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Ethan Siegel has been shared in 132 public circles

You can see here the 50 latest shared circles.
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AuthorFollowersDateUsers in CircleCommentsReshares+1Links
Jomar Cabillo0✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦ONCE AGAIN HERE'S SMILE VERSION  OF MY SHARED PUBLIC Great Great CIRCLE .. I wish to be a friend to all of ya guys.. cheerz with us.. and cheerz with them.. GUYS JUST WANNA SAY, THANKS FOR THE CIRCLE AND HOPE COULD BE FRIENDS AT ANY CIRCLE, FRIENDS, PHOTOGRAPHY, ACQUAINTANCES, FOLLOWING ETC.. THANKS LOVE YOU ALL GUYS..  GOD BLESS.Like-Comment-and SHARE.. UPDATED FRIDAY 7/12/2014✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦✦GREAT reshares last week! INSANE! Let's keep it going!➤ To be added into the next share, follow these simple steps: 1) Plus the original post2) Share this circle publicly (and with your circles/extended circles)3) Comment on the original post when complete4) Add the circle weekly so you can get the new members! Thank A lot Guys..Love You all#Qhuilouah Aquino  #circle  #circles #public   #publiccircle    #circleshare   #circlesharing    #sharedcircles    #sharedcircle    #morefollowers   #sharingcircles    #circleshare    #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedpublicircles    #sharedcircle    #photography   #photographer #bestphotographer    #topphotographer    #AddCircle   #FindCircles   #awesome    #AwesomePeople    #AwesomeCircle   #addmetoyourcircles #addcircle   #addpeople    #circlemeup   #circlesdisc2015-03-05 14:53:30448001
Ryan Johnson26,592This circle contains people who are very active on Google+If you received a notification, please reshare to your circlesIf you’d like to be added to the next circle share: • +1 this circle • Share this circle to PUBLIC • Include me in your circles • Comment on this post#circle #Sharedcircles #circleshare  #sri_lanka #colombo #australia #adelaide #australia #cairns #australia #darwin #australia #hobart #new_zealand #auckland #new_zealand #wellington #papua_new_guinea #papua_new_guinea #awesome #AwesomePeople #AwesomeCircle #addmetoyourcircles #addcircle #addpeople #circlemeup #circlesdiscovery #circleshare #circlesharing #publiccircle #publicsharedcircles #SharedCircles #weeklyreview #sharedcircle #topsharedcircle #circleoftheday 2015-03-05 07:52:194247711
Paul Hutchinson2,176A G+ #FF post ... Here's my "Science" circle (at least 501 of the 1105 people in the circle)#tw #fb2015-02-27 21:06:56501000
Brian Mcquillan23,952Boost your visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!To be added to or stay in this Circle - Share the circleIf you received the notice you are in this circle, then well done.If you would like to be included in the next Circle Share, you only have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles2 - Share the circle (Publicly)3 - Add +1 to the post.4 - Leave a comment if you like.I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#circles #Gif #Cute #Anime #Animals #Online #Life #CatLovers #Cat #FunnyPics #Quote #Art #CaturdayEveryday #QuoteOfTheDay #Truth #Dog #Dogs #XD #Meme #LOL #Humor #Cute #Anime #Gif #Animals #Cat #CatLovers #Art #Online #Cats #Life #FunnyPics #CaturdayEveryday #Dog #Quote #Dogs #Truth #Manga 2015-02-27 10:33:26381133
Kristina Natacha0#CircleShar  of the DayBoost your visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!To be added to or stay in this Circle - Share the circleIf you received the notice you are in this circle, then well done.If you would like to be included in the next Circle Share, you only have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles2 - Share the circle (Publicly)3 - Add +1 to the post.4 - Leave a comment if you like.I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!------------------------#circles #shared #share #add #friends #circle #share #sharecircle #circleshar #news   #travel   #travelphotography   #update #IndonesiaOnly #Jalan #Aberdeen #Belfast #Birmingham #Bristol #Cardiff #Dublin #EastMidlands #Edinburgh #Glasgow #LeedsBradford #London #Manchester #Newcastle #circle #circles #public #publiccircle #circleshare #circlesharing 2015-02-25 16:45:00482000
Allan watson21,270Active users on Google+. Circle Share If you received a notification, please reshare to your circlesIf you’d like to be added to the next circle share: • +1 this circle • Share this circle to PUBLIC • Include me in your circles • Comment on this post#awesomecircle #circleme #malawi #lilongwe #morocco #morocco #agadir #morocco #casablanca #morocco #fez #morocco #marrakech #morocco #tangier #mozambique #mozambique #maputo #namibia #namibia #walvis_bay #namibia #windhoek #nigeria #nigeria #abuja #nigeria #lagos #rwanda #rwanda #kigali #senegal #senegal #dakar #sierra_leone #sierra_leone #freetown #bloemfontein 2015-02-25 09:53:314838613
Crazy Cats29 Public #circleshare   January 20, 2015Hope that you have been having a great week on Google+. Thank you for sharing and promoting this and for connecting up with all the great accounts I have included. Great With This #cirlce  !!!***************************************************************Boost your visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!Boost your visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!Follow me here : http://goo.gl/7rWIEVTo be added to the Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 Include me in your circles2 Click add people and create your circle3 +1 this circle4 Publicly share this circle to public, your circles and extended circles. ( dont forget share the circle and include yourself )5 If possible, leave a comment on this circle so I know you have done the three steps above (I say "if possible" as my circle comments more often than not hit the 500 comment limit).6  So I can easily find your share, always publicly share my original shared circle. You'll know if you're sharing the original one because you won't see "Jason Levy originally shared" above here. If you do see it, click on "originally shared" and it will bring you to this post.Special Invite :+A Tech Buzz +Axel Kratel +Andrea Gervasi +Andrew Sowerby +Anette Mossbacher +Brett Szmajda +Andrew Sowerby +Irina Sadokhina +Sean Carroll +Michael Sonntag +Mighty Dragon Studios +Eric Delcour +2015-02-01 10:25:324744411
Natasha Velicia475Get More Google+ Follower with  +TubeDEVILZ  January 15, 2015*****************************************************************HERE'S OF MY SHARED PUBLIC CIRCLE*****************************************************************Hope that you have been having a great week on Google+. Thank you for sharing and promoting this and for connecting up with all the great accounts I have included. Great With This Cilcle!!,Boost your visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!Boost your visibility on Google+ - Share the circle!To be added to the Circle you have to do these simple steps:1 Include me in your circles2 Click add people and create your circle3 +1 this circle4 Publicly share this circle to public, your circles and extended circles. ( dont forget share the circle and include yourself )5 If possible, leave a comment on this circle so I know you have done the three steps above (I say "if possible" as my circle comments more often than not hit the 500 comment limit).6  So I can easily find your share, always publicly share my original shared circle. You'll know if you're sharing the original one because you won't see "Jason Levy originally shared" above here. If you do see it, click on "originally shared" and it will bring you to this post.**************************************Follow Me Here : http://goo.gl/c18bpxAnd Subcribe : http://goo.gl/NT0MCkSpecial Invitation (Please +1 and Share) :+Alfina Dewi +Agus Septiann +Dini Ashanti +Amy Cesario +Sergii Daniloff +Danis Sanju +Lieven Damman +dini iftita +Lincoln Harrison +Riskhha Nur Hayati +Nanang Hendro +Hanste2015-01-16 20:15:35473419
Ryan Johnson23,295This circle contains people who are very active on Google+If you received a notification, please reshare to your circlesIf you’d like to be added to the next circle share: • +1 this circle • Share this circle to PUBLIC • Include me in your circles • Comment on this post#circle #Sharedcircles #circleshare  #sri_lanka #colombo #australia #adelaide #australia #cairns #australia #darwin #australia #hobart #new_zealand #auckland #new_zealand #wellington #papua_new_guinea #papua_new_guinea #awesome #AwesomePeople #AwesomeCircle #addmetoyourcircles #addcircle #addpeople #circlemeup #circlesdiscovery #circleshare #circlesharing #publiccircle #publicsharedcircles #SharedCircles #weeklyreview #sharedcircle #topsharedcircle #circleoftheday 2015-01-16 13:00:35472313051
RuMuZ NeYiMe1,336good morningadd friends list..#addcircle #addcircles #addpeople #awesomecircle #awesomecircles #awesomepeople #besharable #besocial #bestcircle #bestcircles #bestengagers #circleadd #circleall #circleme #circlemenow #circlemeup #circlenetwork #circleplus #circlesdiscovery #circleshare #circleshares #circlesharing #circleup #circleyoushare #coolpeople #engagerscircle #engagerscircles #findcircle #findcircles #follow4follow #followback #followme #fullcircleshare #influencermarketing #internetmarketing #morefollowers #networkcircle 2015-01-12 08:56:27466002
John Sean10,506This circle contains people who really are interesting and active people on Google Plus.If you would like to be included in the next Circle Share, you only have to do these simple steps:1 - Include me in your circles2 - Share the circle (Publicly)3 - Add +1 to the post.4 - Leave a comment if you like.I will thankful if you plus and share this circle!#publiccircle #circleshare #circlesharing #philadelphia #phoenix #san_antonio #san_diego #san_francisco #san_jose #seattle #tampa #washington #american_samoa #american_samoa #pago_pago #fiji #fiji #nadi #fiji #suva #argentina #argentina #buenos_aires #argentina #cordoba #argentina #iguaza #argentina #mendoza #argentina #rosaio #argentina #san_carlos_de_bariloche #bolivia #bolivia #cochabamba 2015-01-12 06:41:19465171632
Allan watson12,311This is a circle I created a few months ago and am now sharing with you in hopes that we can all benefit and grow our online presence.  This circle rewards those who take part in interaction as seen below..  Everyone in this circle continues to add followers.  IN ORDER TO MAKE THIS WORK PLEASE FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS BELOW:  1. Plus the post  2. Share the post  3. Add the circle if you can, if not try again later.  4. Request to be added in comments or let me know if you should be in it and for some reason are not.#Lebanon #Tajikistan #SharedCircles #circlesharing #circleshare #circleoftheday #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircle2014-11-18 10:35:46487648
Becky Collins16,609Science Circle :Circle of very #social #engagerspeople and companiesTo be included in my shares (#sharedcircle), be so kind to:1 - Do +1 t the post2 - Comment the post and specify your "category" (job or interest) Ex: Fashion, SEO, Companies, Social Media Marketing, Sailing, Photography, Bloggers/Writers, Web graphics and design, Italy, Artists, Sport, Finance/Economy ...3 - include the circle among your circles4 - share the circle (include yourself)Improve your popularity, be social be cool !Keep yourself updated, enjoy the Shared Circles Hellenic Alliance, you can share your shared circles inside the upcoming Community:https://plus.google.com/communities/112552559573595396104  #socialmedia  #media  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing  #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins ?2014-09-16 05:24:00459102
Becky Collins15,192Recipes and Cooking Circle : Circle of very #social #engagerspeople and companiesTo be included in my shares (#sharedcircle), be so kind to:1 - Do +1 t the post2 - Comment the post and specify your "category" (job or interest) Ex: Fashion, SEO, Companies, Social Media Marketing, Sailing, Photography, Bloggers/Writers, Web graphics and design, Italy, Artists, Sport, Finance/Economy ...3 - include the circle among your circles4 - share the circle (include yourself)Improve your popularity, be social be cool !Keep yourself updated, enjoy the Shared Circles Hellenic Alliance, you can share your shared circles inside the upcoming Community:https://plus.google.com/communities/112552559573595396104  #socialmedia  #media  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing  #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins ?2014-08-18 05:14:394770210
