everybody: from corporation's conservatives to religious bigots, from oil bloodthirsty bastards to separatists, from secular tyrannies to tribal Islamism, from militarist approaches to charities' interests, from soviet secularism to specialists of blaming, all seem to lead to a never-ending cycle of nightmarish mess.
In the meanwhile both internal and external influence add to an already complex system a new level of uncertainty.
One thing is particularly remarkable: everyone has a recipe and an opinion. 

2015-08-29 11:35:33 (5 comments, 0 reshares, 10 +1s)Open 

Don't get your knickers in a twist.

Don't get your knickers in a twist.___

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2015-08-29 04:21:59 (6 comments, 0 reshares, 9 +1s)Open 

A documentary:
OCD. A Monster in my Mind (Horizon 2015)
Beyond the common use of the acronym to describe our manias, fixations, obsessions, it's a complex disorder with very worrying consequences.

[Source: Mayo Clinic]
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Excessive thoughts (obsessions) that lead to repetitive behaviors (compulsions).
- 200,000 to 3 million US cases per year.
Medically manageable - Treatment can help
Chronic - Can last for years
Usually self-diagnosable - Doesn't require lab tests or imaging
Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by unreasonable thoughts and fears (obsessions) that lead to compulsive behaviors.
OCD often centers on themes such as a fear of germs or the need to arrange objects in a specific manner. Symptoms usually begin gradually and vary throughout life.
Treatment includes talk... more »

A documentary:
OCD. A Monster in my Mind (Horizon 2015)
Beyond the common use of the acronym to describe our manias, fixations, obsessions, it's a complex disorder with very worrying consequences.

[Source: Mayo Clinic]
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Excessive thoughts (obsessions) that lead to repetitive behaviors (compulsions).
- 200,000 to 3 million US cases per year.
Medically manageable - Treatment can help
Chronic - Can last for years
Usually self-diagnosable - Doesn't require lab tests or imaging
Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by unreasonable thoughts and fears (obsessions) that lead to compulsive behaviors.
OCD often centers on themes such as a fear of germs or the need to arrange objects in a specific manner. Symptoms usually begin gradually and vary throughout life.
Treatment includes talk therapy, medications, or both.

People may experience:
- Behavioral: compulsive behavior, agitation, compulsive hoarding, hyperactivity, hypervigilance, impulsivity, meaningless repetition of own words, repetitive movements, ritualistic behavior, social isolation, or persistent repetition of words or actions
- Psychological: anxiety, depression, fear, narcissism, panic attack, repeatedly going over thoughts, or sexual obsessions
- Mood: apprehension, general discontent, or guilt
- Also common: food aversion, nightmares, or racing thoughts___

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2015-08-28 16:05:50 (2 comments, 1 reshares, 12 +1s)Open 

"The council became increasingly isolated from those who’d elected it. The more isolated it got, the more authoritarian it got."
1871: The Paris Commune
"The PNG [Parisian National Guard] held free elections and the citizens of Paris elected a council made up mostly of Jacobins and Republicans (though there were a few anarchists and socialists as well). The council declared that Paris was an independent commune and that France should be a confederation of communes. Inside the Commune, all elected council members were instantly recallable, paid an average wage and had equal status to other commune members."
"Contemporary anarchists were excited by these developments. The fact that the majority of Paris had organised itself without support from the state and was urging the rest of the world to do the same was pretty exciting. The Paris Commune led by example ins... more »

"The council became increasingly isolated from those who’d elected it. The more isolated it got, the more authoritarian it got."
1871: The Paris Commune
"The PNG [Parisian National Guard] held free elections and the citizens of Paris elected a council made up mostly of Jacobins and Republicans (though there were a few anarchists and socialists as well). The council declared that Paris was an independent commune and that France should be a confederation of communes. Inside the Commune, all elected council members were instantly recallable, paid an average wage and had equal status to other commune members."
"Contemporary anarchists were excited by these developments. The fact that the majority of Paris had organised itself without support from the state and was urging the rest of the world to do the same was pretty exciting. The Paris Commune led by example in showing that a new society, organised from the bottom up, was possible. The reforms initiated by the Commune, like turning workplaces into co-operatives, put anarchist theory into practice. By the end of May, 43 workplaces had become co-operatives and the Louvre Museum was a munitions factory run by a workers’ council."
"On May 21st, the government troops entered the city and were met with seven days of solid street fighting. The last stand of the Communards took place at the cemetary of Montmartre, and after the defeat troops and armed members of the capitalist class roamed the city, killing and maiming at will. 30,000 Communards were killed in the battles, many after they had surrendered, and their bodies dumped in mass graves."___

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2015-08-28 04:13:31 (6 comments, 0 reshares, 8 +1s)Open 

Alcibiades and Critias the tyrant were too close to Socrates.
Critias (460 - 403 BC)
"Critias was an Athenian politician who, earlier in life, was one of Socrates’ followers and Plato’s mother’s cousin. One of the hated “Thirty Tyrants” of Athens, Critias was held in especially low esteem for his practice of confiscating citizen’s property by mis-using his power and executing those who disagreed with or challenged him. The Thirty Tyrants (or The Council of Thirty) were a pro-Spartan oligarchy who were installed in power by the Spartan General Lysander following Athens defeat by Sparta in the Peloponnesian War in 404 BC. The Thirty Tyrants severely limited the rights and freedoms of the citizens of Athens and, most notably, their right to vote as well as showing little scruple in having their opponents executed or exiled on the slightest whim. Of the thirty men who comprisedthis counci... more »

