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Ethan Siegel has been shared in 121 public circles

You can see here the 50 latest shared circles.
If this is your profile, you can check your dashboard to see all shared circles you have been included.

AuthorFollowersDateUsers in CircleCommentsReshares+1Links
Becky Collins13,270Space Circle :Circle of very #social #engagerspeople and companiesTo be included in my shares (#sharedcircle), be so kind to:1 - Do +1 t the post2 - Comment the post and specify your "category" (job or interest) Ex: Fashion, SEO, Companies, Social Media Marketing, Sailing, Photography, Bloggers/Writers, Web graphics and design, Italy, Artists, Sport, Finance/Economy ...3 - include the circle among your circles4 - share the circle (include yourself)Improve your popularity, be social be cool !Keep yourself updated, enjoy the Shared Circles Hellenic Alliance, you can share your shared circles inside the upcoming Community:https://plus.google.com/communities/112552559573595396104  #socialmedia  #media  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing  #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles  #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins ?2014-07-17 07:18:06389309CC G+
Aman Singh2,014Circle of the dayYour re-share is appreciatedPlease re-share this circle in your stream.To be added:1- Add +Circles Circles Circles to your circles2- Write the URL of your blog in the comments section below3- Your blog must be an active blog (posts must be current)2014-07-16 12:15:324990515CC G+
Ryan Johnson9,485Hi friends! This is a great circle created with an important selection from all circles. The most important engagers are reshared because only that way can we grow our circle and have the people of google circle us.To get in, and to ensure you stay in this circle you need to do the following:1. Add me to your circles, if you haven't done so already!2. +1 this circle!3. Publicly share this circle to public, your circles and extended circles.4. If possible, leave a comment on this circle so I know you have done the three steps above!#circleshare #circlesharing #circleoftheday #wanttobecircled #addmetoyourcircles #public #publiccircle #sharedcircles #Britain #sharedcircle #morefollowers #sharingcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedpublicircles #sharedcircle #photography #uk  #nottingham #Holland #Netherlands #Duch2014-07-16 10:40:014918711CC G+
Dina Tika0Here is a group of Active Engagers, Circle Sharers, Awesome Plus Oners, and Cool People on Google Plus!   Circle Sharing is an awesome way to increase your followers and active engagers on your profile. Some of my favorite people that I've met here on Google + through Circle Sharing.    Want to be in the next Circle of Awesomeness? Follow the Steps Below!  ☛ Add the circle ☛ Share in the Public ☛ Plus 1 the Post. ☛ Comment. 2014-06-10 05:53:52479001CC G+
Lư Thăng15,488Chia sẻ vòng kết nối chất lượng cho mọi người <3 #sharedcircles  2014-04-23 16:24:5447717223CC G+
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:27:36393014CC G+
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:26:50393033CC G+
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:26:17393011CC G+
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:25:52393011CC G+
John Nuntiatio29,767#circles #sharedcircles #circlesharing #circle #circleoftheday #bestofcircles #bestcircleshare #share #tech #business #sport2014-03-14 06:25:16393203CC G+
Becky Collins3,213Baseball circle #Baseball  #circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday  +Becky Collins 2014-02-26 10:30:413883216CC G+
Becky Collins2,634Marketing Circle : Feb 22#circles   #circleshare   #circlesharing   #circlecircle   #beckyscircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday +Becky Collins2014-02-22 06:29:4945517724CC G+
Mikhail Petrovsky77,388Good morning / evening to all.This is a Social Circle of interesting people with an active lifestyle in Google+Это социальный круг общения интересных людей с активной жизненной позицией в Google+You'll love this circle. Photographers, artists and other interesting people!Вам понравится этот круг, добавьте его себе. Фотографы, художники и другие интересные люди!#EarthMyMother #ForFriends #photo2014-01-24 03:20:19483572882CC G+
B.A. TruthWarrior1,260These are some verified unusual characters....in general.#circleshare  #circlesharing #sharedcircles #sharedpubliccircles #sharedcircleoftheday  #sharedcircleday #circleshared   #variety  2014-01-16 03:45:1647527826CC G+
Artur Mashnich43,843A Very Social CircleCircle of the Most Active Users of Google+Круг наиболее активных пользователей Google+Если вы поделились этим кругом вчера, вы находитесь в нем сегодня. Если вы разделяете его с друзьями сегодня, вы будете в нем и завтра.If you shared this circle yesterday, you are in it today. If you share today, you'll be in tomorrow.#Forfriends  2014-01-10 16:01:13493331765CC G+
Artur Mashnich40,712A Very Social CircleКруг людей с активной жизненной позицией в Гугле+circle of people, with active life position in Google+Если вы поделились этим кругом вчера, вы находитесь в нем сегодня. Если вы разделяете его с друзьями сегодня, вы будете в нем и завтра.If you shared this circle yesterday, you are in it today. If you share today, you'll be in tomorrow.2013-12-18 11:08:35494443264CC G+
Claudiu Narita3,3332013-11-20 02:26:27501817CC G+
Lo Sauer2,493This is a great circle combined of active engagers, creative folks and  some of the best and brightest people on google+. A thank you in this circle-inclusion-shoutout to: +Peter Terren +Michael Műller +Carlos Esteban +Justin Chung +Malthus John +Marta Rauch +Rajini Rao +Katherine Vucicevic +Jonathan Eisen +Mike Allton +Scott Buehler +Mario Falcetti +Zvonimir Fras +Krithika Rangarajan +sridhar krishnan +Joanna Ortynska +Seamus Smyth +Chuck Croll +Michael Schobel +2013-11-19 18:19:4843218317CC G+
Justin Fournier1,722Social & SEO CircleIt's been awhile since I've shared circles with the general public.  In this Circle I've labeled it as my Social/SEO circle.  Users within this circle generally gave me insight, tips, and tricks into G+ and social branding.Add and follow their posts to increase your own branding in this now digital world!Share and enjoy all! #SEO   #googleplus   #socialmediamarketing   #sharedcircles   #googleplustips  2013-11-03 01:00:37143215CC G+