Becky Collins13,270Space Circle :Circle of very #social #engagerspeople and companiesTo be included in my shares (#sharedcircle), be so kind to:1 - Do +1 t the post2 - Comment the post and specify your "category" (job or interest) Ex: Fashion, SEO, Companies, Social Media Marketing, Sailing, Photography, Bloggers/Writers, Web graphics and design, Italy, Artists, Sport, Finance/Economy ...3 - include the circle among your circles4 - share the circle (include yourself)Improve your popularity, be social be cool !Keep yourself updated, enjoy the Shared Circles Hellenic Alliance, you can share your shared circles inside the upcoming Community:https://plus.google.com/communities/112552559573595396104  #socialmedia  #media  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing  #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins ?2014-07-17 07:18:063893010
Aman Singh2,014Circle of the dayYour re-share is appreciatedPlease re-share this circle in your stream.To be added:1- Add +Circles Circles Circles to your circles2- Write the URL of your blog in the comments section below3- Your blog must be an active blog (posts must be current)2014-07-16 12:15:324990719
Ryan Johnson9,485Hi friends! This is a great circle created with an important selection from all circles. The most important engagers are reshared because only that way can we grow our circle and have the people of google circle us.To get in, and to ensure you stay in this circle you need to do the following:1. Add me to your circles, if you haven't done so already!2. +1 this circle!3. Publicly share this circle to public, your circles and extended circles.4. If possible, leave a comment on this circle so I know you have done the three steps above!#circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #wanttobecircled #addmetoyourcircles #public #publiccircle #sharedcircles #Britain #sharedcircle #morefollowers #sharingcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedpublicircles #sharedcircle #photography #uk  #nottingham #Holland #Netherlands #Duch2014-07-16 10:40:014918812
Dina Tika0Here is a group of Active Engagers, Circle Sharers, Awesome Plus Oners, and Cool People on Google Plus!   Circle Sharing is an awesome way to increase your followers and active engagers on your profile. Some of my favorite people that I've met here on Google + through Circle Sharing.    Want to be in the next Circle of Awesomeness? Follow the Steps Below!  ☛ Add the circle ☛ Share in the Public ☛ Plus 1 the Post. ☛ Comment. 2014-06-10 05:53:52479001
Lư Thăng15,488Chia sẻ vòng kết nối chất lượng cho mọi người <3 #sharedcircles  2014-04-23 16:24:5447717224
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:27:36393014
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:26:50393033
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:26:17393011
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:25:52393011
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:25:16393203
Becky Collins3,213Baseball circle #Baseball  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins 2014-02-26 10:30:413883216
Becky Collins2,634Marketing Circle : Feb 22#circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday +Becky Collins2014-02-22 06:29:4945517724
Mikhail Petrovsky77,388Good morning / evening to all.This is a Social Circle of interesting people with an active lifestyle in Google+Это социальный круг общения интересных людей с активной жизненной позицией в Google+You'll love this circle. Photographers, artists and other interesting people!Вам понравится этот круг, добавьте его себе. Фотографы, художники и другие интересные люди!#EarthMyMother #ForFriends #photo2014-01-24 03:20:19483572881
B.A. TruthWarrior1,260These are some verified unusual characters....in general.#circleshare  #circlesharing #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday  #sharedcircleday #circleshared   #variety  2014-01-16 03:45:1647527826
Artur Mashnich43,843A Very Social CircleCircle of the Most Active Users of Google+Круг наиболее активных пользователей Google+Если вы поделились этим кругом вчера, вы находитесь в нем сегодня. Если вы разделяете его с друзьями сегодня, вы будете в нем и завтра.If you shared this circle yesterday, you are in it today. If you share today, you'll be in tomorrow.#Forfriends  2014-01-10 16:01:13493331763
Artur Mashnich40,712A Very Social CircleКруг людей с активной жизненной позицией в Гугле+circle of people, with active life position in Google+Если вы поделились этим кругом вчера, вы находитесь в нем сегодня. Если вы разделяете его с друзьями сегодня, вы будете в нем и завтра.If you shared this circle yesterday, you are in it today. If you share today, you'll be in tomorrow.2013-12-18 11:08:35494443263
Claudiu Narita3,3332013-11-20 02:26:27501817
Lo Sauer2,493This is a great circle combined of active engagers, creative folks and  some of the best and brightest people on google+. A thank you in this circle-inclusion-shoutout to: +Peter Terren +Michael Műller +Carlos Esteban +Justin Chung +Malthus John +Marta Rauch +Rajini Rao +Katherine Vucicevic +Jonathan Eisen +Mike Allton +Scott Buehler +Mario Falcetti +Zvonimir Fras +Krithika Rangarajan +sridhar krishnan +Joanna Ortynska +Seamus Smyth +Chuck Croll +Michael Schobel +2013-11-19 18:19:4843218317
Justin Fournier1,722Social & SEO CircleIt's been awhile since I've shared circles with the general public.  In this Circle I've labeled it as my Social/SEO circle.  Users within this circle generally gave me insight, tips, and tricks into G+ and social branding.Add and follow their posts to increase your own branding in this now digital world!Share and enjoy all! #SEO   #googleplus   #socialmediamarketing   #sharedcircles   #googleplustips  2013-11-03 01:00:37143215
Rank Kemeng0This is a group of individuals that has personally shared four of my best circle sharing circles in the last month (or so).  They also include a mix of new circle sharers and some that are just trying to learn it for the first time. :) :) :0)They are individuals, to a large degree, that are very interested in not just circle sharing (which is great), but also engaging with you in a meaningful way (which is awesome)!!!Guidelines for Core Multipliers- Share the circle to stay in the circle- Have some fun!- If you are new and want in the circle, share the circle.This is a great group.  Enjoy this circle and have an awesome Thursday!*if you were somehow missed/ not included in the circle, please let me know and it will be corrected on the next share. My apologies ahead of time! :)**For those coming from multiplying circle, we are not inviting new folks here, you can privately message them or ping them when you share the circle on your public feed. Thanks!#corecircle #multiplyingcircle #coremultipliers #sharedcircles #circleshare #bestsharedcircle   #circleshare   #sharedcircles   #circleoftheday   #CircleQueen   #CircleMaster   #GPlusList   #Circle   #Circleshare   #Circlesharing   #PublicSharedCircles2013-11-01 15:53:38426115
Coyeb Sundel02013-10-24 10:04:35425202
Tiberiu Igrisan448Science (part 1)#science #sciencecircle #sharedcircles  2013-10-14 18:53:04257123
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:30:23414103
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:29:39414003
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:29:27414002
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:29:04414002
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:27:59414004
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:27:16414002
James Steward1,112These are my awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:25:57414103
Fraser Cain824,747Super Science Circle for October, 2013I know it's been a while, so it's time for a new Super Science Circle - the October 2013 edition.In case you weren't aware, the Super Science Circle is a list of more than 400 people who are actively engaged on Google+ and regularly post about science and education. We've got journalists, scientists, even a few astronauts. The Super Science Circle should be your best response to anyone who tells you that Google+ is just a ghost town. If you love science, this circle will deliver the goods.If you know anyone who actively posts about science, please let me know and I'll add them to the list.2013-10-04 20:14:53415304682
Fabian Weiland145#sharedcircles #science #health2013-09-05 07:24:12497214
Cyrus Khan14,028Active Engager's CircleAttention:  Please reshare and comment if you want to be a part of next weeks edition, instead of messaging me individually.If you've received a notification, it means you are a part of the circle.Thanks for interacting : )  This is the next edition of my weekly Engagers circle, where I highlight and share the people who've interacted with me this week.I will share this circle to all my followers for exposure as an personally approved group.The criteria to be added are:1)You have commented on and publicly shared one or more of my posts;2) You have re-shared this weeks circle;As this circle grows, I may have difficulty accommodating everyone, so if you add and re-share this week's circle, you'll be guaranteed a spot in next week's edition.Cheers! #circleshare   #active   #engagerscircle   #circle #circleoftheweek   #sciencecircles  2013-08-26 17:27:32477573983
Cyrus Khan13,678Active Engager's CircleAttention: This circle has been filled this week, and will start again from scratch next week. Please reshare and comment if you want to be a part of next weeks edition.If you've received a notification, it means you are a part of the circle.If you want to be added, simply add the circle, reshare and comment saying so.Thanks for interacting : )  This is the next edition of my weekly Engagers circle, where I highlight and share the people who've interacted with me this week.I will share this circle to all my followers for exposure as an especially active group.The only criteria to be added are:1)You have commented on and publicly shared one or more of my posts;2) You have re-shared this weeks circle;As this circle grows, I may have difficulty accommodating everyone, so if you add and re-share this week's circle, you'll be guaranteed a spot in next week's edition.Cheers! #circleshare   #circleoftheweek   #active   #engagerscircle   #science   #sciencecircles   #circlesharesunday  2013-08-18 17:07:30490452062
Science on Google+69,339Applied and Mathematical SciencesThis circle will give you exposure to Computer Science, Engineering, Mathematics, and Physics. Science on Google+ Database: http://goo.gl/Yz8KRScience on Google+ Community: http://goo.gl/uhJCNIf you have a science related degree, you are a science journalist, you are a K-12 science teacher, or you curate a science page, then add your profile/page to the database by filling out this form (http://goo.gl/yEg7M). Active profiles and pages will be included in the next shared circle.2013-08-15 23:58:07292202753
Cyrus Khan13,309Active Engager's CircleIf you've received a notification, it means you are a part of the circle.If you want to be added, simply add the circle, reshare and comment saying so.Thanks for interacting : )  This is the next edition of my weekly Engagers circle, where I highlight and share the people who've interacted with me this week.I will share this circle to all my 13,000 odd followers for exposure as an active bunch among others.The only criteria to be added are:1)You have +1, or publicly shared one or more of my posts;2) You have re-shared this weeks circle.3) If you're not already in the circle, and want to be, simply comment so below.As this circle grows, I may have difficulty accommodating everyone, so if you add and re-share this week's circle, you'll be guaranteed a spot in next week's edition. #sharedcircles   #circleoftheweek   #active   #engagerscircle  2013-08-12 16:03:13488432073
B.A. TruthWarrior0A little on the unusual side #sharedcircles   #circleshare  2013-08-10 23:49:534811115

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Most comments: 59

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2015-03-07 17:14:45 (59 comments, 20 reshares, 57 +1s)Open 

"Einstein came up with E=mc^2. But the units of energy, mass, time and length were already established before Einstein. So, how comes it equals up so nicely? Why isn’t there a constant in the equation to make up for our assumptions (of length, time, ….) ? Why isn’t it E=amc^2 with ‘a’ being an arbitrary constant?"

