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Ethan Siegel has been shared in 135 public circles

You can see here the 50 latest shared circles.
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AuthorFollowersDateUsers in CircleCommentsReshares+1Links
Simon Weiner6,3701.23 High Quality New Active Engager Circle. Enjoy:) #circle   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circles   #sharingcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday #circlesunday #share #shared #followers #addcircles #publicsharedcircles #share #addpeople #addcircle #addfriends #circle #socialmedia #hillaryclinton   #president   #hillary2016  2015-04-20 07:39:36500005
Neil Lopez4,489This circle are all engagers. Add them up!You can also be included on the next circle to share:1. Add me Up2. +1 this post3. Share this circleHappy Sharing#circle #Sharedcircles #circleshare  #sri_lanka #colombo #australia #adelaide #australia #cairns #australia #darwin #australia #hobart #new_zealand #auckland #new_zealand #wellington #papua_new_guinea #papua_new_guinea #awesome #AwesomePeople #AwesomeCircle #addmetoyourcircles #addcircle #addpeople #circlemeup #circlesdiscovery #circleshare #circlesharing #publiccircle #publicsharedcircles #SharedCircles #weeklyreview #sharedcircle #topsharedcircle #circleoftheday #sharedcircle 2015-04-07 16:34:51477203
Paul Hutchinson2,183#FF  Part of my "Science" circle2015-04-03 08:18:37501001
Jomar Cabillo0✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦ONCE AGAIN HERE'S SMILE VERSION  OF MY SHARED PUBLIC Great Great CIRCLE .. I wish to be a friend to all of ya guys.. cheerz with us.. and cheerz with them.. GUYS JUST WANNA SAY, THANKS FOR THE CIRCLE AND HOPE COULD BE FRIENDS AT ANY CIRCLE, FRIENDS, PHOTOGRAPHY, ACQUAINTANCES, FOLLOWING ETC.. THANKS LOVE YOU ALL GUYS..  GOD BLESS.Like-Comment-and SHARE.. UPDATED FRIDAY 7/12/2014✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦GREAT reshares last week! INSANE! Let's keep it going!➤ To be added into the next share, follow these simple steps: 1) Plus the original post2) Share this circle publicly (and with your circles/extended circles)3) Comment on the original post when complete4) Add the circle weekly so you can get the new members! Thank A lot Guys..Love You all#Qhuilouah Aquino  #circle  #circles #public   #publiccircle    #circleshare   #circlesharing    #sharedcircles    #sharedcircle    #morefollowers   #sharingcircles    #circleshare    #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedpublicircles    #sharedcircle    #photography   #photographer #bestphotographer    #topphotographer    #AddCircle   #FindCircles   #awesome    #AwesomePeople    #AwesomeCircle   #addmetoyourcircles #addcircle   #addpeople    #circlemeup   #circlesdisc2015-03-05 14:53:30448001
Ryan Johnson26,769This circle contains people who are very active on Google+If you received a notification, please reshare to your circlesIf you’d like to be added to the next circle share: • +1 this circle • Share this circle to PUBLIC • Include me in your circles • Comment on this post#circle #Sharedcircles #circleshare  #sri_lanka #colombo #australia #adelaide #australia #cairns #australia #darwin #australia #hobart #new_zealand #auckland #new_zealand #wellington #papua_new_guinea #papua_new_guinea #awesome #AwesomePeople #AwesomeCircle #addmetoyourcircles #addcircle #addpeople #circlemeup #circlesdiscovery #circleshare #circlesharing #publiccircle #publicsharedcircles #SharedCircles #weeklyreview #sharedcircle #topsharedcircle #circleoftheday 2015-03-05 07:52:19424534083
Paul Hutchinson2,176A G+ #FF post ... Here's my "Science" circle (at least 501 of the 1105 people in the circle)#tw #fb2015-02-27 21:06:56501000
Brian Mcquillan23,952Boost your visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!To be added to or stay in this Circle - Share the circleIf you received the notice you are in this circle, then well done.If you would like to be included in the next Circle Share, you only have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles2 - Share the circle (Publicly)3 - Add +1 to the post.4 - Leave a comment if you like.I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#circles #Gif #Cute #Anime #Animals #Online #Life #CatLovers #Cat #FunnyPics #Quote #Art #CaturdayEveryday #QuoteOfTheDay #Truth #Dog #Dogs #XD #Meme #LOL #Humor #Cute #Anime #Gif #Animals #Cat #CatLovers #Art #Online #Cats #Life #FunnyPics #CaturdayEveryday #Dog #Quote #Dogs #Truth #Manga 2015-02-27 10:33:26381172326
Kristina Natacha0#CircleShar  of the DayBoost your visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!To be added to or stay in this Circle - Share the circleIf you received the notice you are in this circle, then well done.If you would like to be included in the next Circle Share, you only have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles2 - Share the circle (Publicly)3 - Add +1 to the post.4 - Leave a comment if you like.I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!------------------------#circles #shared #share #add #friends #circle #share #sharecircle #circleshar #news   #travel   #travelphotography   #update #IndonesiaOnly #Jalan #Aberdeen #Belfast #Birmingham #Bristol #Cardiff #Dublin #EastMidlands #Edinburgh #Glasgow #LeedsBradford #London #Manchester #Newcastle #circle #circles #public #publiccircle #circleshare #circlesharing 2015-02-25 16:45:00482000
Allan watson21,270Active users on Google+. Circle Share If you received a notification, please reshare to your circlesIf you’d like to be added to the next circle share: • +1 this circle • Share this circle to PUBLIC • Include me in your circles • Comment on this post#awesomecircle #circleme #malawi #lilongwe #morocco #morocco #agadir #morocco #casablanca #morocco #fez #morocco #marrakech #morocco #tangier #mozambique #mozambique #maputo #namibia #namibia #walvis_bay #namibia #windhoek #nigeria #nigeria #abuja #nigeria #lagos #rwanda #rwanda #kigali #senegal #senegal #dakar #sierra_leone #sierra_leone #freetown #bloemfontein 2015-02-25 09:53:31483462571
Crazy Cats29 Public #circleshare   January 20, 2015Hope that you have been having a great week on Google+. Thank you for sharing and promoting this and for connecting up with all the great accounts I have included. Great With This #cirlce  !!!***************************************************************Boost your visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!Boost your visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!Follow me here : http://goo.gl/7rWIEVTo be added to the Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 Include me in your circles2 Click add people and create your circle3 +1 this circle4 Publicly share this circle to public, your circles and extended circles. ( dont forget share the circle and include yourself )5 If possible, leave a comment on this circle so I know you have done the three steps above (I say "if possible" as my circle comments more often than not hit the 500 comment limit).6  So I can easily find your share, always publicly share my original shared circle. You'll know if you're sharing the original one because you won't see "Jason Levy originally shared" above here. If you do see it, click on "originally shared" and it will bring you to this post.Special Invite :+A Tech Buzz +Axel Kratel +Andrea Gervasi +Andrew Sowerby +Anette Mossbacher +Brett Szmajda +Andrew Sowerby +Irina Sadokhina +Sean Carroll +Michael Sonntag +Mighty Dragon Studios +Eric Delcour +2015-02-01 10:25:324744412
Natasha Velicia475Get More Google+ Follower with  +TubeDEVILZ  January 15, 2015*****************************************************************HERE'S OF MY SHARED PUBLIC CIRCLE*****************************************************************Hope that you have been having a great week on Google+. Thank you for sharing and promoting this and for connecting up with all the great accounts I have included. Great With This Cilcle!!,Boost your visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!Boost your visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!To be added to the Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 Include me in your circles2 Click add people and create your circle3 +1 this circle4 Publicly share this circle to public, your circles and extended circles. ( dont forget share the circle and include yourself )5 If possible, leave a comment on this circle so I know you have done the three steps above (I say "if possible" as my circle comments more often than not hit the 500 comment limit).6  So I can easily find your share, always publicly share my original shared circle. You'll know if you're sharing the original one because you won't see "Jason Levy originally shared" above here. If you do see it, click on "originally shared" and it will bring you to this post.**************************************Follow Me Here : http://goo.gl/c18bpxAnd Subcribe : http://goo.gl/NT0MCkSpecial Invitation (Please +1 and Share) :+Alfina Dewi +Agus Septiann +Dini Ashanti +Amy Cesario +Sergii Daniloff +Danis Sanju +Lieven Damman +dini iftita +Lincoln Harrison +Riskhha Nur Hayati +Nanang Hendro +Hanste2015-01-16 20:15:35473419
Ryan Johnson23,295This circle contains people who are very active on Google+If you received a notification, please reshare to your circlesIf you’d like to be added to the next circle share: • +1 this circle • Share this circle to PUBLIC • Include me in your circles • Comment on this post#circle #Sharedcircles #circleshare  #sri_lanka #colombo #australia #adelaide #australia #cairns #australia #darwin #australia #hobart #new_zealand #auckland #new_zealand #wellington #papua_new_guinea #papua_new_guinea #awesome #AwesomePeople #AwesomeCircle #addmetoyourcircles #addcircle #addpeople #circlemeup #circlesdiscovery #circleshare #circlesharing #publiccircle #publicsharedcircles #SharedCircles #weeklyreview #sharedcircle #topsharedcircle #circleoftheday 2015-01-16 13:00:35472313051
RuMuZ NeYiMe1,336good morningadd friends list..#addcircle #addcircles #addpeople #awesomecircle #awesomecircles #awesomepeople #besharable #besocial #bestcircle #bestcircles #bestengagers #circleadd #circleall #circleme #circlemenow #circlemeup #circlenetwork #circleplus #circlesdiscovery #circleshare #circleshares #circlesharing #circleup #circleyoushare #coolpeople #engagerscircle #engagerscircles #findcircle #findcircles #follow4follow #followback #followme #fullcircleshare #influencermarketing #internetmarketing #morefollowers #networkcircle 2015-01-12 08:56:27466107
John Sean10,506This circle contains people who really are interesting and active people on Google Plus.If you would like to be included in the next Circle Share, you only have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles2 - Share the circle (Publicly)3 - Add +1 to the post.4 - Leave a comment if you like.I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#publiccircle #circleshare #circlesharing #philadelphia #phoenix #san_antonio #san_diego #san_francisco #san_jose #seattle #tampa #washington #american_samoa #american_samoa #pago_pago #fiji #fiji #nadi #fiji #suva #argentina #argentina #buenos_aires #argentina #cordoba #argentina #iguaza #argentina #mendoza #argentina #rosaio #argentina #san_carlos_de_bariloche #bolivia #bolivia #cochabamba 2015-01-12 06:41:19465171632
Allan watson12,311This is a circle I created a few months ago and am now sharing with you in hopes that we can all benefit and grow our online presence.  This circle rewards those who take part in interaction as seen below..  Everyone in this circle continues to add followers.  IN ORDER TO MAKE THIS WORK PLEASE FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS BELOW:  1. Plus the post  2. Share the post  3. Add the circle if you can, if not try again later.  4. Request to be added in comments or let me know if you should be in it and for some reason are not.#Lebanon #Tajikistan #SharedCircles #circlesharing #circleshare #circleoftheday #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircle2014-11-18 10:35:46487534073
