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Ethan Siegel has been shared in 130 public circles

You can see here the 50 latest shared circles.
If this is your profile, you can check your dashboard to see all shared circles you have been included.

AuthorFollowersDateUsers in CircleCommentsReshares+1Links
Paul Hutchinson2,176A G+ #FF post ... Here's my "Science" circle (at least 501 of the 1105 people in the circle)#tw #fb2015-02-27 21:06:56501000
Brian Mcquillan23,952Boost your visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!To be added to or stay in this Circle - Share the circleIf you received the notice you are in this circle, then well done.If you would like to be included in the next Circle Share, you only have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles2 - Share the circle (Publicly)3 - Add +1 to the post.4 - Leave a comment if you like.I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#circles #Gif #Cute #Anime #Animals #Online #Life #CatLovers #Cat #FunnyPics #Quote #Art #CaturdayEveryday #QuoteOfTheDay #Truth #Dog #Dogs #XD #Meme #LOL #Humor #Cute #Anime #Gif #Animals #Cat #CatLovers #Art #Online #Cats #Life #FunnyPics #CaturdayEveryday #Dog #Quote #Dogs #Truth #Manga 2015-02-27 10:33:26381133
Kristina Natacha0#CircleShar  of the DayBoost your visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!To be added to or stay in this Circle - Share the circleIf you received the notice you are in this circle, then well done.If you would like to be included in the next Circle Share, you only have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles2 - Share the circle (Publicly)3 - Add +1 to the post.4 - Leave a comment if you like.I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!------------------------#circles #shared #share #add #friends #circle #share #sharecircle #circleshar #news   #travel   #travelphotography   #update #IndonesiaOnly #Jalan #Aberdeen #Belfast #Birmingham #Bristol #Cardiff #Dublin #EastMidlands #Edinburgh #Glasgow #LeedsBradford #London #Manchester #Newcastle #circle #circles #public #publiccircle #circleshare #circlesharing 2015-02-25 16:45:00482000
Allan watson21,270Active users on Google+. Circle Share If you received a notification, please reshare to your circlesIf you’d like to be added to the next circle share: • +1 this circle • Share this circle to PUBLIC • Include me in your circles • Comment on this post#awesomecircle #circleme #malawi #lilongwe #morocco #morocco #agadir #morocco #casablanca #morocco #fez #morocco #marrakech #morocco #tangier #mozambique #mozambique #maputo #namibia #namibia #walvis_bay #namibia #windhoek #nigeria #nigeria #abuja #nigeria #lagos #rwanda #rwanda #kigali #senegal #senegal #dakar #sierra_leone #sierra_leone #freetown #bloemfontein 2015-02-25 09:53:314838613
Crazy Cats22 Public #circleshare   January 20, 2015Hope that you have been having a great week on Google+. Thank you for sharing and promoting this and for connecting up with all the great accounts I have included. Great With This #cirlce  !!!***************************************************************Boost your visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!Boost your visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!Follow me here : http://goo.gl/7rWIEVTo be added to the Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 Include me in your circles2 Click add people and create your circle3 +1 this circle4 Publicly share this circle to public, your circles and extended circles. ( dont forget share the circle and include yourself )5 If possible, leave a comment on this circle so I know you have done the three steps above (I say "if possible" as my circle comments more often than not hit the 500 comment limit).6  So I can easily find your share, always publicly share my original shared circle. You'll know if you're sharing the original one because you won't see "Jason Levy originally shared" above here. If you do see it, click on "originally shared" and it will bring you to this post.Special Invite :+A Tech Buzz +Axel Kratel +Andrea Gervasi +Andrew Sowerby +Anette Mossbacher +Brett Szmajda +Andrew Sowerby +Irina Sadokhina +Sean Carroll +Michael Sonntag +Mighty Dragon Studios +Eric Delcour +2015-02-01 10:25:32474215
Rian Sigap475Get More Google+ Follower with  +TubeDEVILZ  January 15, 2015*****************************************************************HERE'S OF MY SHARED PUBLIC CIRCLE*****************************************************************Hope that you have been having a great week on Google+. Thank you for sharing and promoting this and for connecting up with all the great accounts I have included. Great With This Cilcle!!,Boost your visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!Boost your visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!To be added to the Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 Include me in your circles2 Click add people and create your circle3 +1 this circle4 Publicly share this circle to public, your circles and extended circles. ( dont forget share the circle and include yourself )5 If possible, leave a comment on this circle so I know you have done the three steps above (I say "if possible" as my circle comments more often than not hit the 500 comment limit).6  So I can easily find your share, always publicly share my original shared circle. You'll know if you're sharing the original one because you won't see "Jason Levy originally shared" above here. If you do see it, click on "originally shared" and it will bring you to this post.**************************************Follow Me Here : http://goo.gl/c18bpxAnd Subcribe : http://goo.gl/NT0MCkSpecial Invitation (Please +1 and Share) :+Alfina Dewi +Agus Septiann +Dini Ashanti +Amy Cesario +Sergii Daniloff +Danis Sanju +Lieven Damman +dini iftita +Lincoln Harrison +Riskhha Nur Hayati +Nanang Hendro +Hanste2015-01-16 20:15:35473419
Ryan Johnson23,295This circle contains people who are very active on Google+If you received a notification, please reshare to your circlesIf you’d like to be added to the next circle share: • +1 this circle • Share this circle to PUBLIC • Include me in your circles • Comment on this post#circle #Sharedcircles #circleshare  #sri_lanka #colombo #australia #adelaide #australia #cairns #australia #darwin #australia #hobart #new_zealand #auckland #new_zealand #wellington #papua_new_guinea #papua_new_guinea #awesome #AwesomePeople #AwesomeCircle #addmetoyourcircles #addcircle #addpeople #circlemeup #circlesdiscovery #circleshare #circlesharing #publiccircle #publicsharedcircles #SharedCircles #weeklyreview #sharedcircle #topsharedcircle #circleoftheday 2015-01-16 13:00:35472236
RuMuZ NeYiMe1,336good morningadd friends list..#addcircle #addcircles #addpeople #awesomecircle #awesomecircles #awesomepeople #besharable #besocial #bestcircle #bestcircles #bestengagers #circleadd #circleall #circleme #circlemenow #circlemeup #circlenetwork #circleplus #circlesdiscovery #circleshare #circleshares #circlesharing #circleup #circleyoushare #coolpeople #engagerscircle #engagerscircles #findcircle #findcircles #follow4follow #followback #followme #fullcircleshare #influencermarketing #internetmarketing #morefollowers #networkcircle 2015-01-12 08:56:27466002
John Sean10,506This circle contains people who really are interesting and active people on Google Plus.If you would like to be included in the next Circle Share, you only have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles2 - Share the circle (Publicly)3 - Add +1 to the post.4 - Leave a comment if you like.I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#publiccircle #circleshare #circlesharing #philadelphia #phoenix #san_antonio #san_diego #san_francisco #san_jose #seattle #tampa #washington #american_samoa #american_samoa #pago_pago #fiji #fiji #nadi #fiji #suva #argentina #argentina #buenos_aires #argentina #cordoba #argentina #iguaza #argentina #mendoza #argentina #rosaio #argentina #san_carlos_de_bariloche #bolivia #bolivia #cochabamba 2015-01-12 06:41:19465012
Allan watson12,311This is a circle I created a few months ago and am now sharing with you in hopes that we can all benefit and grow our online presence.  This circle rewards those who take part in interaction as seen below..  Everyone in this circle continues to add followers.  IN ORDER TO MAKE THIS WORK PLEASE FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS BELOW:  1. Plus the post  2. Share the post  3. Add the circle if you can, if not try again later.  4. Request to be added in comments or let me know if you should be in it and for some reason are not.#Lebanon #Tajikistan #SharedCircles #circlesharing #circleshare #circleoftheday #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircle2014-11-18 10:35:46487648
Becky Collins16,609Science Circle :Circle of very #social #engagerspeople and companiesTo be included in my shares (#sharedcircle), be so kind to:1 - Do +1 t the post2 - Comment the post and specify your "category" (job or interest) Ex: Fashion, SEO, Companies, Social Media Marketing, Sailing, Photography, Bloggers/Writers, Web graphics and design, Italy, Artists, Sport, Finance/Economy ...3 - include the circle among your circles4 - share the circle (include yourself)Improve your popularity, be social be cool !Keep yourself updated, enjoy the Shared Circles Hellenic Alliance, you can share your shared circles inside the upcoming Community:https://plus.google.com/communities/112552559573595396104  #socialmedia  #media  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing  #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins ?2014-09-16 05:24:00459102
Becky Collins15,192Recipes and Cooking Circle : Circle of very #social #engagerspeople and companiesTo be included in my shares (#sharedcircle), be so kind to:1 - Do +1 t the post2 - Comment the post and specify your "category" (job or interest) Ex: Fashion, SEO, Companies, Social Media Marketing, Sailing, Photography, Bloggers/Writers, Web graphics and design, Italy, Artists, Sport, Finance/Economy ...3 - include the circle among your circles4 - share the circle (include yourself)Improve your popularity, be social be cool !Keep yourself updated, enjoy the Shared Circles Hellenic Alliance, you can share your shared circles inside the upcoming Community:https://plus.google.com/communities/112552559573595396104  #socialmedia  #media  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing  #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins ?2014-08-18 05:14:394770210
Becky Collins13,270Space Circle :Circle of very #social #engagerspeople and companiesTo be included in my shares (#sharedcircle), be so kind to:1 - Do +1 t the post2 - Comment the post and specify your "category" (job or interest) Ex: Fashion, SEO, Companies, Social Media Marketing, Sailing, Photography, Bloggers/Writers, Web graphics and design, Italy, Artists, Sport, Finance/Economy ...3 - include the circle among your circles4 - share the circle (include yourself)Improve your popularity, be social be cool !Keep yourself updated, enjoy the Shared Circles Hellenic Alliance, you can share your shared circles inside the upcoming Community:https://plus.google.com/communities/112552559573595396104  #socialmedia  #media  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing  #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins ?2014-07-17 07:18:063893010
Aman Singh2,014Circle of the dayYour re-share is appreciatedPlease re-share this circle in your stream.To be added:1- Add +Circles Circles Circles to your circles2- Write the URL of your blog in the comments section below3- Your blog must be an active blog (posts must be current)2014-07-16 12:15:324990719