Sure, matter has its properties: mass, gravitation, kinetic energy, momentum, and so on. Particles without mass have some of them, too: momentum and energy in particular, but not mass. Yet of all the relationships that could've been, why couldn't it have been E = Amc^2, where A is some constant? Why not 4, why not pi, why not anything else other than "1"? A simple thought experiment helps spell it out, leaving E = mc^2 as the only possibility.

Most reshares: 92

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2015-03-16 00:41:13 (18 comments, 92 reshares, 89 +1s)Open 

If you're seeing articles about "NASA validates impossible space drive" in your news feed, please share this article instead.

Most plusones: 139

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2015-03-31 16:58:59 (13 comments, 23 reshares, 139 +1s)Open 

"Jupiter likely started to form at about the current distance of Mars. Due to the drag forces of the early solar system it migrated toward the Sun, perhaps as close as the modern orbit of Venus. It was on track to becoming a hot jovian planet were it not for the gravitational interactions of Saturn. The two planets entered a gravitational resonance, where Jupiter would make 3 orbits for every 2 of Saturn. This 2:3 resonance gradually drove the planets outward. Subsequent interactions with Uranus and Neptune drove those planets outward as well."

It’s the simple formula we all know and recognize: inner, rocky worlds closest to the Sun, an asteroid belt farther out, and then gas giant worlds out beyond them. That’s how our Solar System works, at any rate. We’ve finally got enough data to determine whether other planetary systems are like us or not, and it turns out our configurationis qu... more »

Latest 50 posts

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2015-04-02 00:21:40 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 11 +1s)Open 

What is it that drives "umbraphiles," or those who chase total solar eclipses? An interesting piece by Liam Hodkinson.

I'll very likely be writing a follow-up about the science of this.

What is it that drives "umbraphiles," or those who chase total solar eclipses? An interesting piece by Liam Hodkinson.

I'll very likely be writing a follow-up about the science of this.___

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2015-04-01 22:46:44 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 2 +1s)Open 

The live blog of The Most Wanted Particle, Jon Butterworth's talk at Perimeter Institute, begins NOW!

https://medium.com/starts-with-a-bang/the-most-wanted-particle-dd8352216e14

Don't forget to follow #piLIVE  on Twitter as well!

The live blog of The Most Wanted Particle, Jon Butterworth's talk at Perimeter Institute, begins NOW!

https://medium.com/starts-with-a-bang/the-most-wanted-particle-dd8352216e14

Don't forget to follow #piLIVE  on Twitter as well!___

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2015-04-01 17:29:22 (10 comments, 7 reshares, 32 +1s)Open 

"Einstein shared his disdain for what he called spooky action at a distance: the concept that one member of a pair of particles might remain in a mixed state of a physical value until a researcher measures the properties of the other particle, even if they are widely separated. Dubbing this notion “entanglement,” Schrödinger imagined what would happen if the fate of a cat in a sealed box were linked to the state of a radioactive material. He and Einstein found the resulting situation preposterous, if interpreted through orthodox quantum principles: the cat would be in a mixed state of life and death until an observer opened the box and measured the system."

When it comes to the very nature of quantum mechanics — about the inherent uncertainty and indeterminism to reality — it’s one of the most difficult things to accept. Perhaps, you imagine, there’s some underlying cause,some hidden ... more »

"Einstein shared his disdain for what he called spooky action at a distance: the concept that one member of a pair of particles might remain in a mixed state of a physical value until a researcher measures the properties of the other particle, even if they are widely separated. Dubbing this notion “entanglement,” Schrödinger imagined what would happen if the fate of a cat in a sealed box were linked to the state of a radioactive material. He and Einstein found the resulting situation preposterous, if interpreted through orthodox quantum principles: the cat would be in a mixed state of life and death until an observer opened the box and measured the system."

When it comes to the very nature of quantum mechanics — about the inherent uncertainty and indeterminism to reality — it’s one of the most difficult things to accept. Perhaps, you imagine, there’s some underlying cause, some hidden reality beneath what’s visible that actually is deterministic. After all, a cat can’t simultaneously be dead and alive until someone looks can it? That’s one of the problems that both Einstein and Schrödinger wrestled with during their lives. An investigation of that story, their work on that front, and their friendship that ensued as both pursued that same end is thoroughly investigated here by physicist Paul Halpern.___

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2015-03-31 21:16:49 (6 comments, 7 reshares, 38 +1s)Open 

"[W]e live in a Universe that:

-is full of matter and not antimatter,
-is littered with stars, galaxies, clusters, and vast cosmic voids,
-contains hundreds of different atomic nuclei that bind together into billions of molecular configurations, and
-gave rise to unimaginable complexity, naturally, including the diversity of life that arose on Earth,

is the most remarkable story that’s ever been told. It’s the story of the Universe itself."

But what is it all made out of, at a fundamental level? And how did we figure it all out? ATLAS physicist and University College London professor Jon Butterworth is all set to give a free public lecture (live-streamed, online) tomorrow, and I’ll be live-blogging it here!

"[W]e live in a Universe that:

-is full of matter and not antimatter,
-is littered with stars, galaxies, clusters, and vast cosmic voids,
-contains hundreds of different atomic nuclei that bind together into billions of molecular configurations, and
-gave rise to unimaginable complexity, naturally, including the diversity of life that arose on Earth,

is the most remarkable story that’s ever been told. It’s the story of the Universe itself."

But what is it all made out of, at a fundamental level? And how did we figure it all out? ATLAS physicist and University College London professor Jon Butterworth is all set to give a free public lecture (live-streamed, online) tomorrow, and I’ll be live-blogging it here!___

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2015-03-31 16:58:59 (13 comments, 23 reshares, 139 +1s)Open 

"Jupiter likely started to form at about the current distance of Mars. Due to the drag forces of the early solar system it migrated toward the Sun, perhaps as close as the modern orbit of Venus. It was on track to becoming a hot jovian planet were it not for the gravitational interactions of Saturn. The two planets entered a gravitational resonance, where Jupiter would make 3 orbits for every 2 of Saturn. This 2:3 resonance gradually drove the planets outward. Subsequent interactions with Uranus and Neptune drove those planets outward as well."

It’s the simple formula we all know and recognize: inner, rocky worlds closest to the Sun, an asteroid belt farther out, and then gas giant worlds out beyond them. That’s how our Solar System works, at any rate. We’ve finally got enough data to determine whether other planetary systems are like us or not, and it turns out our configurationis qu... more »

"Jupiter likely started to form at about the current distance of Mars. Due to the drag forces of the early solar system it migrated toward the Sun, perhaps as close as the modern orbit of Venus. It was on track to becoming a hot jovian planet were it not for the gravitational interactions of Saturn. The two planets entered a gravitational resonance, where Jupiter would make 3 orbits for every 2 of Saturn. This 2:3 resonance gradually drove the planets outward. Subsequent interactions with Uranus and Neptune drove those planets outward as well."

It’s the simple formula we all know and recognize: inner, rocky worlds closest to the Sun, an asteroid belt farther out, and then gas giant worlds out beyond them. That’s how our Solar System works, at any rate. We’ve finally got enough data to determine whether other planetary systems are like us or not, and it turns out our configuration is quite rare. Simulations have caught up to this as well, and we've learned that Jupiter basically 'cleaned house' early on, a rare story explaining why our Solar System is so unusual!___

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2015-03-31 01:13:03 (19 comments, 17 reshares, 66 +1s)Open 

"Do all planets rotate as they go around their stars? Do they all rotate in the same direction (e.g. clockwise or anticlockwise?) Or does it just depend on what started them rotating in the first place?"

When you think about our world and our place in the Solar System, you very likely think about Earth, spinning on its axis, with the Moon orbiting around it, and with the entire Earth-Moon system orbiting the Sun. In fact, all of it — the Earth spinning on its axis, the Moon revolving around Earth, the Earth revolving around the Sun, and even the Sun spinning on its own axis — spins in the same direction: counterclockwise, as viewed from looking "down" on the Earth's north pole. Is this true for all planets in all solar systems? The answer turns out to be "mostly," but there are some incredibly interesting exceptions.

A great column by JillianScu... more »

"Do all planets rotate as they go around their stars? Do they all rotate in the same direction (e.g. clockwise or anticlockwise?) Or does it just depend on what started them rotating in the first place?"

When you think about our world and our place in the Solar System, you very likely think about Earth, spinning on its axis, with the Moon orbiting around it, and with the entire Earth-Moon system orbiting the Sun. In fact, all of it — the Earth spinning on its axis, the Moon revolving around Earth, the Earth revolving around the Sun, and even the Sun spinning on its own axis — spins in the same direction: counterclockwise, as viewed from looking "down" on the Earth's north pole. Is this true for all planets in all solar systems? The answer turns out to be "mostly," but there are some incredibly interesting exceptions.

A great column by Jillian Scudder.___

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2015-03-30 18:20:23 (2 comments, 3 reshares, 23 +1s)Open 

“During thunderstorms, approximately ten Coulombs of charge — some 10^20 electrons — are exchanged with every bolt, representing the release of an incredible build-up of energy.

During a volcanic eruption, however, the incredible heats cause neutral atoms to become ions, either positively or negatively charged, which then separate due to differences in masses, temperatures and physical cross-sections. The aerodynamics separates the particles even farther, and when the threshold of breakdown voltage is crossed, a lightning strike occurs.”

When it comes to lightning, you inevitably think of thunderstorms, rain, and the exchange of huge amounts of charge between the clouds above and the Earth. But there’s another sight that’s perhaps even more spectacular: volcanic lightning!

“During thunderstorms, approximately ten Coulombs of charge — some 10^20 electrons — are exchanged with every bolt, representing the release of an incredible build-up of energy.

During a volcanic eruption, however, the incredible heats cause neutral atoms to become ions, either positively or negatively charged, which then separate due to differences in masses, temperatures and physical cross-sections. The aerodynamics separates the particles even farther, and when the threshold of breakdown voltage is crossed, a lightning strike occurs.”