Becky Collins16,609Science Circle :Circle of very #social #engagerspeople and companiesTo be included in my shares (#sharedcircle), be so kind to:1 - Do +1 t the post2 - Comment the post and specify your "category" (job or interest) Ex: Fashion, SEO, Companies, Social Media Marketing, Sailing, Photography, Bloggers/Writers, Web graphics and design, Italy, Artists, Sport, Finance/Economy ...3 - include the circle among your circles4 - share the circle (include yourself)Improve your popularity, be social be cool !Keep yourself updated, enjoy the Shared Circles Hellenic Alliance, you can share your shared circles inside the upcoming Community:https://plus.google.com/communities/112552559573595396104  #socialmedia  #media  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing  #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins ?2014-09-16 05:24:00459104
Becky Collins15,192Recipes and Cooking Circle : Circle of very #social #engagerspeople and companiesTo be included in my shares (#sharedcircle), be so kind to:1 - Do +1 t the post2 - Comment the post and specify your "category" (job or interest) Ex: Fashion, SEO, Companies, Social Media Marketing, Sailing, Photography, Bloggers/Writers, Web graphics and design, Italy, Artists, Sport, Finance/Economy ...3 - include the circle among your circles4 - share the circle (include yourself)Improve your popularity, be social be cool !Keep yourself updated, enjoy the Shared Circles Hellenic Alliance, you can share your shared circles inside the upcoming Community:https://plus.google.com/communities/112552559573595396104  #socialmedia  #media  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing  #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins ?2014-08-18 05:14:394770212
Becky Collins13,270Space Circle :Circle of very #social #engagerspeople and companiesTo be included in my shares (#sharedcircle), be so kind to:1 - Do +1 t the post2 - Comment the post and specify your "category" (job or interest) Ex: Fashion, SEO, Companies, Social Media Marketing, Sailing, Photography, Bloggers/Writers, Web graphics and design, Italy, Artists, Sport, Finance/Economy ...3 - include the circle among your circles4 - share the circle (include yourself)Improve your popularity, be social be cool !Keep yourself updated, enjoy the Shared Circles Hellenic Alliance, you can share your shared circles inside the upcoming Community:https://plus.google.com/communities/112552559573595396104  #socialmedia  #media  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing  #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins ?2014-07-17 07:18:063893010
Aman Singh2,014Circle of the dayYour re-share is appreciatedPlease re-share this circle in your stream.To be added:1- Add +Circles Circles Circles to your circles2- Write the URL of your blog in the comments section below3- Your blog must be an active blog (posts must be current)2014-07-16 12:15:324990719
Ryan Johnson9,485Hi friends! This is a great circle created with an important selection from all circles. The most important engagers are reshared because only that way can we grow our circle and have the people of google circle us.To get in, and to ensure you stay in this circle you need to do the following:1. Add me to your circles, if you haven't done so already!2. +1 this circle!3. Publicly share this circle to public, your circles and extended circles.4. If possible, leave a comment on this circle so I know you have done the three steps above!#circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #wanttobecircled #addmetoyourcircles #public #publiccircle #sharedcircles #Britain #sharedcircle #morefollowers #sharingcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedpublicircles #sharedcircle #photography #uk  #nottingham #Holland #Netherlands #Duch2014-07-16 10:40:014918812
Dina Tika0Here is a group of Active Engagers, Circle Sharers, Awesome Plus Oners, and Cool People on Google Plus!   Circle Sharing is an awesome way to increase your followers and active engagers on your profile. Some of my favorite people that I've met here on Google + through Circle Sharing.    Want to be in the next Circle of Awesomeness? Follow the Steps Below!  ☛ Add the circle ☛ Share in the Public ☛ Plus 1 the Post. ☛ Comment. 2014-06-10 05:53:52479001
Lư Thăng15,488Chia sẻ vòng kết nối chất lượng cho mọi người <3 #sharedcircles  2014-04-23 16:24:5447717224
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:27:36393014
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:26:50393033
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:26:17393011
John Nuntiatio (TodayNews)29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:25:52393011
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:25:16393203
Becky Collins3,213Baseball circle #Baseball  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins 2014-02-26 10:30:413883216
Becky Collins2,634Marketing Circle : Feb 22#circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday +Becky Collins2014-02-22 06:29:4945517722
Mikhail Petrovsky77,388Good morning / evening to all.This is a Social Circle of interesting people with an active lifestyle in Google+Это социальный круг общения интересных людей с активной жизненной позицией в Google+You'll love this circle. Photographers, artists and other interesting people!Вам понравится этот круг, добавьте его себе. Фотографы, художники и другие интересные люди!#EarthMyMother #ForFriends #photo2014-01-24 03:20:19483572881
B.A. TruthWarrior1,260These are some verified unusual characters....in general.#circleshare  #circlesharing #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday  #sharedcircleday #circleshared   #variety  2014-01-16 03:45:1647527826
Artur Mashnich43,843A Very Social CircleCircle of the Most Active Users of Google+Круг наиболее активных пользователей Google+Если вы поделились этим кругом вчера, вы находитесь в нем сегодня. Если вы разделяете его с друзьями сегодня, вы будете в нем и завтра.If you shared this circle yesterday, you are in it today. If you share today, you'll be in tomorrow.#Forfriends  2014-01-10 16:01:13493331763
Artur Mashnich40,712A Very Social CircleКруг людей с активной жизненной позицией в Гугле+circle of people, with active life position in Google+Если вы поделились этим кругом вчера, вы находитесь в нем сегодня. Если вы разделяете его с друзьями сегодня, вы будете в нем и завтра.If you shared this circle yesterday, you are in it today. If you share today, you'll be in tomorrow.2013-12-18 11:08:35494443263
Claudiu Narita3,3332013-11-20 02:26:27501817
Lo Sauer2,493This is a great circle combined of active engagers, creative folks and  some of the best and brightest people on google+. A thank you in this circle-inclusion-shoutout to: +Peter Terren +Michael Műller +Carlos Esteban +Justin Chung +Malthus John +Marta Rauch +Rajini Rao +Katherine Vucicevic +Jonathan Eisen +Mike Allton +Scott Buehler +Mario Falcetti +Zvonimir Fras +Krithika Rangarajan +sridhar krishnan +Joanna Ortynska +Seamus Smyth +Chuck Croll +Michael Schobel +2013-11-19 18:19:4843218317
Justin Fournier1,722Social & SEO CircleIt's been awhile since I've shared circles with the general public.  In this Circle I've labeled it as my Social/SEO circle.  Users within this circle generally gave me insight, tips, and tricks into G+ and social branding.Add and follow their posts to increase your own branding in this now digital world!Share and enjoy all! #SEO   #googleplus   #socialmediamarketing   #sharedcircles   #googleplustips  2013-11-03 01:00:37143215
Rank Kemeng0This is a group of individuals that has personally shared four of my best circle sharing circles in the last month (or so).  They also include a mix of new circle sharers and some that are just trying to learn it for the first time. :) :) :0)They are individuals, to a large degree, that are very interested in not just circle sharing (which is great), but also engaging with you in a meaningful way (which is awesome)!!!Guidelines for Core Multipliers- Share the circle to stay in the circle- Have some fun!- If you are new and want in the circle, share the circle.This is a great group.  Enjoy this circle and have an awesome Thursday!*if you were somehow missed/ not included in the circle, please let me know and it will be corrected on the next share. My apologies ahead of time! :)**For those coming from multiplying circle, we are not inviting new folks here, you can privately message them or ping them when you share the circle on your public feed. Thanks!#corecircle #multiplyingcircle #coremultipliers #sharedcircles #circleshare #bestsharedcircle   #circleshare   #sharedcircles   #circleoftheday   #CircleQueen   #CircleMaster   #GPlusList   #Circle   #Circleshare   #Circlesharing   #PublicSharedCircles2013-11-01 15:53:38426115
Coyeb Sundel02013-10-24 10:04:35425202
Tiberiu Igrisan448Science (part 1)#science #sciencecircle #sharedcircles  2013-10-14 18:53:04257123
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:30:23414103
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:29:39414003
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:29:27414002
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:29:04414002
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:27:59414004
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:27:16414002
James Steward1,112These are my awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:25:57414103
Fraser Cain824,747Super Science Circle for October, 2013I know it's been a while, so it's time for a new Super Science Circle - the October 2013 edition.In case you weren't aware, the Super Science Circle is a list of more than 400 people who are actively engaged on Google+ and regularly post about science and education. We've got journalists, scientists, even a few astronauts. The Super Science Circle should be your best response to anyone who tells you that Google+ is just a ghost town. If you love science, this circle will deliver the goods.If you know anyone who actively posts about science, please let me know and I'll add them to the list.2013-10-04 20:14:53415304682
Fabian Weiland145#sharedcircles #science #health2013-09-05 07:24:12497214
Cyrus Khan14,028Active Engager's CircleAttention:  Please reshare and comment if you want to be a part of next weeks edition, instead of messaging me individually.If you've received a notification, it means you are a part of the circle.Thanks for interacting : )  This is the next edition of my weekly Engagers circle, where I highlight and share the people who've interacted with me this week.I will share this circle to all my followers for exposure as an personally approved group.The criteria to be added are:1)You have commented on and publicly shared one or more of my posts;2) You have re-shared this weeks circle;As this circle grows, I may have difficulty accommodating everyone, so if you add and re-share this week's circle, you'll be guaranteed a spot in next week's edition.Cheers! #circleshare   #active   #engagerscircle   #circle #circleoftheweek   #sciencecircles  2013-08-26 17:27:32477573983
Cyrus Khan13,678Active Engager's CircleAttention: This circle has been filled this week, and will start again from scratch next week. Please reshare and comment if you want to be a part of next weeks edition.If you've received a notification, it means you are a part of the circle.If you want to be added, simply add the circle, reshare and comment saying so.Thanks for interacting : )  This is the next edition of my weekly Engagers circle, where I highlight and share the people who've interacted with me this week.I will share this circle to all my followers for exposure as an especially active group.The only criteria to be added are:1)You have commented on and publicly shared one or more of my posts;2) You have re-shared this weeks circle;As this circle grows, I may have difficulty accommodating everyone, so if you add and re-share this week's circle, you'll be guaranteed a spot in next week's edition.Cheers! #circleshare   #circleoftheweek   #active   #engagerscircle   #science   #sciencecircles   #circlesharesunday  2013-08-18 17:07:30490452062

