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Ethan Siegel has been shared in 126 public circles

You can see here the 50 latest shared circles.
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AuthorFollowersDateUsers in CircleCommentsReshares+1Links
Ruta a la Patagonia - Bariloche15,429┊ ☆ ┊☆ ┊ ☆ ┊Great Friends v22  CIRCLE  ┊ ☆ ┊☆ ┊☆┊_____________________________________________________*●❈●❈●❉●  Please Share From The Original Post! ●❈●❈●❉●▼▼▼▼▼▼▼ CLICK READ MORE FOR FULL CONTENT ▼▼▼▼▼▼▼This is the Great Friends v22 Google Plus CircleIf you want to participate please kindly frollow the following rules::-)1. Add me to your circles if you haven´t done it already2. Share this circle to Public3. Plus or coment this post so we know you wish to participate in upcoming circlesPlease note:● You must be an active Google+ user and shares useful content.● Your posts must be family-friendly. No adult, gambling, controversial, politics, religion blogs.Have a nice day!Your blogging friends of:   +Ruta a la Patagonia - Bariloche  De camino al Sur el mejor hotel  para alojarte sobre ruta 5, antes de Santa Rosa La Pampa, esta en Trenque Lauquen: +Hotel Howard Johnson Trenque Lauquen Sobre ruta, con amplio parque, pileta climatizada, estacionamiento, wifi, restobar y mucho mas. Ya sea que vayas de camino a Bariloche, San Martin de los Andes, Villa la Angostura o cualquier otro destino de la cordillera o de la costa de la patagonia (por ruta 33).Consultanos:  www.hjtrenquelauquen.com.ar #circle   #circleshare   #patagonia   #hotel   #owardjohnson   #trenqueelauquen   #Ruta5  2015-01-22 09:46:27500457
Rian Sigap475Get More Google+ Follower with  +TubeDEVILZ  January 15, 2015*****************************************************************HERE'S OF MY SHARED PUBLIC CIRCLE*****************************************************************Hope that you have been having a great week on Google+. Thank you for sharing and promoting this and for connecting up with all the great accounts I have included. Great With This Cilcle!!,Boost your visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!Boost your visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!To be added to the Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 Include me in your circles2 Click add people and create your circle3 +1 this circle4 Publicly share this circle to public, your circles and extended circles. ( dont forget share the circle and include yourself )5 If possible, leave a comment on this circle so I know you have done the three steps above (I say "if possible" as my circle comments more often than not hit the 500 comment limit).6  So I can easily find your share, always publicly share my original shared circle. You'll know if you're sharing the original one because you won't see "Jason Levy originally shared" above here. If you do see it, click on "originally shared" and it will bring you to this post.**************************************Follow Me Here : http://goo.gl/c18bpxAnd Subcribe : http://goo.gl/NT0MCkSpecial Invitation (Please +1 and Share) :+Alfina Dewi +Agus Septiann +Dini Ashanti +Amy Cesario +Sergii Daniloff +Danis Sanju +Lieven Damman +dini iftita +Lincoln Harrison +Riskhha Nur Hayati +Nanang Hendro +Hanste2015-01-16 20:15:35473000
Ryan Johnson23,295This circle contains people who are very active on Google+If you received a notification, please reshare to your circlesIf you’d like to be added to the next circle share: • +1 this circle • Share this circle to PUBLIC • Include me in your circles • Comment on this post#circle #Sharedcircles #circleshare  #sri_lanka #colombo #australia #adelaide #australia #cairns #australia #darwin #australia #hobart #new_zealand #auckland #new_zealand #wellington #papua_new_guinea #papua_new_guinea #awesome #AwesomePeople #AwesomeCircle #addmetoyourcircles #addcircle #addpeople #circlemeup #circlesdiscovery #circleshare #circlesharing #publiccircle #publicsharedcircles #SharedCircles #weeklyreview #sharedcircle #topsharedcircle #circleoftheday 2015-01-16 13:00:35472236
RuMuZ NeYiMe1,336good morningadd friends list..#addcircle #addcircles #addpeople #awesomecircle #awesomecircles #awesomepeople #besharable #besocial #bestcircle #bestcircles #bestengagers #circleadd #circleall #circleme #circlemenow #circlemeup #circlenetwork #circleplus #circlesdiscovery #circleshare #circleshares #circlesharing #circleup #circleyoushare #coolpeople #engagerscircle #engagerscircles #findcircle #findcircles #follow4follow #followback #followme #fullcircleshare #influencermarketing #internetmarketing #morefollowers #networkcircle 2015-01-12 08:56:27466002
John Sean10,506This circle contains people who really are interesting and active people on Google Plus.If you would like to be included in the next Circle Share, you only have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles2 - Share the circle (Publicly)3 - Add +1 to the post.4 - Leave a comment if you like.I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#publiccircle #circleshare #circlesharing #philadelphia #phoenix #san_antonio #san_diego #san_francisco #san_jose #seattle #tampa #washington #american_samoa #american_samoa #pago_pago #fiji #fiji #nadi #fiji #suva #argentina #argentina #buenos_aires #argentina #cordoba #argentina #iguaza #argentina #mendoza #argentina #rosaio #argentina #san_carlos_de_bariloche #bolivia #bolivia #cochabamba 2015-01-12 06:41:19465012
Allan watson12,311This is a circle I created a few months ago and am now sharing with you in hopes that we can all benefit and grow our online presence.  This circle rewards those who take part in interaction as seen below..  Everyone in this circle continues to add followers.  IN ORDER TO MAKE THIS WORK PLEASE FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS BELOW:  1. Plus the post  2. Share the post  3. Add the circle if you can, if not try again later.  4. Request to be added in comments or let me know if you should be in it and for some reason are not.#Lebanon #Tajikistan #SharedCircles #circlesharing #circleshare #circleoftheday #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircle2014-11-18 10:35:46487648
Becky Collins16,609Science Circle :Circle of very #social #engagerspeople and companiesTo be included in my shares (#sharedcircle), be so kind to:1 - Do +1 t the post2 - Comment the post and specify your "category" (job or interest) Ex: Fashion, SEO, Companies, Social Media Marketing, Sailing, Photography, Bloggers/Writers, Web graphics and design, Italy, Artists, Sport, Finance/Economy ...3 - include the circle among your circles4 - share the circle (include yourself)Improve your popularity, be social be cool !Keep yourself updated, enjoy the Shared Circles Hellenic Alliance, you can share your shared circles inside the upcoming Community:https://plus.google.com/communities/112552559573595396104  #socialmedia  #media  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing  #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins ?2014-09-16 05:24:00459102
Becky Collins15,192Recipes and Cooking Circle : Circle of very #social #engagerspeople and companiesTo be included in my shares (#sharedcircle), be so kind to:1 - Do +1 t the post2 - Comment the post and specify your "category" (job or interest) Ex: Fashion, SEO, Companies, Social Media Marketing, Sailing, Photography, Bloggers/Writers, Web graphics and design, Italy, Artists, Sport, Finance/Economy ...3 - include the circle among your circles4 - share the circle (include yourself)Improve your popularity, be social be cool !Keep yourself updated, enjoy the Shared Circles Hellenic Alliance, you can share your shared circles inside the upcoming Community:https://plus.google.com/communities/112552559573595396104  #socialmedia  #media  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing  #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins ?2014-08-18 05:14:394770210
Becky Collins13,270Space Circle :Circle of very #social #engagerspeople and companiesTo be included in my shares (#sharedcircle), be so kind to:1 - Do +1 t the post2 - Comment the post and specify your "category" (job or interest) Ex: Fashion, SEO, Companies, Social Media Marketing, Sailing, Photography, Bloggers/Writers, Web graphics and design, Italy, Artists, Sport, Finance/Economy ...3 - include the circle among your circles4 - share the circle (include yourself)Improve your popularity, be social be cool !Keep yourself updated, enjoy the Shared Circles Hellenic Alliance, you can share your shared circles inside the upcoming Community:https://plus.google.com/communities/112552559573595396104  #socialmedia  #media  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing  #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins ?2014-07-17 07:18:063893010
Aman Singh2,014Circle of the dayYour re-share is appreciatedPlease re-share this circle in your stream.To be added:1- Add +Circles Circles Circles to your circles2- Write the URL of your blog in the comments section below3- Your blog must be an active blog (posts must be current)2014-07-16 12:15:324990718
Ryan Johnson9,485Hi friends! This is a great circle created with an important selection from all circles. The most important engagers are reshared because only that way can we grow our circle and have the people of google circle us.To get in, and to ensure you stay in this circle you need to do the following:1. Add me to your circles, if you haven't done so already!2. +1 this circle!3. Publicly share this circle to public, your circles and extended circles.4. If possible, leave a comment on this circle so I know you have done the three steps above!#circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #wanttobecircled #addmetoyourcircles #public #publiccircle #sharedcircles #Britain #sharedcircle #morefollowers #sharingcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedpublicircles #sharedcircle #photography #uk  #nottingham #Holland #Netherlands #Duch2014-07-16 10:40:014918812
Dina Tika0Here is a group of Active Engagers, Circle Sharers, Awesome Plus Oners, and Cool People on Google Plus!   Circle Sharing is an awesome way to increase your followers and active engagers on your profile. Some of my favorite people that I've met here on Google + through Circle Sharing.    Want to be in the next Circle of Awesomeness? Follow the Steps Below!  ☛ Add the circle ☛ Share in the Public ☛ Plus 1 the Post. ☛ Comment. 2014-06-10 05:53:52479001
Lư Thăng15,488Chia sẻ vòng kết nối chất lượng cho mọi người <3 #sharedcircles  2014-04-23 16:24:5447717223
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:27:36393014
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:26:50393033
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:26:17393011
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:25:52393011
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:25:16393203
Becky Collins3,213Baseball circle #Baseball  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins 2014-02-26 10:30:413883216
Becky Collins2,634Marketing Circle : Feb 22#circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday +Becky Collins2014-02-22 06:29:4945517724
Mikhail Petrovsky77,388Good morning / evening to all.This is a Social Circle of interesting people with an active lifestyle in Google+Это социальный круг общения интересных людей с активной жизненной позицией в Google+You'll love this circle. Photographers, artists and other interesting people!Вам понравится этот круг, добавьте его себе. Фотографы, художники и другие интересные люди!#EarthMyMother #ForFriends #photo2014-01-24 03:20:19483572882
B.A. TruthWarrior1,260These are some verified unusual characters....in general.#circleshare  #circlesharing #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday  #sharedcircleday #circleshared   #variety  2014-01-16 03:45:1647527826
Artur Mashnich43,843A Very Social CircleCircle of the Most Active Users of Google+Круг наиболее активных пользователей Google+Если вы поделились этим кругом вчера, вы находитесь в нем сегодня. Если вы разделяете его с друзьями сегодня, вы будете в нем и завтра.If you shared this circle yesterday, you are in it today. If you share today, you'll be in tomorrow.#Forfriends  2014-01-10 16:01:13493331763