When it comes to lightning, you inevitably think of thunderstorms, rain, and the exchange of huge amounts of charge between the clouds above and the Earth. But there’s another sight that’s perhaps even more spectacular: volcanic lightning!___

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2015-03-29 20:45:16 (0 comments, 4 reshares, 18 +1s)Open 

"Be yourself, and be confident in that. Find what you love and embrace it. Explore everything that might give you joy in this world and in your mind, and go for it. And if you need a little help in getting there, a Con — the right Con — just might be exactly what you need to help you get there."

For anyone who feels (or has ever felt) like you don't quite fit in where you are.

"Be yourself, and be confident in that. Find what you love and embrace it. Explore everything that might give you joy in this world and in your mind, and go for it. And if you need a little help in getting there, a Con — the right Con — just might be exactly what you need to help you get there."

For anyone who feels (or has ever felt) like you don't quite fit in where you are.___

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2015-03-28 16:50:52 (0 comments, 2 reshares, 17 +1s)Open 

"“The structure of the aurora has always puzzled me. Why it manifests sharply delfined at the bottom, and vertically fades with altitude.
I presume an atmospheric layer or boundary defines the bottom edge, and fades upward as a function of energy, concentration of elements or combination of both.”

Now, it is true that there appears to be a region where most of the particles terminate. Why is this? When the particles causing the aurorae are ejected from the Sun, they arrive with some average amount of energy, which means they can penetrate for a certain average distance into the Earth’s atmosphere. But remember: the atmosphere — particularly in the upper layers — gets much denser as you descend through it. Where the aurorae are formed, some 100 km up, the bottom 3-to-5 km have as many atoms in them as all the 100 km+ layers above them combined.

What you’re seeingis the term... more »

"“The structure of the aurora has always puzzled me. Why it manifests sharply delfined at the bottom, and vertically fades with altitude.
I presume an atmospheric layer or boundary defines the bottom edge, and fades upward as a function of energy, concentration of elements or combination of both.”

Now, it is true that there appears to be a region where most of the particles terminate. Why is this? When the particles causing the aurorae are ejected from the Sun, they arrive with some average amount of energy, which means they can penetrate for a certain average distance into the Earth’s atmosphere. But remember: the atmosphere — particularly in the upper layers — gets much denser as you descend through it. Where the aurorae are formed, some 100 km up, the bottom 3-to-5 km have as many atoms in them as all the 100 km+ layers above them combined.

What you’re seeing is the termination of these charged particles due to our increasing-density atmosphere. The biggest effect isn’t layers, per se, but rather the fact that you’re finally in a part of the atmosphere where the stopping power of the air molecules is sufficient. Get a more energetic flare, and these particles can make it farther and farther down!"

With two weeks of fabulousness to catch up on, there's no shortage of science or stories, plus don't miss your chance to have input on the next great Starts With A Bang adventure!___

2015-03-28 16:24:16 (7 comments, 0 reshares, 9 +1s)Open 

Hey Plussers, I want to keep Starts With A Bang going strong well into the future, and I want to keep it high-quality, ad-free, and to keep me and my contributing writers all paid.

So I'm thinking of setting up a +Patreon to help support us! What rewards would you like to get and what new things would you like me to offer as incentives for funding goals? (E.g., podcasts, videos, newsletters, hangouts/live sessions, development of a TV series, posters, book previews, etc.?)

All comments and suggestions welcome!

Hey Plussers, I want to keep Starts With A Bang going strong well into the future, and I want to keep it high-quality, ad-free, and to keep me and my contributing writers all paid.

So I'm thinking of setting up a +Patreon to help support us! What rewards would you like to get and what new things would you like me to offer as incentives for funding goals? (E.g., podcasts, videos, newsletters, hangouts/live sessions, development of a TV series, posters, book previews, etc.?)

All comments and suggestions welcome!___

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2015-03-28 06:35:30 (12 comments, 7 reshares, 41 +1s)Open 

"I was wondering if it was possible to crawl out of a black hole. Not by going at an escape velocity, but by using something like a hypothetical elevator. That way you never have to go faster than light."

If you move at the speed of light and are inside the event horizon of a black hole, you inevitably fall towards the singularity at the center. But if you were completely outside of the event horizon, you can escape. So what if you were completely outside of a large, massive black hole (with small spatial curvature at the event horizon) and then dipped just a small amount of matter inside. Could you just pull it out again? It turns out the answer is no, and that — to date — there's still no way to escape from a black hole!

"I was wondering if it was possible to crawl out of a black hole. Not by going at an escape velocity, but by using something like a hypothetical elevator. That way you never have to go faster than light."

If you move at the speed of light and are inside the event horizon of a black hole, you inevitably fall towards the singularity at the center. But if you were completely outside of the event horizon, you can escape. So what if you were completely outside of a large, massive black hole (with small spatial curvature at the event horizon) and then dipped just a small amount of matter inside. Could you just pull it out again? It turns out the answer is no, and that — to date — there's still no way to escape from a black hole!___

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2015-03-27 02:48:40 (3 comments, 3 reshares, 32 +1s)Open 

"Hubble’s Law gives a very good approximation for distances on average, particularly on large scales. But Hubble’s law doesn’t account for all of an object’s redshift. There’s also the very minor issue (that’s sarcasm) of all the other matter in the Universe, and the gravitational effects it’s had on each and every galaxy it’s had time to interact with over the past 13.8 billion years.

Matter has this annoying property that it clumps and clusters together, and that’s because gravitational attraction causes it to move. Don’t get me wrong, this is great for lots of things, but it’s not great when you’re trying to figure out how distant an object truly is when all you measure is its motion!"

God not only plays dice with the Universe, he also gives us fingers and pancakes. The latter two, at least, we can overcome!

"Hubble’s Law gives a very good approximation for distances on average, particularly on large scales. But Hubble’s law doesn’t account for all of an object’s redshift. There’s also the very minor issue (that’s sarcasm) of all the other matter in the Universe, and the gravitational effects it’s had on each and every galaxy it’s had time to interact with over the past 13.8 billion years.

Matter has this annoying property that it clumps and clusters together, and that’s because gravitational attraction causes it to move. Don’t get me wrong, this is great for lots of things, but it’s not great when you’re trying to figure out how distant an object truly is when all you measure is its motion!"

God not only plays dice with the Universe, he also gives us fingers and pancakes. The latter two, at least, we can overcome!___

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2015-03-26 01:21:10 (0 comments, 14 reshares, 49 +1s)Open 

"So in an ordinary year, the highest high tides and lowest low tides occur during spring tides near the equinoxes. But every once in a while — in particular, once every 18 years — you not only get spring tides right at one of the equinoxes, you get it coincident with a perigee Moon, and hence you get the maximum of all possible tidal effects: a supertide!

And that’s when tidal flooding is most likely, and when this one French Abbey — Mount Saint-Michel — will flood like we just saw. Of course, the flipside of this is that in addition to the highest high tides, we also get the lowest low tides, and that’s spectacular in its own right!"

Once every 18 years, a French Abbey — Mount St.-Michel — becomes inaccessible, as the English Channel rises to such levels that the causeway that normally reaches it becomes engulfed by the surrounding waters. Youmight think this is due to the ... more »

"So in an ordinary year, the highest high tides and lowest low tides occur during spring tides near the equinoxes. But every once in a while — in particular, once every 18 years — you not only get spring tides right at one of the equinoxes, you get it coincident with a perigee Moon, and hence you get the maximum of all possible tidal effects: a supertide!

And that’s when tidal flooding is most likely, and when this one French Abbey — Mount Saint-Michel — will flood like we just saw. Of course, the flipside of this is that in addition to the highest high tides, we also get the lowest low tides, and that’s spectacular in its own right!"

Once every 18 years, a French Abbey — Mount St.-Michel — becomes inaccessible, as the English Channel rises to such levels that the causeway that normally reaches it becomes engulfed by the surrounding waters. You might think this is due to the tides, where the Earth, Moon and Sun align, but then shouldn’t this happen twice a month, during the two Spring Tides? As it turns out, the effects are much more subtle, and involve the Moon’s elliptical orbit and the equinoxes as well, but when they all align, once every 18 years, a supertide is the result, and Mount St.-Michel becomes an island!___

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2015-03-25 01:44:41 (16 comments, 34 reshares, 95 +1s)Open 

"So even if you make a black hole, and even if the laws of physics that we know are wrong and it lives forever, it is still harmless. No matter how many of the laws of physics you throw out, revise or tweak, the Earth will still be okay."

Every time we go to higher-and-higher energies with our particle accelerators, we increase the chances of finding new particles, new knowledge, and new fundamental physics. While there are also potential risks, the most commonly trotted-out one is that the LHC — set to run at 13 TeV, up from 7 TeV previously — will create an Earth-destroying black hole that will devour the planet in short order. Here's the physics of why that's impossible.

"So even if you make a black hole, and even if the laws of physics that we know are wrong and it lives forever, it is still harmless. No matter how many of the laws of physics you throw out, revise or tweak, the Earth will still be okay."

Every time we go to higher-and-higher energies with our particle accelerators, we increase the chances of finding new particles, new knowledge, and new fundamental physics. While there are also potential risks, the most commonly trotted-out one is that the LHC — set to run at 13 TeV, up from 7 TeV previously — will create an Earth-destroying black hole that will devour the planet in short order. Here's the physics of why that's impossible.___

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2015-03-23 13:52:19 (5 comments, 5 reshares, 46 +1s)Open 

"Now nearly three years into its mission, Curiosity continues to reveal details about the geologic, hydrologic and — potentially — biological signatures and history of what might be the first world beyond Earth that humans will colonize."

In 2012, Mars Science Laboratory performed the first robotically-controlled soft landing of a vehicle of such incredible mass: nearly half a tonne. A few months later, the rover, Curiosity, took the first ever billion-pixel mosaic from the Red Planet's surface, with breathtaking views of the terrain and alternate views of what the soils would look like were they here on Earth. Now in its third year on Mars, Curiosity is roving the low slopes of its ultimate destination: Mount Sharp.

"Now nearly three years into its mission, Curiosity continues to reveal details about the geologic, hydrologic and — potentially — biological signatures and history of what might be the first world beyond Earth that humans will colonize."

In 2012, Mars Science Laboratory performed the first robotically-controlled soft landing of a vehicle of such incredible mass: nearly half a tonne. A few months later, the rover, Curiosity, took the first ever billion-pixel mosaic from the Red Planet's surface, with breathtaking views of the terrain and alternate views of what the soils would look like were they here on Earth. Now in its third year on Mars, Curiosity is roving the low slopes of its ultimate destination: Mount Sharp.___

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2015-03-20 15:43:03 (17 comments, 9 reshares, 34 +1s)Open 

“It means that as time goes on, the light emitted by distant galaxies gets shifted quite heavily towards the red part of the spectrum, resulting in a cosmological redshift.

It means that there are some portions of the Universe that are so distant that light emitted from them will never be able to reach us. Currently, that point is anything beyond about 46.1 billion light years from us.

And it means that any object beyond about 4.5 Megaparsecs (or 14-to-15 billion light years) will never be reachable by us, or anything we do, from this point forward.”