Activity

Average numbers for the latest posts (max. 50 posts, posted within the last 4 weeks)

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Top posts in the last 50 posts

Most comments: 71

posted image

2015-04-11 20:03:06 (71 comments, 16 reshares, 69 +1s)Open 

"This is one of those great moments in science where one incorrect assumption doesn’t cause us to throw all our results and conclusions out, but rather where it helps us more accurately understand a phenomenon that’s puzzled us since we first discovered it.

Dark energy is real, and thanks to this new discovery, we just might come to understand it — and its effects on the Universe — better than ever before. "

The accelerated expansion of the Universe — and hence, dark energy — was discovered by taking the well-understood phenomenon of type Ia supernovae and measuring them out to great distances. The results indicated that they were fainter than expected, and hence more distant, and hence the Universe's expansion must be accelerating. But new results have just come out, showing that supernovae may not be standard after all. Find out what this means forthe accelerating Un... more »

Most reshares: 44

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2015-04-02 19:16:34 (61 comments, 44 reshares, 159 +1s)Open 

"If the calculations in the new paper are correct, we could now conclude that no black holes can have previously completely evaporated anywhere in our universe, because otherwise we wouldn’t be here anymore. Since the distribution of primordial black hole masses is not known, however, some of them could be around and come into the final phase of evaporation any time, spelling the end of the world as we know it."

Black holes are some of the most extreme examples of physics in the Universe. Space is curved tremendously, there’s an incredible concentration of energy all in one, singular point, and everything that occurs, in theory, outside of the event horizon can be seen in our Universe. But what if one of those things that it can do is make the quantum vacuum in this incredibly curved space unstable? What if it can allow the vacuum to tunnel from its metastable state into onetha... more »

Most plusones: 159

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2015-04-02 19:16:34 (61 comments, 44 reshares, 159 +1s)Open 

"If the calculations in the new paper are correct, we could now conclude that no black holes can have previously completely evaporated anywhere in our universe, because otherwise we wouldn’t be here anymore. Since the distribution of primordial black hole masses is not known, however, some of them could be around and come into the final phase of evaporation any time, spelling the end of the world as we know it."

Black holes are some of the most extreme examples of physics in the Universe. Space is curved tremendously, there’s an incredible concentration of energy all in one, singular point, and everything that occurs, in theory, outside of the event horizon can be seen in our Universe. But what if one of those things that it can do is make the quantum vacuum in this incredibly curved space unstable? What if it can allow the vacuum to tunnel from its metastable state into onetha... more »

Latest 50 posts

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2015-04-28 16:26:30 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 3 +1s)Open 

What are you doing at 2:30 ET / 11:30 PT today?

Watching me bringing science LIVE to the world on Huffington Post Live's weekly science segment. Check it out then.

What are you doing at 2:30 ET / 11:30 PT today?

Watching me bringing science LIVE to the world on Huffington Post Live's weekly science segment. Check it out then.___

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2015-04-27 13:41:15 (3 comments, 8 reshares, 35 +1s)Open 

"What we find inside is a tumultuous region of dense stars, the gas blown off from recent stellar deaths, the neutral atoms that will collapse to form new stars, and a myriad of intense, high-energy sources that correspond to neutron stars and black holes. Perhaps most spectacularly, there’s a four million solar mass black hole at our galaxy’s center, illuminated uniquely… by each of the three great observatories. By combining the data from all of them, we get a unique look at the astrophysical signatures emitted by the closest supermassive black hole to us in the Universe."

Hubble + Spitzer + Chandra = the greatest view of our galactic center ever. Because three great observatories are better than one!

"What we find inside is a tumultuous region of dense stars, the gas blown off from recent stellar deaths, the neutral atoms that will collapse to form new stars, and a myriad of intense, high-energy sources that correspond to neutron stars and black holes. Perhaps most spectacularly, there’s a four million solar mass black hole at our galaxy’s center, illuminated uniquely… by each of the three great observatories. By combining the data from all of them, we get a unique look at the astrophysical signatures emitted by the closest supermassive black hole to us in the Universe."

Hubble + Spitzer + Chandra = the greatest view of our galactic center ever. Because three great observatories are better than one!___

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2015-04-26 21:02:25 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 13 +1s)Open 

"The glorious result is a golden brown marshmallow, toasted on the outside, with a gooey, liquid sugar inside. Place them between two graham crackers with chocolate on one (or both) sides, and you’ve got yourself a S’more.

Or so you’ve been led to believe. You’re deluding yourself if you think this is how S’mores are raised... Because these conditions are truly appalling."

You'll never have another one after you realize the SHOCKING conditions in which they're raised!

"The glorious result is a golden brown marshmallow, toasted on the outside, with a gooey, liquid sugar inside. Place them between two graham crackers with chocolate on one (or both) sides, and you’ve got yourself a S’more.

Or so you’ve been led to believe. You’re deluding yourself if you think this is how S’mores are raised... Because these conditions are truly appalling."

You'll never have another one after you realize the SHOCKING conditions in which they're raised!___

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2015-04-25 01:58:44 (0 comments, 3 reshares, 18 +1s)Open 

"Scientists talk about near perfect uniformity of the CMB. How do they know the measured differences in uniformity [aren’t] just due to the error in not making perfect corrections for the galaxies in the field of view of the measuring telescopes?"

If we want to make sure we’ve got an accurate map of what the Universe was born with, we have to take everything into account, including the effects of matter as it gravitationally grows and shrinks. As we do exactly this, we find ourselves discovering the causes behind the biggest anomalies in the sky, and it turns out that the standard cosmological model can explain it all.

"Scientists talk about near perfect uniformity of the CMB. How do they know the measured differences in uniformity [aren’t] just due to the error in not making perfect corrections for the galaxies in the field of view of the measuring telescopes?"

If we want to make sure we’ve got an accurate map of what the Universe was born with, we have to take everything into account, including the effects of matter as it gravitationally grows and shrinks. As we do exactly this, we find ourselves discovering the causes behind the biggest anomalies in the sky, and it turns out that the standard cosmological model can explain it all.___

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2015-04-24 19:43:01 (0 comments, 15 reshares, 104 +1s)Open 

"This latter image, consisting of a region of space barely a thousandth of a square degree on the sky – so small it would take thirty-two-million of them to fill the entire sky — contains a whopping 5,500 galaxies, the most distant of which have had their light traveling towards us for some 13 billion years, or more than 90% the present age of the Universe. Extrapolating this over the entire sky, we find that there are 170 billion galaxies in the observable Universe, and that’s just a lower limit."

Thanks for 25 years of awesome, Hubble, and for teaching us some amazing things about the Universe, including our best estimate ever of how many galaxies are in it!

"This latter image, consisting of a region of space barely a thousandth of a square degree on the sky – so small it would take thirty-two-million of them to fill the entire sky — contains a whopping 5,500 galaxies, the most distant of which have had their light traveling towards us for some 13 billion years, or more than 90% the present age of the Universe. Extrapolating this over the entire sky, we find that there are 170 billion galaxies in the observable Universe, and that’s just a lower limit."

Thanks for 25 years of awesome, Hubble, and for teaching us some amazing things about the Universe, including our best estimate ever of how many galaxies are in it!___

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2015-04-24 17:56:17 (1 comments, 3 reshares, 20 +1s)Open 

"Leveraging our understanding of Einstein’s General Relativity, Hubble is using the cluster as a gravitational telescope, allowing us to see farther and fainter than ever before possible. We are looking far back in time to see galaxies as they were more than 13 billion years ago!"

When you think of the Hubble Space Telescope, perhaps you think of what’s touted as its most major feat of all: peering off into deep, dark space, collecting light, and discovering the plethora of distant galaxies laying billions of light years beyond our own, like the Hubble deep field, ultra deep field or extreme deep field. But thanks to a combination of factors, including gravitational lensing, Hubble has beaten its own record, finding the most distant galaxies of all.

"Leveraging our understanding of Einstein’s General Relativity, Hubble is using the cluster as a gravitational telescope, allowing us to see farther and fainter than ever before possible. We are looking far back in time to see galaxies as they were more than 13 billion years ago!"

When you think of the Hubble Space Telescope, perhaps you think of what’s touted as its most major feat of all: peering off into deep, dark space, collecting light, and discovering the plethora of distant galaxies laying billions of light years beyond our own, like the Hubble deep field, ultra deep field or extreme deep field. But thanks to a combination of factors, including gravitational lensing, Hubble has beaten its own record, finding the most distant galaxies of all.___

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2015-04-23 22:44:51 (0 comments, 18 reshares, 48 +1s)Open 

"[T]he strong force is what holds every atomic nucleus together; without it, we’d simply be a lifeless sea of fundamental particles, too repulsive to hold together in any meaningful fashion, and incapable of building any elements other than hydrogen in the entire Universe.

No stars would ever shine, no complex molecules would ever form, and there would never be a rocky planet anywhere in the Universe: just clumps of gas and great, empty voids."

If you've ever been confused by why protons inside atomic nuclei don't push each other apart, this clears everything up!

"[T]he strong force is what holds every atomic nucleus together; without it, we’d simply be a lifeless sea of fundamental particles, too repulsive to hold together in any meaningful fashion, and incapable of building any elements other than hydrogen in the entire Universe.

No stars would ever shine, no complex molecules would ever form, and there would never be a rocky planet anywhere in the Universe: just clumps of gas and great, empty voids."

If you've ever been confused by why protons inside atomic nuclei don't push each other apart, this clears everything up!___

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2015-04-23 00:22:14 (7 comments, 2 reshares, 54 +1s)Open 

"When you’re finally up at the moon looking back on earth, all those differences and nationalistic traits are pretty well going to blend, and you’re going to get a concept that maybe this really is one world and why the hell can’t we learn to live together like decent people."

We’ve come an incredible distance in exploring the Universe. In the span of just a single human lifetime, we’ve gone from speculations about what other worlds in our Solar System might be like, the possibility of planets around other stars and wondering how many galaxies might be in our observable Universe to actual answers about all three of these profound questions. But as far as we’ve come, Earth is still the only planet we know of with life on it, and the only one even capable of habituating us as our home. An inspiring plea from those who've left Earth as to why we should take care of it. 

"When you’re finally up at the moon looking back on earth, all those differences and nationalistic traits are pretty well going to blend, and you’re going to get a concept that maybe this really is one world and why the hell can’t we learn to live together like decent people."

We’ve come an incredible distance in exploring the Universe. In the span of just a single human lifetime, we’ve gone from speculations about what other worlds in our Solar System might be like, the possibility of planets around other stars and wondering how many galaxies might be in our observable Universe to actual answers about all three of these profound questions. But as far as we’ve come, Earth is still the only planet we know of with life on it, and the only one even capable of habituating us as our home. An inspiring plea from those who've left Earth as to why we should take care of it. ___

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2015-04-21 19:05:20 (1 comments, 3 reshares, 13 +1s)Open 

“It resonated with me, the suggestion that the person doing the experiment influences the outcome, that the outcome is influenced by what the experiment is indeed trying to prove. It seems to make more sense to me, that our view of the world directly influences and interferes with the world around us, as opposed to the suggestion or feeling that we are mere cogs in an unfeeling machine.”

Tears for Fears’ cofounder Roland Orzabal is a huge fan of quantum physics, and in particular of the idea of quantum indeterminism, to the point where he’s written and performed a number of songs touching on concepts like Schrödinger’s Cat and Einstein’s famous “God does not play dice” statement. Physicist Paul Halpern got an exclusive interview, with some incredible and insightful results about the intersection of science, music and the arts.

