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Shared Circles including Paulo Mealha

Shared Circles are not available on Google+ anymore, but you can find them still here.

Top posts in the last 50 posts

Most comments: 1

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2015-05-16 20:24:13 (1 comments, 1 reshares, 2 +1s)Open 

Rio by Sandra Lesvigne: http://goo.gl/302Wrh #photography

Most reshares: 2

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2014-06-03 08:28:06 (0 comments, 2 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

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2014-02-23 21:57:40 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 10 +1s)Open 

Amazing photo of Paris from the Eiffel Tower.

Latest 50 posts

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2015-05-20 18:49:17 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 2 +1s)Open 

Elétrico 28 [Calçada de São Francisco] – Lisboa (Portugal).

O Elétrico 28 é um verdadeiro ex-libris de Lisboa, e uma das melhores formas de conhecer a cidade. Das janelas deste pitoresco meio de transporte podemos apreciar todo o património histórico e natural que Lisboa tem para oferecer, desde a imponente Basílica da Estrela até ao monumental Castelo de São Jorge, na zona medieval da capital. O Elétrico 28, ou "Amarelo" como é carinhosamente apelidado pelos habitantes de Lisboa, faz parte de um conjunto de veículos originalmente importados dos Estados Unidos em 1901 com o objectivo de subtituir as antigas carruagens puxadas a cavalo, que eram o principal meio de transporte na altura. Podemos começar a nossa viagem em plena baixa de Lisboa, na Rua da Conceição por exemplo, e subir até ao Chiado, um dos bairros mais cosmopolitas e históricos da cidade, entre o BairroAlto e a Baixa. Aqu... more »

Elétrico 28 [Calçada de São Francisco] – Lisboa (Portugal).

O Elétrico 28 é um verdadeiro ex-libris de Lisboa, e uma das melhores formas de conhecer a cidade. Das janelas deste pitoresco meio de transporte podemos apreciar todo o património histórico e natural que Lisboa tem para oferecer, desde a imponente Basílica da Estrela até ao monumental Castelo de São Jorge, na zona medieval da capital. O Elétrico 28, ou "Amarelo" como é carinhosamente apelidado pelos habitantes de Lisboa, faz parte de um conjunto de veículos originalmente importados dos Estados Unidos em 1901 com o objectivo de subtituir as antigas carruagens puxadas a cavalo, que eram o principal meio de transporte na altura. Podemos começar a nossa viagem em plena baixa de Lisboa, na Rua da Conceição por exemplo, e subir até ao Chiado, um dos bairros mais cosmopolitas e históricos da cidade, entre o Bairro Alto e a Baixa. Aqui encontramos as mais diversas lojas de designers, galerias de arte, restaurantes, cafés (a famosa Brasileira com a célebre estátua do poeta Fernando Pessoa), livrarias, teatros (a ópera do São Carlos e o São Luíz), bem como o elevador da Bica e o Miradouro de Santa Catarina, também conhecido como Adamastor. Descemos pela Calçada do Combro, que nos leva até à Assembleia da República, um dos mais importantes orgãos de soberania nacional, e a partir daí voltamos a subir em direcção à Estrela, que nos oferece um relaxante passeio pelo seu magnífico Jardim, repleto de imponentes dragoeiros e jacarandás. Antes de regressar, não podemos deixar de visitar também a magnífica Basílica da Estrela, uma das mais brilhantes realizações do Barroco tardio em Portugal. Já no percurso de volta, dentro da carruagem de madeira do nosso "Amarelo" 28, seguimos viagem em direcção à zona oriental da cidade. Entre solavancos, descemos de novo até à Baixa, com o Arco triunfal da Rua Augusta em destaque, e a esplendorosa Praça do Comércio mesmo ali ao lado, resultado da reconstução da cidade depois do terramoto de 1755. Daí passamos a Igreja da Madalena e começamos a subir em direcção à monumental Sé Catedral de Lisboa, datada do século XII, e edificada sobre a antiga mesquita muçulmana da cidade. O velhinho eléctrico continua a íngreme subida, passa pelo imperdível Miradouro de Santa Luzia até desaguar no Largo das Portas do Sol, de onde se pode apreciar uma das mais belas vistas que Lisboa tem para oferecer. A partir daí embrenhamo-nos no velho e estreito casario de Alfama, bairro típico de Lisboa, berço do Fado. As labirínticas ruas desta zona da cidade, esquecida pelo tempo, são um verdadeiro desafio à passagem do 28, que teima em passar, apesar do pouco espaço existente. Triunfante, o 28 continua pela Calçada de São Vicente, passa a Voz do Operário, e chega finalmente ao vibrante e luminoso Largo da Graça, empoleirado na mais alta colina de Lisboa. Não deixe de visitar os Miradouros da Graça e da Senhora do Monte, vai ficar arrebatado com tudo o que pode observar a partir destes locais de visita obrigatória. A partir daqui sugerimos que se despeça do nosso amigo 28, e regresse a pé até à Baixa. Aproveite a proximidade do Castelo de São Jorge, e surpreenda-se com a vista panorâmica sobre toda a zona do Vale de Lisboa e Rio Tejo que o local lhe oferece. Um passeio que vale a pena fazer cedo pela manhã, de maneira apreciar a inconfundível luz que a cidade de Lisboa tem para oferecer, as suas cores e cheiros... O nosso fiel guia, o Elétrico 28, vai lá estar sempre à nossa espera, para nos dar a conhecer uma Lisboa única e que não se pode verdadeiramente conhecer de outro modo. Um conselho aos mais incautos. Dado que o Elétrico 28 percorre um dos trajectos mais turísticos da cidade, é palco para muitos carteiristas e amigos do alheio, que funcionam muitas vezes em casal. Fique especialmente atento aos seus pertences. Bom passeio !!!
[Fonte: Guia da Cidade].