While you might approach the speed of light arbitrarily and asymptotically, you’ll never reach it. And yet, we have the Universe, expanding all the time, where the expansion rate itself is even speeding up. You might wonder, then, if these distant galaxies — the farther and farther away you look — might ever be seenmoving aw... more »

“It means that as time goes on, the light emitted by distant galaxies gets shifted quite heavily towards the red part of the spectrum, resulting in a cosmological redshift.

It means that there are some portions of the Universe that are so distant that light emitted from them will never be able to reach us. Currently, that point is anything beyond about 46.1 billion light years from us.

And it means that any object beyond about 4.5 Megaparsecs (or 14-to-15 billion light years) will never be reachable by us, or anything we do, from this point forward.”

While you might approach the speed of light arbitrarily and asymptotically, you’ll never reach it. And yet, we have the Universe, expanding all the time, where the expansion rate itself is even speeding up. You might wonder, then, if these distant galaxies — the farther and farther away you look — might ever be seen moving away from us faster than the speed of light?

Surprisingly and mind-bendingly, the answer is yes.___

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2015-03-19 20:14:01 (0 comments, 3 reshares, 25 +1s)Open 

“[T]he elements that are found on the Sun are pretty much the same as the elements found on Earth, with two major exceptions: Helium and Hydrogen were both vastly more abundant than they are on Earth. Helium was many thousands of times richer on the Sun than it is here on Earth, and Hydrogen was about one million times more abundant on the Sun, making it the most common element there by far.”

Sure, it's easy today to look at the Sun and know it's a ball of (mostly) hydrogen, generating energy by combining those protons in a chain into helium through the process of nuclear fusion. But before we even knew that nuclear fusion was possible, we needed to figure out what the Sun was made out of, a more difficult task than you'd imagine. The credit was given to Henry Norris Russell (of Hertzsprung-Russell diagram fame), but he completely stole the work from a woman you never heard of,his... more »

“[T]he elements that are found on the Sun are pretty much the same as the elements found on Earth, with two major exceptions: Helium and Hydrogen were both vastly more abundant than they are on Earth. Helium was many thousands of times richer on the Sun than it is here on Earth, and Hydrogen was about one million times more abundant on the Sun, making it the most common element there by far.”

Sure, it's easy today to look at the Sun and know it's a ball of (mostly) hydrogen, generating energy by combining those protons in a chain into helium through the process of nuclear fusion. But before we even knew that nuclear fusion was possible, we needed to figure out what the Sun was made out of, a more difficult task than you'd imagine. The credit was given to Henry Norris Russell (of Hertzsprung-Russell diagram fame), but he completely stole the work from a woman you never heard of, his student, Cecilia Payne, after discouraging her from publishing her work on the subject four years prior.___

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2015-03-18 21:48:52 (1 comments, 2 reshares, 22 +1s)Open 

"It’s not enough, in the Universe, to simply “let there be light” in order to see the first stars: you need for that light to be able to freely travel through space!

In visible light, there’s no way to see them: no matter how good the Hubble Space Telescope ever is, no matter how long it stares at these patches of sky, it will never see back to the first stars, because the Universe is still opaque to visible light."

You'd think it would be enough to form some stars, and "let there be light" would be a reality. But these stars don't become visible for literally hundreds of millions of years until after they form. It's not that they don't emit light — they do — but rather that the Universe is opaque to that light for up to half a billion years after those stars form.

"It’s not enough, in the Universe, to simply “let there be light” in order to see the first stars: you need for that light to be able to freely travel through space!

In visible light, there’s no way to see them: no matter how good the Hubble Space Telescope ever is, no matter how long it stares at these patches of sky, it will never see back to the first stars, because the Universe is still opaque to visible light."

You'd think it would be enough to form some stars, and "let there be light" would be a reality. But these stars don't become visible for literally hundreds of millions of years until after they form. It's not that they don't emit light — they do — but rather that the Universe is opaque to that light for up to half a billion years after those stars form.___

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2015-03-18 18:10:38 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 7 +1s)Open 

Check it out, the Memphis newspaper is running an article on MidSouthCon 33, coming up this Friday-Sunday.

Guess who got two photos in there?

Check it out, the Memphis newspaper is running an article on MidSouthCon 33, coming up this Friday-Sunday.

Guess who got two photos in there?___

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2015-03-17 20:47:09 (3 comments, 10 reshares, 59 +1s)Open 

"It’s the greatest way to celebrate St. Patrick’s Day of all: with a spectacular view of our very skies turning green, followed by a knowledge that the stars like our Sun — and possibly even the Sun itself — will one day share this rich display with the entire Universe."

Everyone's a little bit Irish on St. Patrick's Day, but it's a very rare St. Patrick's Day indeed when the skies themselves turn green! But the Universe is aligning for us tonight, as the particles from a class-C solar flare slam into Earth's auroral oval, creating a spectacular green show visible much closer to the equator than anyone has a right to expect. Check out the Earth's natural, physical celebration of St. Patrick's Day tonight!

"It’s the greatest way to celebrate St. Patrick’s Day of all: with a spectacular view of our very skies turning green, followed by a knowledge that the stars like our Sun — and possibly even the Sun itself — will one day share this rich display with the entire Universe."

Everyone's a little bit Irish on St. Patrick's Day, but it's a very rare St. Patrick's Day indeed when the skies themselves turn green! But the Universe is aligning for us tonight, as the particles from a class-C solar flare slam into Earth's auroral oval, creating a spectacular green show visible much closer to the equator than anyone has a right to expect. Check out the Earth's natural, physical celebration of St. Patrick's Day tonight!___

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2015-03-17 16:56:23 (5 comments, 2 reshares, 18 +1s)Open 

"Imagine a workman standing on the roof of a house and losing his footing. As he plummeted in free fall, everything within his grasp (a toolbox, for example) would plunge with him. Therefore, from his local perspective gravity wouldn’t seem to exist."

Sure, Einstein came up with both special and general relativity, revolutionizing our understanding of how the Universe works. But how did he come up with his new theory of gravity? Oddly enough, by imagining someone plummeting towards their doom. By comparing a freely-falling observer with one accelerating under a non-gravitational force, Einstein unearthed the equivalence principle, and eight years later, General Relativity came spilling out. The Universe has never been the same.

"Imagine a workman standing on the roof of a house and losing his footing. As he plummeted in free fall, everything within his grasp (a toolbox, for example) would plunge with him. Therefore, from his local perspective gravity wouldn’t seem to exist."

Sure, Einstein came up with both special and general relativity, revolutionizing our understanding of how the Universe works. But how did he come up with his new theory of gravity? Oddly enough, by imagining someone plummeting towards their doom. By comparing a freely-falling observer with one accelerating under a non-gravitational force, Einstein unearthed the equivalence principle, and eight years later, General Relativity came spilling out. The Universe has never been the same.___

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2015-03-16 13:55:33 (38 comments, 6 reshares, 28 +1s)Open 

“From December 11th to the 14th, 1972, astronauts Gene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt set foot on the lunar surface, becoming the last two human beings to do so as part of the Apollo program.”

It’s been nearly 43 years since humans have set foot on the Moon, and yet we’ve never forgotten what it looks like. Yet nothing that anyone can describe — either about what it was like or what we’ve done while we were there — can take the place of what our final, highest-at-the-time resolution views can tell us. Go experience the whole thing for yourself.

“From December 11th to the 14th, 1972, astronauts Gene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt set foot on the lunar surface, becoming the last two human beings to do so as part of the Apollo program.”

It’s been nearly 43 years since humans have set foot on the Moon, and yet we’ve never forgotten what it looks like. Yet nothing that anyone can describe — either about what it was like or what we’ve done while we were there — can take the place of what our final, highest-at-the-time resolution views can tell us. Go experience the whole thing for yourself.___

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2015-03-16 00:41:13 (18 comments, 92 reshares, 89 +1s)Open 

If you're seeing articles about "NASA validates impossible space drive" in your news feed, please share this article instead.

If you're seeing articles about "NASA validates impossible space drive" in your news feed, please share this article instead.___

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2015-03-15 21:11:54 (0 comments, 3 reshares, 14 +1s)Open 

"Science fiction is a great way to explore the possibilities of what this Universe can be, or what it might have been if the rules were just a little different. It offers us the ability to seek not only scientific truths and historical truths, but also our personal and moral truths, and to explore them in ways we often fail to consider in our day-to-day lives.

I think it’s one of the greatest opportunities for people of all different backgrounds, knowledge levels and interest levels to connect, and for scientists, authors, storytellers, fans and even casual enthusiasts to all have access to one another. Ideas are exchanged, projects are launched, stories are refined and people have experiences — and meet characters — they’ll never forget."

Want to get the ultimate experience of science in your science fiction? Go to a con. Want access to actual scientists whoknow what's... more »

"Science fiction is a great way to explore the possibilities of what this Universe can be, or what it might have been if the rules were just a little different. It offers us the ability to seek not only scientific truths and historical truths, but also our personal and moral truths, and to explore them in ways we often fail to consider in our day-to-day lives.

I think it’s one of the greatest opportunities for people of all different backgrounds, knowledge levels and interest levels to connect, and for scientists, authors, storytellers, fans and even casual enthusiasts to all have access to one another. Ideas are exchanged, projects are launched, stories are refined and people have experiences — and meet characters — they’ll never forget."

Want to get the ultimate experience of science in your science fiction? Go to a con. Want access to actual scientists who know what's valid? Go to a small/mid-size con, and seek the scientists out.

Specifically, go to MidSouthCon this coming week/weekend, and get it from me, the science guest of honor!___

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2015-03-15 05:27:47 (2 comments, 4 reshares, 36 +1s)Open 

"[I]f the Sun actually did go out — like the fusion in the core suddenly stopped (which is not how stars work, mind you) — the light and heat from the Sun would still come out just the same. It wouldn’t even begin to drop in flux for thousands of years.

But we’d notice the neutrino flux would cease in just 8.5 minutes."

From E=mc^2 to eliminating the possibility of Nemesis, there's so much to learn as the week comes to an end. Don't miss an ounce of it!

"[I]f the Sun actually did go out — like the fusion in the core suddenly stopped (which is not how stars work, mind you) — the light and heat from the Sun would still come out just the same. It wouldn’t even begin to drop in flux for thousands of years.

But we’d notice the neutrino flux would cease in just 8.5 minutes."

From E=mc^2 to eliminating the possibility of Nemesis, there's so much to learn as the week comes to an end. Don't miss an ounce of it!___

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2015-03-15 00:32:06 (6 comments, 5 reshares, 39 +1s)Open 

"If we could take a bit of a neutron star (lets say a cubic centimeter) and pull that bit away from the star, what would happen to it?"