Rank Kemeng0This is a group of individuals that has personally shared four of my best circle sharing circles in the last month (or so).  They also include a mix of new circle sharers and some that are just trying to learn it for the first time. :) :) :0)They are individuals, to a large degree, that are very interested in not just circle sharing (which is great), but also engaging with you in a meaningful way (which is awesome)!!!Guidelines for Core Multipliers- Share the circle to stay in the circle- Have some fun!- If you are new and want in the circle, share the circle.This is a great group.  Enjoy this circle and have an awesome Thursday!*if you were somehow missed/ not included in the circle, please let me know and it will be corrected on the next share. My apologies ahead of time! :)**For those coming from multiplying circle, we are not inviting new folks here, you can privately message them or ping them when you share the circle on your public feed. Thanks!#corecircle #multiplyingcircle #coremultipliers #sharedcircles #circleshare #bestsharedcircle   #circleshare   #sharedcircles   #circleoftheday   #CircleQueen   #CircleMaster   #GPlusList   #Circle   #Circleshare   #Circlesharing   #PublicSharedCircles2013-11-01 15:53:38426115CC G+
Coyeb Sundel02013-10-24 10:04:35425202CC G+
Tiberiu Igrisan448Science (part 1)#science #sciencecircle #sharedcircles  2013-10-14 18:53:04257123CC G+
Fabian Weiland393#sharedcircle #sharedcircles #health #wellness  2013-10-14 15:30:25243000CC G+
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:30:23414103CC G+
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:29:55414013CC G+
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:29:39414003CC G+
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:29:27414002CC G+
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:29:04414002CC G+
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:27:59414004CC G+
James Steward1,112These are awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:27:16414002CC G+
James Steward1,112These are my awesome scientist friends who comment my posts#scientistcirle #circle #circleshared #sharedcircle #circleoftheday #followfriday2013-10-10 16:25:57414103CC G+
Fraser Cain824,747Super Science Circle for October, 2013I know it's been a while, so it's time for a new Super Science Circle - the October 2013 edition.In case you weren't aware, the Super Science Circle is a list of more than 400 people who are actively engaged on Google+ and regularly post about science and education. We've got journalists, scientists, even a few astronauts. The Super Science Circle should be your best response to anyone who tells you that Google+ is just a ghost town. If you love science, this circle will deliver the goods.If you know anyone who actively posts about science, please let me know and I'll add them to the list.2013-10-04 20:14:53415304782CC G+
Fabian Weiland145#sharedcircles #science #health2013-09-05 07:24:12497214CC G+
Cyrus Khan14,028Active Engager's CircleAttention:  Please reshare and comment if you want to be a part of next weeks edition, instead of messaging me individually.If you've received a notification, it means you are a part of the circle.Thanks for interacting : )  This is the next edition of my weekly Engagers circle, where I highlight and share the people who've interacted with me this week.I will share this circle to all my followers for exposure as an personally approved group.The criteria to be added are:1)You have commented on and publicly shared one or more of my posts;2) You have re-shared this weeks circle;As this circle grows, I may have difficulty accommodating everyone, so if you add and re-share this week's circle, you'll be guaranteed a spot in next week's edition.Cheers! #circleshare   #active   #engagerscircle   #circle #circleoftheweek   #sciencecircles  2013-08-26 17:27:32477574284CC G+
Cyrus Khan13,678Active Engager's CircleAttention: This circle has been filled this week, and will start again from scratch next week. Please reshare and comment if you want to be a part of next weeks edition.If you've received a notification, it means you are a part of the circle.If you want to be added, simply add the circle, reshare and comment saying so.Thanks for interacting : )  This is the next edition of my weekly Engagers circle, where I highlight and share the people who've interacted with me this week.I will share this circle to all my followers for exposure as an especially active group.The only criteria to be added are:1)You have commented on and publicly shared one or more of my posts;2) You have re-shared this weeks circle;As this circle grows, I may have difficulty accommodating everyone, so if you add and re-share this week's circle, you'll be guaranteed a spot in next week's edition.Cheers! #circleshare   #circleoftheweek   #active   #engagerscircle   #science   #sciencecircles   #circlesharesunday  2013-08-18 17:07:30490452362CC G+
Science on Google+69,339Applied and Mathematical SciencesThis circle will give you exposure to Computer Science, Engineering, Mathematics, and Physics. Science on Google+ Database: http://goo.gl/Yz8KRScience on Google+ Community: http://goo.gl/uhJCNIf you have a science related degree, you are a science journalist, you are a K-12 science teacher, or you curate a science page, then add your profile/page to the database by filling out this form (http://goo.gl/yEg7M). Active profiles and pages will be included in the next shared circle.2013-08-15 23:58:07292202753CC G+
Cyrus Khan13,309Active Engager's CircleIf you've received a notification, it means you are a part of the circle.If you want to be added, simply add the circle, reshare and comment saying so.Thanks for interacting : )  This is the next edition of my weekly Engagers circle, where I highlight and share the people who've interacted with me this week.I will share this circle to all my 13,000 odd followers for exposure as an active bunch among others.The only criteria to be added are:1)You have +1, or publicly shared one or more of my posts;2) You have re-shared this weeks circle.3) If you're not already in the circle, and want to be, simply comment so below.As this circle grows, I may have difficulty accommodating everyone, so if you add and re-share this week's circle, you'll be guaranteed a spot in next week's edition. #sharedcircles   #circleoftheweek   #active   #engagerscircle  2013-08-12 16:03:13488432073CC G+
B.A. TruthWarrior0A little on the unusual side #sharedcircles   #circleshare  2013-08-10 23:49:534811115CC G+
Vũ Đăng7322013-07-28 19:07:46485109CC G+
Richard Green19,150Here's my latest Engagers Showcase circle. If you received a notification, that means that you are in the circle.“Showcase” means that you are invited to leave a comment (on the original post) with a link to one of your own posts, which ideally should be one of your best recent posts. This circle consists of people who have engaged with one of my recent posts in the form of +1s, comments and reshares.For reasons of space, I wasn't able to include people whose engagement was limited to +1s on circle shares, and I may have missed other people due to limitations of the G+ interface. I also had no room to include all the engagers on four of my recent non-circle share posts. Because of this, I will be sharing this circle again next week. If you reshare this version of the circle, you are guaranteed a spot in next week's circle. Thanks for reading my posts!2013-07-21 04:25:38464353147248CC G+
Lư Thăng1,723Vòng kết nối nè mấy bạn :D2013-07-19 08:53:50487371041CC G+