Foto de Olga Syrova.___

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2015-05-19 18:58:18 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 0 +1s)Open 

Journey of Light

+Duarte Sol 

Success is a journey, not a destination. The doing is often more important than the outcome.

In this short journey i would like to say a big thank you to 3 great persons and photographs that help me in my brief visit to Lisbon so...thank you Paulo Benjamim, Hugo Amendoeira e Hugo Augusto!

Canon 5D Mark III + Canon 16-35
F22, ISO 50 and 8" exposure

LEE ND SE 0,9 + Hitehc 0.9 Reverse

with Manfrotto 055XPROB and 498RC2 Ball Head

@ Ponte Vasco da Gama, Lisboa, Portugal

Duarte Sol Photography

Sharing is Appreciated - Agradeço a Partilha - Sharing wird geschätzt

Journey of Light

+Duarte Sol 

Success is a journey, not a destination. The doing is often more important than the outcome.

In this short journey i would like to say a big thank you to 3 great persons and photographs that help me in my brief visit to Lisbon so...thank you Paulo Benjamim, Hugo Amendoeira e Hugo Augusto!

Canon 5D Mark III + Canon 16-35
F22, ISO 50 and 8" exposure

LEE ND SE 0,9 + Hitehc 0.9 Reverse

with Manfrotto 055XPROB and 498RC2 Ball Head

@ Ponte Vasco da Gama, Lisboa, Portugal

Duarte Sol Photography

Sharing is Appreciated - Agradeço a Partilha - Sharing wird geschätzt___

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2015-05-19 11:39:19 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 1 +1s)Open 

#cats   #gif  

gifak.net

#cats   #gif  

gifak.net___

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2015-05-18 21:04:57 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 1 +1s)Open 

Amazing cat jump!





Cat communication is the transfer of information by one or more cats that has an effect on the current or future behaviour of another animal, including humans. Cats use a range of communication modalities including visual, auditory, tactile, chemical and gustatory.

The communication modalities used by domestic cats have been affected by domestication.


Vocalizations

Cat vocalisations have been categorised according to a range of characteristics.

Schötz categorised vocalizations according to 3 mouth actions: (1) sounds produced with the mouth closed (murmurs), including the purr, the trill and the chirrup, (2) sounds produced with the mouth open and gradually closing, comprising a large variety of miaows with similar vowel patterns, and (3) sounds produced with the mouth held tensely open in the same... more »

Amazing cat jump!