Ryan Johnson9,485Hi friends! This is a great circle created with an important selection from all circles. The most important engagers are reshared because only that way can we grow our circle and have the people of google circle us.To get in, and to ensure you stay in this circle you need to do the following:1. Add me to your circles, if you haven't done so already!2. +1 this circle!3. Publicly share this circle to public, your circles and extended circles.4. If possible, leave a comment on this circle so I know you have done the three steps above!#circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #wanttobecircled #addmetoyourcircles #public #publiccircle #sharedcircles #Britain #sharedcircle #morefollowers #sharingcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedpublicircles #sharedcircle #photography #uk  #nottingham #Holland #Netherlands #Duch2014-07-16 10:40:014918812
Dina Tika0Here is a group of Active Engagers, Circle Sharers, Awesome Plus Oners, and Cool People on Google Plus!   Circle Sharing is an awesome way to increase your followers and active engagers on your profile. Some of my favorite people that I've met here on Google + through Circle Sharing.    Want to be in the next Circle of Awesomeness? Follow the Steps Below!  ☛ Add the circle ☛ Share in the Public ☛ Plus 1 the Post. ☛ Comment. 2014-06-10 05:53:52479001
Lư Thăng15,488Chia sẻ vòng kết nối chất lượng cho mọi người <3 #sharedcircles  2014-04-23 16:24:5447717224
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:27:36393014
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:26:50393033
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:26:17393011
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:25:52393011
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:25:16393203
Becky Collins3,213Baseball circle #Baseball  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins 2014-02-26 10:30:413883216
Becky Collins2,634Marketing Circle : Feb 22#circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday +Becky Collins2014-02-22 06:29:4945517724
Mikhail Petrovsky77,388Good morning / evening to all.This is a Social Circle of interesting people with an active lifestyle in Google+Это социальный круг общения интересных людей с активной жизненной позицией в Google+You'll love this circle. Photographers, artists and other interesting people!Вам понравится этот круг, добавьте его себе. Фотографы, художники и другие интересные люди!#EarthMyMother #ForFriends #photo2014-01-24 03:20:19483572881
B.A. TruthWarrior1,260These are some verified unusual characters....in general.#circleshare  #circlesharing #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday  #sharedcircleday #circleshared   #variety  2014-01-16 03:45:1647527826
Artur Mashnich43,843A Very Social CircleCircle of the Most Active Users of Google+Круг наиболее активных пользователей Google+Если вы поделились этим кругом вчера, вы находитесь в нем сегодня. Если вы разделяете его с друзьями сегодня, вы будете в нем и завтра.If you shared this circle yesterday, you are in it today. If you share today, you'll be in tomorrow.#Forfriends  2014-01-10 16:01:13493331763
Artur Mashnich40,712A Very Social CircleКруг людей с активной жизненной позицией в Гугле+circle of people, with active life position in Google+Если вы поделились этим кругом вчера, вы находитесь в нем сегодня. Если вы разделяете его с друзьями сегодня, вы будете в нем и завтра.If you shared this circle yesterday, you are in it today. If you share today, you'll be in tomorrow.2013-12-18 11:08:35494443264
Claudiu Narita3,3332013-11-20 02:26:27501817
Lo Sauer2,493This is a great circle combined of active engagers, creative folks and  some of the best and brightest people on google+. A thank you in this circle-inclusion-shoutout to: +Peter Terren +Michael Műller +Carlos Esteban +Justin Chung +Malthus John +Marta Rauch +Rajini Rao +Katherine Vucicevic +Jonathan Eisen +Mike Allton +Scott Buehler +Mario Falcetti +Zvonimir Fras +Krithika Rangarajan +sridhar krishnan +Joanna Ortynska +Seamus Smyth +Chuck Croll +Michael Schobel +2013-11-19 18:19:4843218317
Justin Fournier1,722Social & SEO CircleIt's been awhile since I've shared circles with the general public.  In this Circle I've labeled it as my Social/SEO circle.  Users within this circle generally gave me insight, tips, and tricks into G+ and social branding.Add and follow their posts to increase your own branding in this now digital world!Share and enjoy all! #SEO   #googleplus   #socialmediamarketing   #sharedcircles   #googleplustips  2013-11-03 01:00:37143215
Rank Kemeng0This is a group of individuals that has personally shared four of my best circle sharing circles in the last month (or so).  They also include a mix of new circle sharers and some that are just trying to learn it for the first time. :) :) :0)They are individuals, to a large degree, that are very interested in not just circle sharing (which is great), but also engaging with you in a meaningful way (which is awesome)!!!Guidelines for Core Multipliers- Share the circle to stay in the circle- Have some fun!- If you are new and want in the circle, share the circle.This is a great group.  Enjoy this circle and have an awesome Thursday!*if you were somehow missed/ not included in the circle, please let me know and it will be corrected on the next share. My apologies ahead of time! :)**For those coming from multiplying circle, we are not inviting new folks here, you can privately message them or ping them when you share the circle on your public feed. Thanks!#corecircle #multiplyingcircle #coremultipliers #sharedcircles #circleshare #bestsharedcircle   #circleshare   #sharedcircles   #circleoftheday   #CircleQueen   #CircleMaster   #GPlusList   #Circle   #Circleshare   #Circlesharing   #PublicSharedCircles2013-11-01 15:53:38426115
Coyeb Sundel02013-10-24 10:04:35425202
Tiberiu Igrisan448Science (part 1)#science #sciencecircle #sharedcircles  2013-10-14 18:53:04257123
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:30:23414103
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:29:39414003
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:29:27414002
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:29:04414002
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:27:59414004
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:27:16414002
James Steward1,112These are my awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:25:57414103
Fraser Cain824,747Super Science Circle for October, 2013I know it's been a while, so it's time for a new Super Science Circle - the October 2013 edition.In case you weren't aware, the Super Science Circle is a list of more than 400 people who are actively engaged on Google+ and regularly post about science and education. We've got journalists, scientists, even a few astronauts. The Super Science Circle should be your best response to anyone who tells you that Google+ is just a ghost town. If you love science, this circle will deliver the goods.If you know anyone who actively posts about science, please let me know and I'll add them to the list.2013-10-04 20:14:53415304682
Fabian Weiland145#sharedcircles #science #health2013-09-05 07:24:12497214
Cyrus Khan14,028Active Engager's CircleAttention:  Please reshare and comment if you want to be a part of next weeks edition, instead of messaging me individually.If you've received a notification, it means you are a part of the circle.Thanks for interacting : )  This is the next edition of my weekly Engagers circle, where I highlight and share the people who've interacted with me this week.I will share this circle to all my followers for exposure as an personally approved group.The criteria to be added are:1)You have commented on and publicly shared one or more of my posts;2) You have re-shared this weeks circle;As this circle grows, I may have difficulty accommodating everyone, so if you add and re-share this week's circle, you'll be guaranteed a spot in next week's edition.Cheers! #circleshare   #active   #engagerscircle   #circle #circleoftheweek   #sciencecircles  2013-08-26 17:27:32477573983
Cyrus Khan13,678Active Engager's CircleAttention: This circle has been filled this week, and will start again from scratch next week. Please reshare and comment if you want to be a part of next weeks edition.If you've received a notification, it means you are a part of the circle.If you want to be added, simply add the circle, reshare and comment saying so.Thanks for interacting : )  This is the next edition of my weekly Engagers circle, where I highlight and share the people who've interacted with me this week.I will share this circle to all my followers for exposure as an especially active group.The only criteria to be added are:1)You have commented on and publicly shared one or more of my posts;2) You have re-shared this weeks circle;As this circle grows, I may have difficulty accommodating everyone, so if you add and re-share this week's circle, you'll be guaranteed a spot in next week's edition.Cheers! #circleshare   #circleoftheweek   #active   #engagerscircle   #science   #sciencecircles   #circlesharesunday  2013-08-18 17:07:30490452062
Science on Google+69,339Applied and Mathematical SciencesThis circle will give you exposure to Computer Science, Engineering, Mathematics, and Physics. Science on Google+ Database: http://goo.gl/Yz8KRScience on Google+ Community: http://goo.gl/uhJCNIf you have a science related degree, you are a science journalist, you are a K-12 science teacher, or you curate a science page, then add your profile/page to the database by filling out this form (http://goo.gl/yEg7M). Active profiles and pages will be included in the next shared circle.2013-08-15 23:58:07292202753
Cyrus Khan13,309Active Engager's CircleIf you've received a notification, it means you are a part of the circle.If you want to be added, simply add the circle, reshare and comment saying so.Thanks for interacting : )  This is the next edition of my weekly Engagers circle, where I highlight and share the people who've interacted with me this week.I will share this circle to all my 13,000 odd followers for exposure as an active bunch among others.The only criteria to be added are:1)You have +1, or publicly shared one or more of my posts;2) You have re-shared this weeks circle.3) If you're not already in the circle, and want to be, simply comment so below.As this circle grows, I may have difficulty accommodating everyone, so if you add and re-share this week's circle, you'll be guaranteed a spot in next week's edition. #sharedcircles   #circleoftheweek   #active   #engagerscircle  2013-08-12 16:03:13488432073
B.A. TruthWarrior0A little on the unusual side #sharedcircles   #circleshare  2013-08-10 23:49:534811115
Vũ Đăng7322013-07-28 19:07:46485109
Richard Green19,150Here's my latest Engagers Showcase circle. If you received a notification, that means that you are in the circle.“Showcase” means that you are invited to leave a comment (on the original post) with a link to one of your own posts, which ideally should be one of your best recent posts. This circle consists of people who have engaged with one of my recent posts in the form of +1s, comments and reshares.For reasons of space, I wasn't able to include people whose engagement was limited to +1s on circle shares, and I may have missed other people due to limitations of the G+ interface. I also had no room to include all the engagers on four of my recent non-circle share posts. Because of this, I will be sharing this circle again next week. If you reshare this version of the circle, you are guaranteed a spot in next week's circle. Thanks for reading my posts!2013-07-21 04:25:38464353147248