Artur Mashnich40,712A Very Social CircleКруг людей с активной жизненной позицией в Гугле+circle of people, with active life position in Google+Если вы поделились этим кругом вчера, вы находитесь в нем сегодня. Если вы разделяете его с друзьями сегодня, вы будете в нем и завтра.If you shared this circle yesterday, you are in it today. If you share today, you'll be in tomorrow.2013-12-18 11:08:35494443264
Claudiu Narita3,3332013-11-20 02:26:27501817
Lo Sauer2,493This is a great circle combined of active engagers, creative folks and  some of the best and brightest people on google+. A thank you in this circle-inclusion-shoutout to: +Peter Terren +Michael Műller +Carlos Esteban +Justin Chung +Malthus John +Marta Rauch +Rajini Rao +Katherine Vucicevic +Jonathan Eisen +Mike Allton +Scott Buehler +Mario Falcetti +Zvonimir Fras +Krithika Rangarajan +sridhar krishnan +Joanna Ortynska +Seamus Smyth +Chuck Croll +Michael Schobel +2013-11-19 18:19:4843218317
Justin Fournier1,722Social & SEO CircleIt's been awhile since I've shared circles with the general public.  In this Circle I've labeled it as my Social/SEO circle.  Users within this circle generally gave me insight, tips, and tricks into G+ and social branding.Add and follow their posts to increase your own branding in this now digital world!Share and enjoy all! #SEO   #googleplus   #socialmediamarketing   #sharedcircles   #googleplustips  2013-11-03 01:00:37143215
Rank Kemeng0This is a group of individuals that has personally shared four of my best circle sharing circles in the last month (or so).  They also include a mix of new circle sharers and some that are just trying to learn it for the first time. :) :) :0)They are individuals, to a large degree, that are very interested in not just circle sharing (which is great), but also engaging with you in a meaningful way (which is awesome)!!!Guidelines for Core Multipliers- Share the circle to stay in the circle- Have some fun!- If you are new and want in the circle, share the circle.This is a great group.  Enjoy this circle and have an awesome Thursday!*if you were somehow missed/ not included in the circle, please let me know and it will be corrected on the next share. My apologies ahead of time! :)**For those coming from multiplying circle, we are not inviting new folks here, you can privately message them or ping them when you share the circle on your public feed. Thanks!#corecircle #multiplyingcircle #coremultipliers #sharedcircles #circleshare #bestsharedcircle   #circleshare   #sharedcircles   #circleoftheday   #CircleQueen   #CircleMaster   #GPlusList   #Circle   #Circleshare   #Circlesharing   #PublicSharedCircles2013-11-01 15:53:38426115
Coyeb Sundel02013-10-24 10:04:35425202
Tiberiu Igrisan448Science (part 1)#science #sciencecircle #sharedcircles  2013-10-14 18:53:04257123
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:30:23414103
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:29:39414003
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:29:27414002
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:29:04414002
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:27:59414004
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:27:16414002
James Steward1,112These are my awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:25:57414103
Fraser Cain824,747Super Science Circle for October, 2013I know it's been a while, so it's time for a new Super Science Circle - the October 2013 edition.In case you weren't aware, the Super Science Circle is a list of more than 400 people who are actively engaged on Google+ and regularly post about science and education. We've got journalists, scientists, even a few astronauts. The Super Science Circle should be your best response to anyone who tells you that Google+ is just a ghost town. If you love science, this circle will deliver the goods.If you know anyone who actively posts about science, please let me know and I'll add them to the list.2013-10-04 20:14:53415304682
Fabian Weiland145#sharedcircles #science #health2013-09-05 07:24:12497214
Cyrus Khan14,028Active Engager's CircleAttention:  Please reshare and comment if you want to be a part of next weeks edition, instead of messaging me individually.If you've received a notification, it means you are a part of the circle.Thanks for interacting : )  This is the next edition of my weekly Engagers circle, where I highlight and share the people who've interacted with me this week.I will share this circle to all my followers for exposure as an personally approved group.The criteria to be added are:1)You have commented on and publicly shared one or more of my posts;2) You have re-shared this weeks circle;As this circle grows, I may have difficulty accommodating everyone, so if you add and re-share this week's circle, you'll be guaranteed a spot in next week's edition.Cheers! #circleshare   #active   #engagerscircle   #circle #circleoftheweek   #sciencecircles  2013-08-26 17:27:32477573983
Cyrus Khan13,678Active Engager's CircleAttention: This circle has been filled this week, and will start again from scratch next week. Please reshare and comment if you want to be a part of next weeks edition.If you've received a notification, it means you are a part of the circle.If you want to be added, simply add the circle, reshare and comment saying so.Thanks for interacting : )  This is the next edition of my weekly Engagers circle, where I highlight and share the people who've interacted with me this week.I will share this circle to all my followers for exposure as an especially active group.The only criteria to be added are:1)You have commented on and publicly shared one or more of my posts;2) You have re-shared this weeks circle;As this circle grows, I may have difficulty accommodating everyone, so if you add and re-share this week's circle, you'll be guaranteed a spot in next week's edition.Cheers! #circleshare   #circleoftheweek   #active   #engagerscircle   #science   #sciencecircles   #circlesharesunday  2013-08-18 17:07:30490452062
Science on Google+69,339Applied and Mathematical SciencesThis circle will give you exposure to Computer Science, Engineering, Mathematics, and Physics. Science on Google+ Database: http://goo.gl/Yz8KRScience on Google+ Community: http://goo.gl/uhJCNIf you have a science related degree, you are a science journalist, you are a K-12 science teacher, or you curate a science page, then add your profile/page to the database by filling out this form (http://goo.gl/yEg7M). Active profiles and pages will be included in the next shared circle.2013-08-15 23:58:07292202753
Cyrus Khan13,309Active Engager's CircleIf you've received a notification, it means you are a part of the circle.If you want to be added, simply add the circle, reshare and comment saying so.Thanks for interacting : )  This is the next edition of my weekly Engagers circle, where I highlight and share the people who've interacted with me this week.I will share this circle to all my 13,000 odd followers for exposure as an active bunch among others.The only criteria to be added are:1)You have +1, or publicly shared one or more of my posts;2) You have re-shared this weeks circle.3) If you're not already in the circle, and want to be, simply comment so below.As this circle grows, I may have difficulty accommodating everyone, so if you add and re-share this week's circle, you'll be guaranteed a spot in next week's edition. #sharedcircles   #circleoftheweek   #active   #engagerscircle  2013-08-12 16:03:13488432073
B.A. TruthWarrior0A little on the unusual side #sharedcircles   #circleshare  2013-08-10 23:49:534811115
Vũ Đăng7322013-07-28 19:07:46485109
Richard Green19,150Here's my latest Engagers Showcase circle. If you received a notification, that means that you are in the circle.“Showcase” means that you are invited to leave a comment (on the original post) with a link to one of your own posts, which ideally should be one of your best recent posts. This circle consists of people who have engaged with one of my recent posts in the form of +1s, comments and reshares.For reasons of space, I wasn't able to include people whose engagement was limited to +1s on circle shares, and I may have missed other people due to limitations of the G+ interface. I also had no room to include all the engagers on four of my recent non-circle share posts. Because of this, I will be sharing this circle again next week. If you reshare this version of the circle, you are guaranteed a spot in next week's circle. Thanks for reading my posts!2013-07-21 04:25:38464353147248
Lư Thăng1,723Vòng kết nối nè mấy bạn :D2013-07-19 08:53:50487371041
Zbynek Kysela9,954HOT Circle !!! - Summer 2013 edition===============================This is a public circle of awesome plussers on G+! If would like to be included here in next update please follow these easy steps:HOW TO BE PART OF IT===================1. Add this circle to your circles (Click Add circle)2. Re-Share This Post Publicly (Click Share Button Next To +1 Button)3. Click +1 and Comment to support the circle!Done ツMy entire social presence:http://xeeme.com/bouchacFeel free to connect.=====================#Circle   #Circles   #Public   #PublicCircle   #CircleShare   #CircleSharing #SharePublicCircle   #QSC   #querosercirculado   #circleoftheday #publicsharedcircles   #publiccirclesproject   #sharedcircleoftheday #fullcircleshare   #addmetoyourcircles   #awesomeness   #awesomepeople   #awesomecircle   #awesome     #awesomesauce #awesomeness   #awesomepeople   #bouchac #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles #xeeme  #awesomesauce  #snowball #hot  #круг   #círculo     2013-07-16 20:34:30491562869
Fraser Cain798,034Super Science Circle, July 2013 EditionNeed more science in your streams? Want to convince a friend that Google+ is a thriving place of science and rational thinking? Then import my Super Science Circle and be amazed at the awesomeness.PLEASE RESHARE THIS CIRCLE... FOR SCIENCE!Every single person in this circle is active on Google+ and regularly contributes high quality posts about science. You've got my personal guarantee.As always, I recommend you import this group into a temporary circle and look for people who match your interests. Then pull them over into more permanent locations in your circles. Or just wait for me to give you an update next month.If you want to be included in this circle, just make a post in the comments and I'll check out your profile.I'm looking for people who:1. Are active on Google+ (but not too active)2. Regularly post about science3. Provide context and additional information, and not just bare links or annoying memes.2013-07-16 18:35:56415255987
Richard Green18,334For my approximately-weekly circle share this week, I've chosen my "Not Just the Usual Suspects" circle. If you received a notification, it means that you are in the circle. As always with my shared circles, this is a "Showcase" circle, which means that you are invited to leave a comment (on the original post) with a link to one of your own posts, which ideally should be one of your best recent posts.Some of the profiles in this circle are people who engaged with recent hit circle shares by +Scott Buehler and +Christine DeGraff, but most of the profiles here are people I selected myself, usually because I liked their profiles for various reasons. As the name of the circle suggests, there are interesting people included here who don't often appear in circle shares.2013-07-14 21:42:0348426891207

Activity

Average numbers for the latest posts (max. 50 posts, posted within the last 4 weeks)

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Top posts in the last 50 posts

Most comments: 84

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2015-01-01 20:48:23 (84 comments, 32 reshares, 312 +1s)Open 

"The Sun will continue to get hotter as it ages, boiling our oceans in approximately 1–2 billion years — or on February 8th of year 2, plus or minus two weeks — and ending life-on-Earth as we know it. Eventually, about 5–7 billion years down the line, we’ll run out of nuclear fuel in the Sun’s core, which will cause our parent star to become a Red Giant, engulfing Mercury and Venus in the process. That’ll happen around June 8th, give or take a little under a month."