Zbynek Kysela9,954HOT Circle !!! - Summer 2013 edition===============================This is a public circle of awesome plussers on G+! If would like to be included here in next update please follow these easy steps:HOW TO BE PART OF IT===================1. Add this circle to your circles (Click Add circle)2. Re-Share This Post Publicly (Click Share Button Next To +1 Button)3. Click +1 and Comment to support the circle!Done ツMy entire social presence:http://xeeme.com/bouchacFeel free to connect.=====================#Circle   #Circles   #Public   #PublicCircle   #CircleShare   #CircleSharing #SharePublicCircle   #QSC   #querosercirculado   #circleoftheday #publicsharedcircles   #publiccirclesproject   #sharedcircleoftheday #fullcircleshare   #addmetoyourcircles   #awesomeness   #awesomepeople   #awesomecircle   #awesome     #awesomesauce #awesomeness   #awesomepeople   #bouchac #sharedcircles   #sharedpubliccircles #xeeme  #awesomesauce  #snowball #hot  #круг   #círculo     2013-07-16 20:34:30491562869CC G+
Fraser Cain798,034Super Science Circle, July 2013 EditionNeed more science in your streams? Want to convince a friend that Google+ is a thriving place of science and rational thinking? Then import my Super Science Circle and be amazed at the awesomeness.PLEASE RESHARE THIS CIRCLE... FOR SCIENCE!Every single person in this circle is active on Google+ and regularly contributes high quality posts about science. You've got my personal guarantee.As always, I recommend you import this group into a temporary circle and look for people who match your interests. Then pull them over into more permanent locations in your circles. Or just wait for me to give you an update next month.If you want to be included in this circle, just make a post in the comments and I'll check out your profile.I'm looking for people who:1. Are active on Google+ (but not too active)2. Regularly post about science3. Provide context and additional information, and not just bare links or annoying memes.2013-07-16 18:35:56415255986CC G+
Richard Green18,334For my approximately-weekly circle share this week, I've chosen my "Not Just the Usual Suspects" circle. If you received a notification, it means that you are in the circle. As always with my shared circles, this is a "Showcase" circle, which means that you are invited to leave a comment (on the original post) with a link to one of your own posts, which ideally should be one of your best recent posts.Some of the profiles in this circle are people who engaged with recent hit circle shares by +Scott Buehler and +Christine DeGraff, but most of the profiles here are people I selected myself, usually because I liked their profiles for various reasons. As the name of the circle suggests, there are interesting people included here who don't often appear in circle shares.2013-07-14 21:42:0348426891207CC G+
Paul Christen113If you want to be TOTALLY freaked out, follow this science circle. Its not mine, it was shared by (I think) +Fraser Cain .Man, a  day does not go by that I'm not amazed by the advances in science and technology.2013-06-11 13:54:194095310CC G+
Science on Google+62,910Smokin' Science CircleWe took 500 active profiles from the  +Science on Google+: A Public Database and put them into this circle.  Be careful, this circle is smokin' hot! #scienceeveryday    Don't forget to check out the Science on Google+ Community: http://goo.gl/mTTxXDatabaseSearch Communities: http://goo.gl/RvyezSearch Pages: http://goo.gl/WCohTSearch Profiles: http://goo.gl/Yz8KRAdd Profile or Page to Database: http://goo.gl/yEg7MAdd Community to Database: http://goo.gl/zh0xJ2013-06-06 00:17:11500388175CC G+
Fraser Cain779,548Super Science Circle - May 2013 EditionNeed more science in your Google+? Well, here's all the science you can handle! Enjoy my latest, heavily curated edition of the Super Science Circle.Please share this circle... for Science!For the uninitiated, I maintain a circle of 450+ people who are active on Google+ and regularly post on Google+. In this circle you'll find scientists, journalists, astronauts, educators, and science enthusiasts. By importing this circle into your own circles, you'll immediately gain a vibrant and fascinating feed of amazing science stories.I recognize that it might be too much science, so I suggest you create a brand new temporary circle and evaluate the people in the circle. Only transfer the keepers to your permanent circles. Then, when I update the circle next month, rinse and repeat.Are you active on G+ and regularly post about science? +mention me and I'll check out your profile.Remember, please share this post2013-05-22 19:26:51456348290CC G+
Fraser Cain770,050Super Science Circle - April 2013 EditionIt's time for another sharing of my Super Science Circle. This is a collection of 400+ active people on Google+ who often post about science. If anyone tells you G+ is a ghost town (not that anyone does any more), get them to import this circle. PLEASE SHARE THIS CIRCLE... FOR SCIENCE!I have personally reviewed each and every person on this list, to make sure that they:1. Are active and engaged on Google+2. Regularly post science-related stories on Google+In this list you'll find scientists, journalists, researchers, professors, astronauts and general science enthusiasts. Not everyone in this list is going to be to your personal liking. So what you'll want to do is import the list into a temporary circle. Then move people over one by one into more permanent locations in your circles.I'm always looking for more people to add to the list, so if you know people who meet my criteria, feel free to nominate them.Again, please share the circle. Every little bit helps2013-04-26 21:02:03419226277CC G+
David Fuchs43,026Circle Name : What Hot And Recommended - 4-22-2012Date :  4-22-2013This Circle  :  Contains people on What's Hot And Recommended on Google+. It is started from scratch every week.Please Enjoy This Circle and Feel Free To Share.=================================================#circleshare    #sharedcircles    #sharedpubliccircles   #sharedcircleoftheday    #circlesharing    #circleoftheday    #Circle   #Circles      #Public    #PublicCircle    #CircleShare   #CircleSharing  #SharePublicCircle    #QSC    #querosercirculado   #circleoftheday    #publicsharedcircles    #publiccirclesproject   #sharedcircleoftheday  #fullcircleshare    #addmetoyourcircles   #awesomeness      #awesomepeople    #awesomecircle   #awesome      #awesomesauce  #awesomeness   #awesomepeople    #sharedcircles    #sharedpubliccircles     #awesomesauce    #круг    #círculo      2013-04-22 17:37:1494726CC G+
Alessandro Folghera7321. PLUS+1 This Post! 2. ADD Circle3, Share the circle (note you can add yourself when you go to share)4. COMMENT Below if you are not on it and I will add you!#circleshare   #geekcircle   #sciencecircle   #sharedcircle   #sharedcircles   #sharedcircleoftheday  Social Media Marketing Shared Circle ... share and increase your popularity !2013-04-16 08:01:53422229CC G+