Activity

Average numbers for the latest posts (max. 50 posts, posted within the last 4 weeks)

9
comments per post
10
reshares per post
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+1's per post

795
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Top posts in the last 50 posts

Most comments: 93

posted image

2015-02-13 23:17:25 (93 comments, 12 reshares, 52 +1s)Open 

"Why do we continue to detect the cosmic background radiation?
Is the fact that we continue to eternally see the cosmic background radiation billions of years after it was generated proof of either inflation, or that the universe must be curved back upon itself (i.e. that it is finite but unbounded)?
Or if neither of these are requirements, then what are other explanations?"

When we look back to greater and greater distances in the Universe, we’re looking back to earlier and earlier times as well. At some point, we can see far enough back that we reach the location at which the Universe cooled enough to first form stable, neutral atoms. But this is no nearby location: it’s presently located some 45.3 billion light-years away! All the stars, galaxies, clusters and gas clouds that we see that are closer than that had the leftover light that was released as the cosmicmic... more »

Most reshares: 33

posted image

2015-02-24 17:03:46 (1 comments, 33 reshares, 62 +1s)Open 

"If Betelgeuse explodes right now, could we see it with naked eye?"

One of the great, catastrophic truths of the Universe is that everything has an expiration date. And this includes every single point of light in the entire sky. The most massive stars will die in a spectacular supernova explosion when their final stage of core fuel runs out. At only an estimated 600 light years distant, Betelgeuse is one (along with Antares) of the closest red supergiants to us, and it’s estimated to have only perhaps 100,000 years until it reaches the end of its life. Here's the story on what we can expect to see (and feel) on Earth when Betelgeuse explodes!

Most plusones: 190

posted image

2015-02-04 23:38:19 (24 comments, 32 reshares, 190 +1s)Open 

"While Iapetus might still be the most unusual moon around, we can be proud of ourselves for one huge reason: we’ve solved at least one of its major mysteries, and finally know why it has a yin-yang coloration unlike anything else!"

Moons in our Solar System — at least the ones that formed along with the planets — all revolve counterclockwise around their planetary parents, with roughly uniform surfaces orbiting in the same plane as their other moons and rings. Yet one of Saturn's moon's, Iapetus, is unique, with a giant equatorial ridge, an orbital plane that doesn't line up, and one half that's five times brighter than the other. While the first two are still mysteries, the last one has finally been solved!

Latest 50 posts

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2015-03-02 15:15:46 (15 comments, 10 reshares, 56 +1s)Open 

"This data will enable scientists to build the most accurate model ever of star-formation, history and evolution within our galaxy, and understand the mechanism behind the origin of practically all the light in our Universe."

From our vantage point within the Milky Way, most of our 200-400 billion stars are obscured by the dust lanes present within. But thanks to its views in infrared light, the Spitzer Space Telescope can glimpse not only all of the stars and the dust simultaneously, it can do it at an alarming resolution. Recently, NASA has put together a 360 panorama of more than 2,000,000 Spitzer images taken from 2003-2014, and one astrophysicist has gone and stitched them together into a single, 180,000-pixel-long viewable experience that shows less than 3% of the sky, but nearly 50% of its stars.

"This data will enable scientists to build the most accurate model ever of star-formation, history and evolution within our galaxy, and understand the mechanism behind the origin of practically all the light in our Universe."

From our vantage point within the Milky Way, most of our 200-400 billion stars are obscured by the dust lanes present within. But thanks to its views in infrared light, the Spitzer Space Telescope can glimpse not only all of the stars and the dust simultaneously, it can do it at an alarming resolution. Recently, NASA has put together a 360 panorama of more than 2,000,000 Spitzer images taken from 2003-2014, and one astrophysicist has gone and stitched them together into a single, 180,000-pixel-long viewable experience that shows less than 3% of the sky, but nearly 50% of its stars.___

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2015-03-01 23:32:40 (20 comments, 5 reshares, 95 +1s)Open 

"An ancestor of mine maintained that when you eliminate the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth."

While the world mourns the death of Leonard Nimoy in its own way, it's important to remember the legacy that Star Trek — and that Spock and alien characters like him — left on our world. Unlike any other series, Star Trek used a futuristic, nearly utopian world to explore our own moral battles and failings, and yet somehow always managed to weave in an optimism about humanity and our future. That's something, I argue, that is sorely missing from the new J.J. Abrams movies.

"An ancestor of mine maintained that when you eliminate the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth."

While the world mourns the death of Leonard Nimoy in its own way, it's important to remember the legacy that Star Trek — and that Spock and alien characters like him — left on our world. Unlike any other series, Star Trek used a futuristic, nearly utopian world to explore our own moral battles and failings, and yet somehow always managed to weave in an optimism about humanity and our future. That's something, I argue, that is sorely missing from the new J.J. Abrams movies.___

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2015-02-28 15:23:34 (1 comments, 1 reshares, 11 +1s)Open 

"The idea that the Universe could be described by our physical laws, the fundamental particles, and simply knowing the initial conditions and extrapolating forwards in time is at the heart of what cosmology is. From ancient times until perhaps the 1960s, cosmology was more of a hypothesis than a full-blown physical theory, as there were too many uncertainties that were simply too large. But with the discovery of the cosmic microwave background, all of that changed.

For the first time, we knew not only the physical laws governing the Universe (General Relativity was well-established, and the Standard Model was very close to complete), but we learned what the initial state-and-conditions of the Universe were to a reasonably high precision. The idea of a “precision cosmology,” once a pipe dream, has become a reality thanks to the influx of continually superior data. For the first time, weund... more »

"The idea that the Universe could be described by our physical laws, the fundamental particles, and simply knowing the initial conditions and extrapolating forwards in time is at the heart of what cosmology is. From ancient times until perhaps the 1960s, cosmology was more of a hypothesis than a full-blown physical theory, as there were too many uncertainties that were simply too large. But with the discovery of the cosmic microwave background, all of that changed.

For the first time, we knew not only the physical laws governing the Universe (General Relativity was well-established, and the Standard Model was very close to complete), but we learned what the initial state-and-conditions of the Universe were to a reasonably high precision. The idea of a “precision cosmology,” once a pipe dream, has become a reality thanks to the influx of continually superior data. For the first time, we understand the history of the Universe and almost everything in it with errors and uncertainties on almost everything that are no more than a few percent."

A huge number of comments -- and responses -- to dive a little deeper into our Universe. Don't miss our comments of the week!___

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2015-02-27 20:17:12 (4 comments, 3 reshares, 26 +1s)Open 

"[W]ill you explode if exposed to the vacuum of space? I’ve gone down the “water boils in a vacuum then freezes” road, others have gone down the “tried it on a dog and it lived” approach. The movie Gravity shows buddy lifting his helmet and instantly freezing so… how does it work, Ethan?"

In films like Gravity, Mission to Mars and Total Recall, humans are often shown dying rapidly and catastrophically from exposure to the vacuum of space. But are these deaths scientifically accurate? Would you freeze, boil, explode, swell-to-incapacitation or something else? Thanks to a great question from Kerrie Pinkney, we've got a fabulous Ask Ethan for you this week!

"[W]ill you explode if exposed to the vacuum of space? I’ve gone down the “water boils in a vacuum then freezes” road, others have gone down the “tried it on a dog and it lived” approach. The movie Gravity shows buddy lifting his helmet and instantly freezing so… how does it work, Ethan?"

In films like Gravity, Mission to Mars and Total Recall, humans are often shown dying rapidly and catastrophically from exposure to the vacuum of space. But are these deaths scientifically accurate? Would you freeze, boil, explode, swell-to-incapacitation or something else? Thanks to a great question from Kerrie Pinkney, we've got a fabulous Ask Ethan for you this week!___

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2015-02-26 14:53:00 (2 comments, 1 reshares, 15 +1s)Open 

"So no, we don’t quite have a second moon, but we do finally have a robust discovery of a Trojan asteroid to call our very own. And it isn’t 3753 Cruithne; don’t be fooled. 3,000 years is nothing in the life of our Solar System. When it comes to Trojans, stick with the one that will stick with us, and that’s 2010 TK7!"

Planets can have not only moons, but gravitationally captured bodies co-orbiting the Sun either ahead or behind them in orbit. Jupiter, for example, has not only all the moons that orbit around it, but thousands of gravitationally captured objects in addition: the Trojans (and Greeks). While Earth may have only one true moon orbiting our world, what of these Trojans? Do we have any captured asteroids or comets hanging out around one of our Lagrange points? We absolutely do, but only one of them is here to stay, and it very likely isn’t the one — 3753 Cruithne— you’ve he... more »

"So no, we don’t quite have a second moon, but we do finally have a robust discovery of a Trojan asteroid to call our very own. And it isn’t 3753 Cruithne; don’t be fooled. 3,000 years is nothing in the life of our Solar System. When it comes to Trojans, stick with the one that will stick with us, and that’s 2010 TK7!"

Planets can have not only moons, but gravitationally captured bodies co-orbiting the Sun either ahead or behind them in orbit. Jupiter, for example, has not only all the moons that orbit around it, but thousands of gravitationally captured objects in addition: the Trojans (and Greeks). While Earth may have only one true moon orbiting our world, what of these Trojans? Do we have any captured asteroids or comets hanging out around one of our Lagrange points? We absolutely do, but only one of them is here to stay, and it very likely isn’t the one — 3753 Cruithne — you’ve heard of.___

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2015-02-26 01:55:46 (0 comments, 2 reshares, 17 +1s)Open 

"In every case, death is not the ultimate end, but merely a single step along a journey that began long before any of what we know today existed, and will continue long after the Universe as we know it becomes unrecognizable to those of us viewing it today.

Whenever a light goes out, remember this story. For everything will have its moment to shine again."

Death never saw the rebirth coming. The future of stellar corpses are fascinating, and the philosophical implications are even more spectacular.

"In every case, death is not the ultimate end, but merely a single step along a journey that began long before any of what we know today existed, and will continue long after the Universe as we know it becomes unrecognizable to those of us viewing it today.

Whenever a light goes out, remember this story. For everything will have its moment to shine again."

Death never saw the rebirth coming. The future of stellar corpses are fascinating, and the philosophical implications are even more spectacular.___

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2015-02-24 22:50:24 (9 comments, 17 reshares, 73 +1s)Open 

"When we talk about astrophysics to the general public, we often rely on appealing images and rough analogies to convey the meaning behind the mathematics. It’s a good way to convey our understanding of the universe, but it also gives the impression that the analogies are what science is all about."

No one science can stand wholly on its own. For inquiry about the Universe to give a correct, complete picture, it requires that we bring in a whole slew of evidence, often from tangentially related fields. The interplay between three fields in particular — astronomy, physics, and math (not a science, but the tool used to help understand the relationships arising in the first two) — have given rise to the most successful picture of the Universe of all-time. But to the non-scientists out there, it's often difficult to tell a sciencey-sounding idea from real science. +BrianKober... more »

"When we talk about astrophysics to the general public, we often rely on appealing images and rough analogies to convey the meaning behind the mathematics. It’s a good way to convey our understanding of the universe, but it also gives the impression that the analogies are what science is all about."