Alcibiades and Critias the tyrant were too close to Socrates.
Critias (460 - 403 BC)
"Critias was an Athenian politician who, earlier in life, was one of Socrates’ followers and Plato’s mother’s cousin. One of the hated “Thirty Tyrants” of Athens, Critias was held in especially low esteem for his practice of confiscating citizen’s property by mis-using his power and executing those who disagreed with or challenged him. The Thirty Tyrants (or The Council of Thirty) were a pro-Spartan oligarchy who were installed in power by the Spartan General Lysander following Athens defeat by Sparta in the Peloponnesian War in 404 BC. The Thirty Tyrants severely limited the rights and freedoms of the citizens of Athens and, most notably, their right to vote as well as showing little scruple in having their opponents executed or exiled on the slightest whim. Of the thirty men who comprised this council, Critias was the most ruthless."

Critias
http://www.iep.utm.edu/critias/___

2015-08-26 22:08:11 (8 comments, 0 reshares, 12 +1s)Open 

There is a widespread sense of trepidation that something dark might be round the corner.

Nighty night x

There is a widespread sense of trepidation that something dark might be round the corner.

Nighty night x___

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2015-08-26 20:08:32 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 7 +1s)Open 

Flora and fauna on the Moon, and the polite moon-people living there
The Great Moon Hoax (1835)
"The article started by triumphantly listing a series of stunning astronomical breakthroughs the famous British astronomer, Sir John Herschel, had made "by means of a telescope of vast dimensions and an entirely new principle."
"Dr. Grant offered a list of the variety of lunar flora and fauna seen by the astronomers up to that point: 38 species of trees, twice this number of plants, nine species of mammalia, and five of ovipara. However, the highlight of this extract was the discovery of the first sign of intelligent, though primitive, lunar life — the biped beaver. These extraordinary beavers walked on two feet and bore their young in their arms. They lived in huts "constructed better and higher than those of many tribes of human savages." And signs of smokea... more »

Flora and fauna on the Moon, and the polite moon-people living there
The Great Moon Hoax (1835)
"The article started by triumphantly listing a series of stunning astronomical breakthroughs the famous British astronomer, Sir John Herschel, had made "by means of a telescope of vast dimensions and an entirely new principle."
"Dr. Grant offered a list of the variety of lunar flora and fauna seen by the astronomers up to that point: 38 species of trees, twice this number of plants, nine species of mammalia, and five of ovipara. However, the highlight of this extract was the discovery of the first sign of intelligent, though primitive, lunar life — the biped beaver. These extraordinary beavers walked on two feet and bore their young in their arms. They lived in huts "constructed better and higher than those of many tribes of human savages." And signs of smoke above the huts of the beavers indicated that these advanced animals had even mastered the use of fire."___

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2015-08-26 05:03:00 (5 comments, 0 reshares, 17 +1s)Open 

Alcibiades, 412 - 410 BC
After having fled the Sicilian campaign, defecting to Sparta, as soon as he was recalled to Athens to face trial on the charges of cutting off the penises of Hermai (busts of the god Hermes on a plinth with a phallus), the treacherous Alcibiades had again to flee Sparta because he was found having sex with the wife of king Algis II. So, he deserted to the Persian satrap of Lydia and Caria, Tissaphernes. From there he conspired to overthrow democracy in Athens, thus he could return.
In 411, the oligarchy of the 400 was established.
It only lasted four months, and democracy was finally reestablished in 410 BC.
To secure democracy in the future, each citizen swore an oath of loyalty to kill anyone trying to subvert the constitution.

Alcibiades, 412 - 410 BC
After having fled the Sicilian campaign, defecting to Sparta, as soon as he was recalled to Athens to face trial on the charges of cutting off the penises of Hermai (busts of the god Hermes on a plinth with a phallus), the treacherous Alcibiades had again to flee Sparta because he was found having sex with the wife of king Algis II. So, he deserted to the Persian satrap of Lydia and Caria, Tissaphernes. From there he conspired to overthrow democracy in Athens, thus he could return.
In 411, the oligarchy of the 400 was established.
It only lasted four months, and democracy was finally reestablished in 410 BC.
To secure democracy in the future, each citizen swore an oath of loyalty to kill anyone trying to subvert the constitution.___

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2015-08-24 19:18:35 (10 comments, 0 reshares, 11 +1s)Open 

I'm gonna give this series a go.
Humans

I'm gonna give this series a go.
Humans___

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2015-08-24 08:43:47 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

An extraordinary innovation in battlefield surgery.
Prince Hal’s Head-Wound: Cause and Effect (1403)
"Prince Henry was only 16 years old when he marched with his father’s forces to Shrewsbury in western England to fight against the rebel army led by Henry “Harry Hotspur” Percy. With English longbowmen on both sides of the battle, arrows caused many of the dead and wounded, including Henry Percy, who was killed when he lifted up his visor and was struck down by a shot."
"Prince Henry was struck by an arrow next to his nose on the left side during the battle of Shrewsbury. The which arrow entered at an angle (ex traverso), and after the arrow shaft was extracted, the head of the aforesaid arrow remained in the furthermost part of the bone of the skull for the depth of six inches."