Average numbers for the latest posts (max. 50 posts, posted within the last 4 weeks)

comments per post
reshares per post
+1's per post

characters per posting

Top posts in the last 50 posts

Most comments: 22

posted image

2014-07-12 15:28:48 (22 comments, 29 reshares, 68 +1s)

"Can you explain in more detail about multiverse theory? Would each multiverse have different natural laws? Or would they all still operate under the same fundamental laws as us? Or both? Do they all come from what we see as the center of ours, or do they each have their own expansion/big bang beginnings?"

You've heard lots of hype and ideas about the multiverse, but what ideas are accepted and thought to be valid, what ideas are speculative but plausible, and what's simply wrong or untestable-in-principle? Find out how deep the multiverse goes!

Most reshares: 69

posted image

2014-06-25 00:29:00 (16 comments, 69 reshares, 83 +1s)

Have you seen this image going around?

Don't fall for it.

r^2d^2 != 2/3 Pi r^3, unless d = sqrt(2*Pi*r/3), which it isn't.

Most plusones: 83

posted image

2014-06-25 00:29:00 (16 comments, 69 reshares, 83 +1s)

Have you seen this image going around?

Don't fall for it.

r^2d^2 != 2/3 Pi r^3, unless d = sqrt(2*Pi*r/3), which it isn't.

Latest 50 posts

posted image

2014-07-28 01:00:22 (0 comments, 5 reshares, 14 +1s)

"So, with one of those high-powered lasers in hand, Wicked Lasers came up with the ingenious idea of building an attachment for their powerful lasers that contained a clear sheath the size of a lightsaber with a diffusive optical element inside, along with a magnetic sphere that would be attracted to the top of the clear sheath when the laser is turned on."

When George Lucas freaks out and sues you, you know you've done something right.

posted image

2014-07-27 18:50:05 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 8 +1s)

"Do you notice how there’s more lead (Pb) than anything else nearby? That’s got a lot to do with all the heavier elements that we created decaying down in a chain that terminates with lead. So we don’t need protons; we just need the neutron star to break up and then undergo (incredibly rapid) nuclear decays — mostly Beta decay — until it arrives at a quasi-stable configuration. Some of these configurations will be the heavier pre-lead elements in the periodic table (like tungsten, gold, mercury, etc.), while others will be heavier-than-lead elements which will then conventionally decay down to lead. And that’s the story of the heavy elements from neutron stars!"

Time again for comments of the week, with everything from quantum observations to neutron stars and the consequences of a solar storm!

posted image

2014-07-26 18:30:44 (13 comments, 3 reshares, 16 +1s)

"Now, I didn’t do that research myself; in fact, no one person did. Scientific knowledge is built person-by-person, observation-by-observation, experiment-by-experiment, and generation-by-generation. Science is both a process — an additive process where all the data ever scrupulously gathered is cumulative — and also a body of knowledge. The most successful scientific theories explain the widest variety of phenomena with the fewest parameters and assumptions. They have the greatest predictive and post-dictive powers, and the largest range of applicability.

And the scientific truths of the Universe, or what we can learn simply by asking the matter and energy around us questions about itself, are truths that are there for everyone to share in."

No matter what your religion is, science is there for us all to enjoy, appreciate and benefit from. This week, it'sthe kindest A... more »

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2014-07-25 01:33:17 (0 comments, 3 reshares, 13 +1s)

"But there is one real risk, and it’s a consequence of our physical laws of electromagnetism.

A charged particle is bent as it moves through a magnetic field because of the connection between electricity and magnetism. But that same connection means that a change in electric currents — which are made by the motion of charged particles — create changing magnetic fields. And if you have a changing magnetic field either around a wire or through a loop or coil of wire, you will generate electric currents!

So while there may not be a danger to you, there is a huge danger to electronics, ranging from automobiles to transformers to — most frighteningly of all — the entire power grid! That’s the real danger of a solar storm: an event similar to the 1859 Carrington event could cause anywhere between an estimated $1-to-$2 trillion of property damage, mostly dueto electrical fires."<... more »

posted image

2014-07-25 00:40:58 (4 comments, 9 reshares, 19 +1s)

"Yet a few years ago, Michael Longo went to look for exactly that effect in a sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and found that there was a greater abundance of left-handed galaxies in one direction… and a greater abundance of right-handed galaxies in the other. This, by the way, is exactly what you’d expect to see if there were an excess of one type of intrinsically “handed” galaxies over the other in the Universe."

We think of the laws of physics as symmetric: there's no preferred location or direction in the Universe that's more physically valid than any other. And yet, there are some fundamental asymmetries: matter dominates over antimatter, muons decay in one direction and not the other 99.9% of the time, and left-handed spiral galaxies are more common than right-handed one. What, didn't know that last one? Turns out that's a real effect,and it&... more »

posted image

2014-07-23 02:49:44 (1 comments, 5 reshares, 18 +1s)

"On the other hand, even more massive stars end their lives in Type II supernovae, leaving either a neutron star at their core — an object up to 2 or 3 times as massive as the Sun but only a few kilometers in diameter — or a black hole for the most massive ones!

But when two neutron stars merge, there’s nothing left to “fuse” at all.

Instead, a few percent of the mass gets ejected as the heaviest atomic nuclei found in the periodic table, but the rest of the two neutron stars merge into a black hole, emitting a gamma-ray burst!" 

Picture your favorite object in the Universe: an asteroid, planet, star, white dwarf, neutron star or black hole. What happens if you merge it with another such object identical to itself? Here are ALL the answers!

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2014-07-22 00:54:39 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 14 +1s)

"It’s intrinsically on the faint side, so you’ll need a dark, moonless night (like the first half of tonight ought to provide). Like many giant ellipticals, it has a bright (but not point-like) nucleus, surrounded by a much fainter halo of whitish, fuzzy featureless brightness that dims out and fades even farther as you move away from the center. What you’re looking at, unbeknownst to Messier, is a huge galaxy even larger than our Milky Way, more than 50% larger than our galaxy in diameter and more than double the mass.

But while most elliptical galaxies are, well, ellipsoidal, with one long axis and one short axis, Messier 89 appears to be nearly perfectly spherical!"

But is it really fair to call it "elliptical" if it's a practically perfect sphere?

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2014-07-20 19:09:08 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 11 +1s)

"It shows the color and desolate landscape of the Moon, the long shadows that persist for days, and hints at the impact that human footprints can have for a relatively long time on this airless world.

But my favorite part of this picture is the reflection in Buzz Aldrin’s helmet, which — like all mirrors — shows off a reflection of the half-of-the-world invisible to the photographer.

There he is: Neil Armstrong the photographer, along with the “Eagle” lunar landing module and the rest of the Moon, as far as Buzz Aldrin would have been able to see it.

Today officially marks the 45th anniversary of the Moon landing, so if you can see that waning gibbous in the sky today, make sure you give a wink and think of Neil, Buzz and Michael (Collins, in the orbiter), and what they accomplished all those years ago."