As the new year begins, what are we looking forward to from the perspective of our Universe? If we consider all the time from the Big Bang until today as "one Universe year," there are some big events coming up in the future. Our own planet will see most of these occur in "Universe year 2", while all the distant galaxies will be gone by year 10 or 15. Come see how and when it allcomes to an end in va... more »

Most reshares: 50

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2014-12-18 03:02:38 (28 comments, 50 reshares, 205 +1s)Open 

"The theory is in full accord with our experience (at least insofar as ordinary quantum mechanics is)… because it is possible to show that no observer would ever be aware of any ‘branching.’"

Quantum mechanics defies our intuition by having the state of a quantum system, and all systems are inherently quantum, be ill-defined until a measurement is made. But there are other interpretations than the standard one, including one — the Many-Worlds Interpretation — that allows all possible outcomes to occur, simply in distinct Universes. This has a fascinating consequence: that any time there’s a situation where you have the opportunity to either meet your demise or survive, there does exist a Universe where you continue to live. Could this mean there's a type of quantum immortality that we're all experiencing? Probably not, but perhaps! Great read by +Paul Halpern!

Most plusones: 456

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2015-01-03 05:39:50 (45 comments, 45 reshares, 456 +1s)Open 

"All those galaxies whose light has already reached us is still reaching us; the accelerating Universe hasn’t changed that.

But for many of those galaxies, we’ll never see any new light from them: only the light they emitted long ago, before the present age of the Universe. "

Instead of slowing down, distant galaxies are speeding up in their recession from us, rendering them unreachable from our point of view. But even though we can't see the light emitted from them today, we can still see the galaxies themselves! A great explainer on how this works, how no information gets lost and what it means for the Big Bang.

Latest 50 posts

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2015-01-28 15:53:40 (0 comments, 3 reshares, 8 +1s)Open 

"Compared to ground-based telescopes, balloon telescopes are able to see a wider patch of the sky, observing anywhere from a few percent to fifty percent depending on the particular experiment. The development costs of balloon experiments are in the millions of dollars, hundreds of millions of dollars cheaper than their satellite counterparts."

If you thought space was the place, it's time to learn what we can do by balloon for just 1% of the cost. A great piece on the Spider CMB mission by Amanda Yoho.

"Compared to ground-based telescopes, balloon telescopes are able to see a wider patch of the sky, observing anywhere from a few percent to fifty percent depending on the particular experiment. The development costs of balloon experiments are in the millions of dollars, hundreds of millions of dollars cheaper than their satellite counterparts."

If you thought space was the place, it's time to learn what we can do by balloon for just 1% of the cost. A great piece on the Spider CMB mission by Amanda Yoho.___

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2015-01-27 15:15:40 (1 comments, 10 reshares, 101 +1s)Open 

"When Galileo discovered four moons of Jupiter in the early 1600s, he noticed that their motions followed Kepler’s laws. This clockwork precision meant that the Jovian system could be used as a “heavenly clock” to determine the time. One way this could be done was by observing when the moons entered-or-exited the shadow of Jupiter as they passed behind the giant planet. Even with a small telescope, one could observe a moon fade to darkness over the course of a few minutes as it entered the shadow, or gradually brighten as it left the shadow on the other side."

If you want to know where you are on Earth, you typically use a GPS or, barring that, other terrestrial landmarks to help determine your location. If you didn't have access to that sort of technology or knowledge, you could still use some well-known objects in the sky to determine your latitude. Longitude, however, istrick... more »

"When Galileo discovered four moons of Jupiter in the early 1600s, he noticed that their motions followed Kepler’s laws. This clockwork precision meant that the Jovian system could be used as a “heavenly clock” to determine the time. One way this could be done was by observing when the moons entered-or-exited the shadow of Jupiter as they passed behind the giant planet. Even with a small telescope, one could observe a moon fade to darkness over the course of a few minutes as it entered the shadow, or gradually brighten as it left the shadow on the other side."

If you want to know where you are on Earth, you typically use a GPS or, barring that, other terrestrial landmarks to help determine your location. If you didn't have access to that sort of technology or knowledge, you could still use some well-known objects in the sky to determine your latitude. Longitude, however, is trickier, since it's arbitrarily defined. Perhaps surprisingly, for centuries, the best way to determine it was by using the moons of Jupiter, and watching when they enter/exit the shadow of the giant planet.___

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2015-01-26 16:31:25 (2 comments, 11 reshares, 130 +1s)Open 

"While about 20% of planetary nebulae are spherical, most are asymmetrical, like the Cat’s Eye Nebula (NGC 6543), highlighted here. It continues to rapidly expel matter at a rate of 9 lunar masses per year at speeds between 0.7-to-5.0% the speed of light."

Starting today, I present to you a new, ongoing series: Mostly Mute Monday. The rules are as follows:

-I pick one object or phenomenon to focus on.
-The story is told entirely in visuals: images and/or silent videos. (Credits do not count.)
-The visuals showcase as much information about the object(s) as possible.
-At the end, I have a maximum of 200 words to explain what we’ve seen.

Let's kick it off with a visual feast: the Cat's Eye Nebula!

"While about 20% of planetary nebulae are spherical, most are asymmetrical, like the Cat’s Eye Nebula (NGC 6543), highlighted here. It continues to rapidly expel matter at a rate of 9 lunar masses per year at speeds between 0.7-to-5.0% the speed of light."

Starting today, I present to you a new, ongoing series: Mostly Mute Monday. The rules are as follows:

-I pick one object or phenomenon to focus on.
-The story is told entirely in visuals: images and/or silent videos. (Credits do not count.)
-The visuals showcase as much information about the object(s) as possible.
-At the end, I have a maximum of 200 words to explain what we’ve seen.

Let's kick it off with a visual feast: the Cat's Eye Nebula!___

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2015-01-25 21:13:48 (5 comments, 3 reshares, 18 +1s)Open 

"But with his incredibly accurate vision, his incomparable speed and strength, you’ve got to wonder, every once in a while, how Superman would do at a relatively “human” task. You know, like hitting a baseball.

You might think he could hit a baseball into orbit, into another galaxy or past the edge of the Universe, but even Superman is constrained by a few things, including the laws of physics."

How far could Superman hit a baseball? It's very far, but still not as far as you might think!

"But with his incredibly accurate vision, his incomparable speed and strength, you’ve got to wonder, every once in a while, how Superman would do at a relatively “human” task. You know, like hitting a baseball.

You might think he could hit a baseball into orbit, into another galaxy or past the edge of the Universe, but even Superman is constrained by a few things, including the laws of physics."

How far could Superman hit a baseball? It's very far, but still not as far as you might think!___

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2015-01-24 16:35:22 (0 comments, 2 reshares, 11 +1s)Open 

"“I presume the first stars had no rocky planets? How many generations did it take to achieve earth like planets?”

The first stars formed from the elements that were created from when the Universe was less than four minutes old. Some of those elements were radioactive and so they decayed, but all we were left with was about 92% hydrogen (by number), 8% helium, and less than 0.0000001% anything else. But once those stars formed, lived and died — and the most massive ones go supernova in just a couple of million years, tops — their “pollution” goes everywhere." 

#CommentsoftheWeek So much more inside!

"“I presume the first stars had no rocky planets? How many generations did it take to achieve earth like planets?”

The first stars formed from the elements that were created from when the Universe was less than four minutes old. Some of those elements were radioactive and so they decayed, but all we were left with was about 92% hydrogen (by number), 8% helium, and less than 0.0000001% anything else. But once those stars formed, lived and died — and the most massive ones go supernova in just a couple of million years, tops — their “pollution” goes everywhere." 

#CommentsoftheWeek So much more inside!___

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2015-01-23 23:50:09 (56 comments, 15 reshares, 49 +1s)Open 

"I am confused about the timeline of the Big Bang. When scientists talk about the beginning of the universe, the formation of the elements and the creation of galaxies, etc. they cite extremely specific time intervals in which these things occur… Where do they get these numbers? There is no way to have them be empirically confirmed, and yet they are given to extreme degrees of accuracy (and with confidence). How can scientists be so confident in these times, and where are the numbers coming from?"

The history of the Universe happened in a well-known order: inflation ends, matter wins out over antimatter, the electroweak symmetry breaks, antimatter annihilates away, atomic nuclei form, then neutral atoms, stars, galaxies, and eventually us. But scientists and science magazines often publish timelines of the Universe with incredibly precise times describing when these various eventso... more »

"I am confused about the timeline of the Big Bang. When scientists talk about the beginning of the universe, the formation of the elements and the creation of galaxies, etc. they cite extremely specific time intervals in which these things occur… Where do they get these numbers? There is no way to have them be empirically confirmed, and yet they are given to extreme degrees of accuracy (and with confidence). How can scientists be so confident in these times, and where are the numbers coming from?"

The history of the Universe happened in a well-known order: inflation ends, matter wins out over antimatter, the electroweak symmetry breaks, antimatter annihilates away, atomic nuclei form, then neutral atoms, stars, galaxies, and eventually us. But scientists and science magazines often publish timelines of the Universe with incredibly precise times describing when these various events occur. Here's how we arrive at those values, along with the rarely-publicized uncertainties.___

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2015-01-23 23:15:49 (0 comments, 2 reshares, 8 +1s)Open 

___

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2015-01-22 21:55:12 (7 comments, 9 reshares, 158 +1s)Open 

"So don’t just have a look back at the amazing science we’ve done and how the Hubble Space Telescope has changed our view of the Universe forever; look forward to what we’re doing now and what new wonders might be in store.

The Universe is all ours. All we need to do is look."