At a density more than 10^22 times that of water, neutron stars are the densest form of matter found in the Universe. Compressing somewhere around the mass of the Sun into a sphere just a few kilometers in radius, the incredible gravitational binding energy keeps these neutrons from decaying. If you took a small chunk of this matter out, it would still be tremendously powerful: the amount you could hold in your hand would have a greater mass than the Moon! But would it be stable? And if not, what would happen, and how much would you need to have to reach stability? Love the catastrophic answers, and the conclusions that neutron-star-matter is most definitely not what Thor's hammer is made of!

"If we could take a bit of a neutron star (lets say a cubic centimeter) and pull that bit away from the star, what would happen to it?"

At a density more than 10^22 times that of water, neutron stars are the densest form of matter found in the Universe. Compressing somewhere around the mass of the Sun into a sphere just a few kilometers in radius, the incredible gravitational binding energy keeps these neutrons from decaying. If you took a small chunk of this matter out, it would still be tremendously powerful: the amount you could hold in your hand would have a greater mass than the Moon! But would it be stable? And if not, what would happen, and how much would you need to have to reach stability? Love the catastrophic answers, and the conclusions that neutron-star-matter is most definitely not what Thor's hammer is made of!___

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2015-03-14 15:51:28 (0 comments, 3 reshares, 26 +1s)Open 

"In fact, not only is π irrational, like √3, but you can’t even write down a polynomial equation that has π as a solution, which makes it not just irrational but also transcendental! (On the other hand, √3 is expressable as a solution to a polynomial equation, like “x^2 - 3 = 0.”) This means that one of the most famous math puzzles in history — to create a square with the same area as a circle using only a compass and straightedge — is fundamentally impossible!"

For those of you in need for fun facts for #PiDay! 

"In fact, not only is π irrational, like √3, but you can’t even write down a polynomial equation that has π as a solution, which makes it not just irrational but also transcendental! (On the other hand, √3 is expressable as a solution to a polynomial equation, like “x^2 - 3 = 0.”) This means that one of the most famous math puzzles in history — to create a square with the same area as a circle using only a compass and straightedge — is fundamentally impossible!"

For those of you in need for fun facts for #PiDay! ___

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2015-03-12 21:51:35 (0 comments, 4 reshares, 27 +1s)Open 

"More than 400 years after the invention of the telescope, we still don’t know how many (and what types) of stars there are just in our own backyard in space. There are unseen lights in our own backyard, and cooler, lower mass brown dwarfs than these could, in principle, be even closer than even Proxima Centauri!"

The Alpha Centauri system consists of three stars, including Proxima Centauri, the closest star to Earth. But while main-sequence, hydrogen-burning stars are easy to find due to their visible light output, brown dwarfs -- which only fuse the small amounts of deuterium they're born with -- often emit no visible light at all, and can only be seen in the infrared. In 2013, WISE discovered a binary pair of brown dwarfs just 6.5 light years away, making them the third-closest star system to Earth, and leaving open the possibility that there may be a brown dwarf closer thanP... more »

"More than 400 years after the invention of the telescope, we still don’t know how many (and what types) of stars there are just in our own backyard in space. There are unseen lights in our own backyard, and cooler, lower mass brown dwarfs than these could, in principle, be even closer than even Proxima Centauri!"

The Alpha Centauri system consists of three stars, including Proxima Centauri, the closest star to Earth. But while main-sequence, hydrogen-burning stars are easy to find due to their visible light output, brown dwarfs -- which only fuse the small amounts of deuterium they're born with -- often emit no visible light at all, and can only be seen in the infrared. In 2013, WISE discovered a binary pair of brown dwarfs just 6.5 light years away, making them the third-closest star system to Earth, and leaving open the possibility that there may be a brown dwarf closer than Proxima Centauri, a question that only the James Webb Space Telescope will answer.___

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2015-03-12 01:16:45 (3 comments, 9 reshares, 45 +1s)Open 

"Every time we get slapped down, we can say, ‘Thank you, Mother Nature,’ because it means we’re about to learn something important."

For nearly all of human history — well into the 20th century — we really didn’t know how the Sun worked. Could it have been combustion, like we see on Earth? Or perhaps gravitational contraction, like that which powers white dwarf stars? No, it turned out to be nuclear fusion. Yet when we built our best models and went to test what we expected to see with what we actually observed, it was the smallest particles that didn’t add up: the neutrino. For decades, we kept observing only a third the number we expected. Here’s the story of how we solved that mystery, only in the early 2000s, and finally figured out what goes on inside the Sun!

"Every time we get slapped down, we can say, ‘Thank you, Mother Nature,’ because it means we’re about to learn something important."

For nearly all of human history — well into the 20th century — we really didn’t know how the Sun worked. Could it have been combustion, like we see on Earth? Or perhaps gravitational contraction, like that which powers white dwarf stars? No, it turned out to be nuclear fusion. Yet when we built our best models and went to test what we expected to see with what we actually observed, it was the smallest particles that didn’t add up: the neutrino. For decades, we kept observing only a third the number we expected. Here’s the story of how we solved that mystery, only in the early 2000s, and finally figured out what goes on inside the Sun!___

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2015-03-10 16:02:05 (0 comments, 14 reshares, 60 +1s)Open 

"While Special Relativity turns 110 years old this year, it still holds a number of surprises for us, including observable signals that we’re only now coming to understand how they appear!"

Imagine the surface of the Moon, some 360,000 km distant, and an infinitely precise and powerful laser pointer. With a flick of your wrist, you can send the dot that you see flying across the Moon’s surface as quickly as you can manage. Without too much difficulty, in fact, you’ll find yourself breaking the speed of light! Not in terms of violating special relativity or anything, but if you follow the motion of the dot, you’ll not only find that it appears to move faster than the speed of light in a vacuum, c, but that its behavior is more interesting — and more counterintuitive — than you’d ever imagined.

"While Special Relativity turns 110 years old this year, it still holds a number of surprises for us, including observable signals that we’re only now coming to understand how they appear!"

Imagine the surface of the Moon, some 360,000 km distant, and an infinitely precise and powerful laser pointer. With a flick of your wrist, you can send the dot that you see flying across the Moon’s surface as quickly as you can manage. Without too much difficulty, in fact, you’ll find yourself breaking the speed of light! Not in terms of violating special relativity or anything, but if you follow the motion of the dot, you’ll not only find that it appears to move faster than the speed of light in a vacuum, c, but that its behavior is more interesting — and more counterintuitive — than you’d ever imagined.___

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2015-03-09 15:39:37 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 13 +1s)Open 

"At the center, the two merging giant ellipticals create a string of superclusters of new, hot, blue stars, a phenomenon that will only live for a few million years at maximum, the largest such structure ever observed. Nearly the size of our Milky Way galaxy at 30 kpc, these star clusters separate into individual “beads” from the same process that causes falling water to separate into raindrops: the Jeans instability. Over the next few million years, tens of thousands of supernovae are likely to occur in these giant ellipticals, as the most massive stars run out of fuel and spectacularly end their lives.”

Two giant elliptical galaxies caught merging at exactly the perfect moment. Unique views — and science — from galaxy cluster SDSS J1531+3414.

"At the center, the two merging giant ellipticals create a string of superclusters of new, hot, blue stars, a phenomenon that will only live for a few million years at maximum, the largest such structure ever observed. Nearly the size of our Milky Way galaxy at 30 kpc, these star clusters separate into individual “beads” from the same process that causes falling water to separate into raindrops: the Jeans instability. Over the next few million years, tens of thousands of supernovae are likely to occur in these giant ellipticals, as the most massive stars run out of fuel and spectacularly end their lives.”

Two giant elliptical galaxies caught merging at exactly the perfect moment. Unique views — and science — from galaxy cluster SDSS J1531+3414.___

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2015-03-08 21:58:19 (0 comments, 6 reshares, 58 +1s)Open 

"What she found from these 25 stars — knowing they were all located at roughly the same distance in this small nebula in the sky — was a relationship between the period of each star, how long it takes to go from brightest to dimmest to brightest again, and how intrinsically luminous that star was.

This relationship between the period and brightness of Cepheid variable stars is still used today, and was the very first correlation between an easily observable property (period of variability) and an intrinsic brightness ever noticed."

If all we were able to do was look up at the sky and see what we can see, no matter how powerful our instruments became, we would be extraordinarily limited in what we could learn about the Universe. But if we could know some intrinsic properties about what we were looking at, then simply by measuring things like how bright theseobjects app... more »

"What she found from these 25 stars — knowing they were all located at roughly the same distance in this small nebula in the sky — was a relationship between the period of each star, how long it takes to go from brightest to dimmest to brightest again, and how intrinsically luminous that star was.

This relationship between the period and brightness of Cepheid variable stars is still used today, and was the very first correlation between an easily observable property (period of variability) and an intrinsic brightness ever noticed."

If all we were able to do was look up at the sky and see what we can see, no matter how powerful our instruments became, we would be extraordinarily limited in what we could learn about the Universe. But if we could know some intrinsic properties about what we were looking at, then simply by measuring things like how bright these objects appear, we could figure out the cosmic distance scale; all it would require is knowledge of a “distance indicator” or “standard candle.” The very first one ever discovered — by Henrietta Leavitt — is not only still in use today, but taught us the galactic nature of the spiral nebulae and gave us the expanding Universe.___

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2015-03-08 00:16:27 (1 comments, 0 reshares, 15 +1s)Open 

"What purpose does it serve to pluck a very bad paper from the depths of obscurity, elevate it to prominence where everyone can see it, only to tear it down? This might be a very low-hanging-fruit way of running a blog, but it doesn’t seem like a very good way to bring the wonder, joy, and knowledge of science to people. It seems mean-spirited, and I think the only time that it’s worth tearing down someone’s work is when it’s being heavily promoted as (and seen to be) more than it actually is.

So let the scientific pretenders continue to pretend on the fringes, but when they start to do actual harm to the public understanding of science, let’s then step up and shed the light of scientific truth on the situation. Not to blind, nor to gloat, but rather to illuminate. That’s what the light of science is all about."

Another great week means another great week ofcomments. L... more »

"What purpose does it serve to pluck a very bad paper from the depths of obscurity, elevate it to prominence where everyone can see it, only to tear it down? This might be a very low-hanging-fruit way of running a blog, but it doesn’t seem like a very good way to bring the wonder, joy, and knowledge of science to people. It seems mean-spirited, and I think the only time that it’s worth tearing down someone’s work is when it’s being heavily promoted as (and seen to be) more than it actually is.

So let the scientific pretenders continue to pretend on the fringes, but when they start to do actual harm to the public understanding of science, let’s then step up and shed the light of scientific truth on the situation. Not to blind, nor to gloat, but rather to illuminate. That’s what the light of science is all about."