Cat communication is the transfer of information by one or more cats that has an effect on the current or future behaviour of another animal, including humans. Cats use a range of communication modalities including visual, auditory, tactile, chemical and gustatory.

The communication modalities used by domestic cats have been affected by domestication.


Vocalizations

Cat vocalisations have been categorised according to a range of characteristics.

Schötz categorised vocalizations according to 3 mouth actions: (1) sounds produced with the mouth closed (murmurs), including the purr, the trill and the chirrup, (2) sounds produced with the mouth open and gradually closing, comprising a large variety of miaows with similar vowel patterns, and (3) sounds produced with the mouth held tensely open in the same position, often uttered in aggressive situations (growls, yowls, snarls, hisses, spits and shrieks).

Brown et al. categorised vocal responses of cats according to the behavioural context: (1) during separation of kittens from mother cats, (2) during food deprivation, (3) during pain, (4) prior to or during threat or attack behavior, as in disputes over territory or food, (5) during a painful or acutely stressful experience, as in routine prophylactic injections and (6) during kitten deprivation. Less commonly recorded calls from mature cats included purring, conspecific greeting calls or murmurs, extended vocal dialogues between cats in separate cages, “frustration” calls during training or extinction of conditioned responses.

Miller classified vocalisations into 5 categories according to the sound produced: the purr, chirr, call, meow and growl/snarl/hiss.


Purr

The purr is a continuous, soft, vibrating sound made in the throat by most species of felines. Domestic cat kittens can purr as early as two days of age. This tonal rumbling can characterize different personalities in domestic cats. Purring is often believed to indicate a positive emotional state, but cats sometimes purr when they are ill, tense, or experiencing traumatic or painful moments.

The mechanism of how cats purr is elusive. This is partly because cats do not have a unique anatomical feature that is clearly responsible for the vocalization. One hypothesis, supported by electromyographic studies, is that cats produce the purring noise by using the vocal folds and/or the muscles of the larynx to alternately dilate and constrict the glottis rapidly, causing air vibrations during inhalation and exhalation. Combined with the steady inhalation and exhalation as the cat breathes, a purring noise is produced with strong harmonics. Purring is sometimes accompanied by other sounds, though this varies between individuals. Some may only purr, while other cats include low level outbursts sometimes described as "lurps" or "yowps".

Domestic cats purr at varying frequencies. One study reported that domestic cats purr at average frequencies of 21.98 Hz in the egressive phase and 23.24 Hz in the ingressive phase with an overall mean of 22.6 Hz. Further research on purring in four domestic cats found that the fundamental frequency varied between 20.94 and 27.21 Hz for the egressive phase and between 23.0 and 26.09 Hz for the ingressive phase. There was considerable variation between the four cats in the relative amplitude, duration and frequency between egressive and ingressive phases, although this variation generally occurred within the normal range.

One study on a single cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) showed it purred with an average frequency of 20.87 Hz (egressive phases) and 18.32 Hz (ingressive phases). A further study on four adult cheetahs found that mean frequencies were between 19.3 Hz and 20.5 Hz in ingressive phases, and between 21.9 Hz and 23.4 Hz in egressive phases. The egressive phases were longer than ingressive phases and moreover, the amplitude was greater in the egressive phases.

It was once believed that only the cats of the genus Felis could purr. However, felids of the genus Panthera (tigers, lions, jaguars and leopards) also produce sounds similar to purring, but only when exhaling. The subdivision of the Felidae into ‘purring cats’ on the one hand and ‘roaring cats ’ (i.e. non-purring) on the other, originally goes back to Owen (1834/1835) and was definitely introduced by Pocock (1916), based on a difference in hyoid anatomy. The ‘roaring cats’ (lion, Panthera leo; tiger, P. tigris; jaguar, P. onca; leopard, P. pardus) have an incompletely ossified hyoid, which according to this theory, enables them to roar but not to purr. On the other hand, the snow leopard (Uncia uncia), as the fifth felid species with an incompletely ossified hyoid, purrs (Hemmer, 1972). All remaining species of the family Felidae (‘purring cats’) have a completely ossified hyoid which enables them to purr but not to roar. However, Weissengruber et al. (2002) argued that the ability of a cat species to purr is not affected by the anatomy of its hyoid, i.e. whether it is fully ossified or has a ligamentous epihyoid, and that, based on a technical acoustic definition of roaring, the presence of this vocalization type depends on specific characteristics of the vocal folds and an elongated vocal tract, the latter rendered possible by an incompletely ossified hyoid.