An extraordinary innovation in battlefield surgery.
Prince Hal’s Head-Wound: Cause and Effect (1403)
"Prince Henry was only 16 years old when he marched with his father’s forces to Shrewsbury in western England to fight against the rebel army led by Henry “Harry Hotspur” Percy. With English longbowmen on both sides of the battle, arrows caused many of the dead and wounded, including Henry Percy, who was killed when he lifted up his visor and was struck down by a shot."
"Prince Henry was struck by an arrow next to his nose on the left side during the battle of Shrewsbury. The which arrow entered at an angle (ex traverso), and after the arrow shaft was extracted, the head of the aforesaid arrow remained in the furthermost part of the bone of the skull for the depth of six inches."___

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2015-08-22 07:12:51 (3 comments, 1 reshares, 16 +1s)Open 

Now, let's watch the documentary Horizon. First Britons
Early Britons: Have we underestimated our ancestors?
"Some of these Mesolithic, or Middle Stone Age, people lived at Blick Mead, Wiltshire - a few miles away from the future site of Stonehenge.
Here, groups seem to have managed and cleared rich forests, built structures and returned to the same place for over 3,000 years, according to a radio carbon date range that has yielded a uniquely long sequence for any Mesolithic site in Britain and Europe - 7,596-4,246 BC."
"Hunter-gatherers prospered in Britain, but then, 6,000 years ago there was a dramatic and permanent change in the way our ancestors lived their lives. So dramatic in fact that it's been given a different historical name. This was the start of the new Stone Age in Britain - the Neolithic."
"We have always thought of Mesolithic... more »

Now, let's watch the documentary Horizon. First Britons
Early Britons: Have we underestimated our ancestors?
"Some of these Mesolithic, or Middle Stone Age, people lived at Blick Mead, Wiltshire - a few miles away from the future site of Stonehenge.
Here, groups seem to have managed and cleared rich forests, built structures and returned to the same place for over 3,000 years, according to a radio carbon date range that has yielded a uniquely long sequence for any Mesolithic site in Britain and Europe - 7,596-4,246 BC."
"Hunter-gatherers prospered in Britain, but then, 6,000 years ago there was a dramatic and permanent change in the way our ancestors lived their lives. So dramatic in fact that it's been given a different historical name. This was the start of the new Stone Age in Britain - the Neolithic."
"We have always thought of Mesolithic people, the first Britons, as hunter-gatherers, living a nomadic life, primitive and precarious. But what has been recently revealed at Blick Mead, and elsewhere, is the existence of a much more complex, dynamic society."___

2015-08-20 23:44:42 (4 comments, 0 reshares, 8 +1s)Open 

We'll be swept up in this social revolution.

Nighty night x

We'll be swept up in this social revolution.

Nighty night x___

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2015-08-20 23:24:09 (2 comments, 1 reshares, 10 +1s)Open 

Corporations' crimes.
Spain's campaigning judge seeks change in law to prosecute global corporations
"Now Baltasar Garzón, the Spanish judge who redefined the boundaries of cross-border justice, has set his sights on widening the definition of international law to target corporations that carry out economic or environmental crimes."
"Next month, he and other leading activists, judges and academics from a dozen countries will come together at a conference in Buenos Aires to push forward the idea that economic and environmental crimes be considered crimes against humanity, akin to torture or genocide."

Corporations' crimes.
Spain's campaigning judge seeks change in law to prosecute global corporations
"Now Baltasar Garzón, the Spanish judge who redefined the boundaries of cross-border justice, has set his sights on widening the definition of international law to target corporations that carry out economic or environmental crimes."
"Next month, he and other leading activists, judges and academics from a dozen countries will come together at a conference in Buenos Aires to push forward the idea that economic and environmental crimes be considered crimes against humanity, akin to torture or genocide."___

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2015-08-20 20:51:25 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 6 +1s)Open 

Via +Douglas Pierre 
During the Great Depression.
"Redlining refers to the practice of mortgage lenders denying whole communities access to credit on the basis of race, usually blackness."

___Via +Douglas Pierre 
During the Great Depression.
"Redlining refers to the practice of mortgage lenders denying whole communities access to credit on the basis of race, usually blackness."

2015-08-20 06:39:47 (3 comments, 0 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

Can't you get your nest made?

Can't you get your nest made?___

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2015-08-19 06:08:09 (5 comments, 0 reshares, 10 +1s)Open 

+Dirk Puehl's history articles are priceless.
The Battle of Adrianople in 378 (Roman Emperor Valens against the Goths).
"9 August 378, Valens and his Roman Army of Thrace was decisively defeated by a federation of Steppe tribes led by Fritigern and his Thervingian Goths in the Battle of Adrianople, present-day Edirne in Turkey."