“It resonated with me, the suggestion that the person doing the experiment influences the outcome, that the outcome is influenced by what the experiment is indeed trying to prove. It seems to make more sense to me, that our view of the world directly influences and interferes with the world around us, as opposed to the suggestion or feeling that we are mere cogs in an unfeeling machine.”

Tears for Fears’ cofounder Roland Orzabal is a huge fan of quantum physics, and in particular of the idea of quantum indeterminism, to the point where he’s written and performed a number of songs touching on concepts like Schrödinger’s Cat and Einstein’s famous “God does not play dice” statement. Physicist Paul Halpern got an exclusive interview, with some incredible and insightful results about the intersection of science, music and the arts.___

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2015-04-21 16:50:01 (4 comments, 3 reshares, 22 +1s)Open 


"While there’s a case to be made for accuracy, in some ways a color-hyped image is more accurate to what we perceive, even if it isn’t accurate to reality. By changing the contrast on these images, we can visually perceive details that would be washed out if we insisted on “true color” all the time."

The following tale of space images is true. And by true, I mean false. It's all lies. But they're entertaining lies. And in the end, isn't that the real truth? The answer is: No.

A great read courtesy of +Brian Koberlein!


"While there’s a case to be made for accuracy, in some ways a color-hyped image is more accurate to what we perceive, even if it isn’t accurate to reality. By changing the contrast on these images, we can visually perceive details that would be washed out if we insisted on “true color” all the time."

The following tale of space images is true. And by true, I mean false. It's all lies. But they're entertaining lies. And in the end, isn't that the real truth? The answer is: No.

A great read courtesy of +Brian Koberlein!___

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2015-04-20 14:40:08 (33 comments, 12 reshares, 51 +1s)Open 

"We can extrapolate back to still higher temperatures, to where matter and antimatter spontaneously create due to the incredible energies and Einstein’s E = mc^2. Even earlier, the electromagnetic and weak nuclear force unified, the Higgs symmetry was restored, and, presumably, we can extrapolate all the way back to a single point containing all the radiation, matter, antimatter, energy, and even spacetime in the entire Universe. In other words, we can extrapolate back to a singularity, or a point from which all of this originated."

The overwhelming scientific conclusion based on the observable evidence is that the Universe is expanding and cooling, having emerged from a hot, dense state in the past. We can extrapolate back to a time before neutral atoms existed, before even nuclei could form, and if we continue the extrapolation all the way back, we arrive at a singularity. Only,t... more »

"We can extrapolate back to still higher temperatures, to where matter and antimatter spontaneously create due to the incredible energies and Einstein’s E = mc^2. Even earlier, the electromagnetic and weak nuclear force unified, the Higgs symmetry was restored, and, presumably, we can extrapolate all the way back to a single point containing all the radiation, matter, antimatter, energy, and even spacetime in the entire Universe. In other words, we can extrapolate back to a singularity, or a point from which all of this originated."

The overwhelming scientific conclusion based on the observable evidence is that the Universe is expanding and cooling, having emerged from a hot, dense state in the past. We can extrapolate back to a time before neutral atoms existed, before even nuclei could form, and if we continue the extrapolation all the way back, we arrive at a singularity. Only, that last step isn't necessarily one we can take, and the insistence of many on its existence may be the biggest mistake ever made about the Big Bang.___

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2015-04-20 12:51:35 (4 comments, 4 reshares, 19 +1s)Open 

“Even though there are no such thing as green stars, these galaxies are all giving rise to what looks like green plumes of smoke emanating from their cores.”

Since the first such object was discovered eight years ago, this was a hotly debated mystery, one that's been solved with an unlikely phenomenon: the same physics that underlies the aurorae here on Earth! Go get the whole story -- and all the images -- on this edition of Mostly Mute Monday!

“Even though there are no such thing as green stars, these galaxies are all giving rise to what looks like green plumes of smoke emanating from their cores.”

Since the first such object was discovered eight years ago, this was a hotly debated mystery, one that's been solved with an unlikely phenomenon: the same physics that underlies the aurorae here on Earth! Go get the whole story -- and all the images -- on this edition of Mostly Mute Monday!___

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2015-04-19 21:07:09 (15 comments, 19 reshares, 65 +1s)Open 

"We’ve managed to zoom in by more than a factor of 10^200, or more than a googol squared, and we still find this same self-similarity, and the same remarkable, intricate structures. There are ideas that perhaps the Universe is self-similar like this, but if it is, there’s a finite limit: the largest observable scales are “only” 92 billion light years or so (from one edge of the observable Universe to the other), while the smallest theoretical scale, the Planck scale, is down at around 10^-35 meters. All told, this is just 62 orders of magnitude, which doesn’t even account for the fact that non-gravitational forces begin to play important roles on scales the size of galaxies and smaller."

Mandelbrot zooms now surpass the scale of the entire observable Universe, and show no signs of loss of complexity or detail as they do. Lose yourself in these visuals, or celebrate 4/20 alittle ea... more »

"We’ve managed to zoom in by more than a factor of 10^200, or more than a googol squared, and we still find this same self-similarity, and the same remarkable, intricate structures. There are ideas that perhaps the Universe is self-similar like this, but if it is, there’s a finite limit: the largest observable scales are “only” 92 billion light years or so (from one edge of the observable Universe to the other), while the smallest theoretical scale, the Planck scale, is down at around 10^-35 meters. All told, this is just 62 orders of magnitude, which doesn’t even account for the fact that non-gravitational forces begin to play important roles on scales the size of galaxies and smaller."

Mandelbrot zooms now surpass the scale of the entire observable Universe, and show no signs of loss of complexity or detail as they do. Lose yourself in these visuals, or celebrate 4/20 a little early, as is your wont.___

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2015-04-17 23:58:07 (48 comments, 6 reshares, 46 +1s)Open 

"I try to keep students updated using a lot of material from your blog. But recently a good question came up during a discussion about [the] big bang: where do the photons from CMB come from?"

Before there were planets, galaxies, or even stars in the Universe, there really was light. We see that light, left over today, in the form of the Cosmic Microwave Background, or the remnant glow from the Big Bang. But these photons outnumber the matter in our Universe by more than a-billion-to-one, and are the most numerous thing around. So where did they first come from? Science has the answer.

"I try to keep students updated using a lot of material from your blog. But recently a good question came up during a discussion about [the] big bang: where do the photons from CMB come from?"

Before there were planets, galaxies, or even stars in the Universe, there really was light. We see that light, left over today, in the form of the Cosmic Microwave Background, or the remnant glow from the Big Bang. But these photons outnumber the matter in our Universe by more than a-billion-to-one, and are the most numerous thing around. So where did they first come from? Science has the answer.___

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2015-04-17 01:00:44 (2 comments, 8 reshares, 29 +1s)Open 

"Without knowing why or how the Universe came to be the way it is, we don’t have science, not completely, anyway. That insufficient type of answer isn’t enough for me, and it shouldn’t be enough for you (or any scientific-minded person) either. We wonder and we investigate so that we can figure out the answers, and that means understanding the dynamics."

It’s pretty obvious that the Universe exists in such a way that it admits the possibility of intelligent life arising. After all, we’re here, we’re intelligent life, and we’re in this Universe. So at minimum, the Universe must exist in such a way that it’s physically possible for us to have arisen. But are there physically interesting things we can learn about the Universe from this line of reasoning alone? As it turns out, the answer is yes, but the things we can learn are extremely limited both in terms of scientificand philosophic... more »

"Without knowing why or how the Universe came to be the way it is, we don’t have science, not completely, anyway. That insufficient type of answer isn’t enough for me, and it shouldn’t be enough for you (or any scientific-minded person) either. We wonder and we investigate so that we can figure out the answers, and that means understanding the dynamics."

It’s pretty obvious that the Universe exists in such a way that it admits the possibility of intelligent life arising. After all, we’re here, we’re intelligent life, and we’re in this Universe. So at minimum, the Universe must exist in such a way that it’s physically possible for us to have arisen. But are there physically interesting things we can learn about the Universe from this line of reasoning alone? As it turns out, the answer is yes, but the things we can learn are extremely limited both in terms of scientific and philosophical significance.___

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2015-04-16 16:21:57 (3 comments, 7 reshares, 33 +1s)Open 

"[W]hile all the prior groups and clustered showed evidence that the dark matter had passed completely through the other clusters and galaxies, with no slowdown or separation at all, this new cluster showed something different. For the first time, the dark matter in one of the colliding objects appeared to be separated from the stars!"

If you take two clusters, groups, or individual galaxies and collide them together, you'd expect the stars to pass through unperturbed, the gas to experience friction, slowing down and heating up, while the dark matter, if it's truly collisionless, will do the same thing as the stars. But if there's a tiny frictional force at work on dark matter, it, too, will slow down a little bit. A team looking at 72 groups and clusters saw no effect of slowing down, but then on the 73rd one, they saw a separation between the mass reconstruction and the... more »

"[W]hile all the prior groups and clustered showed evidence that the dark matter had passed completely through the other clusters and galaxies, with no slowdown or separation at all, this new cluster showed something different. For the first time, the dark matter in one of the colliding objects appeared to be separated from the stars!"

If you take two clusters, groups, or individual galaxies and collide them together, you'd expect the stars to pass through unperturbed, the gas to experience friction, slowing down and heating up, while the dark matter, if it's truly collisionless, will do the same thing as the stars. But if there's a tiny frictional force at work on dark matter, it, too, will slow down a little bit. A team looking at 72 groups and clusters saw no effect of slowing down, but then on the 73rd one, they saw a separation between the mass reconstruction and the stars. Is this the first sign of dark matter's interactions, or is it simply an astrophysical effect, or maybe even a fluke?___

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2015-04-16 00:05:36 (6 comments, 24 reshares, 84 +1s)Open 

"The fact that the Universe started with fluctuations, that gravity pulls on normal matter and dark matter both, but only normal matter gets pushed out by interacting electromagnetically gives rise to this “special scale” in the Universe. Today, we can see that special scale by noticing that you’re slightly more likely to have galaxies separated by a certain distance, and that distance has evolved over time as the Universe has expanded.

Measure that preferred scale not just today, but at all the distance scales you can measure as far back as you can, and you’ll learn the entire expansion history of the Universe."

When it comes to measuring the expansion history of the Universe, the concept is simple enough: take something you know about an object, like a mass, a size, or a brightness, then measure what the mass, size or brightness appears to be, and suddenly, you knowhow far... more »

"The fact that the Universe started with fluctuations, that gravity pulls on normal matter and dark matter both, but only normal matter gets pushed out by interacting electromagnetically gives rise to this “special scale” in the Universe. Today, we can see that special scale by noticing that you’re slightly more likely to have galaxies separated by a certain distance, and that distance has evolved over time as the Universe has expanded.

Measure that preferred scale not just today, but at all the distance scales you can measure as far back as you can, and you’ll learn the entire expansion history of the Universe."