Meow

The meow is one of the most widely known vocalizations of domestic kittens. It is a call apparently used to solicit attention from the mother.

Adult cats commonly vocalise with a "meow" (or "miaow") sound, which is onomatopoeic. The meow can be assertive, plaintive, friendly, bold, welcoming, attention soliciting, demanding, or complaining. It can even be silent, where the cat opens its mouth but does not vocalize. Adult cats do not usually meow to each other and so meowing to human beings is likely to be an extension of the use by kittens.








Language differences

Different languages have correspondingly different words for the "meow" sound, including miau (Belarusian, Croatian, Hungarian, Dutch, Finnish, Lithuanian, Malay, German, Polish, Russian, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish and Ukrainian), mnau (Czech), meong (Indonesian), niau (Ukrainian), niaou (?????, Greek), miaou (French), nya (??, Japanese), miao (?, Mandarin Chinese, Italian), miav/miao or mjav/mjau (Danish, Swedish and Norwegian), mjá (Icelandic), ya-ong (??, Korean), ????? / Miya?un_ (Urdu) and meo-meo (Vietnamese). In some languages (such as Chinese ?, mao), the vocalization became the name of the animal itself.

Read more : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cat_communication

#gif #cats #animals #caturday #caturdayeveryday #caturday2014 #catsrule #catsallovertheworld #catholic #catlovers #animallovers #animalphotography #catphotography #catphotos #catpictures #catpics #lol #funny #funnypics #funnypictures #funnyphotos #funnystuff #ANNIMATEDGIFS   #trendingnow   #lolcats___

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2015-05-18 20:58:51 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 0 +1s)Open 

Lagoa das Sete Cidades - Sete Cidades, ilha de São Miguel, Açores (Portugal).

A Lagoa das Sete Cidades localiza-se no fundo da caldeira das Sete Cidades, na freguesia de mesmo nome, na ilha de São Miguel, nos Açores.
A caldeira foi formada por colapsos sucessivos de dois relevos que a circundam, e tem um diâmetro de cerca de 5 km e profundidade máxima de 400 metros. Constitui-se numa das maiores caldeiras de abatimento do arquipélago. Os seus bordos apresentam, em sua maior parte, vertentes muito inclinadas.
Inscreve-se em uma área de montanha de relevo bastante acentuado, com falésias interiores, profundas ravinas e sulcos em cujos leitos correm águas torrenciais. O Pico das Éguas, com 873 metros de altitude, é a maior elevação desta zona.1 A zona inclui uma área urbana, terrenos agrícolas e maciços florestais de produção de criptoméria.
É uma área importanteem termos de endemism... more »

Lagoa das Sete Cidades - Sete Cidades, ilha de São Miguel, Açores (Portugal).