As the Hubble Space Telescope gets set to celebrate the 25th anniversary of opening its eyes to the Universe, it's important to realize that the first four years of operations were kind of a disaster. It wasn't until they corrected the flawed primary mirror and installed an upgraded camera — the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) — that the Universe truly came into focus. From 1993 to 2009, this workhorse camera literally changed our view of the Universe, and we're pushing even past those limits today. The ultimate #tbt.

"So don’t just have a look back at the amazing science we’ve done and how the Hubble Space Telescope has changed our view of the Universe forever; look forward to what we’re doing now and what new wonders might be in store.

The Universe is all ours. All we need to do is look."

As the Hubble Space Telescope gets set to celebrate the 25th anniversary of opening its eyes to the Universe, it's important to realize that the first four years of operations were kind of a disaster. It wasn't until they corrected the flawed primary mirror and installed an upgraded camera — the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) — that the Universe truly came into focus. From 1993 to 2009, this workhorse camera literally changed our view of the Universe, and we're pushing even past those limits today. The ultimate #tbt.___

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2015-01-22 01:26:07 (3 comments, 6 reshares, 33 +1s)Open 

"So with all that, who won?

Believe it or not, it doesn’t matter. What matters isn’t what people thought the answer was — since they only had incomplete information — but rather that this debate was an important step in laying out what the arguments would be to support each of these two competing ideas."

In which I trick you with a clever headline into learning about the greatest debate in the history of science.

"So with all that, who won?

Believe it or not, it doesn’t matter. What matters isn’t what people thought the answer was — since they only had incomplete information — but rather that this debate was an important step in laying out what the arguments would be to support each of these two competing ideas."

In which I trick you with a clever headline into learning about the greatest debate in the history of science.___

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2015-01-21 08:01:12 (0 comments, 7 reshares, 31 +1s)Open 

"So when you think of the elements that make life possible, and the fact that we owe our origins to the stars, don’t just think of the spectacular, flashy supernovae. The story is so much richer than that, and requires a slow-burning fire to give rise to us. In the end, we owe our very existence to the relentless furnace of the s-process."

You've heard the famous quote before, that "we are star stuff." This is true, of course, since only hydrogen and helium existed shortly after the Big Bang, so the elements must have been made in stars. But many of the ones we think of as necessary for life — including phosphorous, sodium, chlorine, magnesium, calcium, potassium, copper, and zinc — didn't come from a single generation of previous, massive stars. It took a slow-burning star like our own Sun to make dozens of elements that are abundant on Earth today.

"So when you think of the elements that make life possible, and the fact that we owe our origins to the stars, don’t just think of the spectacular, flashy supernovae. The story is so much richer than that, and requires a slow-burning fire to give rise to us. In the end, we owe our very existence to the relentless furnace of the s-process."

You've heard the famous quote before, that "we are star stuff." This is true, of course, since only hydrogen and helium existed shortly after the Big Bang, so the elements must have been made in stars. But many of the ones we think of as necessary for life — including phosphorous, sodium, chlorine, magnesium, calcium, potassium, copper, and zinc — didn't come from a single generation of previous, massive stars. It took a slow-burning star like our own Sun to make dozens of elements that are abundant on Earth today.___

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2015-01-19 18:56:01 (5 comments, 0 reshares, 32 +1s)Open 

"Not every world has a large, nearby world like ours does. In fact, of the eight planets in our Solar System, ours is the only one that has something orbiting it that’s almost comparable in diameter. So why is this? Of all the planets we have, how come we have such a large Moon, and why doesn’t anyone else?"

Where our Moon comes from, and what the evidence is that leads us to that conclusion. We're the only planet with a Moon like ours! (So far!)

"Not every world has a large, nearby world like ours does. In fact, of the eight planets in our Solar System, ours is the only one that has something orbiting it that’s almost comparable in diameter. So why is this? Of all the planets we have, how come we have such a large Moon, and why doesn’t anyone else?"

Where our Moon comes from, and what the evidence is that leads us to that conclusion. We're the only planet with a Moon like ours! (So far!)___

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2015-01-18 17:58:16 (5 comments, 0 reshares, 15 +1s)Open 

"So pay us money, provide an address anywhere in the world & we’ll send them so much glitter in an envelope that they’ll be finding that shit everywhere for weeks. We’ll also include a note telling the person exactly why they’re receiving this terrible gift. Hint: the glitter will be mixed in with the note thus increasing maximum spillage."

Sometimes the best revenge is a sparkly, glittery mess. This is that revenge.

"So pay us money, provide an address anywhere in the world & we’ll send them so much glitter in an envelope that they’ll be finding that shit everywhere for weeks. We’ll also include a note telling the person exactly why they’re receiving this terrible gift. Hint: the glitter will be mixed in with the note thus increasing maximum spillage."

Sometimes the best revenge is a sparkly, glittery mess. This is that revenge.___

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2015-01-18 00:25:38 (5 comments, 4 reshares, 34 +1s)Open 

“Boo! Hiss! The vacuum is not nothing. No thing is nothing. If nothing were the vacuum, then it would be something. To be is to be something. This is basic Aristotle, not to mention common sense.”

Welcome to the world of theoretical physics, for real this time. What I mean by this is that now we’re caught in a very difficult position where we have a mathematical description of reality — of all the physical phenomena that occur in the Universe — and we’re trying to reconcile that with our intuition. With what we perceive as physical or abstract concepts. And our physical intuition totally fails us when it comes to “nothing.”

Sure, you can imagine going outside of space or time… but can you really? You can tell yourself that “virtual particles aren’t real,” except the mathematics of them describes reality perfectly accurately. You can says that “if you stillhave space and time with ... more »

“Boo! Hiss! The vacuum is not nothing. No thing is nothing. If nothing were the vacuum, then it would be something. To be is to be something. This is basic Aristotle, not to mention common sense.”

Welcome to the world of theoretical physics, for real this time. What I mean by this is that now we’re caught in a very difficult position where we have a mathematical description of reality — of all the physical phenomena that occur in the Universe — and we’re trying to reconcile that with our intuition. With what we perceive as physical or abstract concepts. And our physical intuition totally fails us when it comes to “nothing.”

Sure, you can imagine going outside of space or time… but can you really? You can tell yourself that “virtual particles aren’t real,” except the mathematics of them describes reality perfectly accurately. You can says that “if you still have space and time with a non-zero vacuum energy, that sounds like something rather than nothing,” but can you actually get more “nothing-y” than that?

This is why I refer to the results of the equations as “physical reality,” much to the chagrin of everyone who’s looking for a deeper truth. That is, in fact, the deeper truth; our interpretations of it are the approximations. Now go and common sense that.___

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2015-01-17 20:34:55 (6 comments, 9 reshares, 35 +1s)Open 

"If the Sun (and all stars) are mostly Hydrogen and Helium, why don’t planets have about the same distribution of stuff?"

The stars are the heaviest bound objects in the Universe, yet they're made out of the lightest elements: hydrogen and helium. On the other hand, the light, rocky planets are made out of the heaviest elements, with practically no hydrogen or helium at all. Why is this? There's an incredible story of mass, velocity, temperature and gravitation that brings it all together, and explains not only when but how thick a hydrogen/helium envelope a planet can have.

"If the Sun (and all stars) are mostly Hydrogen and Helium, why don’t planets have about the same distribution of stuff?"

The stars are the heaviest bound objects in the Universe, yet they're made out of the lightest elements: hydrogen and helium. On the other hand, the light, rocky planets are made out of the heaviest elements, with practically no hydrogen or helium at all. Why is this? There's an incredible story of mass, velocity, temperature and gravitation that brings it all together, and explains not only when but how thick a hydrogen/helium envelope a planet can have.___

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2015-01-15 12:43:32 (1 comments, 3 reshares, 16 +1s)Open 

"So how, then, could you avoid this problem? How can you overcome the perils of your material expanding/contracting in changing temperatures? How do you keep the length of your pendulum constant?

The answer, discovered not by Newton or Galileo but by the virtually unknown commoner, John Harrison, was simultaneously simple and brilliant."

If you awoke at any location on Earth, with no idea where you were or when it was, how would you figure out your latitude and longitude? (No GPS.) It's something you can do with only primitive tools, and it turns out that latitude is very easy if you know the night sky well. But longitude? That's a complicated one, but it turns out we can figure it out if we're clever. Here's the story of how. (Timekeeping required.)

"So how, then, could you avoid this problem? How can you overcome the perils of your material expanding/contracting in changing temperatures? How do you keep the length of your pendulum constant?

The answer, discovered not by Newton or Galileo but by the virtually unknown commoner, John Harrison, was simultaneously simple and brilliant."

If you awoke at any location on Earth, with no idea where you were or when it was, how would you figure out your latitude and longitude? (No GPS.) It's something you can do with only primitive tools, and it turns out that latitude is very easy if you know the night sky well. But longitude? That's a complicated one, but it turns out we can figure it out if we're clever. Here's the story of how. (Timekeeping required.)___

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2015-01-15 02:46:40 (7 comments, 15 reshares, 79 +1s)Open 

"So not only do we have evidence for dark matter on scales of huge galaxy clusters, but now, for the first time, on the scales of individual galaxies within a very small group. All we can do, as good scientists, is follow the Universe to wherever the story it tells us about itself takes us."

If you liked the Bullet Cluster, you'll swoon when you see the Bullet Group. For the first time, we've got a separation between normal matter and the gravitational signal on the scale of individual galaxies!

"So not only do we have evidence for dark matter on scales of huge galaxy clusters, but now, for the first time, on the scales of individual galaxies within a very small group. All we can do, as good scientists, is follow the Universe to wherever the story it tells us about itself takes us."

If you liked the Bullet Cluster, you'll swoon when you see the Bullet Group. For the first time, we've got a separation between normal matter and the gravitational signal on the scale of individual galaxies!___

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2015-01-14 00:47:11 (9 comments, 11 reshares, 55 +1s)Open 

"We must … conceive that there is a new three-dimensional space for each successive instant of time; and, by picturing to ourselves the aggregate formed by the successive positions in time-space of a given solid during a given time, we shall get the idea of a four-dimensional solid, which we may call a sur-solid… Let any man picture to himself the aggregate of his own bodily forms from birth to the present time, and he will have a clear idea of a sur-solid in time-space."