When it comes to measuring the expansion history of the Universe, the concept is simple enough: take something you know about an object, like a mass, a size, or a brightness, then measure what the mass, size or brightness appears to be, and suddenly, you know how far away that object has to be. Add in a measurement of the object’s redshift, and you can figure out not only what the expansion rate of the Universe is today, you can figure out the entire expansion history, and therefore what makes the Universe up. Move over, supernovae, there's a new king in town!___

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2015-04-14 21:52:52 (22 comments, 23 reshares, 62 +1s)Open 

“I don’t like it, and I’m sorry I ever had anything to do with it.” -Schrödinger

You've heard the saying, "God does not play dice with the Universe," and quite likely, of Schrödinger's cat as well. The idea that the Universe is random and — in many ways — unpredictable and indeterministic, is unsettling, to say the least. Yet it seems to be a fact inherent to our quantum Universe, a fact that neither Einstein nor Schrödinger could ever accept. Paul Halpern dives in deep to these issues in his newest book, out today, and I've got the scoop in my review of it.

“I don’t like it, and I’m sorry I ever had anything to do with it.” -Schrödinger

You've heard the saying, "God does not play dice with the Universe," and quite likely, of Schrödinger's cat as well. The idea that the Universe is random and — in many ways — unpredictable and indeterministic, is unsettling, to say the least. Yet it seems to be a fact inherent to our quantum Universe, a fact that neither Einstein nor Schrödinger could ever accept. Paul Halpern dives in deep to these issues in his newest book, out today, and I've got the scoop in my review of it.___

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2015-04-13 15:28:35 (0 comments, 2 reshares, 49 +1s)Open 

“Despite having many properties typical to spiral galaxies, including arms and prominent dust lanes, its elliptical, bulge-like component actually extends much farther than the spiral part, containing both more mass and more stars than the disk, with double the stars our own galaxy possesses. In addition, the Sombrero  contains over 1,000 globulars and a billion solar mass black hole, both properties normally exclusive to ellipticals.

However, the elliptical component can be removed with advanced image processing… revealing that the Sombrero galaxy does, indeed, have all the properties of a spiral galaxy as well.”

Galaxies are everywhere we look in the Universe, clustered together in groups and separated by voids. It stands to reason that if we look beyond the local group, one of those galaxies would have to be the brightest. But the one that is turns out to be most unusual.Come t... more »

“Despite having many properties typical to spiral galaxies, including arms and prominent dust lanes, its elliptical, bulge-like component actually extends much farther than the spiral part, containing both more mass and more stars than the disk, with double the stars our own galaxy possesses. In addition, the Sombrero  contains over 1,000 globulars and a billion solar mass black hole, both properties normally exclusive to ellipticals.

However, the elliptical component can be removed with advanced image processing… revealing that the Sombrero galaxy does, indeed, have all the properties of a spiral galaxy as well.”

Galaxies are everywhere we look in the Universe, clustered together in groups and separated by voids. It stands to reason that if we look beyond the local group, one of those galaxies would have to be the brightest. But the one that is turns out to be most unusual. Come take in a myriad of its view on Mostly Mute Monday!___

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2015-04-12 15:05:50 (5 comments, 1 reshares, 13 +1s)Open 

"And what, exactly, are you supposed to do with that stuck yogurt?

1.) Throw it out, like the wasteful scum you know you secretly hate?
2.) Scrape the lid with your spoon, like some prissy-pants who won’t ever get all the yogurt back into the cup anyway? (Those who scrape the lid against the yogurt container: you’re in the same boat here.)
3.) Lick the lid, like the disgusting human being you were born to be?
4.) Or just give up, don’t eat yogurt, and perhaps feed it to the cat instead?"

Hate when the yogurt gets stuck to the top of the lid? At last, there may be a lick-free solution!

"And what, exactly, are you supposed to do with that stuck yogurt?

1.) Throw it out, like the wasteful scum you know you secretly hate?
2.) Scrape the lid with your spoon, like some prissy-pants who won’t ever get all the yogurt back into the cup anyway? (Those who scrape the lid against the yogurt container: you’re in the same boat here.)
3.) Lick the lid, like the disgusting human being you were born to be?
4.) Or just give up, don’t eat yogurt, and perhaps feed it to the cat instead?"

Hate when the yogurt gets stuck to the top of the lid? At last, there may be a lick-free solution!___

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2015-04-12 02:19:19 (0 comments, 3 reshares, 30 +1s)Open 

"Figuring out the lifetime of the Higgs from a single “event” in an accelerator is really, really hard. We can’t measure something like a displaced vertex (or time-of-flight), because the displacement is on the order of fractions-of-a-femtometer. Instead, and you’re going to hate this, the best estimate of the Higgs’ lifetime comes from Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle: (ΔE)(Δt) ≥ ℏ/2. Since E = mc^2, and the Higgs has a certain mass, we can look at the observed width of the mass (which tells us ΔE) to determine, experimentally, its lifetime, given by (approximately) Δt.

Work this out and you’ll find the Higgs lifetime is on the order of 10^-25 seconds, or really, really short."

How long does the Higgs live? What blows apart a 130-solar-mass star with no remnant inside? Is the largest known star really the largest one out there? And what about darkmatter in our Solar S... more »

"Figuring out the lifetime of the Higgs from a single “event” in an accelerator is really, really hard. We can’t measure something like a displaced vertex (or time-of-flight), because the displacement is on the order of fractions-of-a-femtometer. Instead, and you’re going to hate this, the best estimate of the Higgs’ lifetime comes from Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle: (ΔE)(Δt) ≥ ℏ/2. Since E = mc^2, and the Higgs has a certain mass, we can look at the observed width of the mass (which tells us ΔE) to determine, experimentally, its lifetime, given by (approximately) Δt.

Work this out and you’ll find the Higgs lifetime is on the order of 10^-25 seconds, or really, really short."

How long does the Higgs live? What blows apart a 130-solar-mass star with no remnant inside? Is the largest known star really the largest one out there? And what about dark matter in our Solar System?

Lots of good questions, and some tremendously informative answers, on this edition of comments of the week!___

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2015-04-11 20:03:06 (71 comments, 16 reshares, 69 +1s)Open 

"This is one of those great moments in science where one incorrect assumption doesn’t cause us to throw all our results and conclusions out, but rather where it helps us more accurately understand a phenomenon that’s puzzled us since we first discovered it.

Dark energy is real, and thanks to this new discovery, we just might come to understand it — and its effects on the Universe — better than ever before. "

The accelerated expansion of the Universe — and hence, dark energy — was discovered by taking the well-understood phenomenon of type Ia supernovae and measuring them out to great distances. The results indicated that they were fainter than expected, and hence more distant, and hence the Universe's expansion must be accelerating. But new results have just come out, showing that supernovae may not be standard after all. Find out what this means forthe accelerating Un... more »

"This is one of those great moments in science where one incorrect assumption doesn’t cause us to throw all our results and conclusions out, but rather where it helps us more accurately understand a phenomenon that’s puzzled us since we first discovered it.

Dark energy is real, and thanks to this new discovery, we just might come to understand it — and its effects on the Universe — better than ever before. "

The accelerated expansion of the Universe — and hence, dark energy — was discovered by taking the well-understood phenomenon of type Ia supernovae and measuring them out to great distances. The results indicated that they were fainter than expected, and hence more distant, and hence the Universe's expansion must be accelerating. But new results have just come out, showing that supernovae may not be standard after all. Find out what this means for the accelerating Universe and dark energy!___

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2015-04-10 15:55:37 (11 comments, 8 reshares, 48 +1s)Open 

"If the next generation of ground-and-space-based telescopes reaches the sensitivity they’re designed to reach, and the existence of life is a relatively commonplace phenomenon in the Universe, one of the enduring philosophical questions for all of human history will finally have a definitive, affirmative answer: we are not alone."

Earlier this week, NASA's chief scientist held a press conference, announcing that we should detect alien life by 2030, if both the Universe and the progression of telescope technology is as we expect. The technique is actually incredibly simple: examine what makes up the atmosphere of potentially inhabited exoplanets, and then you'll have your answer!

"If the next generation of ground-and-space-based telescopes reaches the sensitivity they’re designed to reach, and the existence of life is a relatively commonplace phenomenon in the Universe, one of the enduring philosophical questions for all of human history will finally have a definitive, affirmative answer: we are not alone."

Earlier this week, NASA's chief scientist held a press conference, announcing that we should detect alien life by 2030, if both the Universe and the progression of telescope technology is as we expect. The technique is actually incredibly simple: examine what makes up the atmosphere of potentially inhabited exoplanets, and then you'll have your answer!___

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2015-04-10 01:21:00 (8 comments, 6 reshares, 50 +1s)Open 

"In a star with more than 250 Solar Masses, it simply collapses entirely into a black hole. A 260 solar mass star would create a 260 solar mass black hole, a 1000 solar mass star would make a 1000 solar mass black hole, etc. And so if we can make a star that exceeds that limit here, in our own isolated little corner of space, then we certainly made these objects when the Universe was very young, and we probably made a good-sized number of them. And over time, they’ll merge!"

When we look at the centers of galaxies, it’s no surprise that there are large black holes there, millions or even billions of times the mass of the Sun. As we look farther and farther away, and hence farther back in time, we’d expect these masses to be much smaller. But what we find is that we have supermassive black holes at the centers of quasars many billions of times the Sun’s mass all the way back towhen th... more »

"In a star with more than 250 Solar Masses, it simply collapses entirely into a black hole. A 260 solar mass star would create a 260 solar mass black hole, a 1000 solar mass star would make a 1000 solar mass black hole, etc. And so if we can make a star that exceeds that limit here, in our own isolated little corner of space, then we certainly made these objects when the Universe was very young, and we probably made a good-sized number of them. And over time, they’ll merge!"

When we look at the centers of galaxies, it’s no surprise that there are large black holes there, millions or even billions of times the mass of the Sun. As we look farther and farther away, and hence farther back in time, we’d expect these masses to be much smaller. But what we find is that we have supermassive black holes at the centers of quasars many billions of times the Sun’s mass all the way back to when the Universe was just a few hundred million years old: less than 5% its current age. Does this mean our ideas about how the Universe formed all need to be thrown out? Hardly: here’s the solution to the mystery of how such massive black holes were formed so early on.___

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2015-04-09 15:54:45 (31 comments, 19 reshares, 50 +1s)Open 

“And if you do find that you’ve made a mistake —it’s okay, we all do — don’t double down on it when you find that the facts challenge what you’ve said. Instead, do the same thing that science strives to do: incorporate the new information, revise what you thought before to include and encompass what you know now, and move forward with a greater, more nuanced understanding of how the Universe actually works.

And then share it with the world.”

I never understood the compulsion to share stories of science with the world… if you have no idea what the actual science actually says. But if you do love science and you want to share the stories that we know about it, there’s only one simple rule you need to follow if you want to do it right. So do it right! +Jonah Miller 

“And if you do find that you’ve made a mistake —it’s okay, we all do — don’t double down on it when you find that the facts challenge what you’ve said. Instead, do the same thing that science strives to do: incorporate the new information, revise what you thought before to include and encompass what you know now, and move forward with a greater, more nuanced understanding of how the Universe actually works.