No one science can stand wholly on its own. For inquiry about the Universe to give a correct, complete picture, it requires that we bring in a whole slew of evidence, often from tangentially related fields. The interplay between three fields in particular — astronomy, physics, and math (not a science, but the tool used to help understand the relationships arising in the first two) — have given rise to the most successful picture of the Universe of all-time. But to the non-scientists out there, it's often difficult to tell a sciencey-sounding idea from real science. +Brian Koberlein breaks it down for us.___

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2015-02-24 17:03:46 (1 comments, 33 reshares, 62 +1s)Open 

"If Betelgeuse explodes right now, could we see it with naked eye?"

One of the great, catastrophic truths of the Universe is that everything has an expiration date. And this includes every single point of light in the entire sky. The most massive stars will die in a spectacular supernova explosion when their final stage of core fuel runs out. At only an estimated 600 light years distant, Betelgeuse is one (along with Antares) of the closest red supergiants to us, and it’s estimated to have only perhaps 100,000 years until it reaches the end of its life. Here's the story on what we can expect to see (and feel) on Earth when Betelgeuse explodes!

"If Betelgeuse explodes right now, could we see it with naked eye?"

One of the great, catastrophic truths of the Universe is that everything has an expiration date. And this includes every single point of light in the entire sky. The most massive stars will die in a spectacular supernova explosion when their final stage of core fuel runs out. At only an estimated 600 light years distant, Betelgeuse is one (along with Antares) of the closest red supergiants to us, and it’s estimated to have only perhaps 100,000 years until it reaches the end of its life. Here's the story on what we can expect to see (and feel) on Earth when Betelgeuse explodes!___

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2015-02-23 16:06:52 (14 comments, 15 reshares, 80 +1s)Open 

"While craters young and old litter its surface, large numbers of catenae, or crater chains, can be found as well on both the near and far sides. While about 20 have been known since the 1990s, often extending for hundreds of kilometers, many more have been discovered with the advent of LROC and citizen science projects like Moon Zoo."

You might think that your odds of getting 3, 5, or even 10 or more craters all next to each other and in a row on an object like the Moon are astronomically small. Yet, we've identified dozens of features that show exactly this! Here are some of the most spectacular, along with the redux of the leading ideas of where they came from, including secondary impacts, tidally disrupted impactors and volcanic and geologic explanations.

"While craters young and old litter its surface, large numbers of catenae, or crater chains, can be found as well on both the near and far sides. While about 20 have been known since the 1990s, often extending for hundreds of kilometers, many more have been discovered with the advent of LROC and citizen science projects like Moon Zoo."

You might think that your odds of getting 3, 5, or even 10 or more craters all next to each other and in a row on an object like the Moon are astronomically small. Yet, we've identified dozens of features that show exactly this! Here are some of the most spectacular, along with the redux of the leading ideas of where they came from, including secondary impacts, tidally disrupted impactors and volcanic and geologic explanations.___

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2015-02-22 22:13:17 (0 comments, 2 reshares, 19 +1s)Open 

"Soap bubbles, of course, start out as a mix of soap, water, and sometimes a sugary or gelatinous additive to thicken the bubble walls and make them more robust. But if you drop the temperature to a low enough amount below freezing, the tiny imperfections in the bubble’s structure will result in the formation of ice crystals."

When life gives you freezing cold... make frozen soap bubbles? I guess that's one way to beat the Christmas ornament rush!

"Soap bubbles, of course, start out as a mix of soap, water, and sometimes a sugary or gelatinous additive to thicken the bubble walls and make them more robust. But if you drop the temperature to a low enough amount below freezing, the tiny imperfections in the bubble’s structure will result in the formation of ice crystals."

When life gives you freezing cold... make frozen soap bubbles? I guess that's one way to beat the Christmas ornament rush!___

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2015-02-21 15:26:51 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 13 +1s)Open 

""I think Edmond Halley must have been the first scientist to successfully predict the future!"

When it comes to comets, there's no doubt of that. But before Halley, Kepler predicted transits of Venus and Mercury, Ptolemy predicted the orbits of the planets, and pre-historic Babylonians (among others) were able to predict lunar and solar eclipses. Halley's prediction was spectacular, and his precise prediction of the return of the comet which bears his name in 1758 was a tremendous achievement, but let's not take credit away from all the incredible scientists who preceded him!"

From history to the cutting edge, this edition of the comments of the week has something for everyone!

""I think Edmond Halley must have been the first scientist to successfully predict the future!"

When it comes to comets, there's no doubt of that. But before Halley, Kepler predicted transits of Venus and Mercury, Ptolemy predicted the orbits of the planets, and pre-historic Babylonians (among others) were able to predict lunar and solar eclipses. Halley's prediction was spectacular, and his precise prediction of the return of the comet which bears his name in 1758 was a tremendous achievement, but let's not take credit away from all the incredible scientists who preceded him!"

From history to the cutting edge, this edition of the comments of the week has something for everyone!___

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2015-02-20 20:33:59 (8 comments, 25 reshares, 87 +1s)Open 

"The higher your energy, the heavier the pairs of particles are that you can spontaneously create. If we go back to early enough times — when the average energies of the Universe were high enough to create pairs of top-antitop quarks (the heaviest known particle) — we find that there were far fewer photons around at that time than there are today!

Why’s this?

Because just as a particle-antiparticle pair can annihilate to form two photons today, at high enough energies, two photons can interact to form particle-antiparticle pairs!"

Our observable Universe got its start at the hot Big Bang, where every single known particle and antiparticle of matter or radiation existed in great abundance. Normally, the story of what happened to everything as the Universe expanded and cooled is glossed over, picking up with the leftover matter forming nuclei and atoms.Here is a ter... more »

"The higher your energy, the heavier the pairs of particles are that you can spontaneously create. If we go back to early enough times — when the average energies of the Universe were high enough to create pairs of top-antitop quarks (the heaviest known particle) — we find that there were far fewer photons around at that time than there are today!

Why’s this?

Because just as a particle-antiparticle pair can annihilate to form two photons today, at high enough energies, two photons can interact to form particle-antiparticle pairs!"

Our observable Universe got its start at the hot Big Bang, where every single known particle and antiparticle of matter or radiation existed in great abundance. Normally, the story of what happened to everything as the Universe expanded and cooled is glossed over, picking up with the leftover matter forming nuclei and atoms. Here is a terrific and accessible treatment of all the details that happen in between. Required reading for aficionados of how our Universe came to be the way it is.___

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2015-02-20 00:24:14 (4 comments, 3 reshares, 20 +1s)Open 

"So be smart about it! Don’t toss something into an air-filled shaft through the Earth’s poles, toss it into a vacuum! Your cylindrical shaft, reinforced and cooled, will extend continuously from the North Pole to the South Pole, and you’ll have removed all the air from it!

Now, the fun begins. You toss an object into the bottomless pit, and what happens?"

It’s the ultimate dream of many children with time on their hands and their first leisurely attempt at digging: to go clear through the Earth to the other side, creating a bottomless pit. Most of us don’t get very far in practice, but in theory, it should be possible to construct one, and consider what would happen to a very clever test subject who took all the proper precautions, and jumped right in. Here's what you would have to do to travel clear through the Earth, come out the other side, and make thereturn tr... more »

"So be smart about it! Don’t toss something into an air-filled shaft through the Earth’s poles, toss it into a vacuum! Your cylindrical shaft, reinforced and cooled, will extend continuously from the North Pole to the South Pole, and you’ll have removed all the air from it!

Now, the fun begins. You toss an object into the bottomless pit, and what happens?"

It’s the ultimate dream of many children with time on their hands and their first leisurely attempt at digging: to go clear through the Earth to the other side, creating a bottomless pit. Most of us don’t get very far in practice, but in theory, it should be possible to construct one, and consider what would happen to a very clever test subject who took all the proper precautions, and jumped right in. Here's what you would have to do to travel clear through the Earth, come out the other side, and make the return trip to right back where you started.___

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2015-02-19 02:07:55 (8 comments, 13 reshares, 33 +1s)Open 

"So when you’re thinking about theoretical physics, and someone brings up a theorem that something must happen (or cannot happen) a certain way, keep in mind that — unlike math — the physics that underlies that theorem isn’t necessarily the whole story of the Universe. There are plenty of subtle effects, however small and insignificant they might seem, that can lead you to a completely different, or even the exact opposite conclusion from what your theorem supposedly “proved.”"

In mathematics, a theorem will absolutely, definitively settle an issue as to whether something can or cannot happen. But in physics, the waters are a lot murkier. Proofs and theorems of forbidden phenomena (like 21-cm hydrogen emission) abound, and yet those phenomena occur. Similarly, theorems exist that certain events must occur (like the Poincare recurrence theorem), and yet they neverwill. Beware of wha... more »

"So when you’re thinking about theoretical physics, and someone brings up a theorem that something must happen (or cannot happen) a certain way, keep in mind that — unlike math — the physics that underlies that theorem isn’t necessarily the whole story of the Universe. There are plenty of subtle effects, however small and insignificant they might seem, that can lead you to a completely different, or even the exact opposite conclusion from what your theorem supposedly “proved.”"

In mathematics, a theorem will absolutely, definitively settle an issue as to whether something can or cannot happen. But in physics, the waters are a lot murkier. Proofs and theorems of forbidden phenomena (like 21-cm hydrogen emission) abound, and yet those phenomena occur. Similarly, theorems exist that certain events must occur (like the Poincare recurrence theorem), and yet they never will. Beware of what a proof or theorem actually means for the Universe, and keep this in mind when it comes to the origin of space and time itself!___

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2015-02-17 22:53:14 (4 comments, 0 reshares, 23 +1s)Open 

"But the showstopper — something everyone should see in 2015's winter skies — is the giant of our Solar System: Jupiter. Jupiter is very close to opposition, where it appears at its closest and brightest to Earth, and is visible all night long, as it’s nearly perfectly opposite to the Sun in the sky."

They say that a telescope is only as good as the amount of time you spend looking through it, and for most people, that's not nearly as often as they plan. But if you're one of the avid ones, what should you focus on when you're sharing the night sky with another? This tremendous, comprehensive guide covers all the essentials to think about when showcasing the wonders of the Universe with first-timers, from planets to deep-sky objects and more.