When we talk about dimensions, we’re used to thinking of three: something like length, width and depth, or x, y and z. But there’s a fourth dimension as well that’s of paramount importance for our Universe, otherwise everything would simply be static: time. H.G. Wells brought this idea to life in his story The Time Machine in 1895, and years later Einstein brought forth special and general relativity into theworld, br... more »

"We must … conceive that there is a new three-dimensional space for each successive instant of time; and, by picturing to ourselves the aggregate formed by the successive positions in time-space of a given solid during a given time, we shall get the idea of a four-dimensional solid, which we may call a sur-solid… Let any man picture to himself the aggregate of his own bodily forms from birth to the present time, and he will have a clear idea of a sur-solid in time-space."

When we talk about dimensions, we’re used to thinking of three: something like length, width and depth, or x, y and z. But there’s a fourth dimension as well that’s of paramount importance for our Universe, otherwise everything would simply be static: time. H.G. Wells brought this idea to life in his story The Time Machine in 1895, and years later Einstein brought forth special and general relativity into the world, bringing scientific validity to this theoretical conception. Here's the fascinating background, story and aftermath of when they met in 1929.___

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2015-01-13 17:32:51 (2 comments, 10 reshares, 26 +1s)Open 

"Physicists say the “vacuum melts” rather than evaporates, but it’s very similar: If you pump enough energy into the vacuum, the level sinks to zero and all particles are massless again.

You may complain now that if you pump energy into the vacuum, it’s no longer vacuum. True. But the point is that you change the previously non-zero vacuum expectation value. To our best knowledge, it was zero in the very early universe and theoretical physicists would love to have a glimpse at this state of matter."

When we conventionally think about nothing, we imagine removing all the forms of matter and energy from space, and having it be completely empty. If only! Quantum mechanics tells us that even empty space isn't so empty, and that not only is it full of virtual particles, but that the zero-point energy of empty space isn't quite zero. Why is this, and what are thelimits ... more »

"Physicists say the “vacuum melts” rather than evaporates, but it’s very similar: If you pump enough energy into the vacuum, the level sinks to zero and all particles are massless again.

You may complain now that if you pump energy into the vacuum, it’s no longer vacuum. True. But the point is that you change the previously non-zero vacuum expectation value. To our best knowledge, it was zero in the very early universe and theoretical physicists would love to have a glimpse at this state of matter."

When we conventionally think about nothing, we imagine removing all the forms of matter and energy from space, and having it be completely empty. If only! Quantum mechanics tells us that even empty space isn't so empty, and that not only is it full of virtual particles, but that the zero-point energy of empty space isn't quite zero. Why is this, and what are the limits of our knowledge about what "nothing" truly is? Sabine Hossenfelder has an exploration of all of this that's worth a read.___

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2015-01-12 18:51:45 (0 comments, 2 reshares, 39 +1s)Open 

"Rather than rotate as the stable, grand spirals that we see, they would wind up, with the inner portions rotating far more rapidly than the outer portions. As galaxies aged over time, we should see the number of windings increase, like galactic tree rings to count their ages. But that’s not what the Universe gives us at all."

Why we need dark matter, not only for the galaxy's gravity, but for our own existence.

"Rather than rotate as the stable, grand spirals that we see, they would wind up, with the inner portions rotating far more rapidly than the outer portions. As galaxies aged over time, we should see the number of windings increase, like galactic tree rings to count their ages. But that’s not what the Universe gives us at all."

Why we need dark matter, not only for the galaxy's gravity, but for our own existence.___

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2015-01-11 20:34:55 (3 comments, 21 reshares, 266 +1s)Open 

"The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) is a composite of tens of thousands of Hubble images that span from the near ultraviolet through the entire visible spectrum all the way into the infrared, and have allowed us to directly image over 100 million stars in a portion of the galaxy that spans more than 61,000 light years in scale. It took a total of 394 hours to collect these images from Hubble.

And the best part is, the image is zoomable all the way down to Hubble’s maximum resolution, something that you can do yourself!"

There is no better way to spend your day than with Hubble, Andromeda, PHAT, and 100 million+ stars. You've never seen anything like it, because there's never BEEN anything like it!

"The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) is a composite of tens of thousands of Hubble images that span from the near ultraviolet through the entire visible spectrum all the way into the infrared, and have allowed us to directly image over 100 million stars in a portion of the galaxy that spans more than 61,000 light years in scale. It took a total of 394 hours to collect these images from Hubble.

And the best part is, the image is zoomable all the way down to Hubble’s maximum resolution, something that you can do yourself!"

There is no better way to spend your day than with Hubble, Andromeda, PHAT, and 100 million+ stars. You've never seen anything like it, because there's never BEEN anything like it!___

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2015-01-11 01:50:56 (1 comments, 0 reshares, 15 +1s)Open 

"“When I first read about the Hubble Deep Field imagery, I read up on how they combined the large number of exposures over time into a scientifically accurate image. How has the math and technique advanced since that time? What more information are we able to gather based on these advances?”

Well, for one, we know the rate of evaporation of the pillars, thanks to images that were presented (but are not publicly available) that show how the evaporation is taking place. You may have heard some state that “the pillars are already gone” since they would have been torn apart by supernovae, and it’s 6,000 light years away.

Not true!

The pillars are still there, and supernovae won’t blast them apart; they will evaporate slowly over a few hundred thousand years, a much longer timescale than initial estimates pointed to. Thanks to twenty years of data, we can knowthis for su... more »

"“When I first read about the Hubble Deep Field imagery, I read up on how they combined the large number of exposures over time into a scientifically accurate image. How has the math and technique advanced since that time? What more information are we able to gather based on these advances?”

Well, for one, we know the rate of evaporation of the pillars, thanks to images that were presented (but are not publicly available) that show how the evaporation is taking place. You may have heard some state that “the pillars are already gone” since they would have been torn apart by supernovae, and it’s 6,000 light years away.

Not true!

The pillars are still there, and supernovae won’t blast them apart; they will evaporate slowly over a few hundred thousand years, a much longer timescale than initial estimates pointed to. Thanks to twenty years of data, we can know this for sure. The math and techniques have not advanced much, surprisingly; the biggest advances have come in camera technology. It’s the Hubble servicing missions that have kept Hubble so up-to-date. Remember, it’s had the same mirror and light-gathering power for all 25 years, it’s just what’s been added to it has really maximized what we can learn from each and every photon."

There's plenty to enjoy on this edition of our comments of the week!___

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2015-01-10 23:28:36 (36 comments, 9 reshares, 54 +1s)Open 

"Where is the center? For some time, given the disposition of matter, I refuse to believe in a single big bang that started the universe. [...] I’m certainly not an expert in the field, so I would like to hear if and why I am wrong."

From our vantage point, the Universe is expanding and cooling, with all but a few of the closest galaxies receding from our view. In fact, the farther away an object is, the faster it appears to recede. This may sound an awful lot like what occurs in an explosion to you, especially if it were centered on us. Furthermore, the name “the Big Bang” sure gives that same implication, doesn’t it? Yet despite these facts, it turns out that the idea that the Universe has a center is completely false, and is actually contradicted by both relativity and the Universe that we observe.

Piss off a geocentrist today.

"Where is the center? For some time, given the disposition of matter, I refuse to believe in a single big bang that started the universe. [...] I’m certainly not an expert in the field, so I would like to hear if and why I am wrong."

From our vantage point, the Universe is expanding and cooling, with all but a few of the closest galaxies receding from our view. In fact, the farther away an object is, the faster it appears to recede. This may sound an awful lot like what occurs in an explosion to you, especially if it were centered on us. Furthermore, the name “the Big Bang” sure gives that same implication, doesn’t it? Yet despite these facts, it turns out that the idea that the Universe has a center is completely false, and is actually contradicted by both relativity and the Universe that we observe.

Piss off a geocentrist today.___

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2015-01-08 19:31:55 (8 comments, 12 reshares, 38 +1s)Open 

"You need the data to support the foundations of your reasoning. You need the laws and correlations to build your theoretical framework atop them. You need a hypothesis or an idea of how it all fits together and can be explained by (relatively) simple principles. And finally, only if you have multiple lines of evidence and multiple tests and confirmed predictions, can you begin to rightly call your idea a theory."

As any scientist knows, it's true that no scientific theory, no matter how well-tested, how validated, or how universally applicable it is, can ever be 100% proven. But is this a flaw, or is it a feature of science? As it turns out, being able to revise, refine, and learn as we move forward leads to something even better than scientific "proof." It leads to an increasingly accurate picture of all the natural phenomena in the entire Universe.

"You need the data to support the foundations of your reasoning. You need the laws and correlations to build your theoretical framework atop them. You need a hypothesis or an idea of how it all fits together and can be explained by (relatively) simple principles. And finally, only if you have multiple lines of evidence and multiple tests and confirmed predictions, can you begin to rightly call your idea a theory."

As any scientist knows, it's true that no scientific theory, no matter how well-tested, how validated, or how universally applicable it is, can ever be 100% proven. But is this a flaw, or is it a feature of science? As it turns out, being able to revise, refine, and learn as we move forward leads to something even better than scientific "proof." It leads to an increasingly accurate picture of all the natural phenomena in the entire Universe.___

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2015-01-08 01:20:25 (4 comments, 17 reshares, 76 +1s)Open 

In the past 100 years, we've come to understand that our Universe is a vast, expanding-and-cooling space that formed planets, stars, galaxies and clusters from a past that was so hot and dense we didn't even have atoms, nuclei, or stable protons! There are a myriad of questions that have puzzled philosophers and scientists alike for millennia:

-How old is the Universe?
-How big is the part of the Universe we can see?
-What is the shape of the Universe’s space?
-What makes it up, and in what amounts?
-What is the Universe’s fate?
-And where did the Universe come from?

We now know the answers to all of these; here is the full rundown of what we know about all there is at the start of 2015!

In the past 100 years, we've come to understand that our Universe is a vast, expanding-and-cooling space that formed planets, stars, galaxies and clusters from a past that was so hot and dense we didn't even have atoms, nuclei, or stable protons! There are a myriad of questions that have puzzled philosophers and scientists alike for millennia:

-How old is the Universe?
-How big is the part of the Universe we can see?
-What is the shape of the Universe’s space?
-What makes it up, and in what amounts?
-What is the Universe’s fate?
-And where did the Universe come from?