Some great comments -- and my responses-- to eve... more »

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2014-07-20 17:50:21 (2 comments, 1 reshares, 6 +1s)

"Dorothy (Bea Arthur) was generally regarded as the smartest and strongest of the four, but also the most reliable and versatile in a crisis. It seems a little silly to say it, but shows like “Sex in the City” and “Girls” would probably have never existed if it weren’t for the Golden Girls.

Well, artist Mike Denison — who it sounds like feels exactly the same way about this show as I do — decided to pay tribute to the witty and acerbic Bea Arthur by creating a new art composition featuring the inimitable lead actress every day for a year, spawning his project “Bea A Day.”"

But will it Bea Art(hur)? Have a look at the "Golden" discovery of the artwork of artist Mike Denison: his "Bea A Day" project!

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2014-07-20 01:50:53 (1 comments, 21 reshares, 26 +1s)

"Somehow, each electron was interfering with itself as it passed through the slits! So this led physicists to the question of how this was happening; after all, if electrons are particles, they should be passing through one slit or the other, just like pebbles or bullets.

So which one was it? They set up a “gate” (where you shine photons to interact with whatever passes through the slit) to find out which slit each electron passed through, and found, sure enough, that it was always one slit or the other. But when they looked at the pattern that emerged, they found the particle pattern, not the wave pattern. In other words, it looked like the electron somehow knows whether you’re looking at it or not!"

Most people think that making a quantum "observation" requires an observer, but that's a big misconception. Come find out (and be amazed) at how quantummecha... more »

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2014-07-18 07:38:52 (2 comments, 0 reshares, 15 +1s)

"“The important achievement of Apollo was demonstrating that humanity is not forever chained to this planet and our visions go rather further than that and our opportunities are unlimited.” -Neil Armstrong"

Something and someone we should all take time to remember, even those of us who aren't old enough to have been around when it happened.

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2014-07-17 14:36:02 (3 comments, 4 reshares, 18 +1s)

"One experiment that has instilled both hope as well as controversy among physicists is the DAMA experiment. The DAMA experiment sees an unexplained annual modulation in the event rate at high statistical significance. If the signal was caused by dark matter, we would expect there to be an annual modulation due to our celestial motion around the Sun. The event rate depends on the orientation of the detector relative to our motion and should peak around June 2nd, consistent with the DAMA data."

The first rule of physics is that you must not fool yourself, and you are the easiest person to fool. Finally, a quality explanation that dark matter may not be the key to the DAMA results at all! Thanks to Sabine Hossenfelder for a great post!

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2014-07-17 02:23:15 (0 comments, 9 reshares, 18 +1s)

"But the discovery of these galaxies also gave us hope that the most glaring small-scale failure of dark matter, the missing mini-galaxies, might actually have a solution. All we’d need to discover, then, would be the theorized tiny dwarf galaxies missing in intergalactic space.

Well, a new type of telescope was recently developed, the Dragonfly Telephoto Array, that uses eight telephoto lenses that can suppress internally scattered light to an unprecedented degree thanks to special coatings on them. This makes them ideal for detecting low-surface-brightness galaxies, the kinds of galaxies we were unable to detect before."

On the largest scales — whether you're looking at the cosmic microwave background, large-scale structure or gravitational lensing — there's no viable alternative to a Universe with dark matter. But on the smallest scales, a number ofpredi... more »

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2014-07-15 02:37:41 (0 comments, 2 reshares, 7 +1s)

"This cluster consists of some 150 stars that are definitely a part of Messier 23, and contain no O-class stars and only the dimmest and faintest of the B-class stars (B9), placing this cluster at around an age of 220-300 million years. This actually makes it one of the older open star clusters in our galaxy, as gravitation causes these clusters to dissociate on timescales of a few hundred million years (on average).

But how many more stars are there inside?"

#MessierMonday  When it's cluster vs. plane, and you're curious about which one a faint star belongs to, bet on the cluster!

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2014-07-13 18:59:33 (1 comments, 2 reshares, 14 +1s)

"I’m not talking anything to do with NASA, the European Space Agency or any other organization seeking to leave the Earth, but rather of a brewery that was inspired by Gustav Holst’s 7-movement orchestral suite: The Planets. Although the initial meaning of the music was astrological and not astronomical, just like the individual planets, it still fires our imaginations and is powered by our knowledge of each of these worlds.

Well, Bell’s Brewery in Kalamazoo, Michigan, has just announced a planets series of beers, where beginning next month, they’ll roll out a new beer roughly every two months inspired by one of our Solar System’s other worlds!"

Come get drunk on Uranus.

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2014-07-12 22:12:45 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 13 +1s)

"This begs the question, what information have we already lost? While 100 billion years is immense, so is 13 billion years. If the astrophysicist of the future would draw different conclusions about our universe due to a lack of information, are we doing the same thing? And can we compensate for this? Are there things we shouldn’t assume? How is Occam’s razor cutting us?"

Ever wonder how long it takes the Moon to become locked to Earth? Or how black holes grow from galactic bulges? I don't have all the answers, but I'm pleased to share the best comments of the week and the answers I do have with you!

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2014-07-12 15:28:48 (22 comments, 29 reshares, 68 +1s)

"Can you explain in more detail about multiverse theory? Would each multiverse have different natural laws? Or would they all still operate under the same fundamental laws as us? Or both? Do they all come from what we see as the center of ours, or do they each have their own expansion/big bang beginnings?"

You've heard lots of hype and ideas about the multiverse, but what ideas are accepted and thought to be valid, what ideas are speculative but plausible, and what's simply wrong or untestable-in-principle? Find out how deep the multiverse goes!

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2014-07-11 01:26:06 (2 comments, 14 reshares, 20 +1s)

"Over the past 13.8 billion years, we’ve formed the light elements out of a sea of ionized protons and neutrons, cooled and expanded to form neutral atoms for the first time, gravitationally contracted hydrogen and helium gas clouds to form the first stars, and borne witness to generations of stellar deaths and rebirths. Additionally, on the largest scales, the Universe has lived through the formation of hundreds of billions of galaxies and the clustering together of thousands or more galaxies into clusters, filaments, and superclusters."

How would we perceive our Universe differently if we, instead, came about in this Universe 100 billion years from now? The differences are shocking, but maybe even more shocking is how much we'd be unable to know about our cosmic origins!

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2014-07-10 06:09:00 (2 comments, 2 reshares, 15 +1s)

"As far a technique goes, there are some very good tutorials, strategies and pieces of advice out there for conquering this obstacle from people who’ve actually done it, but they’re often filled with useless platitudes like this:

“Yeah, basically, it’s all about commitment. If you go in there 100% commitment and with confidence, you’re gonna make it.”