A Lagoa das Sete Cidades localiza-se no fundo da caldeira das Sete Cidades, na freguesia de mesmo nome, na ilha de São Miguel, nos Açores.
A caldeira foi formada por colapsos sucessivos de dois relevos que a circundam, e tem um diâmetro de cerca de 5 km e profundidade máxima de 400 metros. Constitui-se numa das maiores caldeiras de abatimento do arquipélago. Os seus bordos apresentam, em sua maior parte, vertentes muito inclinadas.
Inscreve-se em uma área de montanha de relevo bastante acentuado, com falésias interiores, profundas ravinas e sulcos em cujos leitos correm águas torrenciais. O Pico das Éguas, com 873 metros de altitude, é a maior elevação desta zona.1 A zona inclui uma área urbana, terrenos agrícolas e maciços florestais de produção de criptoméria.
É uma área importante em termos de endemismo, conservando vestígios da vegetação primitiva do arquipélago, com destaque para o cedro-do-mato ("Juniperus brevifolia"), o "Chaerophyllum azoricum", a angélica ("Angelica lignescens"), o azevinho ("Ilex perado ssp. azorica"), a "Tolpis azorica", o queiró ("Daboecia azorica"), a urze ("Erica azorica"), a "Lysimachia azorica", a uva-da-serra ("Vaccinium cylindraceum"), o folhado ("Viburnum tinus ssp. subcordatum"), a "Cardamine caldeirarum", as margaridas ("Beilis azorica"), assim como os musgos "Breutelia azorica", "Campylopus azoricus" e "Grimmia tricophylla ssp. azorica".
Representa também uma importante zona de passagem para aves migratórias, muitas das quais em perigo de extinção. Encontram-se igualmente aves endémicas dos Açores, como o pombo-torcaz-dos-Açores ("Columba palumbus azorica"), o melro-preto ("Turdus merula azorensis") e a estrelinha ("Regulus regulus azoricus").
Nas águas das lagoas da região encontram-se várias espécies de peixes introduzidas pelo Homem, como por exemplo a carpa ("Cyprinus carpio"), o lúcio ("Esox lucius"), a perca ("Perca fluviatilis"), o ruivo ("Rutílus rutílus") e a truta ("Salmo iridens gibrons").
A lagoa das Sete Cidades constitui-se no maior reservatório natural de água doce de superfície dos Açores, ocupando uma vasta área que chega aos 4,35 quilómetros quadrados, com uma profundidade de 33 metros.
Caracteriza-se pela dupla coloração das suas águas, sendo dividida por um canal pouco profundo, atravessado por uma ponte baixa que separa de um lado um espelho de águas de tom verde e, do outro, um espelho de tom azul.
Essas características, e a beleza da paisagem envolvente, deram lugar a que surgissem belas lendas sobre a sua origem e formação, inclusive a que a liga ao mito da Atlântida.
A lagoa, bem como a sua zona envolvente, encontra-se classificada como Paisagem Protegida
[Origem: Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre].

+Foto de autor não identificado+___

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2015-05-18 20:56:00 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 0 +1s)Open 

Rio Douro - Porto - Portugal

Rio Douro - Porto - Portugal___

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2015-05-16 20:24:13 (1 comments, 1 reshares, 2 +1s)Open 

Rio by Sandra Lesvigne: http://goo.gl/302Wrh #photography

Rio by Sandra Lesvigne: http://goo.gl/302Wrh #photography___

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2015-05-16 20:21:01 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 0 +1s)Open 

Synchronized Swimming - Photography by +Andrey Sidorov  500px.com/photo/43633366 #freediving #whale #underwater

Synchronized Swimming - Photography by +Andrey Sidorov  500px.com/photo/43633366 #freediving #whale #underwater___

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2015-05-12 22:33:50 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 0 +1s)Open 

MINI John Cooper Works Coupé

MINI John Cooper Works Coupé___

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2015-05-12 22:29:31 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 0 +1s)Open 

The only alien life form that I can care about. 

The only alien life form that I can care about. ___

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2015-05-10 12:50:23 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 5 +1s)Open 

Barcos Rabelos no Douro _ Porto _ Portugal.

Barcos Rabelos no Douro _ Porto _ Portugal.___

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2015-05-09 11:09:36 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 2 +1s)Open 

Ponte Vasco da Gama [Rio Tejo] - Lisboa (Portugal).

A Ponte Vasco da Gama é uma ponte sobre o rio Tejo, na área da Grande Lisboa, ligando Montijo e Alcochete a Lisboa e Sacavém, muito próximo do Parque das Nações, onde se realizou a Expo 98. Inaugurada a 29 de março de 1998, a ponte é a mais longa da Europa e é actualmente a nona mais extensa de todo o mundo, com os seus 17,3 km de comprimento, dos quais 12 estão sobre as águas do estuário do Tejo. Na sua inauguração foi servida uma feijoada que teve direito a inscrição no Guinness World Records.
O vão (comprimento do tabuleiro) do viaduto central é de 420 m. Foi construída a fim de constituir uma alternativa à ponte 25 de Abril para o trânsito que circula entre o norte e o sul do país na zona da capital portuguesa.
Aquando da sua construção foi necessário tomar especiais cuidados com o impacto ambiental, vistoque atravessa o Parque N... more »

Ponte Vasco da Gama [Rio Tejo] - Lisboa (Portugal).