We now know the answers to all of these; here is the full rundown of what we know about all there is at the start of 2015!___

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2015-01-07 19:32:35 (1 comments, 8 reshares, 27 +1s)Open 

"So with everything that it’s done — the mission timeline, what it’s accomplished to date, and what we know about solar systems in general — what can we conclude from all of this? What can we say about the total number of potentially habitable planets — Earth-sized worlds in the habitable zones of their stars — in our galaxy?"

For the past three years, Kepler has been looking at 150,000 stars, searching for planetary transits. The science haul has been huge, but mostly larger planets close in to their parent stars. Nevertheless, a few rocky, habitable-zone planets have been discovered. Whether we take optimistic or pessimistic estimates, what do we expect for the rest of the galaxy? At minimum, some 6 billion habitable-zone, rocky planets. And likely many more!

"So with everything that it’s done — the mission timeline, what it’s accomplished to date, and what we know about solar systems in general — what can we conclude from all of this? What can we say about the total number of potentially habitable planets — Earth-sized worlds in the habitable zones of their stars — in our galaxy?"

For the past three years, Kepler has been looking at 150,000 stars, searching for planetary transits. The science haul has been huge, but mostly larger planets close in to their parent stars. Nevertheless, a few rocky, habitable-zone planets have been discovered. Whether we take optimistic or pessimistic estimates, what do we expect for the rest of the galaxy? At minimum, some 6 billion habitable-zone, rocky planets. And likely many more!___

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2015-01-06 23:21:57 (1 comments, 14 reshares, 100 +1s)Open 

"If you have stars that live in front of the dust relative to you, the light will simply travel through space, to your eyes, and will appear to you the same way that it was emitted. But if you have stars that live behind either part or all of the dust in a galaxy, their light will be reddened before it reaches your eyes, something we see in dusty regions even of our own galaxy!"

You might expect that the dust lanes should appear equally on both sides of the galaxy, but they don't. Even more puzzlingly, the dust actually does live in the middle of the disk, so you might think there's no excuse for this! We had a theory as to why this works for a while, but recent Hubble observations have confirmed this picture, and we've finally got our answer!

"If you have stars that live in front of the dust relative to you, the light will simply travel through space, to your eyes, and will appear to you the same way that it was emitted. But if you have stars that live behind either part or all of the dust in a galaxy, their light will be reddened before it reaches your eyes, something we see in dusty regions even of our own galaxy!"

You might expect that the dust lanes should appear equally on both sides of the galaxy, but they don't. Even more puzzlingly, the dust actually does live in the middle of the disk, so you might think there's no excuse for this! We had a theory as to why this works for a while, but recent Hubble observations have confirmed this picture, and we've finally got our answer!___

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2015-01-05 22:55:31 (8 comments, 40 reshares, 228 +1s)Open 

"There are features that have moved in 20 years as well: jets have shifted and extended, telling us about how stars collapse and how they shock their way through the gas, how high-velocity stars and gas are moving, and will allow us to test our best theories of star formation with the greatest data ever obtained.

And that’s not just all: there’s a bonus! 20 years since the first Hubble image of the Eagle Nebula came back, they also used it to take an infrared mosaic of this same region."

Twenty years ago, the Hubble Space Telescope imaged the Eagle Nebula, and uncovered the highest-resolution views of the pillars of creation ever taken. That was back in 1995, and now Hubble is outfitted with a new camera, superior imaging technology, and can span more wavelengths than ever before. The result — double the resolution, larger field-of-view, and better science — is worthyour ti... more »

"There are features that have moved in 20 years as well: jets have shifted and extended, telling us about how stars collapse and how they shock their way through the gas, how high-velocity stars and gas are moving, and will allow us to test our best theories of star formation with the greatest data ever obtained.

And that’s not just all: there’s a bonus! 20 years since the first Hubble image of the Eagle Nebula came back, they also used it to take an infrared mosaic of this same region."

Twenty years ago, the Hubble Space Telescope imaged the Eagle Nebula, and uncovered the highest-resolution views of the pillars of creation ever taken. That was back in 1995, and now Hubble is outfitted with a new camera, superior imaging technology, and can span more wavelengths than ever before. The result — double the resolution, larger field-of-view, and better science — is worth your time in full-screen.___

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2015-01-05 21:35:39 (27 comments, 8 reshares, 79 +1s)Open 

"So while the scientific will is there: the human power, the technology, and the interest among the scientific world, the overall perception is that people don’t care, and so there’s no reason to throw extra money at making this happen."

At its peak — the mid-1960s — the US government spent somewhere around 20% of its non-military discretionary spending on NASA and space science/exploration. Today? That number is down to 3%, the lowest it’s ever been. In an enraging talk at the annual American Astronomical Society meeting, John M. Logsdon argued that astronomers, astrophysicists and space scientists should be happy, as a community, that we still get as much funding as we do. Professional scientists and dreamers alike: do not take this lying down!

"So while the scientific will is there: the human power, the technology, and the interest among the scientific world, the overall perception is that people don’t care, and so there’s no reason to throw extra money at making this happen."

At its peak — the mid-1960s — the US government spent somewhere around 20% of its non-military discretionary spending on NASA and space science/exploration. Today? That number is down to 3%, the lowest it’s ever been. In an enraging talk at the annual American Astronomical Society meeting, John M. Logsdon argued that astronomers, astrophysicists and space scientists should be happy, as a community, that we still get as much funding as we do. Professional scientists and dreamers alike: do not take this lying down!___

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2015-01-05 15:10:24 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 16 +1s)Open 

"Not only do the outer layers of massive stars come to enrich the interstellar medium, but the inner cores have opportunities to merge together with similar objects, triggering runaway fusion reactions that create tremendous amounts of heavier elements, including some of the most precious elements on Earth, like titanium, silver, palladium, gold and platinum."

From the perspective of a human being, when we ask about where "all this" comes from, there's little that's more important to us than the existence of atoms. Yet when the Universe first cooled off following the Big Bang, the Universe was some 99.9999999% hydrogen and helium, with no trace at all of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen or the other heavy elements necessary for life. So where did the heavy elements come from? Find out in less than 5 minutes!

"Not only do the outer layers of massive stars come to enrich the interstellar medium, but the inner cores have opportunities to merge together with similar objects, triggering runaway fusion reactions that create tremendous amounts of heavier elements, including some of the most precious elements on Earth, like titanium, silver, palladium, gold and platinum."

From the perspective of a human being, when we ask about where "all this" comes from, there's little that's more important to us than the existence of atoms. Yet when the Universe first cooled off following the Big Bang, the Universe was some 99.9999999% hydrogen and helium, with no trace at all of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen or the other heavy elements necessary for life. So where did the heavy elements come from? Find out in less than 5 minutes!___

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2015-01-04 16:54:27 (0 comments, 2 reshares, 12 +1s)Open 

"If you draw something, I will add to it."

The simple promise that inspired a love of art and some spectacular collaborative drawings, from a brilliantly creative science teacher.

"If you draw something, I will add to it."

The simple promise that inspired a love of art and some spectacular collaborative drawings, from a brilliantly creative science teacher.___

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2015-01-03 20:47:07 (33 comments, 4 reshares, 43 +1s)Open 

"When I think about it, the Universe does look fine-tuned to me, but that’s only because of what I am and what I see today. But that doesn’t necessarily imply a conscious, loving tuner; it could just as easily imply the cold, lifeless existence of a natural, physical tuning process, the same way that finding a path of rubble could imply a path-builder, but could just as easily (perhaps more easily) imply the existence of an eroded path, gravity, and an avalanche.

You are free to believe whatever you think is more likely or whatever gives you the most comfort. But regardless of what you believe, I hope we can all agree on the importance of learning all that we can about all that’s knowable."

A truly great week of comments, and (hopefully) responses that are up to the task!

"When I think about it, the Universe does look fine-tuned to me, but that’s only because of what I am and what I see today. But that doesn’t necessarily imply a conscious, loving tuner; it could just as easily imply the cold, lifeless existence of a natural, physical tuning process, the same way that finding a path of rubble could imply a path-builder, but could just as easily (perhaps more easily) imply the existence of an eroded path, gravity, and an avalanche.

You are free to believe whatever you think is more likely or whatever gives you the most comfort. But regardless of what you believe, I hope we can all agree on the importance of learning all that we can about all that’s knowable."

A truly great week of comments, and (hopefully) responses that are up to the task!___

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2015-01-03 05:39:50 (45 comments, 45 reshares, 456 +1s)Open 

"All those galaxies whose light has already reached us is still reaching us; the accelerating Universe hasn’t changed that.

But for many of those galaxies, we’ll never see any new light from them: only the light they emitted long ago, before the present age of the Universe. "

Instead of slowing down, distant galaxies are speeding up in their recession from us, rendering them unreachable from our point of view. But even though we can't see the light emitted from them today, we can still see the galaxies themselves! A great explainer on how this works, how no information gets lost and what it means for the Big Bang.

"All those galaxies whose light has already reached us is still reaching us; the accelerating Universe hasn’t changed that.

But for many of those galaxies, we’ll never see any new light from them: only the light they emitted long ago, before the present age of the Universe. "

Instead of slowing down, distant galaxies are speeding up in their recession from us, rendering them unreachable from our point of view. But even though we can't see the light emitted from them today, we can still see the galaxies themselves! A great explainer on how this works, how no information gets lost and what it means for the Big Bang.___

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2015-01-01 20:48:23 (84 comments, 32 reshares, 312 +1s)Open 

"The Sun will continue to get hotter as it ages, boiling our oceans in approximately 1–2 billion years — or on February 8th of year 2, plus or minus two weeks — and ending life-on-Earth as we know it. Eventually, about 5–7 billion years down the line, we’ll run out of nuclear fuel in the Sun’s core, which will cause our parent star to become a Red Giant, engulfing Mercury and Venus in the process. That’ll happen around June 8th, give or take a little under a month."

As the new year begins, what are we looking forward to from the perspective of our Universe? If we consider all the time from the Big Bang until today as "one Universe year," there are some big events coming up in the future. Our own planet will see most of these occur in "Universe year 2", while all the distant galaxies will be gone by year 10 or 15. Come see how and when it allcomes to an end in va... more »

"The Sun will continue to get hotter as it ages, boiling our oceans in approximately 1–2 billion years — or on February 8th of year 2, plus or minus two weeks — and ending life-on-Earth as we know it. Eventually, about 5–7 billion years down the line, we’ll run out of nuclear fuel in the Sun’s core, which will cause our parent star to become a Red Giant, engulfing Mercury and Venus in the process. That’ll happen around June 8th, give or take a little under a month."