+Dirk Puehl's history articles are priceless.
The Battle of Adrianople in 378 (Roman Emperor Valens against the Goths).
"9 August 378, Valens and his Roman Army of Thrace was decisively defeated by a federation of Steppe tribes led by Fritigern and his Thervingian Goths in the Battle of Adrianople, present-day Edirne in Turkey."___

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2015-08-16 21:19:46 (8 comments, 1 reshares, 15 +1s)Open 

Slow West (2015)
I think it's a lousy movie. low budget and naive, but totally adorable. It's a dreamy tale, or a sweet nightmare with a simple truth, a dainty innocent feeling immersed in a tough world. 
I love it.

Slow West (2015)
I think it's a lousy movie. low budget and naive, but totally adorable. It's a dreamy tale, or a sweet nightmare with a simple truth, a dainty innocent feeling immersed in a tough world. 
I love it.___

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2015-08-16 18:43:06 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 10 +1s)Open 

William Addis, and the story of the modern toothbrush
"The story goes that in 1780 our rag-maker William Addis was picked up in Spitalfields and thrown into Newgate prison for causing a riot. People from the East End did that sort of thing apparently. Anyway, he was bored, and a bit fed up of rubbing his teeth with an old rag and a spot of brick dust when he thought he would come up with a better solution: modern hygiene was just around the corner. We are led to believe that he saved a piece of bone found in his prison meal, drilled half a dozen small holes in one end, and, inspired at seeing a broom standing in the corner of his cell, decided to thread bristles though the holes (“Guard, be so good as to go and fetch me the bristles from a Siberian boar, there’s a good chap”). The bristles were then glued or wired into place."

William Addis, and the story of the modern toothbrush
"The story goes that in 1780 our rag-maker William Addis was picked up in Spitalfields and thrown into Newgate prison for causing a riot. People from the East End did that sort of thing apparently. Anyway, he was bored, and a bit fed up of rubbing his teeth with an old rag and a spot of brick dust when he thought he would come up with a better solution: modern hygiene was just around the corner. We are led to believe that he saved a piece of bone found in his prison meal, drilled half a dozen small holes in one end, and, inspired at seeing a broom standing in the corner of his cell, decided to thread bristles though the holes (“Guard, be so good as to go and fetch me the bristles from a Siberian boar, there’s a good chap”). The bristles were then glued or wired into place."___

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2015-08-16 16:45:31 (14 comments, 0 reshares, 19 +1s)Open 

At the dentist.

At the dentist.___

2015-08-16 14:36:08 (4 comments, 0 reshares, 7 +1s)Open 

I hate my own obstreperous rants loaded with flawed argumentation.

I hate my own obstreperous rants loaded with flawed argumentation.___

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2015-08-16 05:08:03 (9 comments, 1 reshares, 16 +1s)Open 

The History of Spoons, Forks, and Knives
"The most recent addition to the common cutlery club is the fork. Although they have technically existed since ancient times, these preliminary specimens consisted of a mere two prongs and were used primarily for cooking and serving food. Fingers, spoons and knives were still the most popular choices when it came to actual eating."
"Some of the earliest known table forks made their debut in Ancient Egypt.  The Qijia culture (2400-1900 BC) that resided in part of present day China also are known to have used forks. A couple thousand years later, the fork’s popularity in the Western world spread via the Silk Road into Venice."
"One of the earliest recorded evidence of forks in Venice is from an 11th century story of the the wedding of a Byzantine princess, Theodora Anna Doukaina, to Domenico Selvo. She supposedlybr... more »

The History of Spoons, Forks, and Knives
"The most recent addition to the common cutlery club is the fork. Although they have technically existed since ancient times, these preliminary specimens consisted of a mere two prongs and were used primarily for cooking and serving food. Fingers, spoons and knives were still the most popular choices when it came to actual eating."
"Some of the earliest known table forks made their debut in Ancient Egypt.  The Qijia culture (2400-1900 BC) that resided in part of present day China also are known to have used forks. A couple thousand years later, the fork’s popularity in the Western world spread via the Silk Road into Venice."
"One of the earliest recorded evidence of forks in Venice is from an 11th century story of the the wedding of a Byzantine princess, Theodora Anna Doukaina, to Domenico Selvo. She supposedly brought gold forks as part of her dowry."
"Apparently it was quite the scandal. The God fearing Venetians saw these pronged monstrosities as a slight against The Lord himself who gave us perfectly good fingers to eat with."___

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2015-08-15 19:22:52 (10 comments, 0 reshares, 9 +1s)Open 

In the footsteps of Xerxes. Following the remains of the Persian Wars in today Greece

In the footsteps of Xerxes. Following the remains of the Persian Wars in today Greece___

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2015-08-15 17:05:51 (3 comments, 0 reshares, 6 +1s)Open 

Sweet Fanny Adams
"The eight-year-old Fanny Adams was murdered in Alton, England in August 1867 by Frederick Baker, a 24-year-old solicitor's clerk. Her dismembered body was found in a field near the town."
"The case was the source of enormous public concern and newspaper reports of the time concentrated on the youth and innocence of the victim. Everyone living in England at the time would have known the name of 'sweet' Fanny Adams. With typical grisly humour, sailors in the British Royal Navy came to use the expression to refer to unpleasant meat rations they were often served - likening them to the dead girl's remains."
"It wasn't until later that 'sweet Fanny Adams' came to mean 'nothing'. The term 'fuck all' has long been with us with that meaning, although how long isn't clear as politeness caused it not to... more »