Another great week means another great week of comments. Let's see the best (and their responses) here! ___

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2015-03-07 17:14:45 (59 comments, 20 reshares, 57 +1s)Open 

"Einstein came up with E=mc^2. But the units of energy, mass, time and length were already established before Einstein. So, how comes it equals up so nicely? Why isn’t there a constant in the equation to make up for our assumptions (of length, time, ….) ? Why isn’t it E=amc^2 with ‘a’ being an arbitrary constant?"

Sure, matter has its properties: mass, gravitation, kinetic energy, momentum, and so on. Particles without mass have some of them, too: momentum and energy in particular, but not mass. Yet of all the relationships that could've been, why couldn't it have been E = Amc^2, where A is some constant? Why not 4, why not pi, why not anything else other than "1"? A simple thought experiment helps spell it out, leaving E = mc^2 as the only possibility.

"Einstein came up with E=mc^2. But the units of energy, mass, time and length were already established before Einstein. So, how comes it equals up so nicely? Why isn’t there a constant in the equation to make up for our assumptions (of length, time, ….) ? Why isn’t it E=amc^2 with ‘a’ being an arbitrary constant?"

Sure, matter has its properties: mass, gravitation, kinetic energy, momentum, and so on. Particles without mass have some of them, too: momentum and energy in particular, but not mass. Yet of all the relationships that could've been, why couldn't it have been E = Amc^2, where A is some constant? Why not 4, why not pi, why not anything else other than "1"? A simple thought experiment helps spell it out, leaving E = mc^2 as the only possibility.___

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2015-03-06 02:22:33 (5 comments, 11 reshares, 43 +1s)Open 

"Of course, there either could be a completely different solution to the hierarchy problem, or there may not be a solution at all; this could just be the way nature is, and there may be no explanation for it. But science will never progress unless we try, and that’s what these ideas and searches are: our attempt to move our knowledge of the Universe forward."

When it comes to our Universe, you might think we understand it pretty well. We have a full list of particles we know to exist, we understand the forces that describe their behavior, and we’ve been able to detect and measure each and every interaction between them. But not everything is known. Perhaps the most disturbing puzzle out there is why the force of gravity — the most easily observable force in the Universe and the first to be understood at all — is so much mind-bogglingly weaker in magnitude than all the others. Ifyou too... more »

"Of course, there either could be a completely different solution to the hierarchy problem, or there may not be a solution at all; this could just be the way nature is, and there may be no explanation for it. But science will never progress unless we try, and that’s what these ideas and searches are: our attempt to move our knowledge of the Universe forward."

When it comes to our Universe, you might think we understand it pretty well. We have a full list of particles we know to exist, we understand the forces that describe their behavior, and we’ve been able to detect and measure each and every interaction between them. But not everything is known. Perhaps the most disturbing puzzle out there is why the force of gravity — the most easily observable force in the Universe and the first to be understood at all — is so much mind-bogglingly weaker in magnitude than all the others. If you took two protons, for example, and held them a meter apart, the electromagnetic repulsion between them would be 10^40 times stronger than their gravitational attraction! Why is this? There are four proposed solutions that Run II of the LHC will put to the test. If we get lucky, the greatest unsolved problem in theoretical physics will finally be solved.___

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2015-03-05 01:11:12 (3 comments, 3 reshares, 29 +1s)Open 

"There’s always a chance that there really is new physics at play, and perhaps even an unexpected law, particle or force that we may be serendipitous enough to someday discover. But most likely, this is simply the known laws of nature manifesting themselves in a way we haven’t experienced before, and it’s up to us to work those details out."

The next time you read a report of a discovery leaving scientists baffled, find yourself a better, less-easily-baffled scientist.

"There’s always a chance that there really is new physics at play, and perhaps even an unexpected law, particle or force that we may be serendipitous enough to someday discover. But most likely, this is simply the known laws of nature manifesting themselves in a way we haven’t experienced before, and it’s up to us to work those details out."

The next time you read a report of a discovery leaving scientists baffled, find yourself a better, less-easily-baffled scientist.___

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2015-03-04 02:17:30 (0 comments, 3 reshares, 18 +1s)Open 

"If you’ve got the skies and the equipment, go and have a look; the Universe will never again appear exactly as it does at that moment again, so don’t miss your chance to experience it!"

When you look up at the sky, all the twinkling lights — the stars — appear to be fixed. But littered among them are the non-twinkling wanderers: the planets. Just 11 days ago, the Mars/Venus conjunction occurred, giving us a spectacular view of two naked-eye planets separated by a mere half-a-degree. But tomorrow night, particularly for skywatchers in Europe and northern Africa, an even closer conjunction, of just 0.1 degrees, occurs between Venus and Uranus, the closest one of the year.

"If you’ve got the skies and the equipment, go and have a look; the Universe will never again appear exactly as it does at that moment again, so don’t miss your chance to experience it!"

When you look up at the sky, all the twinkling lights — the stars — appear to be fixed. But littered among them are the non-twinkling wanderers: the planets. Just 11 days ago, the Mars/Venus conjunction occurred, giving us a spectacular view of two naked-eye planets separated by a mere half-a-degree. But tomorrow night, particularly for skywatchers in Europe and northern Africa, an even closer conjunction, of just 0.1 degrees, occurs between Venus and Uranus, the closest one of the year.___

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2015-03-02 15:15:46 (15 comments, 10 reshares, 76 +1s)Open 

"This data will enable scientists to build the most accurate model ever of star-formation, history and evolution within our galaxy, and understand the mechanism behind the origin of practically all the light in our Universe."

From our vantage point within the Milky Way, most of our 200-400 billion stars are obscured by the dust lanes present within. But thanks to its views in infrared light, the Spitzer Space Telescope can glimpse not only all of the stars and the dust simultaneously, it can do it at an alarming resolution. Recently, NASA has put together a 360 panorama of more than 2,000,000 Spitzer images taken from 2003-2014, and one astrophysicist has gone and stitched them together into a single, 180,000-pixel-long viewable experience that shows less than 3% of the sky, but nearly 50% of its stars.

"This data will enable scientists to build the most accurate model ever of star-formation, history and evolution within our galaxy, and understand the mechanism behind the origin of practically all the light in our Universe."

From our vantage point within the Milky Way, most of our 200-400 billion stars are obscured by the dust lanes present within. But thanks to its views in infrared light, the Spitzer Space Telescope can glimpse not only all of the stars and the dust simultaneously, it can do it at an alarming resolution. Recently, NASA has put together a 360 panorama of more than 2,000,000 Spitzer images taken from 2003-2014, and one astrophysicist has gone and stitched them together into a single, 180,000-pixel-long viewable experience that shows less than 3% of the sky, but nearly 50% of its stars.___

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2015-03-01 23:32:40 (20 comments, 7 reshares, 116 +1s)Open 

"An ancestor of mine maintained that when you eliminate the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth."

While the world mourns the death of Leonard Nimoy in its own way, it's important to remember the legacy that Star Trek — and that Spock and alien characters like him — left on our world. Unlike any other series, Star Trek used a futuristic, nearly utopian world to explore our own moral battles and failings, and yet somehow always managed to weave in an optimism about humanity and our future. That's something, I argue, that is sorely missing from the new J.J. Abrams movies.

"An ancestor of mine maintained that when you eliminate the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth."

While the world mourns the death of Leonard Nimoy in its own way, it's important to remember the legacy that Star Trek — and that Spock and alien characters like him — left on our world. Unlike any other series, Star Trek used a futuristic, nearly utopian world to explore our own moral battles and failings, and yet somehow always managed to weave in an optimism about humanity and our future. That's something, I argue, that is sorely missing from the new J.J. Abrams movies.___

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2015-02-28 15:23:34 (1 comments, 1 reshares, 12 +1s)Open 

"The idea that the Universe could be described by our physical laws, the fundamental particles, and simply knowing the initial conditions and extrapolating forwards in time is at the heart of what cosmology is. From ancient times until perhaps the 1960s, cosmology was more of a hypothesis than a full-blown physical theory, as there were too many uncertainties that were simply too large. But with the discovery of the cosmic microwave background, all of that changed.

For the first time, we knew not only the physical laws governing the Universe (General Relativity was well-established, and the Standard Model was very close to complete), but we learned what the initial state-and-conditions of the Universe were to a reasonably high precision. The idea of a “precision cosmology,” once a pipe dream, has become a reality thanks to the influx of continually superior data. For the first time, weund... more »

"The idea that the Universe could be described by our physical laws, the fundamental particles, and simply knowing the initial conditions and extrapolating forwards in time is at the heart of what cosmology is. From ancient times until perhaps the 1960s, cosmology was more of a hypothesis than a full-blown physical theory, as there were too many uncertainties that were simply too large. But with the discovery of the cosmic microwave background, all of that changed.

For the first time, we knew not only the physical laws governing the Universe (General Relativity was well-established, and the Standard Model was very close to complete), but we learned what the initial state-and-conditions of the Universe were to a reasonably high precision. The idea of a “precision cosmology,” once a pipe dream, has become a reality thanks to the influx of continually superior data. For the first time, we understand the history of the Universe and almost everything in it with errors and uncertainties on almost everything that are no more than a few percent."

A huge number of comments -- and responses -- to dive a little deeper into our Universe. Don't miss our comments of the week!___

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2015-02-27 20:17:12 (4 comments, 3 reshares, 27 +1s)Open 

"[W]ill you explode if exposed to the vacuum of space? I’ve gone down the “water boils in a vacuum then freezes” road, others have gone down the “tried it on a dog and it lived” approach. The movie Gravity shows buddy lifting his helmet and instantly freezing so… how does it work, Ethan?"

In films like Gravity, Mission to Mars and Total Recall, humans are often shown dying rapidly and catastrophically from exposure to the vacuum of space. But are these deaths scientifically accurate? Would you freeze, boil, explode, swell-to-incapacitation or something else? Thanks to a great question from Kerrie Pinkney, we've got a fabulous Ask Ethan for you this week!

"[W]ill you explode if exposed to the vacuum of space? I’ve gone down the “water boils in a vacuum then freezes” road, others have gone down the “tried it on a dog and it lived” approach. The movie Gravity shows buddy lifting his helmet and instantly freezing so… how does it work, Ethan?"

In films like Gravity, Mission to Mars and Total Recall, humans are often shown dying rapidly and catastrophically from exposure to the vacuum of space. But are these deaths scientifically accurate? Would you freeze, boil, explode, swell-to-incapacitation or something else? Thanks to a great question from Kerrie Pinkney, we've got a fabulous Ask Ethan for you this week!___

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2015-02-26 14:53:00 (2 comments, 1 reshares, 16 +1s)Open 

"So no, we don’t quite have a second moon, but we do finally have a robust discovery of a Trojan asteroid to call our very own. And it isn’t 3753 Cruithne; don’t be fooled. 3,000 years is nothing in the life of our Solar System. When it comes to Trojans, stick with the one that will stick with us, and that’s 2010 TK7!"