A Ponte Vasco da Gama é uma ponte sobre o rio Tejo, na área da Grande Lisboa, ligando Montijo e Alcochete a Lisboa e Sacavém, muito próximo do Parque das Nações, onde se realizou a Expo 98. Inaugurada a 29 de março de 1998, a ponte é a mais longa da Europa e é actualmente a nona mais extensa de todo o mundo, com os seus 17,3 km de comprimento, dos quais 12 estão sobre as águas do estuário do Tejo. Na sua inauguração foi servida uma feijoada que teve direito a inscrição no Guinness World Records.
O vão (comprimento do tabuleiro) do viaduto central é de 420 m. Foi construída a fim de constituir uma alternativa à ponte 25 de Abril para o trânsito que circula entre o norte e o sul do país na zona da capital portuguesa.
Aquando da sua construção foi necessário tomar especiais cuidados com o impacto ambiental, visto que atravessa o Parque Natural do Estuário do Tejo, uma importante área à escala europeia de alimentação e nidificação de aves aquáticas. Foi também necessário proceder-se ao realojamento de 300 famílias.
O nome da ponte comemora os 500 anos da chegada de Vasco da Gama à Índia, em 1498.
É uma das mais altas construções de Portugal, com 155 m de altura.
[Origem: Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre].

Foto de live impression.___

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2015-02-03 12:59:14 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

Happy travels through Lisbon or wherever life takes you this week! ;-)

Boas viagens por Lisboa ou por onde quer que a vida vos leve esta semana! ;-)

Happy travels through Lisbon or wherever life takes you this week! ;-)

Boas viagens por Lisboa ou por onde quer que a vida vos leve esta semana! ;-)___

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2015-02-03 12:57:27 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

___

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2015-02-03 12:54:55 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 2 +1s)Open 

En toen was er een computerstoring... 

En toen was er een computerstoring... ___

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2015-01-23 21:13:49 (1 comments, 0 reshares, 2 +1s)Open 

Beautiful Portugal

Beautiful Portugal___

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2015-01-17 23:58:08 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 5 +1s)Open 

Cute Cat :)

+Ahmed Magdy 

#cats #cuteanimals #beauty #beautiful #great #funnygifs #gif #caturday  

Cute Cat :)

+Ahmed Magdy 

#cats #cuteanimals #beauty #beautiful #great #funnygifs #gif #caturday  ___

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2015-01-15 18:56:52 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 0 +1s)Open 

Love all your videos!! Ops... sorry... your videos SUCKS!!! :)

Love all your videos!! Ops... sorry... your videos SUCKS!!! :)___

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2015-01-01 11:41:41 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 2 +1s)Open 

___

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2014-12-30 08:07:45 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

Viana do Castelo
Monte de Santa Luzia
Portugal
#photography   #portugal   #share   #shapes  

Viana do Castelo
Monte de Santa Luzia
Portugal
#photography   #portugal   #share   #shapes  ___

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2014-12-03 08:49:44 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 1 +1s)Open 

Hawking: AI could end human race

Hawking: AI could end human race___

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2014-12-03 08:48:49 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 1 +1s)Open 

A Weapon For A More Civilized Age

The humour is strong in this one. 

#theforceawakens   #lightsaber   #starwars   #geek   #gif   #gifness  

A Weapon For A More Civilized Age

The humour is strong in this one. 

#theforceawakens   #lightsaber   #starwars   #geek   #gif   #gifness  ___

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2014-12-03 08:48:10 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

Cats No Dogs

Why do cats hate dogs

Dogs and cats generally have different social styles. A dog is a social animal, which must exist in a hierarchal society while the cat lives an independent life, mostly outside of the lives of other cats or animals. With such different social styles, a dog and cat will misunderstand each other at the beginning, even if the dog has friendly intentions at the beginning.