Sweet Fanny Adams
"The eight-year-old Fanny Adams was murdered in Alton, England in August 1867 by Frederick Baker, a 24-year-old solicitor's clerk. Her dismembered body was found in a field near the town."
"The case was the source of enormous public concern and newspaper reports of the time concentrated on the youth and innocence of the victim. Everyone living in England at the time would have known the name of 'sweet' Fanny Adams. With typical grisly humour, sailors in the British Royal Navy came to use the expression to refer to unpleasant meat rations they were often served - likening them to the dead girl's remains."
"It wasn't until later that 'sweet Fanny Adams' came to mean 'nothing'. The term 'fuck all' has long been with us with that meaning, although how long isn't clear as politeness caused it not to be recorded in print until the 20th century. It surely dates back to at least the early 19th century. The coincidence of Fanny Adams' initials caused F.A. or 'Fanny Adams' to be used as a euphemism for 'fuck all'."___

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2015-08-14 05:40:44 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 7 +1s)Open 

The Cato Street Conspiracy (1820)
"This newly industrialised world produced inflation, food shortages and new patterns of factory employment, and it was during this time of social change that a climate of discontent and radicalism developed. A series of riots and industrial unrest occurred. The government responded with a series of repressive measures, including the Combination Acts of 1799, which forbade the gathering of working men with a common purpose."
"In 1820, a small group led by Arthur Thistlewood, a prominent radical in London, protested against the harshness of these measures. The group became known as the Cato Street conspirators, after the street near Edgware Road, London, where they last met. The group included a man named William Davidson, a 'Mulatto' born in Jamaica. Thistlewood's group aimed to overthrow the government by assassinating the entire... more »

The Cato Street Conspiracy (1820)
"This newly industrialised world produced inflation, food shortages and new patterns of factory employment, and it was during this time of social change that a climate of discontent and radicalism developed. A series of riots and industrial unrest occurred. The government responded with a series of repressive measures, including the Combination Acts of 1799, which forbade the gathering of working men with a common purpose."
"In 1820, a small group led by Arthur Thistlewood, a prominent radical in London, protested against the harshness of these measures. The group became known as the Cato Street conspirators, after the street near Edgware Road, London, where they last met. The group included a man named William Davidson, a 'Mulatto' born in Jamaica. Thistlewood's group aimed to overthrow the government by assassinating the entire Cabinet while they were dining at Lord Harrowby's home in Grosvenor Square."
"The authorities received an intelligence report about the conspiracy and stormed the room in Cato Street. Thistlewood killed a policeman in the fracas. After his arrest, one of the conspirators, James Ings, described how the plan was that he would be the first to enter the room at Lord Harrowby's house, armed with a pair of pistols, a cutlass and a knife. He intended to behead every member of the Cabinet, then take away the heads of Lords Castlereagh and Sidmouth in bags to display them on spikes on Westminster Bridge."___

2015-08-12 20:55:59 (2 comments, 0 reshares, 8 +1s)Open 

Why should we obey a fop in silly togs?

Nighty night x

Why should we obey a fop in silly togs?

Nighty night x___

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2015-08-12 11:26:13 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 6 +1s)Open 

More than Solon in 594 BC, or Cleisthenes in 508 BC, the reforms of Ephialtes in 462 BC made Athenian democracy more direct.
Radical Democracy in Ancient Athens
"Radical democracy was the culmination of a series of constitutional reforms introduced over a period of about 130 years, which were begun by the archon Solon in 594 BC.  The general thrust of these reforms was to transfer power from the aristocracy to the citizenry of Athens. This process separated the business of the State from the activities of its wealthier citizens; and limited the financial dependence of the State on their generosity."
"After the Persian wars, the Council of Areopagus (comprised of aristocrats) resumed guardianship of the constitution. Ephialtes, who had become a leader of the people, diminished the authority of the Areopagus by denouncing and bringing legal actions against members of the... more »

More than Solon in 594 BC, or Cleisthenes in 508 BC, the reforms of Ephialtes in 462 BC made Athenian democracy more direct.
Radical Democracy in Ancient Athens
"Radical democracy was the culmination of a series of constitutional reforms introduced over a period of about 130 years, which were begun by the archon Solon in 594 BC.  The general thrust of these reforms was to transfer power from the aristocracy to the citizenry of Athens. This process separated the business of the State from the activities of its wealthier citizens; and limited the financial dependence of the State on their generosity."
"After the Persian wars, the Council of Areopagus (comprised of aristocrats) resumed guardianship of the constitution. Ephialtes, who had become a leader of the people, diminished the authority of the Areopagus by denouncing and bringing legal actions against members of the Council regarding their alleged maladministration; and re-assigning some of the powers of the Areopagus to the Council of Five Hundred, the Assembly and the law courts."___

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2015-08-11 20:58:25 (5 comments, 0 reshares, 18 +1s)Open 

Life is beset by dangers.

Nighty night x

Life is beset by dangers.