Planets can have not only moons, but gravitationally captured bodies co-orbiting the Sun either ahead or behind them in orbit. Jupiter, for example, has not only all the moons that orbit around it, but thousands of gravitationally captured objects in addition: the Trojans (and Greeks). While Earth may have only one true moon orbiting our world, what of these Trojans? Do we have any captured asteroids or comets hanging out around one of our Lagrange points? We absolutely do, but only one of them is here to stay, and it very likely isn’t the one — 3753 Cruithne— you’ve he... more »

"So no, we don’t quite have a second moon, but we do finally have a robust discovery of a Trojan asteroid to call our very own. And it isn’t 3753 Cruithne; don’t be fooled. 3,000 years is nothing in the life of our Solar System. When it comes to Trojans, stick with the one that will stick with us, and that’s 2010 TK7!"

Planets can have not only moons, but gravitationally captured bodies co-orbiting the Sun either ahead or behind them in orbit. Jupiter, for example, has not only all the moons that orbit around it, but thousands of gravitationally captured objects in addition: the Trojans (and Greeks). While Earth may have only one true moon orbiting our world, what of these Trojans? Do we have any captured asteroids or comets hanging out around one of our Lagrange points? We absolutely do, but only one of them is here to stay, and it very likely isn’t the one — 3753 Cruithne — you’ve heard of.___

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2015-02-26 01:55:46 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 18 +1s)Open 

"In every case, death is not the ultimate end, but merely a single step along a journey that began long before any of what we know today existed, and will continue long after the Universe as we know it becomes unrecognizable to those of us viewing it today.

Whenever a light goes out, remember this story. For everything will have its moment to shine again."

Death never saw the rebirth coming. The future of stellar corpses are fascinating, and the philosophical implications are even more spectacular.

"In every case, death is not the ultimate end, but merely a single step along a journey that began long before any of what we know today existed, and will continue long after the Universe as we know it becomes unrecognizable to those of us viewing it today.

Whenever a light goes out, remember this story. For everything will have its moment to shine again."

Death never saw the rebirth coming. The future of stellar corpses are fascinating, and the philosophical implications are even more spectacular.___

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2015-02-24 22:50:24 (9 comments, 18 reshares, 73 +1s)Open 

"When we talk about astrophysics to the general public, we often rely on appealing images and rough analogies to convey the meaning behind the mathematics. It’s a good way to convey our understanding of the universe, but it also gives the impression that the analogies are what science is all about."

No one science can stand wholly on its own. For inquiry about the Universe to give a correct, complete picture, it requires that we bring in a whole slew of evidence, often from tangentially related fields. The interplay between three fields in particular — astronomy, physics, and math (not a science, but the tool used to help understand the relationships arising in the first two) — have given rise to the most successful picture of the Universe of all-time. But to the non-scientists out there, it's often difficult to tell a sciencey-sounding idea from real science. +BrianKober... more »

"When we talk about astrophysics to the general public, we often rely on appealing images and rough analogies to convey the meaning behind the mathematics. It’s a good way to convey our understanding of the universe, but it also gives the impression that the analogies are what science is all about."

No one science can stand wholly on its own. For inquiry about the Universe to give a correct, complete picture, it requires that we bring in a whole slew of evidence, often from tangentially related fields. The interplay between three fields in particular — astronomy, physics, and math (not a science, but the tool used to help understand the relationships arising in the first two) — have given rise to the most successful picture of the Universe of all-time. But to the non-scientists out there, it's often difficult to tell a sciencey-sounding idea from real science. +Brian Koberlein breaks it down for us.___

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2015-02-24 17:03:46 (1 comments, 33 reshares, 63 +1s)Open 

"If Betelgeuse explodes right now, could we see it with naked eye?"

One of the great, catastrophic truths of the Universe is that everything has an expiration date. And this includes every single point of light in the entire sky. The most massive stars will die in a spectacular supernova explosion when their final stage of core fuel runs out. At only an estimated 600 light years distant, Betelgeuse is one (along with Antares) of the closest red supergiants to us, and it’s estimated to have only perhaps 100,000 years until it reaches the end of its life. Here's the story on what we can expect to see (and feel) on Earth when Betelgeuse explodes!

"If Betelgeuse explodes right now, could we see it with naked eye?"

One of the great, catastrophic truths of the Universe is that everything has an expiration date. And this includes every single point of light in the entire sky. The most massive stars will die in a spectacular supernova explosion when their final stage of core fuel runs out. At only an estimated 600 light years distant, Betelgeuse is one (along with Antares) of the closest red supergiants to us, and it’s estimated to have only perhaps 100,000 years until it reaches the end of its life. Here's the story on what we can expect to see (and feel) on Earth when Betelgeuse explodes!___

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2015-02-23 16:06:52 (14 comments, 15 reshares, 80 +1s)Open 

"While craters young and old litter its surface, large numbers of catenae, or crater chains, can be found as well on both the near and far sides. While about 20 have been known since the 1990s, often extending for hundreds of kilometers, many more have been discovered with the advent of LROC and citizen science projects like Moon Zoo."

You might think that your odds of getting 3, 5, or even 10 or more craters all next to each other and in a row on an object like the Moon are astronomically small. Yet, we've identified dozens of features that show exactly this! Here are some of the most spectacular, along with the redux of the leading ideas of where they came from, including secondary impacts, tidally disrupted impactors and volcanic and geologic explanations.

"While craters young and old litter its surface, large numbers of catenae, or crater chains, can be found as well on both the near and far sides. While about 20 have been known since the 1990s, often extending for hundreds of kilometers, many more have been discovered with the advent of LROC and citizen science projects like Moon Zoo."

You might think that your odds of getting 3, 5, or even 10 or more craters all next to each other and in a row on an object like the Moon are astronomically small. Yet, we've identified dozens of features that show exactly this! Here are some of the most spectacular, along with the redux of the leading ideas of where they came from, including secondary impacts, tidally disrupted impactors and volcanic and geologic explanations.___

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2015-02-22 22:13:17 (0 comments, 2 reshares, 19 +1s)Open 

"Soap bubbles, of course, start out as a mix of soap, water, and sometimes a sugary or gelatinous additive to thicken the bubble walls and make them more robust. But if you drop the temperature to a low enough amount below freezing, the tiny imperfections in the bubble’s structure will result in the formation of ice crystals."

When life gives you freezing cold... make frozen soap bubbles? I guess that's one way to beat the Christmas ornament rush!

"Soap bubbles, of course, start out as a mix of soap, water, and sometimes a sugary or gelatinous additive to thicken the bubble walls and make them more robust. But if you drop the temperature to a low enough amount below freezing, the tiny imperfections in the bubble’s structure will result in the formation of ice crystals."

When life gives you freezing cold... make frozen soap bubbles? I guess that's one way to beat the Christmas ornament rush!___

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2015-02-21 15:26:51 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 14 +1s)Open 

""I think Edmond Halley must have been the first scientist to successfully predict the future!"

When it comes to comets, there's no doubt of that. But before Halley, Kepler predicted transits of Venus and Mercury, Ptolemy predicted the orbits of the planets, and pre-historic Babylonians (among others) were able to predict lunar and solar eclipses. Halley's prediction was spectacular, and his precise prediction of the return of the comet which bears his name in 1758 was a tremendous achievement, but let's not take credit away from all the incredible scientists who preceded him!"

From history to the cutting edge, this edition of the comments of the week has something for everyone!

""I think Edmond Halley must have been the first scientist to successfully predict the future!"

When it comes to comets, there's no doubt of that. But before Halley, Kepler predicted transits of Venus and Mercury, Ptolemy predicted the orbits of the planets, and pre-historic Babylonians (among others) were able to predict lunar and solar eclipses. Halley's prediction was spectacular, and his precise prediction of the return of the comet which bears his name in 1758 was a tremendous achievement, but let's not take credit away from all the incredible scientists who preceded him!"

From history to the cutting edge, this edition of the comments of the week has something for everyone!___

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2015-02-20 20:33:59 (8 comments, 25 reshares, 87 +1s)Open 

"The higher your energy, the heavier the pairs of particles are that you can spontaneously create. If we go back to early enough times — when the average energies of the Universe were high enough to create pairs of top-antitop quarks (the heaviest known particle) — we find that there were far fewer photons around at that time than there are today!

Why’s this?

Because just as a particle-antiparticle pair can annihilate to form two photons today, at high enough energies, two photons can interact to form particle-antiparticle pairs!"

Our observable Universe got its start at the hot Big Bang, where every single known particle and antiparticle of matter or radiation existed in great abundance. Normally, the story of what happened to everything as the Universe expanded and cooled is glossed over, picking up with the leftover matter forming nuclei and atoms.Here is a ter... more »

"The higher your energy, the heavier the pairs of particles are that you can spontaneously create. If we go back to early enough times — when the average energies of the Universe were high enough to create pairs of top-antitop quarks (the heaviest known particle) — we find that there were far fewer photons around at that time than there are today!

Why’s this?

Because just as a particle-antiparticle pair can annihilate to form two photons today, at high enough energies, two photons can interact to form particle-antiparticle pairs!"

Our observable Universe got its start at the hot Big Bang, where every single known particle and antiparticle of matter or radiation existed in great abundance. Normally, the story of what happened to everything as the Universe expanded and cooled is glossed over, picking up with the leftover matter forming nuclei and atoms. Here is a terrific and accessible treatment of all the details that happen in between. Required reading for aficionados of how our Universe came to be the way it is.___

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2015-02-20 00:24:14 (4 comments, 3 reshares, 21 +1s)Open 

"So be smart about it! Don’t toss something into an air-filled shaft through the Earth’s poles, toss it into a vacuum! Your cylindrical shaft, reinforced and cooled, will extend continuously from the North Pole to the South Pole, and you’ll have removed all the air from it!

Now, the fun begins. You toss an object into the bottomless pit, and what happens?"

It’s the ultimate dream of many children with time on their hands and their first leisurely attempt at digging: to go clear through the Earth to the other side, creating a bottomless pit. Most of us don’t get very far in practice, but in theory, it should be possible to construct one, and consider what would happen to a very clever test subject who took all the proper precautions, and jumped right in. Here's what you would have to do to travel clear through the Earth, come out the other side, and make thereturn tr... more »

"So be smart about it! Don’t toss something into an air-filled shaft through the Earth’s poles, toss it into a vacuum! Your cylindrical shaft, reinforced and cooled, will extend continuously from the North Pole to the South Pole, and you’ll have removed all the air from it!

Now, the fun begins. You toss an object into the bottomless pit, and what happens?"

It’s the ultimate dream of many children with time on their hands and their first leisurely attempt at digging: to go clear through the Earth to the other side, creating a bottomless pit. Most of us don’t get very far in practice, but in theory, it should be possible to construct one, and consider what would happen to a very clever test subject who took all the proper precautions, and jumped right in. Here's what you would have to do to travel clear through the Earth, come out the other side, and make the return trip to right back where you started.___

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