"But the showstopper — something everyone should see in 2015's winter skies — is the giant of our Solar System: Jupiter. Jupiter is very close to opposition, where it appears at its closest and brightest to Earth, and is visible all night long, as it’s nearly perfectly opposite to the Sun in the sky."

They say that a telescope is only as good as the amount of time you spend looking through it, and for most people, that's not nearly as often as they plan. But if you're one of the avid ones, what should you focus on when you're sharing the night sky with another? This tremendous, comprehensive guide covers all the essentials to think about when showcasing the wonders of the Universe with first-timers, from planets to deep-sky objects and more.___

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2015-02-16 16:06:39 (1 comments, 9 reshares, 72 +1s)Open 

"The images and mosaics above, taken by the Rosetta Mission’s Navigation Camera (NAVCAM), highlight the increased emission activity of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Since arriving at the comet in August, 2014, Rosetta has witnessed a tremendous increase in the amount of dust being blown off from the nucleus thanks to heating from the Sun. As the comet continues to approach the Sun as the months go on, two distinct tails — one of dust and one of ions — will develop, intensifying in magnitude and size thanks to both the increased solar flux and the accompanying increase in velocity.”

Check out Rosetta’s images of the developing tail of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko.

"The images and mosaics above, taken by the Rosetta Mission’s Navigation Camera (NAVCAM), highlight the increased emission activity of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Since arriving at the comet in August, 2014, Rosetta has witnessed a tremendous increase in the amount of dust being blown off from the nucleus thanks to heating from the Sun. As the comet continues to approach the Sun as the months go on, two distinct tails — one of dust and one of ions — will develop, intensifying in magnitude and size thanks to both the increased solar flux and the accompanying increase in velocity.”

Check out Rosetta’s images of the developing tail of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko.___

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2015-02-15 23:08:48 (6 comments, 4 reshares, 17 +1s)Open 

"When you say worth it, by the way, it has a very specific meaning when it comes to mathematics. It means that the amount you can expect to win, on average, is greater than the amount you have to bet in order to play."

This past week, the Powerball Jackpot crested past $500 million, one of the largest Jackpots in lottery history. You might think — since the odds of hitting the Jackpot are “only” 1-in-175,223,510 — that it’s a no-brainer to buy a $2 ticket and take your shot at $500 million. But if you take everything into account, what is the expected value of a Powerball ticket? As it turns out, it’s not only less than you probably think, it’s much less than you ever imagined: topping out at a mere $0.852 for a $2 ticket when you take everything into account. It’s often been said that the lottery is a tax on the mathematically challenged, and now you’ve got the hard,mathematical evid... more »

"When you say worth it, by the way, it has a very specific meaning when it comes to mathematics. It means that the amount you can expect to win, on average, is greater than the amount you have to bet in order to play."

This past week, the Powerball Jackpot crested past $500 million, one of the largest Jackpots in lottery history. You might think — since the odds of hitting the Jackpot are “only” 1-in-175,223,510 — that it’s a no-brainer to buy a $2 ticket and take your shot at $500 million. But if you take everything into account, what is the expected value of a Powerball ticket? As it turns out, it’s not only less than you probably think, it’s much less than you ever imagined: topping out at a mere $0.852 for a $2 ticket when you take everything into account. It’s often been said that the lottery is a tax on the mathematically challenged, and now you’ve got the hard, mathematical evidence to back it up!___

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2015-02-14 16:34:05 (1 comments, 9 reshares, 27 +1s)Open 

"But none of that changes the fact that “the hot Big Bang” and the “birth of space and time” are not synonymous. In my opinion — and this is an opinion not shared by all professional cosmologists (for, again, IMO, pretty jerky reasons) — no one should be using the term “Big Bang” to refer to a singularity ever again. Even if the Universe did begin from a singularity, it wasn’t big, it didn’t go bang, and it may-or-may-not have been hot in that initial state. Certainly, inflation is none of those things.

I have a long way to go to convince the general public of what’s actually, physically true, and of convincing the professional cosmology community on how to communicate in a way that doesn’t magnify that confusion, but I’m still here fighting the good fight. We may never completely win the war on misinformation, but that’s no excuse to ever surrender!"
From the Moon to th... more »

"But none of that changes the fact that “the hot Big Bang” and the “birth of space and time” are not synonymous. In my opinion — and this is an opinion not shared by all professional cosmologists (for, again, IMO, pretty jerky reasons) — no one should be using the term “Big Bang” to refer to a singularity ever again. Even if the Universe did begin from a singularity, it wasn’t big, it didn’t go bang, and it may-or-may-not have been hot in that initial state. Certainly, inflation is none of those things.

I have a long way to go to convince the general public of what’s actually, physically true, and of convincing the professional cosmology community on how to communicate in a way that doesn’t magnify that confusion, but I’m still here fighting the good fight. We may never completely win the war on misinformation, but that’s no excuse to ever surrender!"

From the Moon to the beginning of the Universe to the energy of space itself, there are some incredible things to explore on this edition of your comments of the week!___

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2015-02-13 23:17:25 (93 comments, 12 reshares, 52 +1s)Open 

"Why do we continue to detect the cosmic background radiation?
Is the fact that we continue to eternally see the cosmic background radiation billions of years after it was generated proof of either inflation, or that the universe must be curved back upon itself (i.e. that it is finite but unbounded)?
Or if neither of these are requirements, then what are other explanations?"

When we look back to greater and greater distances in the Universe, we’re looking back to earlier and earlier times as well. At some point, we can see far enough back that we reach the location at which the Universe cooled enough to first form stable, neutral atoms. But this is no nearby location: it’s presently located some 45.3 billion light-years away! All the stars, galaxies, clusters and gas clouds that we see that are closer than that had the leftover light that was released as the cosmicmic... more »

"Why do we continue to detect the cosmic background radiation?
Is the fact that we continue to eternally see the cosmic background radiation billions of years after it was generated proof of either inflation, or that the universe must be curved back upon itself (i.e. that it is finite but unbounded)?
Or if neither of these are requirements, then what are other explanations?"

When we look back to greater and greater distances in the Universe, we’re looking back to earlier and earlier times as well. At some point, we can see far enough back that we reach the location at which the Universe cooled enough to first form stable, neutral atoms. But this is no nearby location: it’s presently located some 45.3 billion light-years away! All the stars, galaxies, clusters and gas clouds that we see that are closer than that had the leftover light that was released as the cosmic microwave background pass us by ages and ages ago. Here's what it means that the cosmic microwave background — the leftover glow from the Big Bang — is still visible to us today.___

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2015-02-12 23:07:35 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 14 +1s)Open 

"The idea of a black hole has been around for hundreds of years: a region of space where there’s so much matter-and-energy that not even light can escape from it. Yet despite this property, the fact that any form of energy that ever enters it is forbidden from leaving, these objects are not invisible. Rather, there are a number of ways they reveal themselves to us practically, as well as theoretically, in ways we may detect in the not-too-distant future."

How can you "see" something that not only doesn't emit light, but that nothing can escape from? Thankfully, the Universe is far more interesting and diverse than just a simple hole in spacetime!

"The idea of a black hole has been around for hundreds of years: a region of space where there’s so much matter-and-energy that not even light can escape from it. Yet despite this property, the fact that any form of energy that ever enters it is forbidden from leaving, these objects are not invisible. Rather, there are a number of ways they reveal themselves to us practically, as well as theoretically, in ways we may detect in the not-too-distant future."

How can you "see" something that not only doesn't emit light, but that nothing can escape from? Thankfully, the Universe is far more interesting and diverse than just a simple hole in spacetime!___

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2015-02-10 23:59:15 (3 comments, 27 reshares, 38 +1s)Open 

"When you think about how the Universe got its start, from a scientific point of view, there’s one theory that explains what we see above all others: the Big Bang. But not everyone agrees on what “the Big Bang” actually means. In particular, there’s some news going around that perhaps there was no Big Bang, after all. Is this legitimate? And if it is, what does it mean, exactly?"

Sure, the Big Bang never happened, and a quantum equation proves it. If, that is, you're willing to use a definition of the Big Bang that's decades out of date. It really, really happened.

Here's what we know, and how we know it. Cut through the confusion, and don't be fooled by bad science writing -- or charlatans looking for attention -- ever again!

"When you think about how the Universe got its start, from a scientific point of view, there’s one theory that explains what we see above all others: the Big Bang. But not everyone agrees on what “the Big Bang” actually means. In particular, there’s some news going around that perhaps there was no Big Bang, after all. Is this legitimate? And if it is, what does it mean, exactly?"

Sure, the Big Bang never happened, and a quantum equation proves it. If, that is, you're willing to use a definition of the Big Bang that's decades out of date. It really, really happened.

Here's what we know, and how we know it. Cut through the confusion, and don't be fooled by bad science writing -- or charlatans looking for attention -- ever again!___

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2015-02-10 20:51:05 (1 comments, 4 reshares, 25 +1s)Open 

"He was not merely the best teacher in our profession whom I have ever known; he was also passionately preoccupied with the development and destiny of men, especially his students. To understand others, to gain their friendship and trust, to aid anyone embroiled in outer or inner struggles, to encourage youthful talent — all this was his real element, almost more than his immersion in scientific problems."

That was Einstein on Paul Ehrenfest. To those of you who think that brilliance and accomplishment means you won't ever get depressed, Paul Halpern tells a sobering tale of one human's inward, downward spiral that's as relevant today as it was more than 80 years ago.

"He was not merely the best teacher in our profession whom I have ever known; he was also passionately preoccupied with the development and destiny of men, especially his students. To understand others, to gain their friendship and trust, to aid anyone embroiled in outer or inner struggles, to encourage youthful talent — all this was his real element, almost more than his immersion in scientific problems."

That was Einstein on Paul Ehrenfest. To those of you who think that brilliance and accomplishment means you won't ever get depressed, Paul Halpern tells a sobering tale of one human's inward, downward spiral that's as relevant today as it was more than 80 years ago.___

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2015-02-09 16:06:48 (0 comments, 2 reshares, 16 +1s)Open 

"On November 3rd, 2013, a total solar eclipse occurred as the Moon passed in front of the Sun, causing its shadow to fall over a swath of land in Africa. With camera teams in three different countries along the path of totality, Miloslav Druckmüller was able to bring out extraordinary details in the Sun’s corona, even improving upon what spaceborne satellites (such as NASA’s SOHO) could observe."