Nighty night x___

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2015-08-11 06:49:47 (6 comments, 0 reshares, 17 +1s)Open 

Homo erectus
"Early African Homo erectus fossils (sometimes called Homo ergaster) are the oldest known early humans to have possessed modern human-like body proportions with relatively elongated legs and shorter arms compared to the size of the torso. These features are considered adaptations to a life lived on the ground, indicating the loss of earlier tree-climbing adaptations, with the ability to walk and possibly run long distances. Compared with earlier fossil humans, note the expanded braincase relative to the size of the face. The most complete fossil individual of this species is known as the ‘Turkana Boy’ – a well-preserved skeleton (though minus almost all the hand and foot bones), dated around 1.6 million years old."

Homo erectus
"Early African Homo erectus fossils (sometimes called Homo ergaster) are the oldest known early humans to have possessed modern human-like body proportions with relatively elongated legs and shorter arms compared to the size of the torso. These features are considered adaptations to a life lived on the ground, indicating the loss of earlier tree-climbing adaptations, with the ability to walk and possibly run long distances. Compared with earlier fossil humans, note the expanded braincase relative to the size of the face. The most complete fossil individual of this species is known as the ‘Turkana Boy’ – a well-preserved skeleton (though minus almost all the hand and foot bones), dated around 1.6 million years old."___

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2015-08-10 05:28:25 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

Sparta vs Athens
First Peloponnesian War (460 - 445 BC)
Click and follow the events.

Sparta vs Athens
First Peloponnesian War (460 - 445 BC)
Click and follow the events.___

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2015-08-09 15:03:29 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

Starred Up (2013)
A harrowing story and a brilliant movie as well. Jack O'Connell excels in his role. Breathtaking but worth watching.
http://www.imdb.com/title/tt2567712/

I've chosen this frame:

Starred Up (2013)
A harrowing story and a brilliant movie as well. Jack O'Connell excels in his role. Breathtaking but worth watching.
http://www.imdb.com/title/tt2567712/

I've chosen this frame:___

2015-08-08 18:44:08 (4 comments, 0 reshares, 9 +1s)Open 

We are not the people we thought we were.

We are not the people we thought we were.___

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2015-08-08 05:51:10 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 9 +1s)Open 

+Tim Shaw's daily dose of medieval history. Here three episodes on the War of Breton Succession (during the Hundred Years War, 14th century):
The War of Breton Succession: The Start
"Between 1341 and 1364, while the Hundred Years War was contesting the right of the English king to rule France (or, at least, parts of it), France was dealing with another struggle over Brittany. The Counts of Blois, a region south of Paris, claimed Brittany for their own, while the House of Montfort claimed it due to their link to the Dukes of Brittany."

The War of Breton Succession: Fiery Joanna
http://dailymedieval.blogspot.com.es/2015/08/the-war-of-breton-succession-fiery.html

The War of Breton Succession: Conclusion
http://dailymedieval.blogspot.com.es/2015/08/the-war-of-breton-succession-conclusion.html
"The Montfortists were falling... more »

+Tim Shaw's daily dose of medieval history. Here three episodes on the War of Breton Succession (during the Hundred Years War, 14th century):
The War of Breton Succession: The Start
"Between 1341 and 1364, while the Hundred Years War was contesting the right of the English king to rule France (or, at least, parts of it), France was dealing with another struggle over Brittany. The Counts of Blois, a region south of Paris, claimed Brittany for their own, while the House of Montfort claimed it due to their link to the Dukes of Brittany."

The War of Breton Succession: Fiery Joanna
http://dailymedieval.blogspot.com.es/2015/08/the-war-of-breton-succession-fiery.html

The War of Breton Succession: Conclusion
http://dailymedieval.blogspot.com.es/2015/08/the-war-of-breton-succession-conclusion.html
"The Montfortists were falling apart, however, and only maintaining their position with the help of the English forces whose help they had accepted. The other claimant to Brittany, Charles of Blois, did his best to assert himself, attacking Breton cities. English soldiers were held for ransom, but Breton citizens who had fought against him were executed for treason. With opposition to Charles looking less and less like a wise career move, the Montfortists began to fall apart, and John "broke parole" and fled to England in March 1345."___

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2015-08-05 08:08:22 (6 comments, 1 reshares, 33 +1s)Open 

___

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2015-08-04 06:08:30 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 10 +1s)Open 

The posh Scopas and his popinjays were crushed under a roof.
Simonides of Ceos (c.556 - 468 BC)
"Legend says that Simonides of Ceos was the inventor of the method of loci where large amounts of data can be remembered in order by placing images that represent the data into mental locations or journeys."

The posh Scopas and his popinjays were crushed under a roof.
Simonides of Ceos (c.556 - 468 BC)
"Legend says that Simonides of Ceos was the inventor of the method of loci where large amounts of data can be remembered in order by placing images that represent the data into mental locations or journeys."___

2015-08-03 20:52:11 (3 comments, 0 reshares, 11 +1s)Open 

Nightmare and reality are never very far apart.

Nighty night x

Nightmare and reality are never very far apart.