And then share it with the world.”

I never understood the compulsion to share stories of science with the world… if you have no idea what the actual science actually says. But if you do love science and you want to share the stories that we know about it, there’s only one simple rule you need to follow if you want to do it right. So do it right! +Jonah Miller ___

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2015-04-09 03:23:09 (14 comments, 13 reshares, 49 +1s)Open 

"*5.) The LHC is probing uncharted territory in looking for new, fundamental pieces to our picture of the Universe.* If dark matter exists with a rest mass of below about 1 TeV, the LHC should see a surefire signal of it. If supersymmetry (SUSY) is the reason why particles have masses so much less than the Planck scale, we should find at least one SUSY particle at the LHC. If there’s more than one Higgs particle, the LHC should find at least one of the others. And if the key to the matter/antimatter asymmetry lies in electroweak physics, the LHC should start to see that."

Last week, CERN's Large Hadron Collider restarted, poised to set the all-time collider energy record at 13 TeV. But how does it work, what is it attempting to find, and if there is new physics out there, how are we going to find out? In five easy steps, here's a walkthrough of exactly what's happening att... more »

"*5.) The LHC is probing uncharted territory in looking for new, fundamental pieces to our picture of the Universe.* If dark matter exists with a rest mass of below about 1 TeV, the LHC should see a surefire signal of it. If supersymmetry (SUSY) is the reason why particles have masses so much less than the Planck scale, we should find at least one SUSY particle at the LHC. If there’s more than one Higgs particle, the LHC should find at least one of the others. And if the key to the matter/antimatter asymmetry lies in electroweak physics, the LHC should start to see that."

Last week, CERN's Large Hadron Collider restarted, poised to set the all-time collider energy record at 13 TeV. But how does it work, what is it attempting to find, and if there is new physics out there, how are we going to find out? In five easy steps, here's a walkthrough of exactly what's happening at the world's most powerful machine.___

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2015-04-06 15:47:04 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 16 +1s)Open 

“Shown... in visible light, a UV-visible composite, infrared and then all wavelengths combined,  a large number of these stars — only about a million years old — are likely already dead, with the light (and neutrinos) from supernovae destined to reach us at any time.”

The largest star we know of is located some 160,000 light years away in the local group's fourth largest galaxy: the Large Magellanic Cloud. At the very center of the Tarantula Nebula, itself 1000 light years across, lies the star cluster R136, which contains at its core a single star some 260 times the mass and more than seven million times the luminosity of our Sun. Go get the whole story of this behemoth -- in pictures, words and video -- on Mostly Mute Monday.

“Shown... in visible light, a UV-visible composite, infrared and then all wavelengths combined,  a large number of these stars — only about a million years old — are likely already dead, with the light (and neutrinos) from supernovae destined to reach us at any time.”

The largest star we know of is located some 160,000 light years away in the local group's fourth largest galaxy: the Large Magellanic Cloud. At the very center of the Tarantula Nebula, itself 1000 light years across, lies the star cluster R136, which contains at its core a single star some 260 times the mass and more than seven million times the luminosity of our Sun. Go get the whole story of this behemoth -- in pictures, words and video -- on Mostly Mute Monday.___

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2015-04-06 15:30:12 (13 comments, 9 reshares, 93 +1s)Open 

"But there’s a law of nature — something that’s conserved — that tells us if Earth’s rotation is slowing down, something else needs to happen to compensate for it. That law is the conservation of angular momentum, and the thing that compensates is that as the Earth’s spin slows down, the Moon spirals farther and farther out from Earth! And the farther away the Moon gets, the smaller its angular size, and thus the smaller it appears in the sky. As time goes on, more and more of the solar eclipses will be annular rather than total, as the Moon’s size will appear insufficient to block out the Sun."

My first piece contributing to Forbes, bringing some awesome science to a new audience!

"But there’s a law of nature — something that’s conserved — that tells us if Earth’s rotation is slowing down, something else needs to happen to compensate for it. That law is the conservation of angular momentum, and the thing that compensates is that as the Earth’s spin slows down, the Moon spirals farther and farther out from Earth! And the farther away the Moon gets, the smaller its angular size, and thus the smaller it appears in the sky. As time goes on, more and more of the solar eclipses will be annular rather than total, as the Moon’s size will appear insufficient to block out the Sun."

My first piece contributing to Forbes, bringing some awesome science to a new audience!___

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2015-04-05 22:03:26 (4 comments, 1 reshares, 14 +1s)Open 

"The burning of the incense sticks creates emptiness where there once was substance, both in the stick itself and the paper used. At the same time, the emptiness creates space in the paper and empty spaces show new image.The holes in the paper allow one’s eye to see shadows while at the same time light is reflected back from the varnished canvas. This balance of dark and light, emptiness and substance is the essence of ‘Yin’ and ‘Yang’ and through this balance utopia is achieved."

When you think about representing something physical in an artistic medium, you usually think of starting with a blank canvas and adding to it. But every once in a while, you discover a new form of art, where subtraction — or even destruction — is the medium of communication. Check out Jihyun Park's unique work, and perhaps, like me, you'll marvel at the creativity.

"The burning of the incense sticks creates emptiness where there once was substance, both in the stick itself and the paper used. At the same time, the emptiness creates space in the paper and empty spaces show new image.The holes in the paper allow one’s eye to see shadows while at the same time light is reflected back from the varnished canvas. This balance of dark and light, emptiness and substance is the essence of ‘Yin’ and ‘Yang’ and through this balance utopia is achieved."

When you think about representing something physical in an artistic medium, you usually think of starting with a blank canvas and adding to it. But every once in a while, you discover a new form of art, where subtraction — or even destruction — is the medium of communication. Check out Jihyun Park's unique work, and perhaps, like me, you'll marvel at the creativity.___

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2015-04-05 02:58:53 (0 comments, 13 reshares, 55 +1s)Open 

"It’s these very conditions, where you have the combined factors of:

* high temperatures at the base with much cooler temperatures above it,
* ionized particles with turbulent airflow,
* a sooty, ashy, cloudy area where the air is highly conductive, and
* these three conditions sustained over a sufficient time with dark enough skies for photography,

that you’ve got the greatest chance to capture a volcanic lightning strike."

A volcanic eruption, lava, smoke, ash, and lightning, all captured in one unforgettable video by world-class astrophotographer César Cantú. Don't miss it!

"It’s these very conditions, where you have the combined factors of:

* high temperatures at the base with much cooler temperatures above it,
* ionized particles with turbulent airflow,
* a sooty, ashy, cloudy area where the air is highly conductive, and
* these three conditions sustained over a sufficient time with dark enough skies for photography,

that you’ve got the greatest chance to capture a volcanic lightning strike."

A volcanic eruption, lava, smoke, ash, and lightning, all captured in one unforgettable video by world-class astrophotographer César Cantú. Don't miss it!___

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2015-04-04 15:26:10 (1 comments, 0 reshares, 17 +1s)Open 

"I like to think that stories like this — that facts like this — help remind us all that we all share the same story when it comes to the Universe. We all share the same laws, the same history, and for most of us at some point in our lives, even some of the same particles. We are bound together by the story of the Universe, and we can learn that story simply by asking the Universe questions about itself."

From Cons to Black Holes to the Solar System and the most astounding fact in the Universe, here’s not only the best of the past (amazing) week, but the best of what you had to say, and even more science (and humanity) in response!

"I like to think that stories like this — that facts like this — help remind us all that we all share the same story when it comes to the Universe. We all share the same laws, the same history, and for most of us at some point in our lives, even some of the same particles. We are bound together by the story of the Universe, and we can learn that story simply by asking the Universe questions about itself."

From Cons to Black Holes to the Solar System and the most astounding fact in the Universe, here’s not only the best of the past (amazing) week, but the best of what you had to say, and even more science (and humanity) in response!___

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2015-04-03 18:34:42 (36 comments, 15 reshares, 120 +1s)Open 

"Why is it that planets are all on the same plane (roughly of course) as they rotate?"

When we look at the planets in the solar system, it's perhaps surprising that they all orbit in the same plane to within just seven degrees. In fact, if we remove Mercury, they're in the same plane to within a mere two degrees. But the laws of gravity are the same in all three dimensions, and so you can easily imagine it could've been vastly different. Theory has told us, for some time, that a combination of angular momentum, gravity, and the "sticky" properties of matter should lead to a disk-like structure for all solar systems, but only recently have observations come along to confirm this. At the end of the day, we finally believe we have the full story.

"Why is it that planets are all on the same plane (roughly of course) as they rotate?"

When we look at the planets in the solar system, it's perhaps surprising that they all orbit in the same plane to within just seven degrees. In fact, if we remove Mercury, they're in the same plane to within a mere two degrees. But the laws of gravity are the same in all three dimensions, and so you can easily imagine it could've been vastly different. Theory has told us, for some time, that a combination of angular momentum, gravity, and the "sticky" properties of matter should lead to a disk-like structure for all solar systems, but only recently have observations come along to confirm this. At the end of the day, we finally believe we have the full story.___

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2015-04-02 22:58:07 (33 comments, 12 reshares, 50 +1s)Open 

"Imagine what things would be like if this weren’t true. Imagine an existence where nature behaves randomly and unpredictably, where gravity turns on-and-off on a whim, where the Sun could simply stop burning its fuel for no apparent reason, where the atoms that form you could spontaneously cease to hold together.

A Universe like this would truly be frightening, because it could never be understood. The things you learn here and now might not be true later, or even five feet away.

But the Universe isn’t like this at all."

There are many scientific facts that are simply remarkable when it comes to the Universe, including the stories of the stars, of galaxies, of matter, of life, of atoms and of subatomic particle. In short, every aspect of nature we can think of has its own unique, remarkable story. But there’s one fact that supersedes them all: the fact thatthe U... more »

"Imagine what things would be like if this weren’t true. Imagine an existence where nature behaves randomly and unpredictably, where gravity turns on-and-off on a whim, where the Sun could simply stop burning its fuel for no apparent reason, where the atoms that form you could spontaneously cease to hold together.

A Universe like this would truly be frightening, because it could never be understood. The things you learn here and now might not be true later, or even five feet away.

But the Universe isn’t like this at all."

There are many scientific facts that are simply remarkable when it comes to the Universe, including the stories of the stars, of galaxies, of matter, of life, of atoms and of subatomic particle. In short, every aspect of nature we can think of has its own unique, remarkable story. But there’s one fact that supersedes them all: the fact that the Universe itself can be understood, scientifically. This is much more profound than most people realize, and also the most powerful guide we have to unpacking and understanding the cosmos itself.___

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2015-04-02 19:16:34 (61 comments, 44 reshares, 159 +1s)Open 

"If the calculations in the new paper are correct, we could now conclude that no black holes can have previously completely evaporated anywhere in our universe, because otherwise we wouldn’t be here anymore. Since the distribution of primordial black hole masses is not known, however, some of them could be around and come into the final phase of evaporation any time, spelling the end of the world as we know it."