When a dog first sees a cat, particularly if it has never seen a cat, it will go bounding up to the cat. The dog rushes to the cat with different social expectations than that of the cat. The dog will expect to be able to sniff at the cat’s hind end as a social exchange and the cat does not want any of that. Other social behaviors that the dog may do that will turn off the cat include the wagging tail.

The problem with the wagging tail is that itsm... more »

Cats No Dogs

Why do cats hate dogs

Dogs and cats generally have different social styles. A dog is a social animal, which must exist in a hierarchal society while the cat lives an independent life, mostly outside of the lives of other cats or animals. With such different social styles, a dog and cat will misunderstand each other at the beginning, even if the dog has friendly intentions at the beginning.

When a dog first sees a cat, particularly if it has never seen a cat, it will go bounding up to the cat. The dog rushes to the cat with different social expectations than that of the cat. The dog will expect to be able to sniff at the cat’s hind end as a social exchange and the cat does not want any of that. Other social behaviors that the dog may do that will turn off the cat include the wagging tail.

The problem with the wagging tail is that its movement means different things to the dog and the cat. To the dog, the wagging tail is a social greeting that usually indicates happiness. To the cat, the wagging tail means displeasure and even anger. When the dog rushes to the cat with a wagging tail, the cat may interpret this as hostility. In return, when the dog sees the wagging tail on the cat, it may interpret this as a sign of friendliness when in fact the cat really feels hostility.

When the dog tries to sniff the cat, the cat may react by running off or attacking the dog. If the cat attacks the dog after the dog’s friendly or not so friendly approach, the dog’s attitude towards the cat and even other cats has been altered to the point where the dog may appear to hate cats.

Dogs may hate cats, particularly when the two animals misunderstand each other from the beginning. Not all cats and dogs hate each other. You can find photographic evidence and anecdotal stories about cats and dogs cuddling together and otherwise getting along.


Vocalizations

Cat vocalisations have been categorised according to a range of characteristics.

Schötz categorised vocalizations according to 3 mouth actions: (1) sounds produced with the mouth closed (murmurs), including the purr, the trill and the chirrup, (2) sounds produced with the mouth open and gradually closing, comprising a large variety of miaows with similar vowel patterns, and (3) sounds produced with the mouth held tensely open in the same position, often uttered in aggressive situations (growls, yowls, snarls, hisses, spits and shrieks).

Brown et al. categorised vocal responses of cats according to the behavioural context: (1) during separation of kittens from mother cats, (2) during food deprivation, (3) during pain, (4) prior to or during threat or attack behavior, as in disputes over territory or food, (5) during a painful or acutely stressful experience, as in routine prophylactic injections and (6) during kitten deprivation. Less commonly recorded calls from mature cats included purring, conspecific greeting calls or murmurs, extended vocal dialogues between cats in separate cages, “frustration” calls during training or extinction of conditioned responses.

Miller classified vocalisations into 5 categories according to the sound produced: the purr, chirr, call, meow and growl/snarl/hiss.

Meow

The meow is one of the most widely known vocalizations of domestic kittens. It is a call apparently used to solicit attention from the mother.

Adult cats commonly vocalise with a "meow" (or "miaow") sound, which is onomatopoeic. The meow can be assertive, plaintive, friendly, bold, welcoming, attention soliciting, demanding, or complaining. It can even be silent, where the cat opens its mouth but does not vocalize. Adult cats do not usually meow to each other and so meowing to human beings is likely to be an extension of the use by kittens.








Language differences

Different languages have correspondingly different words for the "meow" sound, including miau (Belarusian, Croatian, Hungarian, Dutch, Finnish, Lithuanian, Malay, German, Polish, Russian, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish and Ukrainian), mnau (Czech), meong (Indonesian), niau (Ukrainian), niaou (?????, Greek), miaou (French), nya (??, Japanese), miao (?, Mandarin Chinese, Italian), miav/miao or mjav/mjau (Danish, Swedish and Norwegian), mjá (Icelandic), ya-ong (??, Korean), ????? / Miya?un_ (Urdu) and meo-meo (Vietnamese).In some languages (such as Chinese ?, mao), the vocalization became the name of the animal itself.

Source: http://www.sarahsdogs.com/qa/why-do-dogs-hate-cats/               http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cat_communication

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