Nighty night x___

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2015-08-03 15:38:16 (4 comments, 0 reshares, 15 +1s)Open 

___

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2015-08-03 06:07:14 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 8 +1s)Open 

I think this is related somehow to Chaos theory and complex systems. It's a bit tricky to understand, but once you visualize a spontaneous sprout of processes at any given moment in an "explosive" manner it's easier to get it. A tipping point when things go wild.
However, a silly idea that comes to my mind in relation to human apes' endeavours is the greedy compulsory tendency they have to keep going and magnify any success without any moderation, until it's too late to stop the consequences of maniacal exploitation.

New Laws Explain Why Fast-Growing Networks Break

This new understanding of how über-connectivity emerges, which was described earlier this month in the journal Nature Physics, is the first step toward identifying warning signs that may occur when such systems go awry—for example, when power grids begin to fail, or when an infectious disease starts to mushroom into a global pandemic. Explosive percolation may help create effective intervention strategies to control that behavior and, perhaps, avoid catastrophic consequences.___I think this is related somehow to Chaos theory and complex systems. It's a bit tricky to understand, but once you visualize a spontaneous sprout of processes at any given moment in an "explosive" manner it's easier to get it. A tipping point when things go wild.
However, a silly idea that comes to my mind in relation to human apes' endeavours is the greedy compulsory tendency they have to keep going and magnify any success without any moderation, until it's too late to stop the consequences of maniacal exploitation.

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2015-08-03 05:23:21 (1 comments, 0 reshares, 11 +1s)Open 

Brasidas - Sparta's Most Extraordinary Commander (d. 422 BC) 
"During the opening phase of the Peloponnesian War (431-422 BC), Sparta produced a commander that would shape the tactics, strategy and personal conduct of military leaders to follow."
"Thucydides is our main source for Brasidas, and we first hear of him during the first year of the Peloponnesian War (431 BC)."
"It is during the battle for Spacteria that Brasidas, as commander of a trireme, attempts an amphibious assault of the Pylos, fortress but it severely wounded, collapses and loses his shield. There is some speculation that the shield now hanging in the Agora Museum in Athens may in fact have belonged to Brasidas."
"Brasidas lobbies for an expedition to Thrace, a region vital to Athens. From here timber for the construction of Athenian warships is harvested. Here also, the... more »

Brasidas - Sparta's Most Extraordinary Commander (d. 422 BC) 
"During the opening phase of the Peloponnesian War (431-422 BC), Sparta produced a commander that would shape the tactics, strategy and personal conduct of military leaders to follow."
"Thucydides is our main source for Brasidas, and we first hear of him during the first year of the Peloponnesian War (431 BC)."
"It is during the battle for Spacteria that Brasidas, as commander of a trireme, attempts an amphibious assault of the Pylos, fortress but it severely wounded, collapses and loses his shield. There is some speculation that the shield now hanging in the Agora Museum in Athens may in fact have belonged to Brasidas."
"Brasidas lobbies for an expedition to Thrace, a region vital to Athens. From here timber for the construction of Athenian warships is harvested. Here also, the European flank of the Bosporus can be protected, insuring the passage of Black Sea grain necessary to sustain Athens during the years-long siege. Again, either sort-sightedness, jealousy, or paranoia afflict Spartan leadership—Brasidas is sent on his expedition, not with Spartans, or any other trusty Laconians but a few companies of Helot slaves and the money to recruit mercenaries along his way."
"He gained the allegiance of towns once loyal to Athens, kept an army of slaves and mercenaries absolutely loyal, and wrested control of a strategically vital region from his enemy, with hardly a drop of blood shed."
"Brasidas' exploits in Lyncestis luckily occurred during a year-long armistice with Athens. Not long after his retreat, the armistice expired and Brasidas retired to the fortified town of Amphipolis"
Athenian Cleon led an army to recapture Amphipolis from the Sparta, but the Athenians lost. Although Brasidas died in the battle.___

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2015-08-02 14:15:52 (12 comments, 0 reshares, 20 +1s)Open 

Viking glass linen smoother
Ironing, well, stoning.

Viking glass linen smoother
Ironing, well, stoning.___

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2015-08-02 10:31:14 (6 comments, 1 reshares, 11 +1s)Open 

Media coverage of terrorism ‘leads to further violence’
This argument absolutely baffles me. I don't know what to think and I don't get the logic behind this argument. It reminds me of the policies of silence imposed by Thatcher, and I don't think they deterred the perpetrators.
Not that I disagree, it's that I can't figure out where is the connection between being informed - thus knowing - and triggering more terrorist attacks. I'm at a loss.
Does being aware trigger more terrorism? I wonder if the argument was first fumbled by Putin, trying to not investigate crimes and so on, lest we get more planes attacked?
Didn't lack of knowledge about the real threat ISIS posed to a resort in Tunisia lead to the death of 38 people?

Media coverage of terrorism ‘leads to further violence’
This argument absolutely baffles me. I don't know what to think and I don't get the logic behind this argument. It reminds me of the policies of silence imposed by Thatcher, and I don't think they deterred the perpetrators.
Not that I disagree, it's that I can't figure out where is the connection between being informed - thus knowing - and triggering more terrorist attacks. I'm at a loss.
Does being aware trigger more terrorism? I wonder if the argument was first fumbled by Putin, trying to not investigate crimes and so on, lest we get more planes attacked?
Didn't lack of knowledge about the real threat ISIS posed to a resort in Tunisia lead to the death of 38 people?___

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2015-08-01 08:49:13 (19 comments, 1 reshares, 10 +1s)Open 

Arsenic.
Mary Ann Cotton (1832 - 1873)
She apparently killed eight of her own children, seven stepchildren, her mother, three husbands, a lover – and an inconvenient friend.