Come see — and learn about — a single photographer’s accomplishments during a single solar eclipse, including an extraordinary photograph of the Moon's shadow falling on Earth. It’s all the more amazing considering that totality lasted mere seconds during this one!

"On November 3rd, 2013, a total solar eclipse occurred as the Moon passed in front of the Sun, causing its shadow to fall over a swath of land in Africa. With camera teams in three different countries along the path of totality, Miloslav Druckmüller was able to bring out extraordinary details in the Sun’s corona, even improving upon what spaceborne satellites (such as NASA’s SOHO) could observe."

Come see — and learn about — a single photographer’s accomplishments during a single solar eclipse, including an extraordinary photograph of the Moon's shadow falling on Earth. It’s all the more amazing considering that totality lasted mere seconds during this one!___

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2015-02-07 23:07:26 (1 comments, 10 reshares, 82 +1s)Open 

"Not only can we view what the Moon’s phases will look like as seen from Earth every day of the year, but thanks to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, we have such great information about the Moon’s far side that we can visualize what the Moon and the Earth would look like from viewed above the far side of the Moon!"

If you thought lunar libration was cool (and it is), wait until you see how the Earth librates from above the Moon's far side!

"Not only can we view what the Moon’s phases will look like as seen from Earth every day of the year, but thanks to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, we have such great information about the Moon’s far side that we can visualize what the Moon and the Earth would look like from viewed above the far side of the Moon!"

If you thought lunar libration was cool (and it is), wait until you see how the Earth librates from above the Moon's far side!___

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2015-02-07 15:34:24 (1 comments, 10 reshares, 37 +1s)Open 

"My favorite of these is that Iapetus started out with a faster rate-of-rotation than it presently has, just as Earth started out with a rate of rotation that’s approximately three-to-four times its present rate. Iapetus now has a rotational period of 79 days, being tidally locked to Saturn, as all moons appear to be locked to their parent gas giants. But if it initially had a 17-hour rotational period after forming, that could explain the height of the ridge. Radioactive heating from isotopes such as Al-26 could have allowed it to remain hot enough to plastically deform for millions of years, which could have enabled its present, unique shape.

The point, though, is not to decide right now which of these ideas is correct, as we don’t have sufficient evidence to do that, but to hold all the plausible ideas in our heads, and keep in mind what evidence could come in to allow us to validateor ... more »

"My favorite of these is that Iapetus started out with a faster rate-of-rotation than it presently has, just as Earth started out with a rate of rotation that’s approximately three-to-four times its present rate. Iapetus now has a rotational period of 79 days, being tidally locked to Saturn, as all moons appear to be locked to their parent gas giants. But if it initially had a 17-hour rotational period after forming, that could explain the height of the ridge. Radioactive heating from isotopes such as Al-26 could have allowed it to remain hot enough to plastically deform for millions of years, which could have enabled its present, unique shape.

The point, though, is not to decide right now which of these ideas is correct, as we don’t have sufficient evidence to do that, but to hold all the plausible ideas in our heads, and keep in mind what evidence could come in to allow us to validate or falsify various models. That’s the real way that science progresses, and that’s how we get it right in the end!"

From inflation to Iapetus, to differentiating dark matter from neutrinos, we've got an amazing set of comments -- and some deep physics to go with it -- on this edition of our #commentsoftheweek!___

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2015-02-06 23:55:58 (22 comments, 23 reshares, 55 +1s)Open 

"Dear Ethan,
What the heck are gravity waves?
Thanks,
Adam"

When you think of waves, chances are you think of some type of pressure wave moving through a medium, like sound or water waves, or you think of light, which is an electromagnetic wave that requires no medium to move through. But there’s another type of wave that exists, that no one expected before Einstein came along: gravitational waves. These are energy-carrying ripples through the fabric of space itself, explained in a beautiful analogy with light and detailing how they affect our Universe as well as how to detect them.

"Dear Ethan,
What the heck are gravity waves?
Thanks,
Adam"

When you think of waves, chances are you think of some type of pressure wave moving through a medium, like sound or water waves, or you think of light, which is an electromagnetic wave that requires no medium to move through. But there’s another type of wave that exists, that no one expected before Einstein came along: gravitational waves. These are energy-carrying ripples through the fabric of space itself, explained in a beautiful analogy with light and detailing how they affect our Universe as well as how to detect them.___

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2015-02-05 23:55:30 (2 comments, 9 reshares, 52 +1s)Open 

"We don’t yet know where the values of these constants come from, or whether that’s something that will ever be known with the information available in our Universe. Some people chalk them up to anthropics or appeal to the multiverse; I haven’t given up on our Universe just yet, though!

Our journey through the cosmos continues, and there’s so much more still to learn."

Our Universe is the way it is for two reasons: the initial conditions that it started off with, and the fundamental particles, interactions and laws that govern it. When it comes to the physical properties of everything that exists, we can ask ourselves how many fundamental, dimensionless constants or parameters it takes to give us a complete description of everything we observe. Surprisingly, the answer is 26 (not 42), and there are a few things that remain unexplained, even with all of them.

"We don’t yet know where the values of these constants come from, or whether that’s something that will ever be known with the information available in our Universe. Some people chalk them up to anthropics or appeal to the multiverse; I haven’t given up on our Universe just yet, though!

Our journey through the cosmos continues, and there’s so much more still to learn."

Our Universe is the way it is for two reasons: the initial conditions that it started off with, and the fundamental particles, interactions and laws that govern it. When it comes to the physical properties of everything that exists, we can ask ourselves how many fundamental, dimensionless constants or parameters it takes to give us a complete description of everything we observe. Surprisingly, the answer is 26 (not 42), and there are a few things that remain unexplained, even with all of them.___

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2015-02-05 01:20:22 (1 comments, 1 reshares, 10 +1s)Open 

Cosmology in the 21st Century

If you missed it, it's now permanently linked, with the live-blog complete and 100% attached. Follow along!

Cosmology in the 21st Century

If you missed it, it's now permanently linked, with the live-blog complete and 100% attached. Follow along!___

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2015-02-04 23:38:19 (24 comments, 32 reshares, 190 +1s)Open 

"While Iapetus might still be the most unusual moon around, we can be proud of ourselves for one huge reason: we’ve solved at least one of its major mysteries, and finally know why it has a yin-yang coloration unlike anything else!"

Moons in our Solar System — at least the ones that formed along with the planets — all revolve counterclockwise around their planetary parents, with roughly uniform surfaces orbiting in the same plane as their other moons and rings. Yet one of Saturn's moon's, Iapetus, is unique, with a giant equatorial ridge, an orbital plane that doesn't line up, and one half that's five times brighter than the other. While the first two are still mysteries, the last one has finally been solved!

"While Iapetus might still be the most unusual moon around, we can be proud of ourselves for one huge reason: we’ve solved at least one of its major mysteries, and finally know why it has a yin-yang coloration unlike anything else!"

Moons in our Solar System — at least the ones that formed along with the planets — all revolve counterclockwise around their planetary parents, with roughly uniform surfaces orbiting in the same plane as their other moons and rings. Yet one of Saturn's moon's, Iapetus, is unique, with a giant equatorial ridge, an orbital plane that doesn't line up, and one half that's five times brighter than the other. While the first two are still mysteries, the last one has finally been solved!___

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2015-02-04 22:24:38 (2 comments, 1 reshares, 11 +1s)Open 

Reminder: Cosmology in the 21st Century begins in ~90 minutes! (7 PM ET / 4 PM PT) 

Catch it + the Live-blog at Starts With A Bang on Medium.

Reminder: Cosmology in the 21st Century begins in ~90 minutes! (7 PM ET / 4 PM PT) 

Catch it + the Live-blog at Starts With A Bang on Medium.___

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2015-02-04 00:15:10 (33 comments, 24 reshares, 99 +1s)Open 

"Little did we know that the 20th century would see us discover an entirely new theory of gravity, two more fundamental forces and dozens of new, fundamental particles, billions of galaxies beyond our own, and the origin of the Universe from a hot, dense expanding state.

What’s more, is we also found some things we never could have anticipated: dark matter, dark energy, more matter-than-antimatter in the Universe, and an inflationary origin to our cosmos that preceded the Big Bang. On top of that, we have a whole host of open, unanswered questions that followed us into the present century: the 21st."

Event alert Feb 4th, 7 PM ET / 4 PM ET, a live webcast + original liveblog commentary on cosmology in the 21st century. BE THERE!

"Little did we know that the 20th century would see us discover an entirely new theory of gravity, two more fundamental forces and dozens of new, fundamental particles, billions of galaxies beyond our own, and the origin of the Universe from a hot, dense expanding state.

What’s more, is we also found some things we never could have anticipated: dark matter, dark energy, more matter-than-antimatter in the Universe, and an inflationary origin to our cosmos that preceded the Big Bang. On top of that, we have a whole host of open, unanswered questions that followed us into the present century: the 21st."

Event alert Feb 4th, 7 PM ET / 4 PM ET, a live webcast + original liveblog commentary on cosmology in the 21st century. BE THERE!___

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2015-02-03 17:00:12 (9 comments, 10 reshares, 38 +1s)Open 

"The dark matter particles also move through your body and sometimes they interact with one of your atomic nuclei. The typical energy deposited by a dark matter particle is of the order keV. This is very small for nuclear energies, and thus the nuclei themselves are not affected, they just wiggle a bit. But it is an energy much larger than the energy necessary to break molecular bonds, which is typically about a factor 1000 smaller. Dark matter particles thus can damage the bond structure of molecules inside your body."

When you think of dark matter, you very likely think of a halo of diffuse, unseen mass whose gravitational influence is felt by everything within our galaxy, and every galaxy or cluster out there. But what you might not consider is that this dark matter is consistently passing through Earth and every atom-and-molecule on it. Every once in a while, a lucky (or unlucky)... more »

"The dark matter particles also move through your body and sometimes they interact with one of your atomic nuclei. The typical energy deposited by a dark matter particle is of the order keV. This is very small for nuclear energies, and thus the nuclei themselves are not affected, they just wiggle a bit. But it is an energy much larger than the energy necessary to break molecular bonds, which is typically about a factor 1000 smaller. Dark matter particles thus can damage the bond structure of molecules inside your body."