As the new year begins, what are we looking forward to from the perspective of our Universe? If we consider all the time from the Big Bang until today as "one Universe year," there are some big events coming up in the future. Our own planet will see most of these occur in "Universe year 2", while all the distant galaxies will be gone by year 10 or 15. Come see how and when it all comes to an end in varying ways in our Universe, and what the far future holds!___

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2014-12-30 21:24:18 (18 comments, 13 reshares, 29 +1s)Open 

"Why would your belief in God require that science give a specific answer to this question that we don’t yet know the answer to? Will your faith be shaken if we find that, hey, guess what, chemistry works to form life on other worlds the same way it worked in the past on this one? Will you feel like you’ve achieved some sort of spiritual victory if we scour the galaxy and find that human beings are the most intelligent species on all the worlds of the Milky Way?

Or, can your beliefs — whatever they are — stand up to whatever scientific truths the Universe reveals about itself, regardless of what they are?"

What are the conditions we need for life to arise? How common are those conditions? And if we don't find life where we expect it, what does that mean for God? The answers to all these and more in a refutation of what you likely saw in the Wall StreetJournal.... more »

"Why would your belief in God require that science give a specific answer to this question that we don’t yet know the answer to? Will your faith be shaken if we find that, hey, guess what, chemistry works to form life on other worlds the same way it worked in the past on this one? Will you feel like you’ve achieved some sort of spiritual victory if we scour the galaxy and find that human beings are the most intelligent species on all the worlds of the Milky Way?

Or, can your beliefs — whatever they are — stand up to whatever scientific truths the Universe reveals about itself, regardless of what they are?"

What are the conditions we need for life to arise? How common are those conditions? And if we don't find life where we expect it, what does that mean for God? The answers to all these and more in a refutation of what you likely saw in the Wall Street Journal.___

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2014-12-29 21:12:09 (2 comments, 1 reshares, 17 +1s)Open 

"So spiral galaxies like our own are common today, but as we move farther and farther into the future, they’ll become increasingly rare, as the way we exist now is just an adolescent phase in our ever-evolving Universe."

It's been less than a century since we uncovered the spiral structure present in our own Milky Way galaxy, and uncovered the galactic nature of the great spirals and ellipticals populating the night sky. But how did these galaxies form in the first place? Why do they appear the way they do, and what will they evolve to look like in the future? I made a video that takes us through all that and more; give it four minutes out of your day!

"So spiral galaxies like our own are common today, but as we move farther and farther into the future, they’ll become increasingly rare, as the way we exist now is just an adolescent phase in our ever-evolving Universe."

It's been less than a century since we uncovered the spiral structure present in our own Milky Way galaxy, and uncovered the galactic nature of the great spirals and ellipticals populating the night sky. But how did these galaxies form in the first place? Why do they appear the way they do, and what will they evolve to look like in the future? I made a video that takes us through all that and more; give it four minutes out of your day!___

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2014-12-28 20:16:44 (12 comments, 9 reshares, 27 +1s)Open 

"Regardless of how you feel about our chances of reducing carbon emissions quickly and significantly, even that alone isn’t going to remove carbon dioxide from our atmosphere.

But doing something as simple as planting trees will."

Yes, carbon levels in our atmosphere are rising, it's causing the Earth to warm and the climate to change, and our dependence on fossil fuels isn't going away anytime soon. Yet even if we ceased all carbon emissions today, the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere is already high enough that it is likely to result in long-term catastrophic effects. But getting that carbon that's already in the atmosphere out of it isn't a pie-in-the-sky dream, it's a solvable problem that's as easy as planting a tree, something every one of us can help do with very little time, money and effort.

"Regardless of how you feel about our chances of reducing carbon emissions quickly and significantly, even that alone isn’t going to remove carbon dioxide from our atmosphere.

But doing something as simple as planting trees will."

Yes, carbon levels in our atmosphere are rising, it's causing the Earth to warm and the climate to change, and our dependence on fossil fuels isn't going away anytime soon. Yet even if we ceased all carbon emissions today, the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere is already high enough that it is likely to result in long-term catastrophic effects. But getting that carbon that's already in the atmosphere out of it isn't a pie-in-the-sky dream, it's a solvable problem that's as easy as planting a tree, something every one of us can help do with very little time, money and effort.___

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2014-12-28 03:31:56 (11 comments, 0 reshares, 18 +1s)Open 

"“Geez, Ethan looks like a freak. It’s hard to take someone who looks like that seriously.”

One of the unfortunate consequences of putting yourself out there in the public eye is that you’re going to get comments like this. You’re going to get people who won’t judge you by the quality of the content you produce, by your merits or lack thereof, but rather by their own opinions of what someone in your position ought to look like, by some arbitrary standard.

Let me say it unequivocally: I have nothing to be ashamed of when it comes to my appearance. I am proud of who I am and how I present myself to the world, and if you can’t accept me in the role of whatever it is that I choose to do because of my appearance, I strongly suggest you look inwards, and ask yourself why that is. Perhaps you should reconsider how you judge people based on the way they look; you never knowwho just migh... more »

"“Geez, Ethan looks like a freak. It’s hard to take someone who looks like that seriously.”

One of the unfortunate consequences of putting yourself out there in the public eye is that you’re going to get comments like this. You’re going to get people who won’t judge you by the quality of the content you produce, by your merits or lack thereof, but rather by their own opinions of what someone in your position ought to look like, by some arbitrary standard.

Let me say it unequivocally: I have nothing to be ashamed of when it comes to my appearance. I am proud of who I am and how I present myself to the world, and if you can’t accept me in the role of whatever it is that I choose to do because of my appearance, I strongly suggest you look inwards, and ask yourself why that is. Perhaps you should reconsider how you judge people based on the way they look; you never know who just might turn out to be exactly the kind of person you’d hope to see more of in your life."

Eclipses, the matter that never formed stars, and taking on a hater with kindness, on this edition of our Comments of the Week!___

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2014-12-27 00:07:47 (3 comments, 0 reshares, 19 +1s)Open 

"I’m not really good at astronomy or stuff though I love reading about it. But my question would be, what made you to decide that it’s something you want to do for the rest of your life? Is it because of you got awestruck by a wonderful night sky?"

We all can think back to that moment that happened where we knew our lives would be forever different, right? To that one moment in our past where we suddenly knew what it was that we wanted to be, what we wanted to do, what that special career move defining us would wind up becoming. You know, that moment where you figure out what your special talent/passion is, just like when you get your cutie mark in the My Little Pony Universe.

Only, that isn’t how real life works! This romantic notion is actually a harmful fiction, as if you want to truly find your calling, it needs to be a continuous process.

"I’m not really good at astronomy or stuff though I love reading about it. But my question would be, what made you to decide that it’s something you want to do for the rest of your life? Is it because of you got awestruck by a wonderful night sky?"

We all can think back to that moment that happened where we knew our lives would be forever different, right? To that one moment in our past where we suddenly knew what it was that we wanted to be, what we wanted to do, what that special career move defining us would wind up becoming. You know, that moment where you figure out what your special talent/passion is, just like when you get your cutie mark in the My Little Pony Universe.

Only, that isn’t how real life works! This romantic notion is actually a harmful fiction, as if you want to truly find your calling, it needs to be a continuous process.___

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2014-12-24 22:12:54 (1 comments, 0 reshares, 18 +1s)Open 

"So this holiday, don’t give a dustbuster,
Instead, share the joy of the Christmas Tree Cluster!"

How to find the Christmas Tree Cluster, the best astrophotography efforts ever taken of it, and why it looks the way it does.

All in the form of an epic Christmas poem. It's a miracle!

"So this holiday, don’t give a dustbuster,
Instead, share the joy of the Christmas Tree Cluster!"

How to find the Christmas Tree Cluster, the best astrophotography efforts ever taken of it, and why it looks the way it does.

All in the form of an epic Christmas poem. It's a miracle!___

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2014-12-24 02:46:09 (1 comments, 2 reshares, 21 +1s)Open 

"[T]he simplest explanation is the one that requires the fewest number of new assumptions beyond the ones we already know must exist. In other words, the simplest explanation conceivable is one that only relies on the set of known, established scientific knowledge."

"All things being equal, the simplest explanation is usually the best." At least, that’s how Occam’s razor is most commonly phrased these days. Yet, when it comes to the headlines — whether it’s a discovery of dark matter or evidence for life on Mars — you have to wonder what simple actually means. Time to set the record straight, and I'm so hell-bent on doing it that I just bet $1000 at 1000-to-1 odds against methane-belching life on Mars!

"[T]he simplest explanation is the one that requires the fewest number of new assumptions beyond the ones we already know must exist. In other words, the simplest explanation conceivable is one that only relies on the set of known, established scientific knowledge."

"All things being equal, the simplest explanation is usually the best." At least, that’s how Occam’s razor is most commonly phrased these days. Yet, when it comes to the headlines — whether it’s a discovery of dark matter or evidence for life on Mars — you have to wonder what simple actually means. Time to set the record straight, and I'm so hell-bent on doing it that I just bet $1000 at 1000-to-1 odds against methane-belching life on Mars!___

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2014-12-23 15:45:25 (0 comments, 9 reshares, 22 +1s)Open 

"We don’t talk about it, but science isn’t just a profession. It’s a way to make sense of the world. It’s a way to find unity with nature. Most scientists are atheists, not so much because belief and superstition has no place in science, but because, as Laplace put it so aptly, God is a useless hypothesis. Why spend the Sunday in church when you can spend it in the lab?"

As scientists, our equations, our models, our observations, our experiments and our instruments are more than just our tools for approaching our work. In a very real way, they’re our connection to the Universe itself. +Sabine Hossenfelder opens up about her take on science, religion, and finding joy and wonder in the natural world.

"We don’t talk about it, but science isn’t just a profession. It’s a way to make sense of the world. It’s a way to find unity with nature. Most scientists are atheists, not so much because belief and superstition has no place in science, but because, as Laplace put it so aptly, God is a useless hypothesis. Why spend the Sunday in church when you can spend it in the lab?"