No, you won’t, not unless you accidently happen to discover the correct physiological technique — the techniques that make the best use of the human body constrained by the laws of physics — through the sheer accident that comes with relying on commitment and confidence alone. Let’s take you through the physics of what you need to do to make this happen!"

How would you defeat the warped wall on Ninja Warrior? If you use physics, total victory is all but guaranteed!

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2014-07-09 02:01:51 (4 comments, 4 reshares, 17 +1s)

"In particular, there are two main features about the Moon that you can’t miss:

1.) That it’s heavily cratered, especially in the lighter-colored areas. Many cratered regions include small craters inside medium-sized craters inside giant craters. And…

2.) That it has these dark areas known as maria (latin for “seas”), which have relatively few and mostly smaller craters in them. Mostly, these regions are notable for being a significantly different color than the majority of the Moon."

But why? After 55 years, we finally understand why the near side and the far side look so different!

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2014-07-08 00:31:02 (1 comments, 1 reshares, 12 +1s)

"Many of these globulars may be as old as or even older than our galaxy itself, and today’s object — Messier 9 — formed no later than 12 billion years ago. Located just 5,500 light-years from the galactic center itself, this clump of stars weighs in at nearly half a million Suns, and is visible with just a pair of binoculars or a small telescope if you know where to look. Even on a Moon-filled summer night like tonight, it can provide you with spectacular sights."

Ever see a globular cluster close to the galactic center? Wait until you see the video to show you what we mean by close. A cool quarter-of-a-million stars awaits you in the final image!

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2014-07-06 23:18:58 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 9 +1s)

"It was Bill Bixby’s portrayal of Dr. David Banner (it’s Bruce Banner in the comics) that lured me into the Hulk: someone striving for control of their life and their emotions, but who’s fighting an unwinnable battle. As the Hulk, he’s unstoppably powerful and can’t really be defeated, but whenever he turns back into Banner, he discovers that all he’s done is add havoc and destruction to the world, often wrecking Banner’s dearests interests in the process. So it goes with anger for us all."

Bruce Lee as Spider-Man? Rutger Hauer as Thor? Yes, please, and more!

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2014-07-06 01:03:23 (4 comments, 0 reshares, 10 +1s)

"“A question, are there any indications that clusters like these have black hole(s) in their centers, or inside the central region. Don’t mean super massive ones, but regular ones, 10-20 Sol m.?“

It would be crazy if there weren’t black holes in globular clusters, wouldn’t it? Consider that almost every star with an initial mass over about 20-40 solar masses winds up as a black hole, that these clusters were tremendous at their birth with around ~100,000 stars apiece, and that one-in-800 stars is massive enough to go supernova. It would be an awfully big surprise if there weren’t small-to-intermediate mass black holes in structures like this. The problem is, unless they’re doing some serious feasting, black holes are awfully difficult to detect, but occasionally, we’ve gotten lucky.


G1 is the largest globular known overall, with a mass of about10,000,000 Suns... more »

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2014-07-04 22:22:25 (1 comments, 8 reshares, 23 +1s)

"For decades, this was an ideological argument primarily between Americans, who favored a bottom-up approach, and Soviets, who favored a top-down approach. Here’s the difference:

* Bottom-up: The Universe starts off with large-magnitude fluctuations on small scales and not on large scales. The overdense regions grow over time, producing small mass clumps that grow, merge, and cluster together, eventually growing into large galaxies and clusters of galaxies. In this scenario, black holes would form first along with small stellar clumps, and only at much later times would they grow into what we consider galaxies.
* Top-down: The Universe starts off with large-magnitude fluctuations on large scales and not on small scales. The overdense regions, being very large, gravitationally collapse down from irregularly-shaped triaxial ellipsoids along their shortest axis, forming pancake-likes... more »

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2014-07-04 01:25:20 (1 comments, 1 reshares, 12 +1s)

"For example, maybe there’s a solar system out there where it isn’t small, rocky planets that fill up the inner orbits, but a mix of Earth-like, rocky worlds and also gas giants, some of which are even closer to us than our closest planet, Venus, when it reaches perigee. It might seem like a big deal that Venus achieves a minimum distance from Earth of only 38 million km, the smallest distance of any planet, but what if it weren’t a rocky world like ours, but a gas giant instead? And what if it weren’t 38 million km away, but a much smaller number?

Do you wonder what that might look like?"

Can we leave a world for free, if things were only a little different? (Free in terms of energy, not $$$.) If we could, it would not be worth it! Come find out why.

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2014-07-03 01:23:00 (3 comments, 4 reshares, 21 +1s)

"This is because there’s that same inherent tension-and-uncertainty between energy and time as there is between position and momentum! So if you have a very small uncertainty in the timescale of a particular system, there must inherently be a very large energy uncertainty.

Think about this in terms of a particle’s lifetime, now. If a particle stably (or quasi-stably) exists for a very long period of time, its energy uncertainty can be very small. But what of an inherently short-lived, very unstable particle? Its energy uncertainty must be huge to compensate; Heisenberg demands it.

And now for the kicker: if there’s a large uncertainty in a particle’s inherent energy, and we know that there’s an energy-mass equivalence via E = mc^2, then the shorter a particle’s lifetime is, the less well-known its mass can be, even in principle!"

Just when you thoughtquantum mec... more »

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2014-07-02 03:47:03 (1 comments, 2 reshares, 22 +1s)

"For billions of years, single-celled creatures that mostly converted solar energy into chemical energy and then used it were the dominant form of life. Mutations, over time, can create new molecular information, whether that code is RNA, DNA, XNA, or something entirely different. Yet there are basic roles that organisms fulfill:

-converting external energy into chemical energy,
-consumers of other organisms who using those organisms’ energy to power their own life processes, and
-decomposers that feed on the carcasses of other organisms.

Although there are single-celled organisms that do all of these things (algae, protists and fungi, for example), multicellularity evolved over a billion years ago, allowing organisms to differentiate and perform multiple different functions simultaneously. Although the red algae that first arose some 1.2 billion years ago never gotm... more »

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2014-06-30 23:27:56 (0 comments, 2 reshares, 15 +1s)

"Much of the foundational work done on these southerly globular clusters was performed in the 1920s and 1930s by Helen Sawyer (later, Helen Sawyer Hogg), who was one of the first astronomers to travel around the world to obtain better observing locales to view deep-sky objects. The Shapley-Sawyer concentration class, which is how we classify the stellar density profiles of globular clusters (on a scale from I-to-XII), is co-named after her for her pioneering work.