When you think of dark matter, you very likely think of a halo of diffuse, unseen mass whose gravitational influence is felt by everything within our galaxy, and every galaxy or cluster out there. But what you might not consider is that this dark matter is consistently passing through Earth and every atom-and-molecule on it. Every once in a while, a lucky (or unlucky) dark matter particle strikes, say, a DNA molecule in your body, breaking its bonds and leaving an unmistakeable, destructive signature. Creatively, a new paper has the scoop on how we might use this exact phenomenon to experimentally, directly confirm the particle nature of dark matter!___

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2015-02-02 16:07:46 (5 comments, 13 reshares, 142 +1s)Open 

"Once thought to be its own, unique class of object, the Milky Way is today known to be simply a collection of hundreds of billions of stars, viewed from our vantage point within the galactic plane."

In the early 1600s, Galileo became the first to resolve much of the Milky Way into individual stars, not yet knowing that it was also full of dust, nebulae, and star-forming regions as well. Thanks to amazing projects such as ESO’s Gigagalaxy Zoom, we can view the entire galactic plane at once, at resolutions unimaginable centuries ago.

"Once thought to be its own, unique class of object, the Milky Way is today known to be simply a collection of hundreds of billions of stars, viewed from our vantage point within the galactic plane."

In the early 1600s, Galileo became the first to resolve much of the Milky Way into individual stars, not yet knowing that it was also full of dust, nebulae, and star-forming regions as well. Thanks to amazing projects such as ESO’s Gigagalaxy Zoom, we can view the entire galactic plane at once, at resolutions unimaginable centuries ago.___

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2015-02-01 21:08:34 (9 comments, 25 reshares, 86 +1s)Open 

"But then — for the more creative — there’s the Shikaeshi Bento (仕返し弁当), or revenge lunchbox — which not only offers an unparalleled “surprise” for the one who opens it, but also the tremendous potential for embarrassment as their peers and even superiors may be looking on."

Revenge is a dish best served cold, they say, but you'd never expect to find these vengeful dishes when you opened your lunchbox!

"But then — for the more creative — there’s the Shikaeshi Bento (仕返し弁当), or revenge lunchbox — which not only offers an unparalleled “surprise” for the one who opens it, but also the tremendous potential for embarrassment as their peers and even superiors may be looking on."

Revenge is a dish best served cold, they say, but you'd never expect to find these vengeful dishes when you opened your lunchbox!___

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2015-01-31 16:13:21 (0 comments, 4 reshares, 71 +1s)Open 

"“How could the “original fluctuations” have been measured at the time the Universe “started off”?”

The wonderful thing about physics — something professionals often gloss over because it’s obvious to them, but not to those who aren’t — is that the laws of physics themselves are well-known, and under certain conditions, their applications can allow us to calculate what happens to arbitrarily good accuracy. This happens to be true for the phenomenon of gravitation acting on small magnitude density fluctuations on any cosmic scales."

From hydrogen getting expelled from stars to the history of the Universe to Superman, Pluto and more, here's a great set of comments (and responses) from this past week!

"“How could the “original fluctuations” have been measured at the time the Universe “started off”?”

The wonderful thing about physics — something professionals often gloss over because it’s obvious to them, but not to those who aren’t — is that the laws of physics themselves are well-known, and under certain conditions, their applications can allow us to calculate what happens to arbitrarily good accuracy. This happens to be true for the phenomenon of gravitation acting on small magnitude density fluctuations on any cosmic scales."

From hydrogen getting expelled from stars to the history of the Universe to Superman, Pluto and more, here's a great set of comments (and responses) from this past week!___

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2015-01-31 00:09:15 (10 comments, 13 reshares, 36 +1s)Open 

"Even setting aside issues that there may be an infinite number of possible values for fundamental constants, particles and interactions, and even setting aside interpretation issues such as whether the many-worlds-interpretation actually describes our physical reality, the fact of the matter is that the number of possible outcomes rises so quickly — so much faster than merely exponentially — that unless inflation has been occurring for a truly infinite amount of time, there are no parallel Universes identical to this one."

Ever since quantum mechanics first came along, we’ve recognized how tenuous our perception of reality is, and how — in many ways — what we perceive is just a very small subset of what’s going on at the quantum level in our Universe. Then, along came cosmic inflation, teaching us that our observable Universe is just a tiny, tiny fraction of thematter-and-radiatio... more »

"Even setting aside issues that there may be an infinite number of possible values for fundamental constants, particles and interactions, and even setting aside interpretation issues such as whether the many-worlds-interpretation actually describes our physical reality, the fact of the matter is that the number of possible outcomes rises so quickly — so much faster than merely exponentially — that unless inflation has been occurring for a truly infinite amount of time, there are no parallel Universes identical to this one."

Ever since quantum mechanics first came along, we’ve recognized how tenuous our perception of reality is, and how — in many ways — what we perceive is just a very small subset of what’s going on at the quantum level in our Universe. Then, along came cosmic inflation, teaching us that our observable Universe is just a tiny, tiny fraction of the matter-and-radiation filled space out there, with possibilities including Universes with different fundamental laws and constants, differing quantum outcomes existing in disconnected regions of space, and even the fantastic one of parallel Universes and alternate versions of you and me. But is that last one really admissible? The best modern evidence teaches us that even with all the Universes that inflation creates, it's still a finite number, and an insufficiently large number to contain all the possibilities that a 13.8 billion year old Universe with 10^90 particles admits.___

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2015-01-30 04:51:58 (4 comments, 9 reshares, 83 +1s)Open 

"Even if you go through all of that, and escape from the Earth’s gravitational pull, you’ll still find yourself hurtling through space at around 107,000 km/hr (67,000 mph) around the Sun. While you were focused on escaping from the Earth’s gravitational pull, the Earth was busy orbiting the Sun… and so were you!"

It’s a taxing enough task to launch something off the surface of the Earth, escaping our planet’s gravity and finding our way into interplanetary space. But to reach the outer Solar System? To go beyond the gas giants and even escape from our Sun’s pull completely? We need a little help to do that. Thankfully, the biggest planet in our Solar System is always ready to lend a helping hand. Or, as it were, an assist of a very particular type: a gravity assist. Here's the story of how we made it to Pluto in a mere nine years, thanks to Jupiter.

"Even if you go through all of that, and escape from the Earth’s gravitational pull, you’ll still find yourself hurtling through space at around 107,000 km/hr (67,000 mph) around the Sun. While you were focused on escaping from the Earth’s gravitational pull, the Earth was busy orbiting the Sun… and so were you!"

It’s a taxing enough task to launch something off the surface of the Earth, escaping our planet’s gravity and finding our way into interplanetary space. But to reach the outer Solar System? To go beyond the gas giants and even escape from our Sun’s pull completely? We need a little help to do that. Thankfully, the biggest planet in our Solar System is always ready to lend a helping hand. Or, as it were, an assist of a very particular type: a gravity assist. Here's the story of how we made it to Pluto in a mere nine years, thanks to Jupiter.___

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2015-01-29 23:11:24 (8 comments, 16 reshares, 85 +1s)Open 

"So while a rogue star isn’t likely to smack into the Sun, or Earth, or any of the worlds in our inner Solar System, our outskirts are often in great danger by a passing star. These massive, icy worlds, forgotten at the edge of the Solar System for billions of years, can make an amazing comeback, becoming fantastic comets and — for the unlucky creatures that are around then — potentially posing tremendous hazards to any inhabited planets."

Out beyond the orbit of Neptune, hundreds of thousands of large, icy bodies stably orbit our Sun, held very tenuously by our Solar System's gravity at such great distances. For the most part, these objects leave us alone, but every once in a while, a star passes close enough to our Solar System to perturb them, sending a great number into the inner Solar System and causing a (potentially life-threatening) comet storm. There's acandidate for... more »

"So while a rogue star isn’t likely to smack into the Sun, or Earth, or any of the worlds in our inner Solar System, our outskirts are often in great danger by a passing star. These massive, icy worlds, forgotten at the edge of the Solar System for billions of years, can make an amazing comeback, becoming fantastic comets and — for the unlucky creatures that are around then — potentially posing tremendous hazards to any inhabited planets."

Out beyond the orbit of Neptune, hundreds of thousands of large, icy bodies stably orbit our Sun, held very tenuously by our Solar System's gravity at such great distances. For the most part, these objects leave us alone, but every once in a while, a star passes close enough to our Solar System to perturb them, sending a great number into the inner Solar System and causing a (potentially life-threatening) comet storm. There's a candidate for a huge one a few hundred thousand years from now, and a certain one coming in about 1.4 million years. Comet defense, anyone?___

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2015-01-28 15:53:40 (0 comments, 3 reshares, 11 +1s)Open 

"Compared to ground-based telescopes, balloon telescopes are able to see a wider patch of the sky, observing anywhere from a few percent to fifty percent depending on the particular experiment. The development costs of balloon experiments are in the millions of dollars, hundreds of millions of dollars cheaper than their satellite counterparts."

If you thought space was the place, it's time to learn what we can do by balloon for just 1% of the cost. A great piece on the Spider CMB mission by Amanda Yoho.

"Compared to ground-based telescopes, balloon telescopes are able to see a wider patch of the sky, observing anywhere from a few percent to fifty percent depending on the particular experiment. The development costs of balloon experiments are in the millions of dollars, hundreds of millions of dollars cheaper than their satellite counterparts."

If you thought space was the place, it's time to learn what we can do by balloon for just 1% of the cost. A great piece on the Spider CMB mission by Amanda Yoho.___

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2015-01-27 15:15:40 (2 comments, 11 reshares, 124 +1s)Open 

"When Galileo discovered four moons of Jupiter in the early 1600s, he noticed that their motions followed Kepler’s laws. This clockwork precision meant that the Jovian system could be used as a “heavenly clock” to determine the time. One way this could be done was by observing when the moons entered-or-exited the shadow of Jupiter as they passed behind the giant planet. Even with a small telescope, one could observe a moon fade to darkness over the course of a few minutes as it entered the shadow, or gradually brighten as it left the shadow on the other side."

If you want to know where you are on Earth, you typically use a GPS or, barring that, other terrestrial landmarks to help determine your location. If you didn't have access to that sort of technology or knowledge, you could still use some well-known objects in the sky to determine your latitude. Longitude, however, istrick... more »

"When Galileo discovered four moons of Jupiter in the early 1600s, he noticed that their motions followed Kepler’s laws. This clockwork precision meant that the Jovian system could be used as a “heavenly clock” to determine the time. One way this could be done was by observing when the moons entered-or-exited the shadow of Jupiter as they passed behind the giant planet. Even with a small telescope, one could observe a moon fade to darkness over the course of a few minutes as it entered the shadow, or gradually brighten as it left the shadow on the other side."