Black holes are some of the most extreme examples of physics in the Universe. Space is curved tremendously, there’s an incredible concentration of energy all in one, singular point, and everything that occurs, in theory, outside of the event horizon can be seen in our Universe. But what if one of those things that it can do is make the quantum vacuum in this incredibly curved space unstable? What if it can allow the vacuum to tunnel from its metastable state into onetha... more »

"If the calculations in the new paper are correct, we could now conclude that no black holes can have previously completely evaporated anywhere in our universe, because otherwise we wouldn’t be here anymore. Since the distribution of primordial black hole masses is not known, however, some of them could be around and come into the final phase of evaporation any time, spelling the end of the world as we know it."

Black holes are some of the most extreme examples of physics in the Universe. Space is curved tremendously, there’s an incredible concentration of energy all in one, singular point, and everything that occurs, in theory, outside of the event horizon can be seen in our Universe. But what if one of those things that it can do is make the quantum vacuum in this incredibly curved space unstable? What if it can allow the vacuum to tunnel from its metastable state into one that’s truly stable? In theory, this can destroy the entire Universe. Sabine Hossenfelder has the story.___

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2015-04-02 00:21:40 (0 comments, 3 reshares, 24 +1s)Open 

What is it that drives "umbraphiles," or those who chase total solar eclipses? An interesting piece by Liam Hodkinson.

I'll very likely be writing a follow-up about the science of this.

What is it that drives "umbraphiles," or those who chase total solar eclipses? An interesting piece by Liam Hodkinson.

I'll very likely be writing a follow-up about the science of this.___

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2015-04-01 22:46:44 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 9 +1s)Open 

The live blog of The Most Wanted Particle, Jon Butterworth's talk at Perimeter Institute, begins NOW!

https://medium.com/starts-with-a-bang/the-most-wanted-particle-dd8352216e14

Don't forget to follow #piLIVE  on Twitter as well!

The live blog of The Most Wanted Particle, Jon Butterworth's talk at Perimeter Institute, begins NOW!

https://medium.com/starts-with-a-bang/the-most-wanted-particle-dd8352216e14

Don't forget to follow #piLIVE  on Twitter as well!___

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2015-04-01 17:29:22 (13 comments, 19 reshares, 51 +1s)Open 

"Einstein shared his disdain for what he called spooky action at a distance: the concept that one member of a pair of particles might remain in a mixed state of a physical value until a researcher measures the properties of the other particle, even if they are widely separated. Dubbing this notion “entanglement,” Schrödinger imagined what would happen if the fate of a cat in a sealed box were linked to the state of a radioactive material. He and Einstein found the resulting situation preposterous, if interpreted through orthodox quantum principles: the cat would be in a mixed state of life and death until an observer opened the box and measured the system."

When it comes to the very nature of quantum mechanics — about the inherent uncertainty and indeterminism to reality — it’s one of the most difficult things to accept. Perhaps, you imagine, there’s some underlying cause,some hidden ... more »

"Einstein shared his disdain for what he called spooky action at a distance: the concept that one member of a pair of particles might remain in a mixed state of a physical value until a researcher measures the properties of the other particle, even if they are widely separated. Dubbing this notion “entanglement,” Schrödinger imagined what would happen if the fate of a cat in a sealed box were linked to the state of a radioactive material. He and Einstein found the resulting situation preposterous, if interpreted through orthodox quantum principles: the cat would be in a mixed state of life and death until an observer opened the box and measured the system."

When it comes to the very nature of quantum mechanics — about the inherent uncertainty and indeterminism to reality — it’s one of the most difficult things to accept. Perhaps, you imagine, there’s some underlying cause, some hidden reality beneath what’s visible that actually is deterministic. After all, a cat can’t simultaneously be dead and alive until someone looks can it? That’s one of the problems that both Einstein and Schrödinger wrestled with during their lives. An investigation of that story, their work on that front, and their friendship that ensued as both pursued that same end is thoroughly investigated here by physicist Paul Halpern.___

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2015-03-31 16:58:59 (12 comments, 24 reshares, 145 +1s)Open 

"Jupiter likely started to form at about the current distance of Mars. Due to the drag forces of the early solar system it migrated toward the Sun, perhaps as close as the modern orbit of Venus. It was on track to becoming a hot jovian planet were it not for the gravitational interactions of Saturn. The two planets entered a gravitational resonance, where Jupiter would make 3 orbits for every 2 of Saturn. This 2:3 resonance gradually drove the planets outward. Subsequent interactions with Uranus and Neptune drove those planets outward as well."

It’s the simple formula we all know and recognize: inner, rocky worlds closest to the Sun, an asteroid belt farther out, and then gas giant worlds out beyond them. That’s how our Solar System works, at any rate. We’ve finally got enough data to determine whether other planetary systems are like us or not, and it turns out our configurationis qu... more »

"Jupiter likely started to form at about the current distance of Mars. Due to the drag forces of the early solar system it migrated toward the Sun, perhaps as close as the modern orbit of Venus. It was on track to becoming a hot jovian planet were it not for the gravitational interactions of Saturn. The two planets entered a gravitational resonance, where Jupiter would make 3 orbits for every 2 of Saturn. This 2:3 resonance gradually drove the planets outward. Subsequent interactions with Uranus and Neptune drove those planets outward as well."

It’s the simple formula we all know and recognize: inner, rocky worlds closest to the Sun, an asteroid belt farther out, and then gas giant worlds out beyond them. That’s how our Solar System works, at any rate. We’ve finally got enough data to determine whether other planetary systems are like us or not, and it turns out our configuration is quite rare. Simulations have caught up to this as well, and we've learned that Jupiter basically 'cleaned house' early on, a rare story explaining why our Solar System is so unusual!___

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2015-03-31 01:13:03 (19 comments, 17 reshares, 67 +1s)Open 

"Do all planets rotate as they go around their stars? Do they all rotate in the same direction (e.g. clockwise or anticlockwise?) Or does it just depend on what started them rotating in the first place?"

When you think about our world and our place in the Solar System, you very likely think about Earth, spinning on its axis, with the Moon orbiting around it, and with the entire Earth-Moon system orbiting the Sun. In fact, all of it — the Earth spinning on its axis, the Moon revolving around Earth, the Earth revolving around the Sun, and even the Sun spinning on its own axis — spins in the same direction: counterclockwise, as viewed from looking "down" on the Earth's north pole. Is this true for all planets in all solar systems? The answer turns out to be "mostly," but there are some incredibly interesting exceptions.

A great column by JillianScu... more »

"Do all planets rotate as they go around their stars? Do they all rotate in the same direction (e.g. clockwise or anticlockwise?) Or does it just depend on what started them rotating in the first place?"

When you think about our world and our place in the Solar System, you very likely think about Earth, spinning on its axis, with the Moon orbiting around it, and with the entire Earth-Moon system orbiting the Sun. In fact, all of it — the Earth spinning on its axis, the Moon revolving around Earth, the Earth revolving around the Sun, and even the Sun spinning on its own axis — spins in the same direction: counterclockwise, as viewed from looking "down" on the Earth's north pole. Is this true for all planets in all solar systems? The answer turns out to be "mostly," but there are some incredibly interesting exceptions.

A great column by Jillian Scudder.___

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2015-03-30 18:20:23 (2 comments, 3 reshares, 25 +1s)Open 

“During thunderstorms, approximately ten Coulombs of charge — some 10^20 electrons — are exchanged with every bolt, representing the release of an incredible build-up of energy.

During a volcanic eruption, however, the incredible heats cause neutral atoms to become ions, either positively or negatively charged, which then separate due to differences in masses, temperatures and physical cross-sections. The aerodynamics separates the particles even farther, and when the threshold of breakdown voltage is crossed, a lightning strike occurs.”

When it comes to lightning, you inevitably think of thunderstorms, rain, and the exchange of huge amounts of charge between the clouds above and the Earth. But there’s another sight that’s perhaps even more spectacular: volcanic lightning!

“During thunderstorms, approximately ten Coulombs of charge — some 10^20 electrons — are exchanged with every bolt, representing the release of an incredible build-up of energy.

During a volcanic eruption, however, the incredible heats cause neutral atoms to become ions, either positively or negatively charged, which then separate due to differences in masses, temperatures and physical cross-sections. The aerodynamics separates the particles even farther, and when the threshold of breakdown voltage is crossed, a lightning strike occurs.”

When it comes to lightning, you inevitably think of thunderstorms, rain, and the exchange of huge amounts of charge between the clouds above and the Earth. But there’s another sight that’s perhaps even more spectacular: volcanic lightning!___

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2015-03-29 20:45:16 (0 comments, 4 reshares, 19 +1s)Open 

"Be yourself, and be confident in that. Find what you love and embrace it. Explore everything that might give you joy in this world and in your mind, and go for it. And if you need a little help in getting there, a Con — the right Con — just might be exactly what you need to help you get there."

For anyone who feels (or has ever felt) like you don't quite fit in where you are.

"Be yourself, and be confident in that. Find what you love and embrace it. Explore everything that might give you joy in this world and in your mind, and go for it. And if you need a little help in getting there, a Con — the right Con — just might be exactly what you need to help you get there."

For anyone who feels (or has ever felt) like you don't quite fit in where you are.___

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2015-03-28 16:50:52 (0 comments, 2 reshares, 17 +1s)Open 

"“The structure of the aurora has always puzzled me. Why it manifests sharply delfined at the bottom, and vertically fades with altitude.
I presume an atmospheric layer or boundary defines the bottom edge, and fades upward as a function of energy, concentration of elements or combination of both.”

Now, it is true that there appears to be a region where most of the particles terminate. Why is this? When the particles causing the aurorae are ejected from the Sun, they arrive with some average amount of energy, which means they can penetrate for a certain average distance into the Earth’s atmosphere. But remember: the atmosphere — particularly in the upper layers — gets much denser as you descend through it. Where the aurorae are formed, some 100 km up, the bottom 3-to-5 km have as many atoms in them as all the 100 km+ layers above them combined.

What you’re seeingis the term... more »

"“The structure of the aurora has always puzzled me. Why it manifests sharply delfined at the bottom, and vertically fades with altitude.
I presume an atmospheric layer or boundary defines the bottom edge, and fades upward as a function of energy, concentration of elements or combination of both.”

Now, it is true that there appears to be a region where most of the particles terminate. Why is this? When the particles causing the aurorae are ejected from the Sun, they arrive with some average amount of energy, which means they can penetrate for a certain average distance into the Earth’s atmosphere. But remember: the atmosphere — particularly in the upper layers — gets much denser as you descend through it. Where the aurorae are formed, some 100 km up, the bottom 3-to-5 km have as many atoms in them as all the 100 km+ layers above them combined.

What you’re seeing is the termination of these charged particles due to our increasing-density atmosphere. The biggest effect isn’t layers, per se, but rather the fact that you’re finally in a part of the atmosphere where the stopping power of the air molecules is sufficient. Get a more energetic flare, and these particles can make it farther and farther down!"