In addition to cataloguing more than 1,000 variable stars in globular clusters, she also published a very important paper on the bright nova of 1860, which was the first nova ever observed in a globular cluster. That cluster happens to be Messier 80, which is today’s object!"

Where are there more old, red-and-yellow stars merging to form hot, blue ones than anyplace else in our galactic neighborhood? Righth... more »

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2014-06-30 13:35:35 (2 comments, 0 reshares, 7 +1s)

Thanks to RealClearScience for not only a great honor, but for bringing together such great collections of quality stories each day for public consumption. It's very rare to find a place that values story quality and veracity over sensationalized (but often wrong claims). If I'm going to be #1 somewhere, I couldn't have asked for a better place!

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2014-06-29 18:31:35 (1 comments, 1 reshares, 9 +1s)

"While most observatories are built to be permanent structures, Black Rock Observatory — a project of the Burning Man stalwarts the Desert Wizards of Mars — has designed a set of wooden domed structures to house telescopes, art exhibits and general stargazing tours. Only, instead of being permanent structures, these are designed to be built incredibly quickly, to show off the wonders of the heavens for only a short duration, and then to be 100% combustible at the end of Burning Man!"

The deep skies and Burning Man meet at Black Rock Observatory!

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2014-06-29 01:15:16 (0 comments, 2 reshares, 5 +1s)

Ever wondered how the ancient measured an analemma before the invention of a clock? Or why being closer to the Sun doesn't make a difference for the seasons? Or how long it will take our Universe's smallest black holes to evaporate?

All this and more on this week's edition of Comments of the Week!

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2014-06-28 21:14:37 (0 comments, 3 reshares, 14 +1s)

"If you add up all the factors excluding itself and get a number that’s less than the original one you started with, we call that number deficient. All prime numbers are maximally deficient, since its only factors are 1 and itself, and all powers of two (4, 8, 16, 32, etc.) are minimally deficient, with their sums falling just 1 shy of being perfect.

On the other hand, you might add up all the factors of a number excluding itself and get a number that’s greater than the original number; those numbers are abundant. You might look at the table above and think abundant numbers are rare, but 18, 20, 24, 30, 36 and many more are abundant; they’re quite common as you start looking at larger and larger numbers.

But perfect numbers — what Euclid called “τέλειος ἀριθμός” — are rare! For over a thousand years, only four were known."
You've heard of Pi Day and may... more »

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2014-06-27 23:14:42 (0 comments, 2 reshares, 11 +1s)

"So what if we take a very simple system: our Solar System with just the planets and the Sun, and apply Newton’s laws to that? You might think that, with these nine masses separated by huge distances, we’d get eight ellipses moving around a stationary Sun.

Well, that’s what you’d get if you made the following set of assumptions:

1.) All the planets and the Sun can be treated as point-like masses.
2.) Each planet’s orbit is determined only by the force that the Sun exerts on it. And finally,
3.) That Newton’s laws are so absolute that there’s no such things as Lorentz invariance (or that the laws of physics don’t care how quickly you’re moving, in this particular case).

In reality, of course, none of these things are true."

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2014-06-27 01:28:53 (0 comments, 4 reshares, 18 +1s)

"Carbon-14, or carbon atoms with eight neutrons in their nuclei, is unstable, and is so rare that only one-in-a-trillion carbon atoms are carbon-14. With a half-life of just over 5,700 years, any Carbon-14 atoms that were created in stars, billions of years ago, have long since decayed away into nitrogen atoms."

Yet every living organism on Earth is filled with it!

Where does Carbon-14 comes from? We know most of the answer, but there are some mysteries here, too.

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2014-06-26 01:18:41 (1 comments, 18 reshares, 14 +1s)

"And yet, even if we’re only talking about the normal matter out there — the stuff that makes up stars, planets, gas, dust, and you and me — there are still sources out there that don’t emit any sort of light in any wavelength whatsoever. In fact, they can’t, because by definition, nothing can escape from them.

I’m talking, of course, about black holes."

How do you make the smallest black holes in the Universe, and how could the Universe make ones that are even smaller? Answers here.

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2014-06-25 00:29:00 (16 comments, 69 reshares, 83 +1s)

Have you seen this image going around?

Don't fall for it.

r^2d^2 != 2/3 Pi r^3, unless d = sqrt(2*Pi*r/3), which it isn't.

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2014-06-24 02:49:33 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 13 +1s)

"When you think of the stars in the night sky, they may seem eternal, but you know better. In fact, the vast majority of the brightest ones we can see are either very bright, young blue giants that are destined to be short lived, or old, red giants that have burned through the majority of their fuel. In both cases, these stars are nearing the end of their lives. But did you know that — just beyond the reach of your naked eye’s capabilities — lie a number of recently deceased red giants that were bright, shining stars just a few hundred thousand years ago?"

The story of an object, the elements, and ourselves.

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2014-06-23 01:12:50 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 5 +1s)

"You’ll notice a number of motifs here that recur very frequently with Terry:

-The popping pecs,
-The incredible showing-off of his physique,
-Intensity, anger, yelling, and focus, followed by
-an extremely calm, fear-inducing threat of what might happen if you don’t comply with him."

5 doses of Terry Crews’ awesomeness... now with more, hilarious power! 

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2014-06-22 01:44:50 (1 comments, 3 reshares, 13 +1s)

"Most people don’t realize this, but our atmosphere is actually fantastic at absorbing almost all wavelengths of light. There are only two “windows” where light can effective travel to-and-from our planet’s surface with practically 100% efficiency:

1.) The visible portion of the spectrum, extending slightly into the ultraviolet and with some distortion in the red/infrared, and

2.) A much larger window at very long, radio wavelengths.

For this reason, most astronomy is best done from space, but you can still do a remarkable amount of observing, even from low elevations, in those two wavelength ranges."

Just some more about what we know in the Universe, and a little bit of our place in it. Happy first day of Summer (or Winter), everyone!

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2014-06-21 01:34:50 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 7 +1s)

"With the seasons about to turn to their extremes — summer in the Northern Hemisphere and winter in the Southern — you’re very likely looking forward to one of two things:

1.) Warm, long, bright, sun-filled days, or
2.) cold, short, dreary, good-to-spend-indoor days.

But just what is it that makes the days this way?"

Is the Sun brighter in the Summer? Not intrinsically, but it sure does feel that way! 

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2014-06-19 23:52:35 (0 comments, 3 reshares, 13 +1s)

"The lowest and shortest path the Sun takes through the sky comes on the date of the Winter Solstice; the highest and longest takes place on the Summer Solstice.