As scientists, our equations, our models, our observations, our experiments and our instruments are more than just our tools for approaching our work. In a very real way, they’re our connection to the Universe itself. +Sabine Hossenfelder opens up about her take on science, religion, and finding joy and wonder in the natural world.___

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2014-12-23 05:11:02 (0 comments, 5 reshares, 52 +1s)Open 

"In every solar system, it’s the largest initial fluctuations in a protoplanetary disk that give rise to planets, with smaller worlds either getting absorbed into larger ones or getting kicked out of the solar system entirely by gravitational interactions! After a few tens of millions of years, all you’re left with are rocky and giant planets, asteroids, moons, and frozen comet-like objects.

And on worlds around stars with just the right conditions, not only can we have liquid water, but at least once, life that’s complicated enough to ask and answer questions like where our Solar System comes from."

There's a cosmic story behind all the physical phenomena we observe, and an origin story to where every physical thing comes from. In episode 2 of a new series, I get to take us behind the scenes of where our Solar System comes from. Five minutes that's definitelyworth... more »

"In every solar system, it’s the largest initial fluctuations in a protoplanetary disk that give rise to planets, with smaller worlds either getting absorbed into larger ones or getting kicked out of the solar system entirely by gravitational interactions! After a few tens of millions of years, all you’re left with are rocky and giant planets, asteroids, moons, and frozen comet-like objects.

And on worlds around stars with just the right conditions, not only can we have liquid water, but at least once, life that’s complicated enough to ask and answer questions like where our Solar System comes from."

There's a cosmic story behind all the physical phenomena we observe, and an origin story to where every physical thing comes from. In episode 2 of a new series, I get to take us behind the scenes of where our Solar System comes from. Five minutes that's definitely worth watching.___

2014-12-22 21:00:26 (6 comments, 1 reshares, 4 +1s)Open 

Wow. Just got a robo-call from +Google+ to register my business with them. That's what I get for updating my Whois information?

I call foul, +Google+; that is a terrible, unsavory business practice right there. Do it again and you're getting a report for violating the DoNotCall registry.

Wow. Just got a robo-call from +Google+ to register my business with them. That's what I get for updating my Whois information?

I call foul, +Google+; that is a terrible, unsavory business practice right there. Do it again and you're getting a report for violating the DoNotCall registry.___

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2014-12-21 14:59:50 (6 comments, 13 reshares, 54 +1s)Open 

"A total solar eclipse is a rare event, but rarer still is one that’s visible by you. Unlike lunar eclipses, visible for hours by the entire night side of the world, a total solar eclipse can only be viewed along a narrow path on Earth’s surface, where the Moon’s shadow happens to fall."

The first total solar eclipse since 1918 to cut across the USA, from the Pacific to the Atlantic, is happening in just 32 months. Start getting ready now!

"A total solar eclipse is a rare event, but rarer still is one that’s visible by you. Unlike lunar eclipses, visible for hours by the entire night side of the world, a total solar eclipse can only be viewed along a narrow path on Earth’s surface, where the Moon’s shadow happens to fall."

The first total solar eclipse since 1918 to cut across the USA, from the Pacific to the Atlantic, is happening in just 32 months. Start getting ready now!___

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2014-12-20 20:55:30 (0 comments, 3 reshares, 15 +1s)Open 

"But here’s one for your seven-year-old: do you get a prize if you win? If gravity wins and you do get to form a galaxy, you win the ultimate prize of all: you get not just one, but billions of chances to form worlds with intelligent life on them, and a chance at you getting to have a lifetime of your very own. That’s a prize that’s pretty hard to beat!"

With a real discussion of the deepest questions, from the nature of science itself (and how it's different from math) to life, death, and immortality.

"But here’s one for your seven-year-old: do you get a prize if you win? If gravity wins and you do get to form a galaxy, you win the ultimate prize of all: you get not just one, but billions of chances to form worlds with intelligent life on them, and a chance at you getting to have a lifetime of your very own. That’s a prize that’s pretty hard to beat!"

With a real discussion of the deepest questions, from the nature of science itself (and how it's different from math) to life, death, and immortality.___

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2014-12-19 20:39:00 (20 comments, 19 reshares, 108 +1s)Open 

"If the Universe had just the tiniest amount more of dark matter — something like 1 part in 10^24 more — it would have recollapsed billions of years ago. It was very finely balanced for a long time — with gravity winning locally in some spots and losing in others — but now that dark energy has come to dominate it, we’re seeing that its effects are going to win out. It wins in the end, it wins on the largest scales, and it wins for everything that wasn’t already gravitationally bound together after the first seven-or-so billion years of the Universe."

We all know that dark energy has come to dominate the Universe, and will lead to a cold, empty Universe in short order. But everywhere we look, we find galaxies and clusters: regions where gravity has defeated the cosmic expansion in the greatest struggle in the Universe. So how is it possible that both of thesethings are true? A great ex... more »

"If the Universe had just the tiniest amount more of dark matter — something like 1 part in 10^24 more — it would have recollapsed billions of years ago. It was very finely balanced for a long time — with gravity winning locally in some spots and losing in others — but now that dark energy has come to dominate it, we’re seeing that its effects are going to win out. It wins in the end, it wins on the largest scales, and it wins for everything that wasn’t already gravitationally bound together after the first seven-or-so billion years of the Universe."

We all know that dark energy has come to dominate the Universe, and will lead to a cold, empty Universe in short order. But everywhere we look, we find galaxies and clusters: regions where gravity has defeated the cosmic expansion in the greatest struggle in the Universe. So how is it possible that both of these things are true? A great explanation of the difference between "local" and "global" when it comes to the expanding Universe!___

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2014-12-18 21:35:26 (1 comments, 8 reshares, 45 +1s)Open 

"There is a theory that the whole idea of celebrating the new year only began as humans migrated away from the equator, where the difference between the Sun’s path through the sky — and the seasonal climates — became incredibly different. As the Winter Solstice approaches, the Sun’s path dips lower and lower each day. Perhaps you’d fear, if you didn’t know any better, that it might drop below the horizon entirely and disappear forever. But the Solstice marks its minimum point, and then a few days afterwards, it noticeably begins to rise again. Hence, the Sun would return to its dazzling spring-and-summer heights, and a new year would begin. Perhaps that’s where rituals such as New Year’s, Christmas and other just-post-solstice “rebirth” celebrations owe their origins to!"

Yes, we all know about axial tilt, the seasons, the northern hemisphere's tilt awayfrom the Sun and the southe... more »

"There is a theory that the whole idea of celebrating the new year only began as humans migrated away from the equator, where the difference between the Sun’s path through the sky — and the seasonal climates — became incredibly different. As the Winter Solstice approaches, the Sun’s path dips lower and lower each day. Perhaps you’d fear, if you didn’t know any better, that it might drop below the horizon entirely and disappear forever. But the Solstice marks its minimum point, and then a few days afterwards, it noticeably begins to rise again. Hence, the Sun would return to its dazzling spring-and-summer heights, and a new year would begin. Perhaps that’s where rituals such as New Year’s, Christmas and other just-post-solstice “rebirth” celebrations owe their origins to!"

Yes, we all know about axial tilt, the seasons, the northern hemisphere's tilt away from the Sun and the southern's tilt towards it. But this is a top six list of solstice facts that even those with deep scientific knowledge sets might not know of, including information about the Moon, about perihelion, the origin of the New Year's celebrations, and how far south you can be and still have the Sun appear lower than it does at the South Pole!___

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2014-12-18 03:02:38 (28 comments, 50 reshares, 205 +1s)Open 

"The theory is in full accord with our experience (at least insofar as ordinary quantum mechanics is)… because it is possible to show that no observer would ever be aware of any ‘branching.’"

Quantum mechanics defies our intuition by having the state of a quantum system, and all systems are inherently quantum, be ill-defined until a measurement is made. But there are other interpretations than the standard one, including one — the Many-Worlds Interpretation — that allows all possible outcomes to occur, simply in distinct Universes. This has a fascinating consequence: that any time there’s a situation where you have the opportunity to either meet your demise or survive, there does exist a Universe where you continue to live. Could this mean there's a type of quantum immortality that we're all experiencing? Probably not, but perhaps! Great read by +Paul Halpern!

"The theory is in full accord with our experience (at least insofar as ordinary quantum mechanics is)… because it is possible to show that no observer would ever be aware of any ‘branching.’"

Quantum mechanics defies our intuition by having the state of a quantum system, and all systems are inherently quantum, be ill-defined until a measurement is made. But there are other interpretations than the standard one, including one — the Many-Worlds Interpretation — that allows all possible outcomes to occur, simply in distinct Universes. This has a fascinating consequence: that any time there’s a situation where you have the opportunity to either meet your demise or survive, there does exist a Universe where you continue to live. Could this mean there's a type of quantum immortality that we're all experiencing? Probably not, but perhaps! Great read by +Paul Halpern!___

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2014-12-17 18:50:00 (17 comments, 8 reshares, 24 +1s)Open 

We all have our own interpretation of what “the scientific method” is, but there’s always at least one thing that they all have in common: the ultimate arbiter of whether a theory or idea is valid depends on the evidence that comes back from physically observable phenomena. But not everyone necessarily agrees with this in the way we commonly understand it. +Sabine Hossenfelder has some fantastic thoughts analyzing and synthesizing a variety of viewpoints, laying the hammer down with a sweeping statement:

"You can thus never arrive at a theory that describes our universe without taking into account observations, period. The attempt to reduce axioms too much just leads to a whole “multiverse” of predictions, most of which don’t describe anything we will ever see."

String theorists and quantum gravity researchers who disagree, you've been warned.

We all have our own interpretation of what “the scientific method” is, but there’s always at least one thing that they all have in common: the ultimate arbiter of whether a theory or idea is valid depends on the evidence that comes back from physically observable phenomena. But not everyone necessarily agrees with this in the way we commonly understand it. +Sabine Hossenfelder has some fantastic thoughts analyzing and synthesizing a variety of viewpoints, laying the hammer down with a sweeping statement:

"You can thus never arrive at a theory that describes our universe without taking into account observations, period. The attempt to reduce axioms too much just leads to a whole “multiverse” of predictions, most of which don’t describe anything we will ever see."

String theorists and quantum gravity researchers who disagree, you've been warned.___

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2014-12-17 00:46:23 (70 comments, 15 reshares, 127 +1s)Open 

"The Universe is a race, and the Big Bang is the starting gun."

If you're old enough to ask, you're old enough for the real answer!

"The Universe is a race, and the Big Bang is the starting gun."

If you're old enough to ask, you're old enough for the real answer!___

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