With two weeks of fabulousness to catch up on, there's no shortage of science or stories, plus don't miss your chance to have input on the next great Starts With A Bang adventure!___

2015-03-28 16:24:16 (7 comments, 0 reshares, 9 +1s)Open 

Hey Plussers, I want to keep Starts With A Bang going strong well into the future, and I want to keep it high-quality, ad-free, and to keep me and my contributing writers all paid.

So I'm thinking of setting up a +Patreon to help support us! What rewards would you like to get and what new things would you like me to offer as incentives for funding goals? (E.g., podcasts, videos, newsletters, hangouts/live sessions, development of a TV series, posters, book previews, etc.?)

All comments and suggestions welcome!

Hey Plussers, I want to keep Starts With A Bang going strong well into the future, and I want to keep it high-quality, ad-free, and to keep me and my contributing writers all paid.

So I'm thinking of setting up a +Patreon to help support us! What rewards would you like to get and what new things would you like me to offer as incentives for funding goals? (E.g., podcasts, videos, newsletters, hangouts/live sessions, development of a TV series, posters, book previews, etc.?)

All comments and suggestions welcome!___

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2015-03-28 06:35:30 (12 comments, 7 reshares, 42 +1s)Open 

"I was wondering if it was possible to crawl out of a black hole. Not by going at an escape velocity, but by using something like a hypothetical elevator. That way you never have to go faster than light."

If you move at the speed of light and are inside the event horizon of a black hole, you inevitably fall towards the singularity at the center. But if you were completely outside of the event horizon, you can escape. So what if you were completely outside of a large, massive black hole (with small spatial curvature at the event horizon) and then dipped just a small amount of matter inside. Could you just pull it out again? It turns out the answer is no, and that — to date — there's still no way to escape from a black hole!

"I was wondering if it was possible to crawl out of a black hole. Not by going at an escape velocity, but by using something like a hypothetical elevator. That way you never have to go faster than light."

If you move at the speed of light and are inside the event horizon of a black hole, you inevitably fall towards the singularity at the center. But if you were completely outside of the event horizon, you can escape. So what if you were completely outside of a large, massive black hole (with small spatial curvature at the event horizon) and then dipped just a small amount of matter inside. Could you just pull it out again? It turns out the answer is no, and that — to date — there's still no way to escape from a black hole!___

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2015-03-27 02:48:40 (3 comments, 3 reshares, 32 +1s)Open 

"Hubble’s Law gives a very good approximation for distances on average, particularly on large scales. But Hubble’s law doesn’t account for all of an object’s redshift. There’s also the very minor issue (that’s sarcasm) of all the other matter in the Universe, and the gravitational effects it’s had on each and every galaxy it’s had time to interact with over the past 13.8 billion years.

Matter has this annoying property that it clumps and clusters together, and that’s because gravitational attraction causes it to move. Don’t get me wrong, this is great for lots of things, but it’s not great when you’re trying to figure out how distant an object truly is when all you measure is its motion!"

God not only plays dice with the Universe, he also gives us fingers and pancakes. The latter two, at least, we can overcome!

"Hubble’s Law gives a very good approximation for distances on average, particularly on large scales. But Hubble’s law doesn’t account for all of an object’s redshift. There’s also the very minor issue (that’s sarcasm) of all the other matter in the Universe, and the gravitational effects it’s had on each and every galaxy it’s had time to interact with over the past 13.8 billion years.

Matter has this annoying property that it clumps and clusters together, and that’s because gravitational attraction causes it to move. Don’t get me wrong, this is great for lots of things, but it’s not great when you’re trying to figure out how distant an object truly is when all you measure is its motion!"

God not only plays dice with the Universe, he also gives us fingers and pancakes. The latter two, at least, we can overcome!___

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2015-03-26 01:21:10 (0 comments, 14 reshares, 49 +1s)Open 

"So in an ordinary year, the highest high tides and lowest low tides occur during spring tides near the equinoxes. But every once in a while — in particular, once every 18 years — you not only get spring tides right at one of the equinoxes, you get it coincident with a perigee Moon, and hence you get the maximum of all possible tidal effects: a supertide!

And that’s when tidal flooding is most likely, and when this one French Abbey — Mount Saint-Michel — will flood like we just saw. Of course, the flipside of this is that in addition to the highest high tides, we also get the lowest low tides, and that’s spectacular in its own right!"

Once every 18 years, a French Abbey — Mount St.-Michel — becomes inaccessible, as the English Channel rises to such levels that the causeway that normally reaches it becomes engulfed by the surrounding waters. Youmight think this is due to the ... more »

"So in an ordinary year, the highest high tides and lowest low tides occur during spring tides near the equinoxes. But every once in a while — in particular, once every 18 years — you not only get spring tides right at one of the equinoxes, you get it coincident with a perigee Moon, and hence you get the maximum of all possible tidal effects: a supertide!

And that’s when tidal flooding is most likely, and when this one French Abbey — Mount Saint-Michel — will flood like we just saw. Of course, the flipside of this is that in addition to the highest high tides, we also get the lowest low tides, and that’s spectacular in its own right!"

Once every 18 years, a French Abbey — Mount St.-Michel — becomes inaccessible, as the English Channel rises to such levels that the causeway that normally reaches it becomes engulfed by the surrounding waters. You might think this is due to the tides, where the Earth, Moon and Sun align, but then shouldn’t this happen twice a month, during the two Spring Tides? As it turns out, the effects are much more subtle, and involve the Moon’s elliptical orbit and the equinoxes as well, but when they all align, once every 18 years, a supertide is the result, and Mount St.-Michel becomes an island!___

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2015-03-25 01:44:41 (17 comments, 33 reshares, 97 +1s)Open 

"So even if you make a black hole, and even if the laws of physics that we know are wrong and it lives forever, it is still harmless. No matter how many of the laws of physics you throw out, revise or tweak, the Earth will still be okay."

Every time we go to higher-and-higher energies with our particle accelerators, we increase the chances of finding new particles, new knowledge, and new fundamental physics. While there are also potential risks, the most commonly trotted-out one is that the LHC — set to run at 13 TeV, up from 7 TeV previously — will create an Earth-destroying black hole that will devour the planet in short order. Here's the physics of why that's impossible.

"So even if you make a black hole, and even if the laws of physics that we know are wrong and it lives forever, it is still harmless. No matter how many of the laws of physics you throw out, revise or tweak, the Earth will still be okay."

Every time we go to higher-and-higher energies with our particle accelerators, we increase the chances of finding new particles, new knowledge, and new fundamental physics. While there are also potential risks, the most commonly trotted-out one is that the LHC — set to run at 13 TeV, up from 7 TeV previously — will create an Earth-destroying black hole that will devour the planet in short order. Here's the physics of why that's impossible.___

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2015-03-23 13:52:19 (5 comments, 5 reshares, 47 +1s)Open 

"Now nearly three years into its mission, Curiosity continues to reveal details about the geologic, hydrologic and — potentially — biological signatures and history of what might be the first world beyond Earth that humans will colonize."

In 2012, Mars Science Laboratory performed the first robotically-controlled soft landing of a vehicle of such incredible mass: nearly half a tonne. A few months later, the rover, Curiosity, took the first ever billion-pixel mosaic from the Red Planet's surface, with breathtaking views of the terrain and alternate views of what the soils would look like were they here on Earth. Now in its third year on Mars, Curiosity is roving the low slopes of its ultimate destination: Mount Sharp.

"Now nearly three years into its mission, Curiosity continues to reveal details about the geologic, hydrologic and — potentially — biological signatures and history of what might be the first world beyond Earth that humans will colonize."

In 2012, Mars Science Laboratory performed the first robotically-controlled soft landing of a vehicle of such incredible mass: nearly half a tonne. A few months later, the rover, Curiosity, took the first ever billion-pixel mosaic from the Red Planet's surface, with breathtaking views of the terrain and alternate views of what the soils would look like were they here on Earth. Now in its third year on Mars, Curiosity is roving the low slopes of its ultimate destination: Mount Sharp.___

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2015-03-20 15:43:03 (17 comments, 9 reshares, 34 +1s)Open 

“It means that as time goes on, the light emitted by distant galaxies gets shifted quite heavily towards the red part of the spectrum, resulting in a cosmological redshift.

It means that there are some portions of the Universe that are so distant that light emitted from them will never be able to reach us. Currently, that point is anything beyond about 46.1 billion light years from us.

And it means that any object beyond about 4.5 Megaparsecs (or 14-to-15 billion light years) will never be reachable by us, or anything we do, from this point forward.”

While you might approach the speed of light arbitrarily and asymptotically, you’ll never reach it. And yet, we have the Universe, expanding all the time, where the expansion rate itself is even speeding up. You might wonder, then, if these distant galaxies — the farther and farther away you look — might ever be seenmoving aw... more »

“It means that as time goes on, the light emitted by distant galaxies gets shifted quite heavily towards the red part of the spectrum, resulting in a cosmological redshift.

It means that there are some portions of the Universe that are so distant that light emitted from them will never be able to reach us. Currently, that point is anything beyond about 46.1 billion light years from us.

And it means that any object beyond about 4.5 Megaparsecs (or 14-to-15 billion light years) will never be reachable by us, or anything we do, from this point forward.”

While you might approach the speed of light arbitrarily and asymptotically, you’ll never reach it. And yet, we have the Universe, expanding all the time, where the expansion rate itself is even speeding up. You might wonder, then, if these distant galaxies — the farther and farther away you look — might ever be seen moving away from us faster than the speed of light?

Surprisingly and mind-bendingly, the answer is yes.___

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2015-03-19 20:14:01 (0 comments, 3 reshares, 26 +1s)Open 

“[T]he elements that are found on the Sun are pretty much the same as the elements found on Earth, with two major exceptions: Helium and Hydrogen were both vastly more abundant than they are on Earth. Helium was many thousands of times richer on the Sun than it is here on Earth, and Hydrogen was about one million times more abundant on the Sun, making it the most common element there by far.”

Sure, it's easy today to look at the Sun and know it's a ball of (mostly) hydrogen, generating energy by combining those protons in a chain into helium through the process of nuclear fusion. But before we even knew that nuclear fusion was possible, we needed to figure out what the Sun was made out of, a more difficult task than you'd imagine. The credit was given to Henry Norris Russell (of Hertzsprung-Russell diagram fame), but he completely stole the work from a woman you never heard of,his... more »

“[T]he elements that are found on the Sun are pretty much the same as the elements found on Earth, with two major exceptions: Helium and Hydrogen were both vastly more abundant than they are on Earth. Helium was many thousands of times richer on the Sun than it is here on Earth, and Hydrogen was about one million times more abundant on the Sun, making it the most common element there by far.”

Sure, it's easy today to look at the Sun and know it's a ball of (mostly) hydrogen, generating energy by combining those protons in a chain into helium through the process of nuclear fusion. But before we even knew that nuclear fusion was possible, we needed to figure out what the Sun was made out of, a more difficult task than you'd imagine. The credit was given to Henry Norris Russell (of Hertzsprung-Russell diagram fame), but he completely stole the work from a woman you never heard of, his student, Cecilia Payne, after discouraging her from publishing her work on the subject four years prior.___

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