If you want to know where you are on Earth, you typically use a GPS or, barring that, other terrestrial landmarks to help determine your location. If you didn't have access to that sort of technology or knowledge, you could still use some well-known objects in the sky to determine your latitude. Longitude, however, is trickier, since it's arbitrarily defined. Perhaps surprisingly, for centuries, the best way to determine it was by using the moons of Jupiter, and watching when they enter/exit the shadow of the giant planet.___

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2015-01-26 16:31:25 (2 comments, 11 reshares, 131 +1s)Open 

"While about 20% of planetary nebulae are spherical, most are asymmetrical, like the Cat’s Eye Nebula (NGC 6543), highlighted here. It continues to rapidly expel matter at a rate of 9 lunar masses per year at speeds between 0.7-to-5.0% the speed of light."

Starting today, I present to you a new, ongoing series: Mostly Mute Monday. The rules are as follows:

-I pick one object or phenomenon to focus on.
-The story is told entirely in visuals: images and/or silent videos. (Credits do not count.)
-The visuals showcase as much information about the object(s) as possible.
-At the end, I have a maximum of 200 words to explain what we’ve seen.

Let's kick it off with a visual feast: the Cat's Eye Nebula!

"While about 20% of planetary nebulae are spherical, most are asymmetrical, like the Cat’s Eye Nebula (NGC 6543), highlighted here. It continues to rapidly expel matter at a rate of 9 lunar masses per year at speeds between 0.7-to-5.0% the speed of light."

Starting today, I present to you a new, ongoing series: Mostly Mute Monday. The rules are as follows:

-I pick one object or phenomenon to focus on.
-The story is told entirely in visuals: images and/or silent videos. (Credits do not count.)
-The visuals showcase as much information about the object(s) as possible.
-At the end, I have a maximum of 200 words to explain what we’ve seen.

Let's kick it off with a visual feast: the Cat's Eye Nebula!___

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2015-01-25 21:13:48 (5 comments, 3 reshares, 19 +1s)Open 

"But with his incredibly accurate vision, his incomparable speed and strength, you’ve got to wonder, every once in a while, how Superman would do at a relatively “human” task. You know, like hitting a baseball.

You might think he could hit a baseball into orbit, into another galaxy or past the edge of the Universe, but even Superman is constrained by a few things, including the laws of physics."

How far could Superman hit a baseball? It's very far, but still not as far as you might think!

"But with his incredibly accurate vision, his incomparable speed and strength, you’ve got to wonder, every once in a while, how Superman would do at a relatively “human” task. You know, like hitting a baseball.

You might think he could hit a baseball into orbit, into another galaxy or past the edge of the Universe, but even Superman is constrained by a few things, including the laws of physics."

How far could Superman hit a baseball? It's very far, but still not as far as you might think!___

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2015-01-24 16:35:22 (0 comments, 2 reshares, 12 +1s)Open 

"“I presume the first stars had no rocky planets? How many generations did it take to achieve earth like planets?”

The first stars formed from the elements that were created from when the Universe was less than four minutes old. Some of those elements were radioactive and so they decayed, but all we were left with was about 92% hydrogen (by number), 8% helium, and less than 0.0000001% anything else. But once those stars formed, lived and died — and the most massive ones go supernova in just a couple of million years, tops — their “pollution” goes everywhere." 

#CommentsoftheWeek So much more inside!

"“I presume the first stars had no rocky planets? How many generations did it take to achieve earth like planets?”

The first stars formed from the elements that were created from when the Universe was less than four minutes old. Some of those elements were radioactive and so they decayed, but all we were left with was about 92% hydrogen (by number), 8% helium, and less than 0.0000001% anything else. But once those stars formed, lived and died — and the most massive ones go supernova in just a couple of million years, tops — their “pollution” goes everywhere." 

#CommentsoftheWeek So much more inside!___

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2015-01-23 23:50:09 (78 comments, 16 reshares, 50 +1s)Open 

"I am confused about the timeline of the Big Bang. When scientists talk about the beginning of the universe, the formation of the elements and the creation of galaxies, etc. they cite extremely specific time intervals in which these things occur… Where do they get these numbers? There is no way to have them be empirically confirmed, and yet they are given to extreme degrees of accuracy (and with confidence). How can scientists be so confident in these times, and where are the numbers coming from?"

The history of the Universe happened in a well-known order: inflation ends, matter wins out over antimatter, the electroweak symmetry breaks, antimatter annihilates away, atomic nuclei form, then neutral atoms, stars, galaxies, and eventually us. But scientists and science magazines often publish timelines of the Universe with incredibly precise times describing when these various eventso... more »

"I am confused about the timeline of the Big Bang. When scientists talk about the beginning of the universe, the formation of the elements and the creation of galaxies, etc. they cite extremely specific time intervals in which these things occur… Where do they get these numbers? There is no way to have them be empirically confirmed, and yet they are given to extreme degrees of accuracy (and with confidence). How can scientists be so confident in these times, and where are the numbers coming from?"

The history of the Universe happened in a well-known order: inflation ends, matter wins out over antimatter, the electroweak symmetry breaks, antimatter annihilates away, atomic nuclei form, then neutral atoms, stars, galaxies, and eventually us. But scientists and science magazines often publish timelines of the Universe with incredibly precise times describing when these various events occur. Here's how we arrive at those values, along with the rarely-publicized uncertainties.___

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2015-01-23 23:15:49 (0 comments, 2 reshares, 8 +1s)Open 

___

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2015-01-22 21:55:12 (7 comments, 9 reshares, 160 +1s)Open 

"So don’t just have a look back at the amazing science we’ve done and how the Hubble Space Telescope has changed our view of the Universe forever; look forward to what we’re doing now and what new wonders might be in store.

The Universe is all ours. All we need to do is look."

As the Hubble Space Telescope gets set to celebrate the 25th anniversary of opening its eyes to the Universe, it's important to realize that the first four years of operations were kind of a disaster. It wasn't until they corrected the flawed primary mirror and installed an upgraded camera — the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) — that the Universe truly came into focus. From 1993 to 2009, this workhorse camera literally changed our view of the Universe, and we're pushing even past those limits today. The ultimate #tbt.

"So don’t just have a look back at the amazing science we’ve done and how the Hubble Space Telescope has changed our view of the Universe forever; look forward to what we’re doing now and what new wonders might be in store.

The Universe is all ours. All we need to do is look."

As the Hubble Space Telescope gets set to celebrate the 25th anniversary of opening its eyes to the Universe, it's important to realize that the first four years of operations were kind of a disaster. It wasn't until they corrected the flawed primary mirror and installed an upgraded camera — the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) — that the Universe truly came into focus. From 1993 to 2009, this workhorse camera literally changed our view of the Universe, and we're pushing even past those limits today. The ultimate #tbt.___

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2015-01-22 01:26:07 (3 comments, 6 reshares, 34 +1s)Open 

"So with all that, who won?

Believe it or not, it doesn’t matter. What matters isn’t what people thought the answer was — since they only had incomplete information — but rather that this debate was an important step in laying out what the arguments would be to support each of these two competing ideas."

In which I trick you with a clever headline into learning about the greatest debate in the history of science.

"So with all that, who won?

Believe it or not, it doesn’t matter. What matters isn’t what people thought the answer was — since they only had incomplete information — but rather that this debate was an important step in laying out what the arguments would be to support each of these two competing ideas."

In which I trick you with a clever headline into learning about the greatest debate in the history of science.___

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2015-01-21 08:01:12 (0 comments, 7 reshares, 32 +1s)Open 

"So when you think of the elements that make life possible, and the fact that we owe our origins to the stars, don’t just think of the spectacular, flashy supernovae. The story is so much richer than that, and requires a slow-burning fire to give rise to us. In the end, we owe our very existence to the relentless furnace of the s-process."

You've heard the famous quote before, that "we are star stuff." This is true, of course, since only hydrogen and helium existed shortly after the Big Bang, so the elements must have been made in stars. But many of the ones we think of as necessary for life — including phosphorous, sodium, chlorine, magnesium, calcium, potassium, copper, and zinc — didn't come from a single generation of previous, massive stars. It took a slow-burning star like our own Sun to make dozens of elements that are abundant on Earth today.

"So when you think of the elements that make life possible, and the fact that we owe our origins to the stars, don’t just think of the spectacular, flashy supernovae. The story is so much richer than that, and requires a slow-burning fire to give rise to us. In the end, we owe our very existence to the relentless furnace of the s-process."

You've heard the famous quote before, that "we are star stuff." This is true, of course, since only hydrogen and helium existed shortly after the Big Bang, so the elements must have been made in stars. But many of the ones we think of as necessary for life — including phosphorous, sodium, chlorine, magnesium, calcium, potassium, copper, and zinc — didn't come from a single generation of previous, massive stars. It took a slow-burning star like our own Sun to make dozens of elements that are abundant on Earth today.___

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2015-01-19 18:56:01 (5 comments, 0 reshares, 32 +1s)Open 

"Not every world has a large, nearby world like ours does. In fact, of the eight planets in our Solar System, ours is the only one that has something orbiting it that’s almost comparable in diameter. So why is this? Of all the planets we have, how come we have such a large Moon, and why doesn’t anyone else?"

Where our Moon comes from, and what the evidence is that leads us to that conclusion. We're the only planet with a Moon like ours! (So far!)

"Not every world has a large, nearby world like ours does. In fact, of the eight planets in our Solar System, ours is the only one that has something orbiting it that’s almost comparable in diameter. So why is this? Of all the planets we have, how come we have such a large Moon, and why doesn’t anyone else?"

Where our Moon comes from, and what the evidence is that leads us to that conclusion. We're the only planet with a Moon like ours! (So far!)___

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2015-01-18 17:58:16 (5 comments, 1 reshares, 16 +1s)Open 

"So pay us money, provide an address anywhere in the world & we’ll send them so much glitter in an envelope that they’ll be finding that shit everywhere for weeks. We’ll also include a note telling the person exactly why they’re receiving this terrible gift. Hint: the glitter will be mixed in with the note thus increasing maximum spillage."

Sometimes the best revenge is a sparkly, glittery mess. This is that revenge.

"So pay us money, provide an address anywhere in the world & we’ll send them so much glitter in an envelope that they’ll be finding that shit everywhere for weeks. We’ll also include a note telling the person exactly why they’re receiving this terrible gift. Hint: the glitter will be mixed in with the note thus increasing maximum spillage."

Sometimes the best revenge is a sparkly, glittery mess. This is that revenge.___

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