Well, what would you expect, then, if you took a picture of the Sun — and its position in the sky — every single day at the same exact time for an entire year? Would you expect a straight line? A curved line?

I wouldn’t blame you if you did, but as it turns out, what you’ll actually see is much more surprising, and much more spectacular."

If you took a picture of the Sun at the same time every day for a year, what shape would it trace out, and more importantly, why? As it turns out, there's a huge variety among the planets: here on Earth, as well as on Uranus, Neptune and Pluto, it would make a figure-8 shape; on Mars and Saturn, you'd get a teardrop shape; on Jupiter and Venusyou'd see a... more »

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2014-06-19 00:12:50 (0 comments, 8 reshares, 15 +1s)

"There’s a wall of defenders set up, Carlos kicks the ball well wide of them — and apparently, the goalpost as well — only to have the ball break in midair and arc just inside the goalpost, skimming it for a seemingly miraculous goal!

Only, it isn’t a miracle at all, it’s physics! There are two things the kicker needs to control, and nature will take care of the rest."

Ever wondered how to bend the ball like David Beckham? The physics of it all, along with the two key ingredients you need to make it happen!

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2014-06-17 02:23:00 (0 comments, 4 reshares, 11 +1s)

"But once the Sun sets and before the Moon comes up, the mid-June skies provide one of the best opportunities for peering deep inside the Virgo cluster of galaxies: the closest nearby large cluster of galaxies, with an estimated 2,000 member galaxies! By far the largest concentration of Messier objects in the sky with sixteen, even more than can be found near the galactic center, the Virgo cluster hosts a number of rich, detailed wonders of the nearby Universe. Today’s object — Messier 91 — is a stunning example of a barred spiral galaxy, and yet it was almost lost for 200 years thanks to a simple catalogue error.

Let’s make sure you won’t lose it by showing you exactly how to find it, navigating from some of the easiest-to-find stars in the entire sky!"

Need some plans for the upcoming solstice? Why not hunt the faintest object in the entire Messiercatalogue, a perf... more »

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2014-06-16 00:42:43 (0 comments, 10 reshares, 23 +1s)

"Well, what if, instead of using simple patterns in the murrine style and manipulating them to create complex structures afterwards, you planned the piece so intricately that when you sliced into the glass rods that had been merged together, what you see is itself, in fact, a work of art?

I imagine that’s what artist Loren Stump must have asked himself one day, because what he’s done with the murrine style is something that I don’t think has ever been done before."

Art that's invisible until you slice into it. Talk about cutting-edge! 

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2014-06-14 23:48:32 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 10 +1s)

"Maybe this isn’t concordant with your experience, but in my experience, people grow, evolve, change, and better themselves over their lives. They don’t always, but they can, and they deserve the opportunity to do just that. I once wrote a letter of recommendation for a student that I met my first year teaching. He was an upper-division student, and he began my course disastrously. But I saw him apply himself, work hard, start to get the material, really turn his grades and performance around and close out his undergraduate career with some outstanding academic performances and a top-notch senior research project. None of the other professors — the ones who knew him as a freshman and sophomore — would write him a letter because of their experiences with him before I arrived. Are you saying that it would have been wrong for me to give him a clean slate and judge him on his own merits? Are yousaying ... more »

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2014-06-14 21:22:37 (1 comments, 1 reshares, 11 +1s)

"But there’s a problem with simply measuring the distance to these objects and trying to calculate the amount of time that’s past the way we would for, say, Sirius. The problem is this: most of the Universe isn’t remaining at the same distance from Earth, not even approximately. Because the Universe isn’t a static place: it’s expanding!"

It's not the simplest thing you could imagine, but thanks to what we've learned, a few simple measurements will teach you how to know how far back in time you're looking for any object in the Universe!

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2014-06-13 01:27:02 (2 comments, 17 reshares, 25 +1s)

"So in the regions where the fields are expelled, which is most of the material, you get a perfect diamagnet. In the regions where the flux is pinned, the magnetic field lines are concentrated, they pass all the way through the material and cause sustained eddy currents, and this is what pins the superconductor in place! (When you hear the term flux pinning, these confined field lines in the impure regions are what they’re talking about!)

So that’s it: you make the material (that’s a Type II superconductor with a critical temperature above liquid nitrogen temperatures) superconduct, you place it above a carefully-oriented magnetic track — like the one below — so that the magnetic flux is pinned through the superconductor and that it can only move along the track, and so long as you remain in a superconducting state, you’ll continue to levitate, thanks to this quantumphenomenon!"more »

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2014-06-12 19:07:12 (1 comments, 3 reshares, 22 +1s)

"You’ve got to remember that there are between 200-and-400 billion stars in our galaxy, meaning our black hole is about 0.1% of our galaxy’s total mass. That’s a small fraction but a huge number, objectively. Now, consider that our galaxy is hardly one of the biggest, and our black hole is actually on the smaller end of the supermassive scale."

What about the biggest black hole in the Universe? Is that going to be in the Universe's biggest galaxy? Quite likely, very not, as the largest black holes we know about aren't in the largest galaxies at all, for reasons we don't completely understand. Where are my next generation radio-and-X-ray telescopes to help us find out? 

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2014-06-11 04:30:11 (0 comments, 0 reshares, 7 +1s)

"At some point in your life — at some point in all our lives — we need to enlist the help of others in putting in a good word for us. When you apply for college, you need a series of recommendations; when you apply for advanced degrees, scholarships, fellowships, grants and jobs anywhere in the world, you need them even more. This doesn’t change much, either, as you get older, except you often find that you’re the one giving the recommendations even more often than you’re asking for them.

That said, when the time comes, you want to make sure that the people you’re asking to recommend you are doing so with the greatest, most sincere, positive convictions that you’re absolutely optimally suited for whatever it is you’re applying for."

What I wish I knew when I was younger about letters of recommendation. Whether you need them or whether you'rewriting them, I hope it... more »

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2014-06-10 01:27:05 (0 comments, 1 reshares, 13 +1s)

"It’s not as closer or bright as the nearby M10 or M12, and so skywatchers often miss this treat. But in doing so, they miss the opportunity to learn about the one globular in the Messier catalogue that, if there were a Westminster dog show about globular clusters, would surely win."

Every wonder of the night sky has its own unique properties and oddities, but it’s very rare to find an object that’s so “normal” (or close-to-average) in practically every way. But that’s exactly what Messier 14 looks to be! If you were only going to observe one globular cluster to learn what they’re like, this would be the one.


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