Arsenic.
Mary Ann Cotton (1832 - 1873)
She apparently killed eight of her own children, seven stepchildren, her mother, three husbands, a lover – and an inconvenient friend.___

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2015-07-31 04:28:26 (8 comments, 0 reshares, 15 +1s)Open 

Another dark chapter in the very dark history of the popes.
The Avignon Papacy (1309 - 1378 AD)
"The majority of the men that Clement V appointed as cardinals were French; and since the cardinals elected the pope, this meant that future popes were likely to be French, as well. All seven of the Avignonese popes and 111 of the 134 cardinals created during the Avignon papacy were French. Although the Avignonese popes were able to maintain a measure of independence, the French kings did exert some influence from time to time, and the appearance of French influence on the papacy, whether real or not, was undeniable."


The Avignonese Popes:

1305-1314: Clement V
1316-1334: John XXII
1334-1342: Benedict XII
1342-1352: Clement VI
1352-1362: Innocent VI
1362-1370: Urban V
1370-1378: Gregory XI

Another dark chapter in the very dark history of the popes.
The Avignon Papacy (1309 - 1378 AD)
"The majority of the men that Clement V appointed as cardinals were French; and since the cardinals elected the pope, this meant that future popes were likely to be French, as well. All seven of the Avignonese popes and 111 of the 134 cardinals created during the Avignon papacy were French. Although the Avignonese popes were able to maintain a measure of independence, the French kings did exert some influence from time to time, and the appearance of French influence on the papacy, whether real or not, was undeniable."


The Avignonese Popes:

1305-1314: Clement V
1316-1334: John XXII
1334-1342: Benedict XII
1342-1352: Clement VI
1352-1362: Innocent VI
1362-1370: Urban V
1370-1378: Gregory XI___

2015-07-30 21:20:22 (2 comments, 0 reshares, 11 +1s)Open 

We all need to take stock now and then.

Nighty night x

We all need to take stock now and then.

Nighty night x___

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2015-07-29 06:23:56 (3 comments, 1 reshares, 7 +1s)Open 

The Significance of the Messenian War(s) (c. 740 - c. 720 BC and c. 670 - c. 650 BC)
"Arguably, nothing was more important to the evolution of Sparta into a city-state with a highly unusual and unique constitution than the Spartan conquest of Messenia. W.G. Forrest argues, for example, that the conquest of its agriculturally rich neighbor reduced the need for distant colonies and so the interest in the wider world, while the agricultural basis of Spartan wealth reduced Sparta’s interest in industry and trade. Others argue that the conquest of such a vast territory and the subjugation of an entire people resulted in permanent fear of revolt that in turn created the need for a militaristic state. Sparta as we know it – with its unique institutions from the agoge to citizens permanently under arms – is a function of its conflict with Messenia."

The Significance of the Messenian War(s) (c. 740 - c. 720 BC and c. 670 - c. 650 BC)
"Arguably, nothing was more important to the evolution of Sparta into a city-state with a highly unusual and unique constitution than the Spartan conquest of Messenia. W.G. Forrest argues, for example, that the conquest of its agriculturally rich neighbor reduced the need for distant colonies and so the interest in the wider world, while the agricultural basis of Spartan wealth reduced Sparta’s interest in industry and trade. Others argue that the conquest of such a vast territory and the subjugation of an entire people resulted in permanent fear of revolt that in turn created the need for a militaristic state. Sparta as we know it – with its unique institutions from the agoge to citizens permanently under arms – is a function of its conflict with Messenia."___

2015-07-28 20:17:42 (7 comments, 0 reshares, 16 +1s)Open 

I'll give you something to cry about, you little shit.

Nighty night x

I'll give you something to cry about, you little shit.

Nighty night x___

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2015-07-28 16:36:59 (4 comments, 4 reshares, 8 +1s)Open 

The corrupt Spanish government is also supporting fracking.
Energy Storage Is The Real Target Of Spain's New Tax On The Sun
"To add insult to injury, the proposed legislation also says that anyone who violates the self-consumption rules would be subject to fines of as much as $68 million. To put this in perspective, the $68 million fine is double the size of the maximum fine allowed for leaking radioactive nuclear waste, according to an analysis by PV Tech."
"For the past five years, the Spanish government has aggressively rolled back subsidies for renewable energy technologies. The impact has been especially adverse for the solar power industry."

The corrupt Spanish government is also supporting fracking.
Energy Storage Is The Real Target Of Spain's New Tax On The Sun
"To add insult to injury, the proposed legislation also says that anyone who violates the self-consumption rules would be subject to fines of as much as $68 million. To put this in perspective, the $68 million fine is double the size of the maximum fine allowed for leaking radioactive nuclear waste, according to an analysis by PV Tech."
"For the past five years, the Spanish government has aggressively rolled back subsidies for renewable energy technologies. The impact has been especially adverse for the solar power industry."___

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